Updated on 2024/04/24

写真a

 
BESSHO, Shunichiro
 
Affiliation
Faculty of Political Science and Economics, School of Political Science and Economics
Job title
Professor
Degree
Ph.d. in Economics ( The University of Tokyo )

Research Experience

  • 2023.04
    -
    Now

    Waseda University   Faculty of Political Science and Economics   Professor

  • 2019.04
    -
    2023.03

    The University of Tokyo   Division of Economics, Graduate School   Associate Professor

  • 2017.04
    -
    2019.03

    Ministry of Finance   Policy Research Institute   Chief Economist

  • 2017.01
    -
    2017.03

    University of Tokyo   Faculty of Economics   Associate Professor

  • 2011.10
    -
    2016.12

    Keio University   Department of Economics   Associate Professor

  • 2006.04
    -
    2011.09

    Assistant Professor, School of International and Public Policy, Hitotsubashi University

  • 2003.07
    -
    2006.03

    Economist, Policy Research Institute, Ministry of Finance

  • 1997.04
    -
    1999.03

    Japan Research Institute, Ltd

▼display all

Education Background

  •  
    -
    2006.03

    The University of Tokyo   Graduate School, Division of Economics  

Professional Memberships

  •  
     
     

    日本経済学会

  •  
     
     

    日本財政学会

  •  
     
     

    International Institute of Public Finance

Research Areas

  • Public economics and labor economics

Awards

  • 日本財政学会学会奨励賞

    2013.10   子ども手当,扶養控除と家計の労働供給

    Winner: BESSHO SHUN-ICHIRO

 

Papers

  • Elections and COVID-19 benefit payments

    Shun-ichiro Bessho

    Journal of Asian Economics   87   101630 - 101630  2023.08  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author

    DOI

    Scopus

  • Do public account financial statements matter? Evidence from Japanese municipalities

    Shun-ichiro Bessho, Haruaki Hirota

    European Journal of Political Economy     102358 - 102358  2023.01  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author

    DOI

    Scopus

  • Do class size reductions protect students from infectious disease? Lessons for Covid-19 policy from flu epidemic in Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    Masato Oikawa, Ryuichi Tanaka, Shun-ichiro Bessho, Haruko Noguchi

    American Journal of Health Economics   8 ( 4 ) 449 - 476  2022.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We evaluate the causal effect of class size (number of students in a classroom) on incidence of class closure due to the flu, as an outcome of an infectious disease epidemic. For identification of causal effects, we apply a regression discontinuity design using discontinuous variation of class sizes, around the class size cap set by regulation, to administrative data of public primary and middle school students in one of the largest municipalities within the Tokyo metropolitan area from 2015 to 2017. Most classrooms in Japan are constructed in accordance with a standard of classroom area, 63 square meters; class size reduction improves social distancing among students in a classroom. We find that class size reduction is effective in reducing class closures due to the flu: a one-unit reduction of class size decreases class closure by about 5 percent. Additionally, forming small classes with 27 students at most, satisfying the social distancing of 1.5 meters recommended to prevent droplet infection including influenza and COVID-19, reduces class closure by about 90 percent. Moreover, we find that the older the students, the larger the effects of class size reduction. Our findings provide evidence for the effectiveness of social distancing policy in primary and middle schools to protect students from droplet infectious disease spread, including COVID-19.

    DOI

    Scopus

    3
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Local fiscal multipliers and population aging in Japan

    Shun-ichiro Bessho

    JAPAN AND THE WORLD ECONOMY   60  2021.12  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author

     View Summary

    This study examines how the effectiveness of fiscal policy depends on population aging. To this end, this study estimates the local fiscal multipliers in Japan. Results suggest that the estimated local fiscal multiplier on output is larger in non-aged areas than aged areas, and that the effects on the number of workers are not statistically significant in either area type. Additionally, the multipliers on private investment are only higher than one in non-aged prefectures. Results also indicate that the multiplier generated by an increase in government invest-ment is larger than that in government consumption. These results indicate fewer slack resources in aged areas that can be mobilized in response to increased government spending.

    DOI

    Scopus

    6
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Evaluating remedial education in elementary schools: Administrative data from a municipality in Japan

    Shun-ichiro Bessho, Haruko Noguchi, Akira Kawamura, Ryuichi Tanaka, Koichi Ushijima

    JAPAN AND THE WORLD ECONOMY   50   36 - 46  2019.06  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author

     View Summary

    In this study, we examine the effect of a remedial education program in language arts and mathematics for third and fourth-grade students with low previous academic performance. Utilizing a unique panel data set constructed from the administrative data of public elementary schools in Adachi ward in Japan, we estimate the impact of remedial program participation on the subsequent test scores in Japanese language arts and mathematics. This paper utilizes the variations in placement policies of schools as an instrument to identify the effect of the remedial education program, controlling for selection biases. Our estimation results indicate that the remedial education programs had positive effects on test scores of Japanese language arts by 0.13 of a standard deviation, while no statistically significant effect was found for mathematics test scores. The results suggest that the participants increased awareness of the importance of study practices and hours of study as well.

    DOI

    Scopus

    3
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Interdependency in Vaccination Policies among Japanese Municipalities.

    Shun-ichiro Bessho, Yoko IBuka

    Health Economics   28 ( 2 ) 299 - 310  2019.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Economic theory predicts that vaccination policies at the local level can be negatively affected by the policies of neighboring regions because of free-riding motives, whereas positive dependency may exist due to policy diffusions among localities. By using the unique variations in the provision of vaccination subsidies in Japan, we assess how vaccination policies in a local government are affected by the decisions of neighboring governments. We find that the provision of vaccination subsidies is positively correlated with the decisions of neighboring localities. Moreover, a correlation is found with neighboring municipalities within the same prefecture but not with those in surrounding prefectures, indicating that the correlations are likely to arise because of mimicking behavior among localities within a prefecture. Our results show that vaccination policies tend to be formed following neighboring municipalities and do not necessarily aim to optimize community health, thus questioning the autonomy of local government authorities regarding vaccination policies.

    DOI

    Scopus

    3
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Political cycles in physician employment: A case of Japanese local public hospitals

    Reo Takaku, Shun-ichiro Bessho

    SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE   216   97 - 106  2018.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    A shortage of physicians in local public hospitals is often a heated political issue. When local politicians have the authority to intervene in the management of a public hospital, they may increase the employment of physicians during election years in order to alleviate the shortage. We test this hypothesis empirically using a census of city hospitals in Japan from 2002 to 2011 (N = 4583). Our results support the hypothesis that the number of physicians increases in election years. This effect is stronger in cities with a greater population of elderly residents. We also find that physicians tend to come from university hospitals in the same region. Overall, this paper provides direct evidence of political intervention on physician employment.

    DOI

    Scopus

    4
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Copayment Exemption Policy and Healthcare Utilization after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Yusuke Matsuyama, Toru Tsuboya, Shun-Ichiro Bessho, Jun Aida, Ken Osaka

    The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine   244 ( 2 ) 163 - 173  2018.02  [Refereed]  [Domestic journal]

     View Summary

    Healthcare utilization after natural disasters remains understudied. In general, people in Japan pay 10%-30% of total amount of costs, according to their health insurance plan. A policy exempting survivors from copayments was introduced after the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011, which had a magnitude of 9.0 on the Richter scale and followed by devastating tsunamis. Among the disaster-affected areas, Miyagi prefecture experienced the largest number of deaths and the greatest extent of damage. However, the exemption was suspended in Miyagi prefecture from April, 2013, because of the huge governmental financial burden due to the immensity of damage from the disaster. Subsequently, in April 2014, the exemption was re-introduced, with smaller coverage. We, therefore, evaluated the influence of this policy change on monthly healthcare utilization in Miyagi prefecture between April 2008 and June 2015. We also evaluated the association between the proportion of people exempted from copayment in each municipality and the difference in healthcare utilization before and after the suspension using multivariable linear regression. Healthcare utilization in Miyagi increased immediately after the institution of the exemption policy and it peaked after one year. In March 2013, just before the suspension, a rapid increment in healthcare utilization was observed, suggesting that the copayment may be a barrier for people in the disaster-affected area to access to healthcare. The exemption policy did help the survivors to use healthcare utilization in Miyagi. After devastating natural disasters, policymakers should guarantee that all survivors can utilize healthcare services on demand.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    14
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • A case study of central and local government finance in Japan

    Shun-ichiro Bessho

    Central and Local Government Relations in Asia     306  2018  [Refereed]

    DOI

    Scopus

    1
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Do benefits in kind or refundS affect health service utilization and health outcomes? A natural experiment from Japan

    Reo Takaku, S. Bessho

    HEALTH POLICY   121 ( 5 ) 534 - 542  2017.05  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Although the payment systems of public health insurance vary greatly across countries, we still have limited knowledge of their effects. To quantify the changes from a benefits in kind system to a refund system, we exploit the largest physician strike in Japan since the Second World War. During the strike in 1971 led by the Japan Medical Association (JMA), JMA physicians resigned as health insurance doctors, but continued to provide medical care and even health insurance treatment in some areas. This study uses the regional differences in resignation rates as a natural experiment to examine the effect of the payment method of health insurance on medical service utilization and health outcomes. In the main analysis, aggregated monthly prefectural data are used (N = 46). Our estimation results indicate that if the participation rate of the strike had increased by 1% point and proxy claims were refused completely, the number of cases of insurance benefits and the total amount of insurance benefits would have decreased by 0.78% and 0.58%, respectively compared with the same month in the previous year. Moreover, the average amount of insurance benefits per claim increased since patients with relatively less serious diseases might have sought health care less often. Finally, our results suggest that the mass of resignations did not affect death rates. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

    Scopus

  • 東日本大震災に伴う医療費一部負担金の免除施策が被災地の医療サービス利用にあたえた影響:自然実験

    松山祐輔, 坪谷透, 谷上和也, 大南貴裕, 田曽忠輝, 村松我矩, 別所俊一郎

    RIETI Discussion Paper Series   17-J-004  2017  [Refereed]

  • Child Benefit, Tax Allowances and Behavioural Responses: The Case of Japanese Reform, 2010-2011

    Shun-ichiro Bessho

    The Japanese Economic Review   69 ( 4 ) 478 - 501  2017  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The reform of Japan's child benefit system in 2010 was followed by the abolition of the tax allowance for dependents in 2011. The present study uses micro-level data from the Employment Status Survey and an estimation of a discrete-choice model of labour supply to examine the effects of these reforms on the labour supply, after-tax incomes and the utility of households. The results show that the reforms decreased the labour supply of parents and that the funds necessary to implement them were underestimated by 22% when this behavioural change was disregarded.

    DOI

    Scopus

    3
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Out-of-pocket payments and community-wide health outcomes: an examination of influenza vaccination subsidies in Japan

    Yoko Ibuka, Shun-Ichiro Bessho

    HEALTH ECONOMICS POLICY AND LAW   11 ( 3 ) 275 - 302  2016.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    While studies have shown that reductions in out-of-pocket payments for vaccination generally encourages vaccination uptake, research on the impact on health outcomes has rarely been examined. Thus, the present study, using municipal-level survey data on a subsidy programme for influenza vaccination in Japan that covers the entire country, examines how reductions in out-of-pocket payments for vaccination among non-elderly individuals through a subsidy programme affected regional-level influenza activity. We find that payment reductions are negatively correlated with the number of weeks with a high influenza alert in that region, although the correlation varied across years. At the same time, we find no significant correlation between payment reductions and the total duration of influenza outbreaks (i.e. periods with a moderate or high alert). Given that a greater number of weeks with a high alert indicates a severer epidemic, our findings suggest that reductions in out-of-pocket payments for influenza vaccination among the non-elderly had a positive impact on community-wide health outcomes, indicating that reduced out-of-pocket payments contributes to the effective control of severe influenza epidemics. This suggests that payment reductions could benefit not only individuals by providing them with better access to preventive care, as has been shown previously, but also communities as a whole by shortening the duration of epidemics.

    DOI

    Scopus

    1
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Subsidies for influenza vaccination, vaccination rates, and health outcomes among the elderly in Japan

    Yoko Ibuka, Shun-ichiro Bessho

    JAPAN AND THE WORLD ECONOMY   36   56 - 66  2015.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Vaccination against infectious diseases produces externalities, and providing subsidies is one way of internalizing the externality. The effect of subsidies as a policy tool depends on individual's response to the cost of vaccine. However, there have been few studies on the effects of vaccine costs on vaccination uptake. Using regional variations in vaccination subsidy amount within Japan's current immunization program, we examined the impact of subsidies for the cost of influenza vaccine on the vaccination rates and on two health outcome measures. Our results show that an increase in the subsidy amount by 1,000 yen (10 USD) leads to a one percentage point increase in the vaccination rate among the elderly, suggesting that vaccination rate is responsive to the costs of vaccination. On the other hand, we found no substantial effects on health outcomes. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

    Scopus

    8
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Fiscal adjustment in Japanese municipalities

    Shun-ichiro Bessho, Hikaru Ogawa

    JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE ECONOMICS   43 ( 4 ) 1053 - 1068  2015.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This study examines how Japanese municipalities restore their fiscal balance after a budget shock. The results show that these fiscal adjustments occur mainly via changes in government investment, accounting for 63-95% of adjustments in permanent unit innovations in grants and own-revenue. In contrast to the role of expenditure, the municipalities' own-source revenue plays a limited role in balancing the local budget. The results also reveal that 40% of the increase in own-source revenue is offset by a reduction in grants. This suggests that the current grants system discourages municipalities from increasing their own-source revenue. Furthermore, municipalities can induce grants by expanding government current expenditure. Here, a 1 yen increase in current expenditure is followed by an increase in grants of 0.65 yen in subsequent years. Finally, we conduct an additional analysis based on population size to study how the adjustment process varies among municipalities of different sizes. Journal of Comparative Economics 43 (4) (2015) 1053-1068. Keio University, 2-15-45 Mita, Minato-ku, Tokyo 1088345, Japan;Nagoya University, Furocho, Chikusaku, Nagoya 4648601, Japan. (C) 2014 Association for Comparative Economic Studies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

    Scopus

    9
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Should the Japanese tax system be more progressive? An evaluation using the simulated SMCFs based on the discrete choice model of labor supply

    Shun-ichiro Bessho, Masayoshi Hayashi

    INTERNATIONAL TAX AND PUBLIC FINANCE   22 ( 1 ) 144 - 175  2015.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This study proposes a method to obtain the social marginal costs of public funds (SMCF) that allows for heterogeneity on a household basis as well as labor supply responses along both the extensive and the intensive margins. To demonstrate our methodology, we take the example of the 1999 national income tax reform in Japan and evaluate it by estimating the SMCFs for changing marginal tax rates in different income brackets. We estimate the discrete choice model (DCM) of labor supply using a 1997 data set of Japanese households, and we use the estimates to generate the SMCFs with a DCM micro-simulation. We evaluate the simulated SMCFs with various distributional weights and find that the value of the SMCF for a 1 % increase in the marginal tax rate in any given income bracket decreases as we move across brackets from the bottom to the top. This finding suggests that the national government should have made the Japanese income tax system more progressive rather than less progressive as carried out in the 1999 reform. Our method is readily transferrable to tax reforms in other countries as well.

    DOI

    Scopus

    2
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Intensive margins, extensive margins, and spousal allowances in the Japanese system of personal income taxes: A discrete choice analysis

    Bessho Shun-ichiro, Masayoshi Hayashi

    JOURNAL OF THE JAPANESE AND INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIES   34   162 - 178  2014.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This study explores the effects of spousal allowances (SAs) in the Japanese system of personal income taxes, using the micro-simulation method based on the discrete choice model of labor supply. Our simulations show that the complete abolishment of SAs would increase the average annual working hours of all wives by 1.6% only, which is smaller than previous findings in the Japanese literature. If we focus on households benefiting from SAs, the rate of increase in the wife working hours is even smaller (.1%). In addition, one particular case of SA reduction leads to a decrease in the labor supply of wives. We argue that these unexpected results are due to our explicit consideration of the fixed cost of labor market participations, which has been previously ignored in the Japanese studies. J. Japanese Int. Economies 34 (2014) 162-178. Faculty of Economics, Keio University, 2-15-45 Mita, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8345, Japan; Faculty & Graduate School of Economics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    DOI

    Scopus

    6
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Fiscal restraints by advisors

    Shun-ichiro Bessho, Kimiko Terai

    Economics of Governance   14 ( 3 ) 205 - 232  2013.08  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This study investigates the role of fiscal advisors in maintaining government fiscal discipline when the advisor's appointment is determined endogenously. Our theoretical model shows that an incumbent politician has an incentive to employ an external advisor as a commitment device for fiscal discipline before being aware of his own competence level. The advisor acts as a restraint on public expenditure, which works to control the incumbent politician's ex post overspending to buy votes. Our empirical analysis supports this hypothesis in the Japanese case where governments with directors from the central government tend to spend less. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

    DOI

    Scopus

  • Estimating the Social Marginal Cost of Public Funds: A Microdata Approach

    Shun-ichiro Bessho, Masayoshi Hayashi

    Public Finance Review   41 ( 3 ) 360 - 385  2013.05  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this study, we recast the formula of the social marginal cost of public funds (SMCF) and highlight the role of what we call individual marginal costs of public funds (IMCF). After elaborating on aspects of distributional weights, we estimate the wage elasticity of labor supply and the IMCFs on a household basis. This allows us to explore not only the distributions of the elasticity and the IMCFs but also their relations to household income, which helps us assess the assumptions made in previous studies. Further, we use the SMCF estimates to evaluate the system of personal income taxes in Japan. © The Author(s) 2013.

    DOI

    Scopus

    3
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • 妊婦健診をめぐる自治体間財政競争

    BESSHO SHUN-ICHIRO

    財政研究   8   251-267  2012  [Refereed]

  • Health insurance reform and economic growth: Simulation analysis in Japan

    Toshihiro Ihori, Ryuta Ray Kato, Masumi Kawade, Shun-ichiro Bessho

    JAPAN AND THE WORLD ECONOMY   23 ( 4 ) 227 - 239  2011.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper evaluates the drastic reforms of Japanese public health insurance initiated in 2006. We employ a computable general equilibrium framework to numerically examine the reforms for an aging Japan in the dynamic context of overlapping generations. Our simulation produced the following results: first, an increase in the co-payment rate, a prominent feature of the 2006 reform, would promote economic growth and welfare by encouraging private saving. Second, the ex-post moral hazard behavior following the increase in co-payment rates, however, reduces economic growth. Third. Japan's trend of increasing the future public health insurance benefits can mainly be explained by its aging population, and increasing the co-payment rate does little to reduce future payments of public health insurance benefits. Fourth, the effect on future economic burdens of reducing medical costs through efficiencies in public health insurance, emphasis on preventive medical care, or technological progress in the medical field is small. Finally, a policy of maintaining public health insurance at a fixed percentage of GDP will require reducing public health insurance benefits, perhaps up to 45% by 2050. Such a policy also reduces economic growth until approximately 2035. Our simulation indicates that the reform does not significantly reduce future public health insurance benefits, but it can enhance economic growth and welfare by encouraging private saving. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

    Scopus

    21
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Labor supply response and preferences specification: Estimates for prime-age males in Japan

    Shun-ichiro Bessho, Masayoshi Hayashi

    Journal of Asian Economics   22 ( 5 ) 398 - 411  2011.10  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this paper, we estimate labor responses of Japanese prime-age males by taking into consideration the Japanese income tax system and utilizing a large micro-data set. We employ three maximum likelihood methods: (i) a modified version of Hausman (1979, 1981), which assumes a linear labor supply function
    (ii) that given by Zabalza (1983), which assumes CES preferences
    and (iii) that given by Van Soest (1995), which employs the translog utility function and assumes discrete labor hour choice. While the estimates based on the Hausman and Zabalza methods fare poorly, those based on the Van Soest method result in more plausible labor responses. However, these responses are larger than those of the North American and European counterparts. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

    DOI

    Scopus

    4
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Competition for private capital and central grants: the case of Japanese industrial parks

    Shun-ichiro Bessho, Kimiko Terai

    ECONOMICS OF GOVERNANCE   12 ( 2 ) 135 - 154  2011.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Local governments invest in public infrastructure to develop their regions. When they depend on intergovernmental grants for local development and have opportunities to lobby upper-level governments for such grants, horizontal intergovernmental competition in lobbying activity may emerge in addition to competition over public infrastructure. This paper empirically examines the existence of these interactions between Japanese localities, by using data on the value of industrial parks as infrastructure provisions and on personnel interchanges between the central and local governments as a measure of lobbying activity. Our results suggest that a Japanese local government's choice of the size of industrial parks and its invitation to central officers to act as a director on loan are positive responses to the neighboring local government's policy choices. As the value of the industrial parks in a district is affected by the neighboring districts' lobby activities and their industrial park values, we can interpret these results as evidence of inter-regional competition in these two dimensions, rather than control by the central government in this unitary state.

    DOI

    Scopus

    4
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • MRIの導入と利用:アンケート調査による検証

    BESSHO SHUN-ICHIRO

    季刊社会保障研究   47 ( 2 ) 175-190 - 190  2011  [Refereed]

    CiNii

  • 子どもの医療費助成・通院・健康

    BESSHO SHUN-ICHIRO

    季刊社会保障研究   47 ( 4 ) 413-430 - 430  2011  [Refereed]

    CiNii

  • 最適線形所得税の推計:MCFからの接近

    BESSHO SHUN-ICHIRO

    財政研究   6   149-169  2010  [Refereed]

  • 公共支出は労働供給に影響するか

    BESSHO SHUN-ICHIRO

    経済政策ジャーナル   7 ( 1 ) 19-32 - 31  2010  [Refereed]

    CiNii

  • Unemployment risk and buffer-stock saving: An empirical investigation in Japan

    Shun-ichiro Bessho, Eiko Tobita

    JAPAN AND THE WORLD ECONOMY   20 ( 3 ) 303 - 325  2008.08  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate, using micro data, the strength in Japan of the precautionary saving motive. While numerical simulations suggest the economic importance of precautionary saving, the empirical evidence is mixed. In this paper, we apply the buffer-stock saving model and focus on the effect of unemployment risk on wealth accumulation. We find that uncertainty has a positive and statistically significant effect on the wealth-to-income ratio, and that buffer-stock savings account for 6 or 15 percent of net financial assets. Housing loans and expenditures associated with children decrease this ratio. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

    Scopus

    5
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  • When do people visit a doctor?

    Shun-Ichiro Bessho, Yasushi Ohkusa

    Health Care Management Science   9 ( 1 ) 5 - 18  2006.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We examine the length of time between when an individual feels sick and when he/she visits a doctor using survival analysis to capture the dynamic aspects of this behavior. If the disease is light, actions such as OTC medicine or sick leave are alternatives to visiting a clinic or a hospital immediately. The timing of the visit depends only the person's decision, not on a doctor's, so we can limit discussion to the effect of ex-post moral hazard excluding physician induced demand. Participants were asked to keep a log of illness-related behavior such as dates of episodes, subjective symptoms, sick leaves, and medical treatment at hospitals. Neither the copayment rate nor access cost had a significant effect on the behavior of visiting a doctor, whereas available alternatives delay the timing of a visiting. Severe symptoms and fever hastened the time. The results suggest that the traditional argument about ex-post moral hazard is somewhat misleading. © Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    9
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  • Public Debt and Economic Growth in an Aging Japan

    Toshihiro Ihori, Ryuta Ray Kato, Masumi Kawade, Shun-ichiro Bessho

    Tackling Japan's Fiscal Challenges     30  2006  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • Economic studies of taxation in Japan: The case of personal income taxes

    Shun-Ichiro Bessho, Masayoshi Hayashi

    Journal of Asian Economics   16 ( 6 ) 956 - 972  2005.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We argue that tax policy in Japan is on a shaky empirical ground. First, until recently, no serious attempts had been made to estimate labour responses to taxation, especially with respect to prime-age male workers. Second, while there is some stock of empirical analysis on labour supply response of female workers, few studies have appropriately allowed for the budget constraint structure implied by the tax system. Third, as a corollary, there is not a reliable stock of empirical estimates to quantify the frequently employed concepts of "disincentives to work" or "distortion." Given this state of the literature, we introduce our estimates, and calculate the degree of distortion using the concept of the marginal cost of public funds. © 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    DOI

    Scopus

    7
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  • Local borrowing subsidized through the Local Allocation Tax grants: Does it increase public capital spending?

    DOI TAKERO・BESSHO SHUN-ICHIRO

    Japan Center for Economic Research Economic Journal   51 ( 51 ) 33-58 - 58  2005.03  [Refereed]

    CiNii

  • 公的資金の限界費用

    別所俊一郎, 赤井伸郎, 林正義

    日本経済研究   47   1-19  2005  [Refereed]

  • 地方債の元利補給の実証分析

    BESSHO SHUN-ICHIRO

    財政研究   1   311-328  2005  [Refereed]

  • 累進所得税と厚生変化: 公的資金の社会的限界費用の試算

    林正義, 別所俊一郎

    経済分析   172 ( 172 ) 1-34 - 34  2004  [Refereed]

    CiNii

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Books and Other Publications

  • Public Economics

    Hayashi Masayoshi, Ogawa Higaru, BESSHO SHUN-ICHIRO( Part: Joint author)

    有斐閣  2010

Research Projects

  • Structure and change of broader inequality since the COVID-19 crisis: Economics research based on household panel data

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research

    Project Year :

    2022.04
    -
    2027.03
     

  • Primary and Secondary Education under Declining Polulation: An Empirical Anaysis with Administrative Data

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S)

    Project Year :

    2020.08
    -
    2025.03
     

  • Creation and implementation of scientific basis for children's human capital:Development of policy evaluation process by government-academic collaboration

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A)

    Project Year :

    2019.04
    -
    2022.03
     

    Noguchi Haruko

     View Summary

    The contribution of our project consists of two aspects: academic and implementation. On the academic aspect, first, we created a unique longitudinal data on academic achievement (test score), physical fitness and awareness for entire students of public primary and junior-high schools in Adachi-ward from 2009-2019 (N=approximately 500,000). Second, using the data, we have created scientific evidence that has been difficult to implement in Japan until now, such as estimation of value-added models (implied by fixed effect of school teachers and schools), and empirical analysis related to school management, e.g., school choice systems and school closures. In terms of implementation, in addition to building a database using highly versatile software, our project created a codebook and guidelines, provided training for administrative staff, and contributed to the creation of a system that enables the autonomous creation of evidence that contributes to education policies in Adachi-ward.

  • Empirical Analysis on Fiscal Consolidation of Local Governments

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)

    Project Year :

    2019.04
    -
    2022.03
     

  • 長寿社会における世代間移転と経済格差: パネルデータによる政策評価分析

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 特別推進研究

    Project Year :

    2017.04
    -
    2022.03
     

    樋口 美雄, 山本 勲, 赤林 英夫, 駒村 康平, 瀬古 美喜, 土居 丈朗, 大垣 昌夫, McKenzie Colin, 黒田 祥子, 鶴 光太郎, 大久保 敏弘, 敷島 千鶴, 隅田 和人, 直井 道生, 山田 篤裕, 別所 俊一郎, 寺井 公子, 井深 陽子, 北村 行伸

     View Summary

    本研究では、長寿社会と経済格差の関係に焦点を当て、長寿社会に起因する経済格差の発生メカニズム、さらには、経済格差が長寿社会での人々の暮らしや働き方、健康、社会経済の諸制度・政策、消費行動・生産行動、資産形成、結婚、出産などの家族形成、保育・教育などの次世代育成などに与える影響について、三世代の世帯(同居・非同居)を含む多様な家計を追跡するパネルデータの構築・解析を通じて多角的に研究する。
    <BR>
    本年度は、長寿社会における経済格差研究に関する理論的・実証的研究を整理・評価するとともに、家計パネルデータ等を用いながら各研究班で設定したテーマに沿って分析を進めた。各研究班の研究実績としては、論文45本(うち査読付論文18本)および図書6冊となっており、パネルデータなどを用いた経済格差のメカニズムや影響の解明を進めた。
    <BR>
    「日本家計パネル調査」については、調査回答者の親世代・子世代の情報を多く調査するとともに、非同居の家族も含めた調査回答者の子世代への調査を新たに実施することで、3世代調査への拡張を果たした。また、単身高齢者世帯や地方在住者を含む新たな調査対象を追加した。さらに、日本を代表するパネルデータとして、ルクセンブルク所得研究(LIS)への「日本家計パネル調査」の提供を継続して実施したほか、オハイオ州立大学が指揮をとる国際パネルデータベースCross-National Equivalent File(CNEF)への提供を開始した。このほか、パネルデータの質の維持・向上のため、「日本家計パネル調査」の標本脱落やサンプル追加により発生するサンプリングバイアスの修正を行うウェイトの作成を欧州・豪州の専門家や家計パネルデータの設計・解析機関と連携して進めた。

  • MRIの医療技術評価分析モデルとガイドラインの作成

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(C)

    Project Year :

    2018.04
    -
    2021.03
     

    佐藤 美帆, 町田 好男, 別所 俊一郎

     View Summary

    前年度までの研究課題にて行った、国内におけるMRIの設置及び利用状況のアンケート調査の集計により、国内のMRI保有施設が抱える問題点を統計処理により客観的に抽出し、結果概要について放射線技術学会秋季学術大会で発表を行った。
    結果概要に関する注目すべき点として、多くの施設において、十分な検査体制の整っていない環境(具体的には常勤の診療放射線技師や放射線科医がいない施設)で設置されている可能性が示唆され、また検査体制が十分でない施設においては造影検査や読影件数の割合が少ない(病院や画像診断センターに比べ、有床・無床診療所では読影されていない検査が7~8割も有る)ことがわかった。
    これらの結果を踏まえ、現在はMRI保有施設においてMRI導入、スタッフィング、オーダー決定等の際どの要因を比較・検討すべきかのシナリオを想定し、実用的な分析モデルに反映できるよう検討している。検討途中ではあるが、具体的なモデル例としては、MRI の導入に関するモデル(「MRI導入の要否」「機種選定」「スペック比較」等)、MRIの利用に関するモデル(「検査枠の設定」「検査部位」「検査オーダー」「読影方法」等)を構築していく予定である。
    尚、2018年度は、6月より研究代表者の妊娠中の体調不良により当初の計画から遅れをとったため、一旦中断申請を行っている。今後は研究期間の延長申請を行った後、8.今後の研究推進方策に記すとおり、研究課題を進めていく予定である。研究の再開は2020年1月を予定している。

  • An Empirical Research on the Accumulation Mechanism of Children's Human Capital: Lessons from Challenge of Adachi Ward in Tokyo Prefecture

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)

    Project Year :

    2016.04
    -
    2019.03
     

    Noguchi Haruko, Tamiya Nanako, Fujiwara Takeo, Kawaguchi Daiji

     View Summary

    We constructed an individual-based longitudinal/panel data for various information related to children's human capital, by which are held by the Board of Education of Adachi Ward in Tokyo Metropolitan City. The total number of children we can follow-up by this data is approximately 0.5 million.
    The results show thatthere is a significant correlation between financial support and the development of children's academic ability and obesity; academic ability and physical strength and lifestyle; there is variation in school's and teacher's capability to improve children's academic ability by using value-added model, etc. Futher, we clarified that the early intervention would benefit to improve scholastic ability; and that about 30% of the top 20% of the students went to private junior high schools outside Adachi ward when they graduate primary school. These achievements were discussed not only in the academic society but also in policy discussion at Adachi Ward assembly.

  • Installation and utilization situation of MRI in Japan

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)

    Project Year :

    2015.04
    -
    2018.03
     

    Sato Miho, TAKASE Kei, INABA Yohei, MORI Naoko, NAGASAKA Tatsuo, HIKICHI Takeo

     View Summary

    Even though it is frequently cited that Japan has the highest number of MRIs per person, we rarely find studies evaluated those utilities and installations. This study aims to survey MRI installation and utilities in Japan. We mailed questionnaire to 5,437 facilities have MRI(s) and we received 2,272 responses (41.8% response rate). Questions include the type of facility, the detail information about their installed MRI, and their utilization such as operation rate per day, target of scans, scan protocol, staffing, etc. From a statistical analysis of the collected data, many of the clinics and the hospitals with a small number of beds did not have a full-time radiologist or a radiographer. This data will be effective for future discussion of MRI installation in Japan.

  • Interaction between financial and fiscal crises, contagion effects and desirable policy response

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)

    Project Year :

    2014.04
    -
    2017.03
     

    IKEO Kazuhito

     View Summary

    We quantitatively evaluated the effect of institutional reforms necessary to avoid the outbreak of fiscal crisis and also considered the fiscal problems from political-economic viewpoint. Contagion from a fiscal crisis to a financial crisis could be caused by the chain that in a fiscal crisis, the collapse of government bond prices inevitably occurs and balance sheets such as banks are seriously damaged since financial institutions such as banks hold a large amount of government bonds. It was pointed out that the implementation of large-scale accommodative monetary policy in recent years has transformed the character of this chain. Moreover, it was showed that the swollenness of outstanding government bonds had depressive effects on the economy even if it did not arrive at a fiscal crisis.

  • Political Economy of Intergovernmental Relationship

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)

    Project Year :

    2014.04
    -
    2017.03
     

    DOI TAKERO

     View Summary

    This study focuses on intergovernmental relationship as problems of "Tragedy of the Commons." We obtain the main following results through both theoretical and empirical analyses. In a theoretical one, herd behavior of local governments are observed when they are risk-averse, and it lowers economic growth, which expects to be enhanced by an innovative policy. In an empirical study, such herd behavior is observed using regional variations in vaccination subsidy amount within Japan's current immunization program. Also, the same tax base of national and local taxes can be recognized as a commons. We examine a simulation analysis of corporate tax reform using a dynamic general equilibrium model, since national corporate tax and corporate income tax are the same tax base, and obtain results that labor income totally increases after the reform, but partly decreases by an increase in size-based business taxation of local tax.

  • Globalization and Regional Policy Response: Theory and Evidence

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A)

    Project Year :

    2013.04
    -
    2017.03
     

    OGAWA Hikaru

     View Summary

    Our theoretical analyses succeeded in constructing the models of fiscal competition dealing with policy instruments which are difficult to harmonize among countries. Some policies (e.g. tariff and corporate taxes) would be cooperated, but countries can use other instruments, resulting in the inefficient outcome. The analyses propose some policy frameworks to avoid the unilateral policy settings. The analyses cover a variety of policy tools; taxation systems, the size of domestic redistribution, public investment, regulations on interest groups, the timings of the tax settings.
    Our empirical analyses contributed to shed new lights on the impacts of exogenous events (e.g., subprime loan crisis) on local economies in Japan, and to observe long-term trend of the municipals' responses to these shocks. Moreover, we also quantified the behavioral changes of households, local firms, financial institutions, which were attributed to natural disasters in Japan, the Great East Japan Earthquake.

  • Causes and consequences of redistribution policy of local governments

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B)

    Project Year :

    2013.04
    -
    2016.03
     

    Bessho Shun-ichiro

     View Summary

    This study investigated the causes and consequences of redistribution policy of Japanese local governments. First, I examined the long-term panel data of Japanese municipal settlements to quantify how they respond to fiscal shocks. Second, I analyzed the effects of influenza vaccination subsidies to find that they raised vaccination rates and negatively correlated with the number of weeks with a high influenza alert. Third, I examined the determinants of voluntary vaccination subsidies. The results suggest that the subsidy policy is affected by those of neighboring local governments in the same prefectures.

  • Dynamism of economic disparities: Panel analysis of employment, education, health and redistribution policy

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Specially Promoted Research

    Project Year :

    2012
    -
    2016
     

    HIGUCHI Yoshio, YAMAMOTO Isamu, ONO Yukako, OHTA Souichi, KAWAI Hiroki, KURODA Sachiko, TANAKA Ryuichi, AKABAYASHI Hideo, SANO Shinpei, SEKO Miki, SUMITA Kazuto, NAOI Michio, KOMAMURA Kohei, YAMADA Atsuhiro, ABE Aya, DOI Takero, OGAKI Masao, MCKENZIE Colin, BESSHO Shunichiro, TERAI Kimiko, TSURU Kotaro, SAKAMOTO Kazuyasu, SHIKISHIMA Chizuru, OKUBO Toshihiro, NOZAKI Kayo, SEIKE Atsushi, KONDO Ayako, SENOH Wataru, ISHINO Takuya, SHIKATA Masato, TANAKA Soichiro, KITAMURA Yukinobu, MATSUURA Toshiyuki, ISHII Kayoko, KAMESAKA Akiko, YUKAWA Shiho, SATO Kazuma, HAGIWARA Risa, FUKAHORI Ryotaro, KOBAYASHI Toru

     View Summary

    Using panel data collected every year on households, this project undertook multifaceted research on economic disparities. There are two parts of this research project. Regarding the first part, the design, analysis and public release of panel data set, the number of research projects that used the JHPS/KHPS has amounted to 1,112 during fiscal year 2012-2016. Regarding the second part, multifaceted and dynamic research on economic disparities, we conducted various research from the view point of five research groups: Labor Economics Group; Economics of Education Group; Asset Stock Group; Social Security Group; and Public Finance Group.

  • An analysis of adverse selection and welfare loss on nonpayment and non-enrollment of social insurance

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)

    Project Year :

    2012.04
    -
    2015.03
     

    MIYAZATO Naomi, SAITO Kuniyoshi, BESSHO Shun-ichiro

     View Summary

    Nonpayment and non-enrollment are becoming increasingly significant issues for the national pension system in Japan. In this study, we use data from the Vital Statistics of Population and so on to analyze whether adverse selection may be contributing to the nonpayment and non-enrollment problems and to what extent this may result in welfare loss. We find that the death rate is higher among the uninsured than the insured for both males and females, which indicates the presence of adverse selection.

  • The behavior and institutions of Japanese local governments

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)

    Project Year :

    2010
    -
    2012
     

    BESSHO Shunichiro, TERAI Kimiko

     View Summary

    We investigated the interdependency between the Japanese central and local governments as well as among the local governments, taking the features of fiscal and political institutions into consideration. This research theoretically and empirically showed
    (i) that the prefectures take part in two types of competitions, i.e., for the central grants and firms, and
    (ii) the governors of the prefectures utilize the central bureaucrats on loan as commitment device for fiscal adjustment.
    We also theoretically examined the horizontal intergovernmental relations and delegations of politicians decision making.

  • Comprehensive Reform of Tax and Social-Security Systems in Japan

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A)

    Project Year :

    2008
    -
    2011
     

    TAJIKA Eiji, WATANABE Satoshi, SATO Motohiro, YAMASHIGE Shinji, KUNIEDA Shigeki, TAKEUCHI Kan, BESSHO Shunichiro, HAYASHI Masayoshi, KOBAYASHI Wataru, YUI Yuji, KAWAGUCHI Hiroyuki, KIKUCHI Jun

     View Summary

    This is a study on Japanese tax and social-security policies. Japan has long been in a deflationary situation since the collapse of the bubble at the beginning of the 1990s, and the fiscal situation has been deteriorated due to successive fiscal stimulus policies. Under these circumstances, a comprehensive approach encompassing tax and social-security policies is one of the most sought-after types of research, and this project has been organized to deal with the issues from this perspective.
    This project produced many outcomes : research papers were not only individually published, but made public by a collected volume ; a policy forum was organized with participation of a minister of the government in charge ; a symposium was carried out jointly with Policy Research Institute of the Ministry of Finance and the papers presented there are now being prepared to be published in journals of the institute ; and two books on population dynamics and family will be published.

  • Estimation of marginal cost of public funds

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B)

    Project Year :

    2007
    -
    2009
     

    BESSHO Shunichiro

     View Summary

    Marginal cost of public funds (MCPF) is an additional change of effective costs generated by one unit of additional tax revenue. I estimate labor supply elasticities of Japanese households and MCPF, using a large micro data from Employment Status Survey. The estimated uncompensated elasticities of labor supply are small (0.06-0.21), while the substitution and income effects are estimated rather large, compared with the literature. Based on these estimated parameters, I estimate a Japanese MCPF as 1.1 on average. In addition, optimal linear income tax systems are calculated.

  • 財政制度・社会保障制度のマクロ経済学的分析

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 特別研究員奨励費

    Project Year :

    2001
    -
    2003
     

    別所 俊一郎

     View Summary

    本年度の研究実績は,不確実性に関わる家計行動の実証分析と,社会保障制度を含んだ財政制度のマクロ的な評価の2点に関わるものである.不確実性に関わる家計行動の実証分析については2点行った.ひとつは,家計の金融資産蓄積のマイクロデータを用いた,雇用不安と予備的貯蓄の大きさに関する実証研究である.本研究は昨年度の日本経済学会で発表されたが、修正を加えて査読付き英文誌に投稿中である。不確実性に関わる家計行動の実証分析のいまひとつは,医療保険制度に関係する.患者の通院行動がどのようなものであるかを実証的に調べておくことは、制度設計上重要である。通院開始・病院選択について分析を行い、サンフランシスコで開かれた国際医療経済学会および、明治大学で開かれた日本経済学会で発表した。
    社会保障制度を含んだ財政制度のマクロ的な評価については,課税による限界的な経済厚生の損失の計測を引き続き行った.限界的な税収の増加がもたらす限界的な厚生損失は,政府支出のプロジェクト評価に有用であるので,対象を労働所得税に絞ったうえで日本についての測定を行った.その結果,限界的な税収1単位の増加は近年において1.1単位ほどの限界的な損失を発生させているとの結果を得た.この結果は共著論文としてまとめられ,『経済分析』に掲載予定となっている.マクロ的な評価のいまひとつは,非確率的多期間世代重複モデルを用いた数値シミュレーションである.既存研究に社会資本の効果を含めることで,財政赤字の規模と世代の厚生についての検討を行った.

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