2022/01/19 更新

写真a

ハヤシ ナオユキ
林 直亨
所属
スポーツ科学学術院 スポーツ科学部
職名
教授
メールアドレス
メールアドレス

兼担

  • 附属機関・学校   グローバルエデュケーションセンター

学歴

  • 1994年04月
    -
    1995年03月

    早稲田大学   人間科学研究科博士課程   生命科学専攻  

  • 1992年04月
    -
    1994年03月

    早稲田大学   大学院人間科学研究科修士課程   健康科学専攻  

  • 1988年04月
    -
    1992年03月

    早稲田大学   人間科学部   スポーツ科学科  

学位

  • 早稲田大学   修士(人間科学)

  • 大阪大学   博士(医学)

経歴

  • 2021年04月
    -
     

    早稲田大学   スポーツ科学学術院   教授

  • 2016年04月
    -
    2021年03月

    東京工業大学   リベラルアーツ研究教育院   教授,副研究教育院長

    大学院 環境・社会理工学院社会・人間科学コース担当

  • 2013年04月
    -
    2016年03月

    東京工業大学   大学院社会理工学研究科   教授

  • 2004年04月
    -
    2013年03月

    九州大学 健康科学センター 健康科学第1部門   助教授,助教授・准教授

  • 1995年04月
    -
    2004年03月

    大阪大学   健康体育部   助手

  • 1999年10月
    -
    2000年09月

    カリフォルニア大学デービス校   客員研究員

▼全件表示

所属学協会

  • 2013年
    -
    継続中

    計測自動制御学会

  •  
     
     

    The American Physiological Society

  •  
     
     

    American College of Sports Medicine

  •  
     
     

    日本生理学会

  •  
     
     

    日本運動生理学会

  •  
     
     

    アメリカスポーツ医学会

  •  
     
     

    日本体力医学会

  •  
     
     

    日本体育学会

▼全件表示

 

研究分野

  • 体育、身体教育学

  • スポーツ科学

  • 生体医工学

  • 栄養学、健康科学

研究キーワード

  • Circulation

  • Exercise Physiology

  • 精神ストレス

  • 昇圧応答

  • 血流

  • 自律神経活動

  • 身体運動

  • 循環系

  • 運動生理学

▼全件表示

論文

  • Chewing increases postprandial diet-induced thermogenesis.

    Yuka Hamada, Naoyuki Hayashi

    Scientific reports   11 ( 1 ) 23714 - 23714  2021年12月  [国際誌]

     概要を見る

    Slow eating, which involves chewing food slowly and thoroughly, is an effective strategy for controlling appetite in order to avoid being overweight or obese. Slow eating also has the effect of increasing postprandial energy expenditure (diet-induced thermogenesis). It is still unclear whether this is due to oral stimuli; that is, the duration of tasting food in the mouth and the duration of chewing. To investigate the effects of oral stimuli on diet-induced thermogenesis in 11 healthy normal weight males, we conducted a randomized crossover study comprising three trials: (1) drinking liquid food normally, (2) drinking liquid food after tasting, and (3) adding chewing while tasting. Oral stimuli (i.e., the duration of tasting liquid food in the mouth and the duration of chewing) significantly increased diet-induced thermogenesis after drinking liquid food. This result demonstrates that the increase in diet-induced thermogenesis is due to oral stimuli rather than the influence of the food bolus. Increased diet-induced thermogenesis induced by chewing and taste stimuli may help to prevent overweight and obesity.

    DOI PubMed

  • Acute and Chronic Periocular Massage for Ocular Blood Flow and Vision: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Hayashi Naoyuki, Du Lanfei

    Int J Ther Massage Bodywork .   14 ( 2 ) 5 - 13  2021年06月  [査読有り]

    担当区分:筆頭著者, 責任著者

  • Facial Blood Flow Responses to Dynamic Exercise

    Naoyuki Hayashi, Hideaki Kashima, Tsukasa Ikemura

    International Journal of Sports Medicine    2021年03月  [国際誌]

     概要を見る

    We reported previously that a static handgrip exercise evoked regional differences in the facial blood flow. The present study examined whether regional differences in facial blood flow are also evoked during dynamic exercise. Facial blood flow was measured by laser speckle flowgraphy during 15 min of cycling exercise at heart rates of 120 bpm, 140 bpm and 160 bpm in 12 subjects. The facial vascular conductance index was calculated from the blood flow and mean arterial pressure. The regional blood flow and conductance index values were determined in the forehead, eyelid, nose, cheek, ear and lip. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test were used to examine effects of exercise intensity and target regions. The blood flow and conductance index in skin areas increased significantly with the exercise intensity. The blood flow and conductance index in the lip increased significantly at 120 bpm and 140 bpm compared to the control, while the values in the lip at 160 bpm did not change from the control values. These results suggest that the blood flow in facial skin areas, not in the lip, responds similarly to dynamic exercise, in contrast to the responses to static exercise.

    DOI PubMed

  • The influence of occupation on the longevity of Japanese traditional artists

    Naoyuki Hayashi, Kazuhiro Kezuka

    Palgrave Communications   6 ( 1 )  2020年12月

    DOI

  • Regional differences in facial skin blood flow responses to thermal stimulation

    Miyaji, A., Hayashi, S., Hayashi, N.

    European Journal of Applied Physiology   119 ( 5 ) 1195 - 1201  2019年

    DOI

  • Short- and long-term effects of using a facial massage roller on facial skin blood flow and vascular reactivity

    Miyaji, A., Sugimori, K., Hayashi, N.

    Complementary Therapies in Medicine   41   271 - 276  2018年

    DOI

  • Fluid intake restores retinal blood flow early after exhaustive exercise in healthy subjects

    Ikemura, T., Suzuki, K., Nakamura, N., Yada, K., Hayashi, N.

    European Journal of Applied Physiology   118 ( 5 ) 1053 - 1061  2018年  [査読有り]  [国際誌]

    DOI PubMed

  • Aging decreases CO<inf>2</inf> reactivity in the retinal artery, but not in the ocular choroidal vessels; A cross-sectional study

    Miyaji, A., Ikemura, T., Hayashi, N.

    Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation   70 ( 2 ) 231 - 240  2018年  [査読有り]  [国際誌]

     概要を見る

    BACKGROUND: The CO2 reactivity is often used to assess vascular function, but it is still unclear whether this reactivity is affected by aging. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of aging on the CO2 reactivity in ocular and cerebral vessels, both of which are highly sensitive to hypercapnia, we compared the CO2 reactivity in the retinal artery (RA), retinal and choroidal vessels (RCV), optic nerve head (ONH), and middle cerebral artery (MCA) between young and middle-aged subjects. METHODS: We measured the CO2 reactivity in 14 young and 11 middle-aged males using laser-speckle flowgraphy during a 3-min inhalation of CO2-rich air. RESULTS: The CO2 reactivity in the RA and ONH were lower in the middle-aged group than in the young group, but no significant effect of age was observed in the RCV or MCA. The CO2 reactivity in the RA and ONH were correlated significantly with age, whereas those in the RCV or MCA were not. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that there are regional differences in the effect of age on the CO2 reactivity among not only ocular and cerebral vessels, but also the retinal and choroidal vessels, even though these vessels are in neighboring areas.

    DOI PubMed

  • Objective and subjective eating speeds are related to body composition and shape in female college students

    Hamada, Y., Miyaji, A., Hayashi, Y., Matsumoto, N., Nishiwaki, M., Hayashi, N.

    Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology   63 ( 3 ) 174 - 179  2017年  [国内誌]

     概要を見る

    Eating speed reportedly relates to body composition and shape. Little is known about the relationship between the objectively assessed eating speed and the body composition and shape. This study examined relationships between eating speed as assessed both objectively and subjectively, and body composition and shape. The following variables of body composition and shape were measured in 84 female college students: body mass, relative body fat mass (%Fat), body mass index (BMI), and circumferences of the waist, abdomen and hip. After measuring the body composition and shape, subjects consumed a 174-kcal salmon rice ball. The following chewing variables were measured by observing videotape recordings of the subjects' faces: number of chews per bite, total number of chews, total meal duration, number of bites, and chewing rate. The subjects were categorized into three groups (fast, moderate and slow) according to their own subjective assessments of the actual eating speed. In objective assessments of the eating speed, the total number of chews and the total meal duration were significantly negatively correlated with the body mass, %Fat, BMI, and circumferences of the waist, abdomen and hip. In subjective eating-speed assessments, the body mass, %Fat, BMI, and circumferences of the waist, abdomen and hip were greater in the fast eating group than in the slow eating group. Both the objectively and subjectively assessed eating speeds are related to the body composition and shape. The present study supports that fast eating may relate to gains in body mass and/or fat mass.

    DOI PubMed

  • Suppression of oral sweet taste sensation with Gymnema sylvestre affects postprandial gastrointestinal blood flow and gastric emptying in humans

    Kashima, H., Eguchi, K., Miyamoto, K., Fujimoto, M., Endo, M.Y., Aso-Someya, N., Kobayashi, T., Hayashi, N., Fukuba, Y.

    Chemical Senses   42 ( 4 ) 295 - 302  2017年  [査読有り]  [国際誌]

     概要を見る

    An oral sweet taste sensation (OSTS) exaggerates digestive activation transiently, but whether it has a role after swallowing a meal is not known. Gymnema sylvestre (GS) can inhibit the OSTS in humans. We explored the effect of the OSTS of glucose intake on gastrointestinal blood flow, gastric emptying, blood-glucose, and plasma-insulin responses during the postprandial phase. Eight participants ingested 200 g (50 g × 4 times) of 15% glucose solution containing 100 mg of 13C-sodium acetate after rinsing with 25 mL of 2.5% roasted green tea (control) or 2.5% GS solution. During each protocol, gastrointestinal blood flow and gastric emptying were measured by ultrasonography and 13C-sodium acetate breath test, respectively. Decreased subjective sweet taste intensity was observed in all participants in the GS group. The time to attain a peak value of blood flow in the celiac artery and gastric emptying were delayed in the GS group compared with the control group. At the initial phase after glucose intake, blood-glucose and plasma-insulin responses were lower in the GS group than those for the control group. These results suggest that the OSTS itself has a substantial role in controlling postprandial gastrointestinal activities, which may affect subsequent glycemic metabolism.

    DOI PubMed

  • Brachial artery blood flow dynamics during sinusoidal leg cycling exercise in humans

    Fukuba, Y., Endo, M.Y., Kondo, A., Kikugawa, Y., Miura, K., Kashima, H., Fujimoto, M., Hayashi, N., Fukuoka, Y., Koga, S.

    Physiological Reports   5 ( 19 )  2017年  [査読有り]  [国際誌]

     概要を見る

    To explore the control of the peripheral circulation of a nonworking upper limb during leg cycling exercise, blood flow (BF) dynamics in the brachial artery (BA) were determined using a sinusoidal work rate (WR) exercise. Ten healthy subjects performed upright leg cycling exercise at a constant WR for 30 min, followed by 16 min of sinusoidal WR consisting of 4-min periods of WR fluctuating between a minimum output of 20 W and a maximum output corresponding to ventilatory threshold (VT). Throughout the protocol, pulmonary gas exchange, heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), blood velocity (BV), and cross-sectional area of the BA, forearm skin BF (SBF), and sweating rate (SR) were measured. Each variable was fitted to a sinusoidal model with phase shift (θ) and amplitude (A). Nearly all variables closely fit a sinusoidal model. Variables relating to oxygen transport, such as VO2 and HR, followed the sinusoidal WR pattern with certain delays (θ: VO2; 51.4 ± 4.0°, HR; 41.8 ± 5.4°, mean ± SD). Conversely, BF response in the BA was approximately in antiphase (175.1 ± 28.9°) with a relatively large A, whereas the phase of forearm SBF was dissimilar (65.8 ± 35.9°). Thus, the change of BF through a conduit artery to the nonworking upper limb appears to be the reverse when WR fluctuates during sinusoidal leg exercise, and it appears unlikely that this could be ascribed exclusively to altering the downstream circulation to forearm skin.

    DOI PubMed

  • Effect of aging on the blowout time in various ocular vessels.

    Akane Miyaji, Tsukasa Ikemura, Naoyuki Hayashi

    Journal of aging science   4 ( 1 ) 1 - 6  2016年03月  [査読有り]

  • Effect of postprandial gum chewing on diet-induced thermogenesis

    Hamada, Y., Miyaji, A., Hayashi, N.

    Obesity   24 ( 4 )  2016年

    DOI

  • Effects of eating speed on diet-induced thermogenesis

    Hamada, Y., Hayashi, N.

    Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine   65 ( 3 )  2016年

    DOI

  • Exhaustive exercise attenuates the neurovascular coupling by blunting the pressor response to visual stimulation

    Yamaguchi, Y., Ikemura, T., Hayashi, N.

    BioMed Research International   2015   671063 - 671063  2015年  [査読有り]  [国際誌]

    DOI PubMed

  • Inner ocular blood flow responses to an acute decrease in blood pressure in resting humans

    Ikemura, T., Kashima, H., Yamaguchi, Y., Miyaji, A., Hayashi, N.

    Physiological Measurement   36 ( 2 ) 219 - 30  2015年  [査読有り]  [国際誌]

    DOI PubMed

  • Regional differences in the vascular response to CO<inf>2</inf> among cerebral, ocular, and mesenteric vessels

    Miyaji, A., Ikemura, T., Hamada, Y., Hayashi, N.

    Artery Research   12   54 - 59  2015年  [査読有り]

    DOI

  • Effects of vasodilatation and pressor response on neurovascular coupling during dynamic exercise

    Yamaguchi, Y., Ikemura, T., Kashima, H., Hayashi, N.

    European Journal of Applied Physiology   115 ( 3 ) 619 - 25  2015年  [査読有り]  [国際誌]

     概要を見る

    PURPOSE: Visual stimulation increases the blood flow in the posterior cerebral artery (PCA), which supplies blood to the visual cortex by neurovascular coupling (NVC). Relative contributions of vasodilatation and pressor response on NVC during dynamic exercise are still unknown. METHODS: We measured the blood flow velocity in the PCA (PCAv) by transcranial Doppler ultrasound flowmetry during rest and exercise in 14 healthy males while they performed 12-min submaximal leg-cycle exercises at mild-, moderate-, and high-intensity, which corresponded to heart rates of 120, 140, and 160 bpm, respectively. NVC was estimated as the relative change in PCAv from 20 s eye-closing to the peak response during 40 s looking at a reversed checkerboard. Conductance index was calculated for evaluating vasodilatation as pressure divided by blood flow. RESULTS: In response to visual stimulation, a magnitude of vasodilatation was significantly decreased under the moderate-intensity, while pressor response was significantly suppressed under the high-intensity exercises, compared with the control condition. Conversely, peak response to visual stimulation in PCAv was not affected by exercise intensity though relative and absolute responses were significantly lower in the moderate- and high-intensity exercises than the control. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that the contributions of pressor response and vasodilatation were modified by exercise intensity, partly playing a role for stabilizing the peak response of PCAv with visual stimulation during dynamic exercise.

    DOI PubMed

  • The number of chews and meal duration affect diet-induced thermogenesis and splanchnic circulation

    Hamada, Y., Kashima, H., Hayashi, N.

    Obesity   22 ( 5 )  2014年

    DOI

  • Palatability of tastes is associated with facial circulatory responses

    Kashima, H., Hamada, Y., Hayashi, N.

    Chemical Senses   39 ( 3 )  2014年

    DOI

  • Effects of heat stress on ocular blood flow during exhaustive exercise

    Ikemura, T., Hayashi, N.

    Journal of Sports Science and Medicine   13 ( 1 ) 172 - 9  2014年  [査読有り]  [国際誌]

    PubMed

  • Cerebral blood flow and neurovascular coupling during static exercise

    Yamaguchi, Y., Kashima, H., Fukuba, Y., Hayashi, N.

    Journal of Physiological Sciences   64 ( 3 ) 195 - 201  2014年  [査読有り]  [国内誌]

     概要を見る

    The effect of static exercise on neurovascular coupling (NVC) was investigated by measuring the blood flow velocity in the posterior cerebral artery (PCAv) during 2-min static handgrip exercises (HG) at 30 % of the maximum voluntary contraction in 17 healthy males. NVC was estimated as the relative change in PCAv from eye closing to a peak response to looking at a reversed checkerboard. The conductance index (CI) was calculated by dividing PCAv by the mean arterial pressure (MAP). HG significantly increased PCAv from the resting baseline, with an increase in MAP and a reduction in CI, whereas NVC did not differ significantly between the resting and HG. Compared to the resting baseline, HG significantly increased the pressor response to visual stimulation by 5.6 ± 1.1 (mean ± SE) mmHg, while the CI response was significantly inhibited by -7.0 ± 1.5 %. These results indicate that NVC was maintained during HG via contributions from both the pressor response and vasodilatation.

    DOI PubMed

  • Muscle mechanoreflex mediates vasoconstriction in inactive limb in rats

    Endo MY, Hayashi N, Koba S, Morizono Y, Ueoka H, Fujihara C, Fukuba Y

    The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine   2   381 - 384  2013年08月  [査読有り]

    DOI

  • Facial skin blood flow responses to irritant stimuli in the oral cavity

    Kashima, H., Hayashi, N.

    Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical   174 ( 1-2 )  2013年

    DOI

  • Ocular blood flow decreases during passive heat stress in resting humans

    Ikemura, T., Miyaji, A., Kashima, H., Yamaguchi, Y., Hayashi, N.

    Journal of Physiological Anthropology   32 ( 1 ) 23 - 23  2013年  [査読有り]  [国際誌]

     概要を見る

    BACKGROUND: Heat stress induces various physiological changes and so could influence ocular circulation. This study examined the effect of heat stress on ocular blood flow. FINDINGS: Ocular blood flow, end-tidal carbon dioxide (P(ET)CO2) and blood pressure were measured for 12 healthy subjects wearing water-perfused tube-lined suits under two conditions of water circulation: (1) at 35 °C (normothermia) for 30 min and (2) at 50 °C for 90 min (passive heat stress). The blood-flow velocities in the superior temporal retinal arteriole (STRA), superior nasal retinal arteriole (SNRA), and the retinal and choroidal vessels (RCV) were measured using laser-speckle flowgraphy. Blood flow in the STRA and SNRA was calculated from the integral of a cross-sectional map of blood velocity. PETCO2 was clamped at the normothermia level by adding 5% CO2 to the inspired gas. Passive heat stress had no effect on the subjects' blood pressures. The blood-flow velocity in the RCV was significantly lower after 30, 60 and 90 min of passive heat stress than the normothermic level, with a peak decrease of 18 ± 3% (mean ± SE) at 90 min. Blood flow in the STRA and SNRA decreased significantly after 90 min of passive heat stress conditions, with peak decreases of 14 ± 3% and 14 ± 4%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that passive heat stress decreases ocular blood flow irrespective of the blood pressure or arterial partial pressure of CO2.

    DOI PubMed

  • Regional differences in facial skin blood flow responses to the cold pressor and static handgrip tests

    Kashima, H., Ikemura, T., Hayashi, N.

    European Journal of Applied Physiology   113 ( 4 ) 1035 - 41  2013年  [査読有り]  [国際誌]

     概要を見る

    We have previously reported the unique regional responses of facial skin blood flow (SkBF) to oral application of the basic tastes without simultaneous systemic circulatory changes. In the present study, we determined whether a systemic circulatory challenge due to sympathetic activation induces regional differences in facial SkBF by observing the responses in facial SkBF and blood pressure to a 2-min cold pressor test (CPT) and static handgrip exercise (HG) by right hand in 20 healthy subjects. The CPT significantly increased SkBF in the forehead, eyelid, cheek, upper lip and lower lip by 6 ± 2 to 8 ± 2 % (mean ± SEM) as compared to resting baseline, with a significant simultaneous increase (13 ± 2 %) in mean arterial pressure (MAP), whereas it significantly decreased the SkBF in the nose by 5 ± 2 %. The HG significantly increased SkBF in the forehead, cheek and lower lip by 6 ± 3 to 10 ± 3 %, with a significant simultaneous increase in MAP (13 ± 2 %), while it induced no significant change in the other regions. Increases in SkBF were greater in the right than left cheek during CPT. These results demonstrate that a systemic circulatory challenge via sympathetic activation elicits regional differences in the facial SkBF response.

    DOI PubMed

  • Blood flow in non-muscle tissues and organs during exercise: Nature of splanchnic and ocular circulation.

    Hayashi N, Endo MY, Someya N, Fukuba Y

    Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine   1   281 - 286  2012年07月  [査読有り]

    DOI

  • Ocular circulatory responses to exhaustive exercise in humans

    Ikemura, T., Hayashi, N.

    European Journal of Applied Physiology   112 ( 9 ) 3313 - 8  2012年  [査読有り]  [国際誌]

    DOI PubMed

  • Autoregulation in the ocular and cerebral arteries during the cold pressor test and handgrip exercise

    Ikemura, T., Someya, N., Hayashi, N.

    European Journal of Applied Physiology   112 ( 2 ) 641 - 646  2012年  [査読有り]

    DOI PubMed

  • Effect of preceding exercise on cerebral and splanchnic vascular responses to mental task

    Someya, N., Ikemura, T., Hayashi, N.

    Journal of Physiological Anthropology   31 ( 1 ) 17  2012年  [査読有り]

    DOI PubMed

  • V̇O <inf>2</inf> response at the onset of heavy exercise is accelerated not by diathermic warming of the thigh muscles but by prior heavy exercise

    Fukuba, Y., Shinhara, Y., Houman, T., Endo, M.Y., Yamada, M., Miura, A., Hayashi, N., Sato, H., Koga, S., Yoshida, T.

    Research in Sports Medicine   20 ( 1 ) 13 - 24  2012年  [査読有り]  [国際誌]

     概要を見る

    We investigated whether the elevated muscle temperature induced by the first bout influenced the VO2 response during a second-bout of heavy exercise. The control conditions were two consecutive 6-min leg cycling bouts (work rate: Δ50% between LT and VO2max) separated by a 6-min baseline at 20 W (L1-ex to L2-ex). In the experimental conditions prior to the main bout (H2-ex), the diathermic warming to the front thigh was substituted for the first-bout. The VO2 response for the second bout was significantly accelerated compared with the first bout (mean ± SD of the τ by monoexponential fitting: L1-ex: 53.8 ± 11.6, L2-ex: 38.7 ± 7.9 s, P < 0.05). The diathermic warm-up, however, could not accelerate VO2 response for subsequent supra-LT leg exercise (τ for H2-ex: 52.3 ± 7.7 s). It was concluded that the facilitation of [VO2 response during supra-LT exercise after prior heavy exercise does not seem to be caused by increased muscle temperature per se and its related factors.

    DOI PubMed

  • Acute effect of oral water intake during exercise on post-exercise hypotension

    Endo, M.Y., Kajimoto, C., Yamada, M., Miura, A., Hayashi, N., Koga, S., Fukuba, Y.

    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition   66 ( 11 ) 1208 - 1213  2012年  [査読有り]

    DOI

  • Effect of dynamic exercise on ocular circulation.

    Ikemura Tsukasa, Naoyuki Hayashi

    Proceedings of the 26th Symposium on Biological and Physiological Engineering   1   206 - 207  2011年09月

  • Change in ocular blood flow induced by hypo- and hypercapnia relate to static visual acuity in humans.

    Naoyuki Hayashi, Tsukasa Ikemura, Nami Someya

    Eye Reports   1 ( e8 )  2011年09月  [査読有り]

  • 運動時の眼底血流の応答とその調節(キーノートレクチャー,運動生理学,専門分科会企画)

    林 直亨

    日本体育学会大会予稿集   62   27 - 27  2011年

    DOI CiNii

  • Basic taste stimuli elicit unique responses in facial skin blood flow

    Kashima, H., Hayashi, N.

    PLoS ONE   6 ( 12 )  2011年

    DOI

  • Muscle metaboreflex activation by static exercise dilates pupil in humans

    Hayashi, N., Someya, N.

    European Journal of Applied Physiology   111 ( 6 ) 1217 - 1221  2011年  [査読有り]

    DOI

  • Effects of dynamic exercise and its intensity on ocular blood flow in humans

    Hayashi, N., Ikemura, T., Someya, N.

    European Journal of Applied Physiology   111 ( 10 ) 2601 - 2606  2011年  [査読有り]

    DOI PubMed

  • Effect of intensity of dynamic exercise on pupil diameter in humans

    Hayashi, N., Someya, N., Fukuba, Y.

    Journal of Physiological Anthropology   29 ( 3 ) 119 - 22  2010年  [査読有り]  [国際誌]

     概要を見る

    To test the hypothesis that pupil diameter, which is innervated by the autonomic nervous system, increases with exercise intensity, we determined pupil diameter during incremental exercise in eight healthy subjects. The subjects performed an incremental ergometer exercise in a room illuminated at 90-100 lx. We continuously measured pupil diameter and heart rate before, during, and after the exercise. Pupil diameter increased significantly with exercise intensity (except at the lowest intensity), peaking at 113+/-3% (mean+/-SE) of the diameter during the resting baseline period. The diameter did not differ significantly between the resting baseline and recovery periods. These findings suggest that exercise enlarges pupil diameter and that the magnitude of dilation is related to exercise intensity.

    DOI PubMed CiNii

  • Effects of a mental task on splanchnic blood flow in fasting and postprandial conditions

    Someya, N., Endo, M.Y., Fukuba, Y., Hirooka, Y., Hayashi, N.

    European Journal of Applied Physiology   108 ( 6 ) 1107 - 13  2010年  [査読有り]  [国際誌]

     概要を見る

    We tested the hypothesis that a mental task attenuates the meal-induced vasodilation in the splanchnic vasculature. Ten subjects performed a 5-min colour-word conflict test (CWT) under fasting and postprandial conditions. Subjects in the postprandial condition had ingested solid food with an energy content of 300 kcal (1,255 kJ) before either performing the CWT (mental task trial) or resting (resting control trial). The mean blood velocities (MBV) in the coeliac artery (CA) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA), and the mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured. The MBV in the CA and SMA were divided by the MAP to assess the vascular conductance (VC). The MBV in the CA and SMA were significantly increased by the CWT under fasting conditions. In the postprandial condition, the MBV in the CA and SMA significantly increased immediately after the meal in both the mental task and resting control trials. The VC in the SMA, but not in the CA, was significantly decreased by the CWT under fasting conditions. In the postprandial conditions, there was no significant difference in the VC in both arteries between mental task and resting control trials. These results suggest that a mental task exerts different effects on the CA and SMA under fasting but not postprandial condition. The vasoconstrictive effect of a mental task on the SMA does not counter the vasodilatory effect of meal ingestion.

    DOI PubMed

  • Vascular responses to fear-induced stress in humans

    Hayashi, N., Someya, N., Maruyama, T., Hirooka, Y., Endo, M.Y., Fukuba, Y.

    Physiology and Behavior   98 ( 4 ) 441 - 446  2009年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    The information about the effect of mental activities on detailed cardiovascular responses is limited, though strong and chronic psychological stressors are risk factors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in humans. The responses of vascular resistance (VR) during fear-induced stress was studied by measuring the mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), skin blood flow in the index finger and forehead, limb blood flow in the calf and forearm, and blood flow in the renal and superior mesenteric arteries before, during, and after a period of induced fear. After 2 min of rest, baseline data were acquired from eight subjects, after which they watched a 3-min video that was considered to be frightening. Minute-by-minute data were calculated. The MAP was divided by the blood flow to attain the VR. While a clear steady state was not evident in the stress-induced vascular response, stress significantly increased the MAP and HR (e.g., by 10 +/- 3 mm Hg and 8 +/- 3 bpm, respectively, at the 2nd min; mean +/- SEM), and the VR of the forearm and finger skin (e.g., by 80 +/- 26% and 79 +/- 28%, respectively, at the 2nd min). The VR increased slightly in the calf and visceral arteries but not in the forehead throughout the stimulation. The variables returned to baseline levels by the 1st min after cessation of the fearful stimulation. These results suggest that fear-induced stress causes vasoconstriction in the forearm and finger. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    DOI PubMed

  • Interaction between the ventilatory and cerebrovascular responses to hypo- and hypercapnia at rest and during exercise

    Shigehiko Ogoh, Naoyuki Hayashi, Masashi Inagaki, Philip N. Ainslie, Tadayoshi Miyamoto

    JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LONDON   586 ( 17 ) 4327 - 4338  2008年09月  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    Cerebrovascular reactivity to changes in the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (P(a,CO2)) via limiting changes in brain [H(+)] modulates ventilatory control. It remains unclear, however, how exercise-induced alterations in respiratory chemoreflex might influence cerebral blood flow (CBF), in particular the cerebrovascular reactivity to CO(2). The respiratory chemoreflex system controlling ventilation consists of two subsystems: the central controller (controlling element), and peripheral plant (controlled element). In order to examine the effect of exercise-induced alterations in ventilatory chemoreflex on cerebrovascular CO(2) reactivity, these two subsystems of the respiratory chemoreflex system and cerebral CO(2) reactivity were evaluated (n = 7) by the administration of CO(2) as well as by voluntary hypo- and hyperventilation at rest and during steady-state exercise. During exercise, in the central controller, the regression line for the P(a,CO2)-minute ventilation ((V) over dot(E)) relation shifted to higher (V) over dot(E) and P(a,CO2) with no change in gain (P = 0.84). The functional curve of the peripheral plant also reset rightward and upward during exercise. However, from rest to exercise, gain of the peripheral plant decreased, especially during the hypercapnic condition (-4.1 +/- 0.8 to -2.0 +/- 0.2 mmHg l(-1) min(-1), P = 0.01). Therefore, under hypercapnia, total respiratory loop gain was markedly reduced during exercise (-8.0 +/- 2.3 to -3.5 +/- 1.0 U, P = 0.02). In contrast, cerebrovascular CO(2) reactivity at each condition, especially to hypercapnia, was increased during exercise (2.4 +/- 0.2 to 2.8 +/- 0.2% mmHg(-1), P = 0.03). These findings indicate that, despite an attenuated chemoreflex system controlling ventilation, elevations in cerebrovascular reactivity might help maintain CO(2) homeostasis in the brain during exercise.

    DOI PubMed

  • Blood flow responses in celiac and superior mesenteric arteries in the initial phase of digestion

    Someya, N., Endo, M.Y., Fukuba, Y., Hayashi, N.

    American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology   294 ( 6 ) R1790 - R1796  2008年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    Blood flow (BF) responses in the celiac artery (CA) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) during and immediately after a meal are poorly understood. We characterized postprandial BF responses in these arteries in the initial phase of digestion. After a baseline measurement in the overnight fasting state, healthy subjects ingested solid food (300 kcal) and water ad libitum within 5 min (4.6 +/- 0.2 min, means +/- SE), and then rested for 60 min in the postprandial state. Mean blood velocities (MBVs) in CA (n = 7) and SMA (n = 9) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured throughout the procedure. The MAP was divided by the MBV to yield the resistance index (RI). The MBV in CA and SMA started increasing within a minute after beginning the meal. The MBV in CA rapidly reached its peak increase (60 +/- 8% change from baseline) at 5 +/- 1 min after the start of the meal, whereas the MBV in SMA gradually reached its peak increase (134 +/- 14%) at 41 +/- 4 min after the start of the meal, reflecting a decrease in the RI for both CA and SMA. These findings suggested an earlier increase in CA and SMA MBV, implying that the increase of BF in some parts of the small intestine precedes the arrival of chyme.

    DOI PubMed

  • Ambient temperature affects glabrous skin vasculature and sweating responses to mental task in humans

    Hayashi, N., Someya, N., Hirooka, Y., Koga, S.

    Journal of Physiological Anthropology   27 ( 5 ) 227 - 231  2008年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    We compared responses in heart rate (HR), mean blood pressure (MAP), sweating rate (SR), sweating expulsion (SwE), and skin vascular conductance (VC) to mental task among different ambient temperature (Ta) conditions, i.e., 12, 16, 20, and 24°C. Seven subjects (27±5 yrs, 64±14 kg) underwent a 2-min color word conflict test (CWT) after 2 mins of baseline data acquisition following a 20-min resting period. All subjects wore long sleeve shirts and long pants. The skin blood flow was measured with a laser Doppler probe on the left index finger pulp to calculate skin VC, and the SR and sweating expulsion (SwE) were measured with a ventilated capsule on the left thenar. CWT significantly increased the HR and MAP, while there was no significant effect of Ta on the magnitudes of these responses. CWT significantly decreased the skin VC when the Ta was 24°C, whereas it significantly increased the skin VC when the Ta was 12 or 16°C. CWT significantly increased SR and SwE in all Ta conditions, and the SwE was greater in warmer conditions. These findings suggest that different ambient temperatures induce different responses in finger skin vasculature to mental task, implying the independent response of cutaneous vasomotor tone and sweat glands in glabrous skin to mental task.

    DOI PubMed CiNii

  • Chewing and taste increase blood velocity in the celiac but not the superior mesenteric arteries

    Someya, N., Hayashi, N.

    American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology   295 ( 6 ) R1921 - R1925  2008年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    To investigate the role of chewing and taste in the meal-induced rapid increase in splanchnic blood flow, we compared the blood flow responses in the celiac artery (CA) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) to chewing solid food with a chocolate taste (FOOD) and paraffin wax without taste (WAX). After 5 min of baseline measurement, 15 healthy subjects repeated chewing and expectorating the FOOD or WAX every 20 s for 4 min followed by 10 min of recovery measurement. We measured the mean blood velocity (MBV) in the CA and SMA. The baseline MBVs in the CA and SMA did not differ between the FOOD and WAX trials. The MBV in the CA was lower than baseline at the 1st min of chewing in both trials. It was higher than baseline at the 3rd min of FOOD chewing, whereas it did not increase during and after WAX chewing. The MBV in the CA was higher in the FOOD trial than in the WAX trial at the 3rd min of chewing and thereafter. In contrast, the MBV in the SMA did not change throughout the protocols. These results suggest that the taste of food plays a role in meal-induced hyperemia in the CA but not the SMA. Copyright © 2008 the American Physiological Society.

    DOI PubMed

  • Facial cooling-induced bradycardia does not slow pulmonary V̇O <inf>2</inf> kinetics at the onset of high-intensity exercise

    Endo, M., Tauchi, S., Hayashi, N., Koga, S., Rossiter, H.B., Fukuba, Y.

    Journal of Applied Physiology   95 ( 4 ) 1623 - 1631  2003年  [査読有り]

    DOI PubMed

  • Comparison of the exercise pressor reflex between forelimb and hindlimb muscles in cats

    Naoyuki Hayashi

    American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology    2001年10月

     概要を見る

    <jats:p> In thirteen cats anesthetized with α-chloralose, we compared the cardiovascular and ventilatory responses to both static contraction and tendon stretch of a hindlimb muscle group, the triceps surae, with those to contraction and stretch of a forelimb muscle group, the triceps brachii. Static contraction and stretch of both muscle groups increased mean arterial pressure and heart rate, and the responses were directly proportional to the developed tension. The cardiovascular increases, however, were significantly greater ( P &lt; 0.05) when the triceps brachii muscles were contracted or stretched than when the triceps surae muscles were contracted or stretched, even when the tension developed by either maneuver was corrected for muscle weight. Likewise, the ventilatory increases were greater when the triceps brachii muscles were stretched than when the triceps surae muscles were stretched. Contraction of either muscle group did not increase ventilation. Our results suggest that in the anesthetized cat the cardiovascular responses to both static contraction and tendon stretch are greater when arising from forelimb muscles than from hindlimb muscles. </jats:p>

    DOI

  • Temporal effect of muscle contraction on respiratory sinus arrhythmia

    Nakamura, Y., Hayashi, N., Muraoka, I.

    Methods of Information in Medicine   36 ( 4-5 )  1997年

▼全件表示

書籍等出版物

  • Sarcopenia: Molecular Mechanism and Treatment Strategies

    Naoyuki Hayashi( 担当: 分担執筆,  担当範囲: Chapter 11: Vascular aging and sarcopenia: Interactions with physiological functions during exercise (pp. 249-266))

    Elsevier  2021年07月

  • 新・大学でなにを学ぶか

    上田, 紀行( 担当: 分担執筆)

    岩波書店  2020年02月 ISBN: 9784005009121

  • ガイトン生理学

    Hall, John E. (John Edward), 石川, 義弘, 岡村, 康司, 尾仲, 達史, 河野, 憲二, 金子, 猛(呼吸器内科学), 北村, 義浩, 藤乗, 嗣泰, 松嶋, 成志( 担当: 編訳,  担当範囲: 第15部 スポーツ生理学)

    エルゼビア・ジャパン  2018年03月 ISBN: 9784860347741

  • 林直亨,木場智史.自律神経.身体トレーニング 運動生理学からみた身体機能の維持・向上.宮村實晴(編集)

    2009年

  • 循環器機能. 健康と運動の疫学入門.熊谷秋三(責任編集)

    医学出版  2008年

  • 人間科学計測ハンドブック(共著)

    技報堂出版  1997年

▼全件表示

Misc

  • 一過性の運動に伴う眼底循環の応答.

    池村司, 林直亨

    体力科学   69 ( 1 ) 17  2019年09月

    研究発表ペーパー・要旨(全国大会,その他学術会議)  

  • 運動中の眼底血流

    体育の科学   69 ( 6 ) 415 - 419  2019年06月

    記事・総説・解説・論説等(学術雑誌)  

  • Inner ocular blood flow response to exercise in healthy humans.

    Tsukasa Ikemura, Naoyuki Hayashi

    Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine   6 ( 4 ) 223 - 226  2017年07月

    記事・総説・解説・論説等(学術雑誌)  

  • Effect of aging on the CO2 reactivity and blowout time in ocular vessels

    Akane Miyaji, Tsukasa Ikemura, Naoyuki Hayashi

    FASEB JOURNAL   30  2016年04月

    研究発表ペーパー・要旨(国際会議)  

  • 下肢サイン波状負荷運動時の上腕動脈血流応答に及ぼす周期の影響

    福場良之, 三浦康平, 遠藤(山岡)雅子, 鍛島秀明, 江口航平, 林直亨, 福岡義之, 古賀俊策

    体力科学   64 ( 6 ) 576  2015年12月

    J-GLOBAL

  • 運動に伴う視力の向上は後大脳動脈の血流反応とは関連しない

    山口裕嗣, 池村司, 林直亨

    体力科学   63 ( 6 ) 578  2014年12月

    研究発表ペーパー・要旨(全国大会,その他学術会議)  

    J-GLOBAL

  • 生理刺激に対する血管応答の部位差と刺激の種類が血管応答に及ぼす影響

    宮路茜, 池村司, 濱田有香, 林直亨

    体力科学   63 ( 6 ) 580  2014年12月

    研究発表ペーパー・要旨(全国大会,その他学術会議)  

    J-GLOBAL

  • 昼食後の睡眠がスポーツを支える基礎的な能力・機能に与える効果

    福場良之, 林直亨, 三浦康平, 遠藤(山岡)雅子, 鍛島秀明, 江口航平, 三浦朗

    体力科学   63 ( 6 ) 657  2014年12月

    J-GLOBAL

  • CO2吸入に対する血流応答の部位差

    宮路茜, 濱田有香, 池村司, 林直亨

    体力科学   62 ( 6 ) 523  2013年12月

    研究発表ペーパー・要旨(全国大会,その他学術会議)  

    DOI J-GLOBAL

  • Brachial and middle cerebral artery blood flow responses during sinusoidal leg cycling exercise

    Yoshiyuki Fukuba, Ayaka Kondo, Yuka Kikugawa, Masako Y. Endo, Kouhei Miura, Naoyuki Hayashi, Yoshiyuki Fukuoka, Shunsaku Koga

    FASEB JOURNAL   27  2013年04月

    研究発表ペーパー・要旨(国際会議)  

  • Ocular blood flow responses to an acute decrease in blood pressure in resting humans

    Ikemura Tsukasa, Miyaji Akane, Hayashi Naoyuki

    JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES   63   S266  2013年

    研究発表ペーパー・要旨(全国大会,その他学術会議)  

  • 視覚刺激に伴う後大脳動脈血流応答に及ぼす暑熱の影響

    山口裕嗣, 池村司, 鍛島秀明, 林直亨

    体力科学   61 ( 6 ) 600  2012年12月

    J-GLOBAL

  • 運動強度の増加に伴う顔面の皮膚血流の部位差

    鍛島秀明, 林直亨, 池村司, 山口裕嗣

    体力科学   61 ( 6 ) 607  2012年12月

    J-GLOBAL

  • Posterior cerebral artery blood flow response to visual stimulation during exercise

    Yuji Yamaguchi, Tsukasa Ikemura, Hideaki Kashima, Naoyuki Hayashi

    FASEB JOURNAL   26  2012年04月

    研究発表ペーパー・要旨(国際会議)  

  • Vasomotor responses in facial and finger skin to acute changes in blood pressure.

    KASHIMA Hideaki, IKEMURA Tsukasa, YAMAGUCHI Yuji, HAYASHI Naoyuki

    Experimental Biology 2012 (San Diego, CA, USA)    2012年

  • Effect of the type of visual stimulation on the increase in posterior cerebral artery blood flow during exercise

    YAMAGUCHI Yuji, IKEMURA Tsukasa, KASHIMA Hideaki, HAYASHI Naoyuki

    J Physiol Sci   62 ( Supplement 1 ) S118  2012年

    J-GLOBAL

  • 昇圧刺激に対する顔の皮膚血流応答

    鍛島秀明, 池村司, 林直亨

    体力科学   60 ( 6 ) 657  2011年12月

    J-GLOBAL

  • 疲労困憊に至る運動が眼底血流に及ぼす影響

    池村司, 鍛島秀明, 林直亨

    体力科学   60 ( 6 ) 657  2011年12月

    J-GLOBAL

  • Ocular circulatory response to exhaustive exercise in humans

    Tsukasa Ikemura, Naoyuki Hayashi

    FASEB JOURNAL   25  2011年04月

    研究発表ペーパー・要旨(国際会議)  

  • 動的運動に伴う顔面の皮膚血流の部位別応答

    清水美紅, 染矢菜美, 林直亨

    体力科学   59 ( 6 ) 756  2010年12月

    J-GLOBAL

  • 寒冷昇圧試験およびレジスタンス運動に対する眼底の血流応答

    池村司, 染矢菜美, 林直亨

    体力科学   59 ( 6 ) 723  2010年12月

    J-GLOBAL

  • Regional blood flow responses of facial skin to cycling exercise

    Miku Shimizu, Nami Someya, Naoyuki Hayashi

    FASEB JOURNAL   24  2010年04月

    研究発表ペーパー・要旨(国際会議)  

  • Effects of hyper- and hypocapnea on choroidal and retinal blood flows and the visual acuity

    Hayashi Naoyuki, Someya Nami, Ikemura Tsukasa

    FASEB JOURNAL   24  2010年04月

    研究発表ペーパー・要旨(国際会議)  

  • Retinal and choroidal blood flow responses to dynamic and static exercise in humans

    Ikemura Tsukasa, Someya Nami, Hayashi Naoyuki

    FASEB JOURNAL   24  2010年04月

    研究発表ペーパー・要旨(国際会議)  

  • Autoregulation in ocular and cerebral arteries during the cold pressor test

    IKEMURA Tsukasa, SOMEYA Nami, HAYASHI Naoyuki

    J Physiol Sci   60 ( Supplement 1 ) S165  2010年

    J-GLOBAL

  • The effect of acute aerobic exercise on the cerebral vascular response to a mental task

    Someya Nami, Ikemura Tsukasa, Hayashi Naoyuki

    JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES   60   S165  2010年  [査読有り]

  • 食物の呈示に対する唾液分泌の変化に運動が与える影響

    染矢菜美, 福場良之, 林直亨

    体力科学   58 ( 6 ) 832  2009年12月

    J-GLOBAL

  • 網膜・脈絡膜の血流速度は運動強度の増加に伴って増加する.

    林直亨, 染矢菜美, 池村司, 清水美紅

    体力科学   58 ( 6 ) 723  2009年12月

    J-GLOBAL

  • Vascular responses to fear-induced stress in humans

    Naoyuki Hayashi, Nami Someya, Toru Maruyama, Yoshitaka Hirooka, Masako Yamaoka Endo, Yoshiyuki Fukuba

    PHYSIOLOGY & BEHAVIOR   98 ( 4 ) 441 - 446  2009年10月

     概要を見る

    The information about the effect of mental activities on detailed cardiovascular responses is limited, though strong and chronic psychological stressors are risk factors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in humans. The responses of vascular resistance (VR) during fear-induced stress was studied by measuring the mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), skin blood flow in the index finger and forehead, limb blood flow in the calf and forearm, and blood flow in the renal and superior mesenteric arteries before, during, and after a period of induced fear. After 2 min of rest, baseline data were acquired from eight subjects, after which they watched a 3-min video that was considered to be frightening. Minute-by-minute data were calculated. The MAP was divided by the blood flow to attain the VR. While a clear steady state was not evident in the stress-induced vascular response, stress significantly increased the MAP and HR (e.g., by 10 +/- 3 mm Hg and 8 +/- 3 bpm, respectively, at the 2nd min; mean +/- SEM), and the VR of the forearm and finger skin (e.g., by 80 +/- 26% and 79 +/- 28%, respectively, at the 2nd min). The VR increased slightly in the calf and visceral arteries but not in the forehead throughout the stimulation. The variables returned to baseline levels by the 1st min after cessation of the fearful stimulation. These results suggest that fear-induced stress causes vasoconstriction in the forearm and finger. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • 運動時における瞳孔径の調節

    林直亨, 染矢菜美, 福場良之

    生体・生理工学シンポジウム論文集   24th   141 - 142  2009年09月

    J-GLOBAL

  • 食事に関連する感覚刺激に対する唾液分泌の応答にエネルギーバランスが与える影響

    染矢菜美, 亀井真澄, 福場良之, 林直亨

    生体・生理工学シンポジウム論文集   24th   119 - 120  2009年09月

    J-GLOBAL

  • 週1 回の大学授業における筋力トレーニングが筋力に与える影響.

    林直亨, 宮本忠吉

    体育学研究 54: 137-143, 2009   54 ( 1 ) 137 - 143  2009年06月

     概要を見る

    To investigate the effect of resistance training at lower than the recommended frequency (2-3 times a week) on muscular strength, we recruited 103 college students (67 males 61±8kg, 36 females 51±4kg, mean±SD) who had never regularly engaged in resistance training. They performed resistance training in a PE class once a week for seven to ten weeks. We measured one repetition maximum (1RM) for the bench press and arm curl, and the girth of the thigh and upper arm before and after the training. The training included stretching, three sets of ten repetitions on a bench press, half squat lift, ...

    DOI

  • EFFECT OF MUSCLE METABOREFREX ACTIVATION ON PUPIL DIAMETER IN HUMANS

    Naoyuki Hayashi, Nami Someya

    JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES   59 ( Supplement 1 ) 221 - 221  2009年

    研究発表ペーパー・要旨(国際会議)  

    J-GLOBAL

  • EFFECTS OF GLUTAMATE ON SYSTEMIC AND SPLANCHNIC CIRCULATIONS

    Nami Someya, Toshifumi Imada, Naoyuki Hayashi

    JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES   59 ( Supplement 1 ) 454 - 454  2009年

    研究発表ペーパー・要旨(国際会議)  

    J-GLOBAL

  • 218. 食物の呈示に対する唾液分泌の変化(体液・内分泌,一般口演,第63回日本体力医学会大会)

    亀井真澄, 染矢菜美, 林直亨

    体力科學   57 ( 6 )  2008年12月

    CiNii

  • 170. 食物の咀嚼は消化器系の血流を増加させる(呼吸・循環,一般口演,第63回日本体力医学会大会)

    染矢菜美, 林直亨

    体力科學   57 ( 6 )  2008年12月

    CiNii

  • 132. 運動時の呼吸化学調節と脳血流反応の相互連関機構の解明(呼吸・循環,一般口演,第63回日本体力医学会大会)

    宮本 忠吉, 林 直亨, 中原 英博, 小河 繁彦

    体力科學   57 ( 6 ) 698 - 698  2008年12月

    CiNii

  • 215. 唾液の流量および粘度に対する運動強度の影響(体液・内分泌,一般口演,第63回日本体力医学会大会)

    林直亨, 亀井真澄, 染矢菜美, 福場良之

    体力科學   57 ( 6 )  2008年12月

    CiNii

  • Chewing and taste increase blood velocity in the celiac but not the superior mesenteric arteries

    Nami Someya, Naoyuki Hayashi

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-REGULATORY INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY   295 ( 6 ) R1921 - R1925  2008年12月

     概要を見る

    Someya N, Hayashi N. Chewing and taste increase blood velocity in the celiac but not the superior mesenteric arteries. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 295: R1921-R1925, 2008. First published October 8, 2008; doi:10.1152/ajpregu.90493.2008.-To investigate the role of chewing and taste in the meal-induced rapid increase in splanchnic blood flow, we compared the blood flow responses in the celiac artery ( CA) and superior mesenteric artery ( SMA) to chewing solid food with a chocolate taste ( FOOD) and paraffin wax without taste ( WAX). After 5 min of baseline measurement, 15 healthy subjects repeated chewing and expectorating the FOOD or WAX every 20 s for 4 min followed by 10 min of recovery measurement. We measured the mean blood velocity ( MBV) in the CA and SMA. The baseline MBVs in the CA and SMA did not differ between the FOOD and WAX trials. The MBV in the CA was lower than baseline at the 1st min of chewing in both trials. It was higher than baseline at the 3rd min of FOOD chewing, whereas it did not increase during and after WAX chewing. The MBV in the CA was higher in the FOOD trial than in the WAX trial at the 3rd min of chewing and thereafter. In contrast, the MBV in the SMA did not change throughout the protocols. These results suggest that the taste of food plays a role in meal-induced hyperemia in the CA but not the SMA.

    DOI

  • Blood flow responses in celiac and superior mesenteric arteries in the initial phase of digestion

    Nami Someya, Masako Yamaoka Endo, Yoshiyuki Fukuba, Naoyuki Hayashi

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-REGULATORY INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY   294 ( 6 ) R1790 - R1796  2008年06月

     概要を見る

    Blood flow (BF) responses in the celiac artery (CA) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) during and immediately after a meal are poorly understood. We characterized postprandial BF responses in these arteries in the initial phase of digestion. After a baseline measurement in the overnight fasting state, healthy subjects ingested solid food (300 kcal) and water ad libitum within 5 min (4.6 +/- 0.2 min, means +/- SE), and then rested for 60 min in the postprandial state. Mean blood velocities (MBVs) in CA (n = 7) and SMA (n = 9) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured throughout the procedure. The MAP was divided by the MBV to yield the resistance index (RI). The MBV in CA and SMA started increasing within a minute after beginning the meal. The MBV in CA rapidly reached its peak increase (60 +/- 8% change from baseline) at 5 +/- 1 min after the start of the meal, whereas the MBV in SMA gradually reached its peak increase (134 +/- 14%) at 41 +/- 4 min after the start of the meal, reflecting a decrease in the RI for both CA and SMA. These findings suggested an earlier increase in CA and SMA MBV, implying that the increase of BF in some parts of the small intestine precedes the arrival of chyme.

    DOI

  • Blood flow responses in celiac and superior mesenteric arteries in the initial phase of digestion

    Nami Someya, Masako Yamaoka Endo, Yoshiyuki Fukuba, Naoyuki Hayashi

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-REGULATORY INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY   294 ( 6 ) R1790 - R1796  2008年06月

     概要を見る

    Blood flow (BF) responses in the celiac artery (CA) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) during and immediately after a meal are poorly understood. We characterized postprandial BF responses in these arteries in the initial phase of digestion. After a baseline measurement in the overnight fasting state, healthy subjects ingested solid food (300 kcal) and water ad libitum within 5 min (4.6 +/- 0.2 min, means +/- SE), and then rested for 60 min in the postprandial state. Mean blood velocities (MBVs) in CA (n = 7) and SMA (n = 9) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured throughout the procedure. The MAP was divided by the MBV to yield the resistance index (RI). The MBV in CA and SMA started increasing within a minute after beginning the meal. The MBV in CA rapidly reached its peak increase (60 +/- 8% change from baseline) at 5 +/- 1 min after the start of the meal, whereas the MBV in SMA gradually reached its peak increase (134 +/- 14%) at 41 +/- 4 min after the start of the meal, reflecting a decrease in the RI for both CA and SMA. These findings suggested an earlier increase in CA and SMA MBV, implying that the increase of BF in some parts of the small intestine precedes the arrival of chyme.

    DOI

  • Cerebral blood flow reactivity to CO2 during exercise

    Naoyuki Hayashi, Shigehiko Ogoh, Philip N. Ainslie, Tadayoshi Miyamoto

    FASEB JOURNAL   22  2008年04月

    研究発表ペーパー・要旨(国際会議)  

  • Effect of chewing and taste on splanchnic blood flow

    Nami Someya, Naoyuki Hayashi

    FASEB JOURNAL   22  2008年04月

    研究発表ペーパー・要旨(国際会議)  

  • Sham feeding changes blood flow in splanchnic artery and forearm

    SOMEYA Nami, KAMEI Masumi, HAYASHI Naoyuki

    J Physiol Sci   58 ( Supplement ) S183  2008年04月

    J-GLOBAL

  • 唾液を用いた食欲評価法の探索

    林直亨, 染矢菜美, 亀井真澄

    食生活科学・文化及び環境に関する研究助成(CD-ROM)   2008   53 - 60  2008年

    J-GLOBAL

  • 換気量が中大脳動脈血流量に与える影響

    林 直亨, 小河 繁彦, Philip Ainslie, 宮本 忠吉

    日本生理学会大会発表要旨集   2008 ( 0 ) 182 - 182  2008年

     概要を見る

    At rest, respiratory-induced changes in the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) play a major role in the regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Changes in CBF affect stability of the ventilatory (VE) responsiveness to CO2 via alterations in the degree of washout in central chemoreceptor hydrogen [H+] . No data, however, is available on the comparison of the CBF and VE responsiveness to PaCO2 at rest and during exercise. To describe the CBF and VE reactivity to PaCO2, we measured the blood velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCAV) in six males under various VE conditions by controlling ventilation for 12 min at rest (VE = 9 to 38 L/min) and during 40 W ergometer cycling (VE = 12 to 68 L/min). The MCAV and VE reactivity to PaCO2 at rest was similar to that during exercise (-0.9 &plusmn; 0.3 cm/s/mmHg vs. -1.0 &plusmn; 0.5 cm/s/mmHg, respectively, P>0.05; mean &plusmn; SEM). The intercept of MCAV with PaCO2 tended to be greater during exercise than at rest (83 &plusmn; 11 vs. 66 &plusmn; 9 cm/s when VE = 0 L/min: P=0.1); this finding indicates that the upward shift of MCAV reactivity to VE may have a role in washing out CO2 from the brain, potentially due to the greater amount of CO2 production during exercise. [J Physiol Sci. 2008;58 Suppl:S182]

    DOI CiNii

  • Ambient temperature affects glabrous skin vasculature and sweating responses to mental task in humans

    Naoyuki Hayashi, Nami Someya, Yoshitaka Hirooka, Shunsaku Koga

    Journal of Physiological Anthropology   27 ( 5 ) 227 - 231  2008年

     概要を見る

    We compared responses in heart rate (HR), mean blood pressure (MAP), sweating rate (SR), sweating expulsion (SwE), and skin vascular conductance (VC) to mental task among different ambient temperature (Ta) conditions, i.e., 12, 16, 20, and 24°C. Seven subjects (27±5 yrs, 64±14 kg) underwent a 2-min color word conflict test (CWT) after 2 mins of baseline data acquisition following a 20-min resting period. All subjects wore long sleeve shirts and long pants. The skin blood flow was measured with a laser Doppler probe on the left index finger pulp to calculate skin VC, and the SR and sweating expulsion (SwE) were measured with a ventilated capsule on the left thenar. CWT significantly increased the HR and MAP, while there was no significant effect of Ta on the magnitudes of these responses. CWT significantly decreased the skin VC when the Ta was 24°C, whereas it significantly increased the skin VC when the Ta was 12 or 16°C. CWT significantly increased SR and SwE in all Ta conditions, and the SwE was greater in warmer conditions. These findings suggest that different ambient temperatures induce different responses in finger skin vasculature to mental task, implying the independent response of cutaneous vasomotor tone and sweat glands in glabrous skin to mental task.

    DOI PubMed

  • Interaction between the ventilatory and cerebrovascular responses to hypo- and hypercapnia at rest and during exercise

    Ogoh, S., Hayashi, N., Inagaki, M., Ainslie, P.N., Miyamoto, T.

    Journal of Physiology   586 ( 17 ) 4327 - 4338  2008年

     概要を見る

    Cerebrovascular reactivity to changes in the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (P(a,CO2)) via limiting changes in brain [H(+)] modulates ventilatory control. It remains unclear, however, how exercise-induced alterations in respiratory chemoreflex might influence cerebral blood flow (CBF), in particular the cerebrovascular reactivity to CO(2). The respiratory chemoreflex system controlling ventilation consists of two subsystems: the central controller (controlling element), and peripheral plant (controlled element). In order to examine the effect of exercise-induced alterations in ventilatory chemoreflex on cerebrovascular CO(2) reactivity, these two subsystems of the respiratory chemoreflex system and cerebral CO(2) reactivity were evaluated (n = 7) by the administration of CO(2) as well as by voluntary hypo- and hyperventilation at rest and during steady-state exercise. During exercise, in the central controller, the regression line for the P(a,CO2)-minute ventilation ((V) over dot(E)) relation shifted to higher (V) over dot(E) and P(a,CO2) with no change in gain (P = 0.84). The functional curve of the peripheral plant also reset rightward and upward during exercise. However, from rest to exercise, gain of the peripheral plant decreased, especially during the hypercapnic condition (-4.1 +/- 0.8 to -2.0 +/- 0.2 mmHg l(-1) min(-1), P = 0.01). Therefore, under hypercapnia, total respiratory loop gain was markedly reduced during exercise (-8.0 +/- 2.3 to -3.5 +/- 1.0 U, P = 0.02). In contrast, cerebrovascular CO(2) reactivity at each condition, especially to hypercapnia, was increased during exercise (2.4 +/- 0.2 to 2.8 +/- 0.2% mmHg(-1), P = 0.03). These findings indicate that, despite an attenuated chemoreflex system controlling ventilation, elevations in cerebrovascular reactivity might help maintain CO(2) homeostasis in the brain during exercise.

    DOI

  • Differential arterial blood flow response of splanchnic and renal organs during low-intensity cycling exercise in women

    Endo, M.Y., Suzuki, R., Nagahata, N., Hayashi, N., Miura, A., Koga, S., Fukuba, Y.

    American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology   294 ( 5 ) H2322 - H2326  2008年

     概要を見る

    To investigate the regional hemodynamic responses of abdominal arteries at the onset of exercise and to focus on their transient responses, eight female subjects (21-30 yr) performed ergometer cycling exercise at 40 W for 4 min in a semi-supine position. Mean blood velocities (MBVs) in the right renal (RA), superior mesenteric (SMA), and splenic (SA) arteries were measured by pulsed echo-Doppler ultrasonography, with beat-by-beat measurements of heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). The vascular resistance index (RI) of each artery was calculated from MBV/MAP. MAP (76 +/- 9 to 83 +/- 8 mmHg at 4 min) and HR (60 +/- 7 to 101 +/- 9 beats/min at 4 min) increased during exercise (P &lt; 0.05). The MBV of RA and SA rapidly decreased after the onset of exercise (30 s; -19 +/- 5% and -19 +/- 12%, respectively), reaching -27 +/- 7% and -27 +/- 15% at the end of exercise (P &lt; 0.05). RI did not change during the initial 30 s of exercise, reflecting a reduction in MAP, and increased toward the end of the exercise (+ 55 +/- 21% and + 59 +/- 39%, respectively). In contrast, both the MBV and RI in the SMA remained constant throughout the exercise. The results indicate that, whereas the responses of renal and splenic vessels changed similarly throughout the protocol, the vascular response of SMA that mainly supplies blood to the intestinal tract was unchanged during exercise. We, therefore, conclude that low-intensity cycling exercise resulted in differential blood flow responses in arteries supplying the abdominal organs.

    DOI

  • 運動に対する唾液粘度の変化.

    林直亨, 亀井真澄, 染矢菜美, 福場良之

    第23回生体・生理工学シンポジウム論文集.343-344    2008年

  • 食事に対する消化器系の血流応答とその調節因子

    染矢菜美, 林直亨

    第23回生体・生理工学シンポジウム論文集.357-360    2008年

  • 精神作業に対する中心および末梢の循環応答

    林直亨, 染矢菜美, 福場良之

    第23回生体・生理工学シンポジウム論文集.341-342    2008年

  • 177. 精神作業に対する唾液中のアミラーゼ濃度の変化(体液・内分泌,第62回日本体力医学会大会)

    林直亨

    体力科學   56 ( 6 )  2007年12月

    CiNii

  • 146. 精神作業は食事に伴う消化器系の血管抵抗の減少を妨げる(呼吸・循環,第62回日本体力医学会大会)

    染矢菜美, 遠藤雅子, 福場良之, 林直亨

    体力科學   56 ( 6 )  2007年12月

    CiNii

  • 04-7-K202-6 週1回の筋力トレーニングは筋力トレーニング初心者の筋力を向上させる(04.運動生理学,一般研究発表抄録)

    林直亨, 宮本忠吉

    日本体育学会大会予稿集   ( 58 )  2007年09月

    CiNii

  • Mental task induces differential vascular responses in the brain, viscera, skin, and forearm

    Naoyuki Hayashi, Nami Someya, Yoshitaka Hirooka, Yoshiyuki Fukuba

    FASEB JOURNAL   21 ( 5 ) A475 - A475  2007年04月

    研究発表ペーパー・要旨(国際会議)  

  • Blood flow responses in celiac and superior mesenteric arteries to meal

    Nami Someya, Masako Endo, Yoshiyuki Fukuba, Naoyuki Hayashi

    FASEB JOURNAL   21 ( 6 ) A887 - A887  2007年04月

    研究発表ペーパー・要旨(国際会議)  

  • Ambient temperature affects skin blood flow and sweating rate in glabrous skin to mental task in humans

    HAYASHI Naoyuki, SOMEYA Nami, HIROOKA Yoshitaka

    J Physiol Sci   57 ( Supplement ) S189  2007年04月

    J-GLOBAL

  • AFTERNOON TEA

    林直亨

    日本生理学雜誌 = JOURNAL OF THE PHYSIOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN   69 ( 4 ) 167 - 168  2007年04月

    CiNii

  • Effects of femoral vascular occlusion on ventilatory responses during recovery from exercise in human

    Fukuba, Y., Kitano, A., Hayashi, N., Yoshida, T., Ueoka, H., Endo, M.Y., Miura, A.

    Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology   155 ( 1 ) 29 - 34  2007年

     概要を見る

    We investigated the effect of occluding of femoral blood flow on the post-exercise ventilatory response of both the sub- and supra-anaerobic threshold (AT) leg cycling in humans. Seven healthy subjects (aged 21-44 years) volunteered to participate in this study. The protocol consisted of 6 min constant-load upright cycling at either a sub-AT (80% of AT) or supra-AT (midway between AT and VO(2)max) work rate and a subsequent 6 min rest period either with or without femoral blood flow being occluded by a rapid cuff inflation to 250 Torr during the first 2 min of recovery. Blood lactate levels at the cessation of the sub- and supra-AT exercise averaged 1.8 +/- 0.2 and 4.9 +/- 0.4 mequiv. l(-1) (mean S.E.M.), respectively. Compared to spontaneous recovery, the circulatory occlusion significantly reduced ventilation irrespective of the intensity of the preceding exercise. The relative contribution of the ventilatory deficit to the total spontaneous ventilation (defined as the difference between the cumulative ventilation with and without cuff inflation during the first 2 min of recovery) was significantly greater supra-AT (18.0 +/- 3.9%) than sub-AT (9.3 +/- 2.9%, P &lt; 0.05). The subsequent release of occlusion was accompanied by a rapid increase in ventilation that began on the first breath after release. We concluded that the relatively greater speeding of ventilatory decline with occlusion during the first 2 min of recovery from supra-AT exercise argues against a significant role for an intramuscular chemoreflex-induced hyperpnoea. Rather, mechanisms related to the hemodynamic effects of suddenly altered muscle perfusion seem more consistent with this phenomenon. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • The limited effect of breathing frequency on blood velocity measurements in renal and superior mesenteric arteries

    Someya, N., Endo, M.Y., Fukuba, Y., Hayashi, N.

    Physiological Measurement   28 ( 11 ) 1369 - 1374  2007年

     概要を見る

    Breathing including abdominal movement could affect the blood velocity (BV) measurement in the visceral arteries. The present study investigated the effect of breathing frequency on the renal artery (RA) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) BV measurements. We measured mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and BV in the RA and SMA using the Doppler technique at different respiratory frequencies. Nine subjects performed breath- holding (&lt;40 s), and spontaneous and controlled breathings at a constant rate of 12, 15 and 20 breaths min(-1). The breathing frequency did not significantly affect the BV in either artery. The BVs at these frequencies were not significantly different from those during spontaneous breathing and breath-holding. There were no significant differences in MAP and HR among trials. This result suggests that the effect of breathing frequency adopted in this study could be neglected in the RA and SMA measurements.

    DOI

  • 精神活動に対する局所の血流応答―精神作業の種類と環境温の影響―

    林直亨, 染矢菜美, 福場良之

    生体・生理工学シンポジウム論文集   21st   493 - 496  2006年11月

    J-GLOBAL

  • Differential sympathetic outflow and vasoconstriction responses at kidney and skeletal muscles during fictive locomotion

    Koba, S., Yoshida, T., Hayashi, N.

    American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology   290 ( 2 ) H861 - H868  2006年

     概要を見る

    Differential sympathetic outflow and vasoconstriction responses at kidney and skeletal muscles during fictive locomotion. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 290: H861-H868, 2006. First published September 2, 2005; doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00640.2005.-We compared sympathetic and circulatory responses between kidney and skeletal muscles during fictive locomotion evoked by electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) in decerebrate and paralyzed rats (n = 8). Stimulation of the MLR for 30 s at 40-mu A current intensity significantly increased arterial pressure (+38 +/- 6 mmHg), triceps surae muscle blood flow (+17 +/- 3%), and both renal and lumbar sympathetic nerve activities (RSNA +113 +/- 16%, LSNA +31 +/- 7%). The stimulation also significantly decreased renal cortical blood flow (-18 +/- 6%) and both renal cortical and triceps surae muscle vascular conductances (RCVC +38 +/- 5%, TSMVC -17 +/- 3%). The sympathetic and vascular conductance changes were significantly dependent on current intensity for stimulation at 20, 30, and 40 mu A. The changes in LSNA and TSMVC were significantly less than those in RSNA and RCVC, respectively, at all current intensities. At the early stage of stimulation (0-10 s), decreases in RCVC and TSMVC were significantly correlated with increases in RSNA and LSNA, respectively. These data demonstrate that fictive locomotion induces less vasoconstriction in skeletal muscles than in kidney because of less sympathetic activation. This suggests that a neural mechanism mediated by central command contributes to blood flow distribution by evoking differential sympathetic outflow during exercise.

    DOI

  • Renal sympathetic and circulatory responses to activation of the exercise pressor reflex in rats

    Koba, S., Yoshida, T., Hayashi, N.

    Experimental Physiology   91 ( 1 ) 111 - 119  2006年

     概要を見る

    We investigated the role played by the exercise pressor reflex in sympathetic regulation of the renal circulation in rats. In mid-collicular decerebrate rats, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), left renal cortical blood flow (RCBF) and left renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) were recorded before and during 30 s of static contraction of the left triceps surae muscles evoked by electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve, which activates both metabo- and mechanosensitive muscle afferents, and during 30 s of passive stretch of the left Achilles tendon, which selectively activates mechanosensitive muscle afferents. Static contraction (n = 17, +344 +/- 34 g developed tension) significantly (P &lt; 0.05) increased MAP (+14 +/- 3 mmHg), HR (+6 +/- 1 beats min(-1)) and RSNA (n = 11, +19 +/- 5%) and significantly decreased renal cortical vascular conductance (RCVC, n = 11, -11 +/- 2%). Passive stretch (n = 20, +378 +/- 11 g) also significantly increased MAP (+11 +/- 2 mmHg), HR (+7 +/- 2 beats min(-1)) and RSNA (n = 15, +14 +/- 4%) and significantly decreased RCVC (n= 11, -12 +/- 3%). RCBF showed no significant changes during static contraction or passive stretch. Renal denervation abolished the decrease in RCVC during contraction (n = 12) or stretch (n = 13). These data indicate that both the exercise pressor reflex and its mechanically sensitive component, the muscle mechanoreflex, induced renal cortical vasoconstriction through sympathetic activation in rats.

    DOI

  • Vasoconstriction and blood flow responses in visceral arteries to mental task in humans

    Hayashi, N., Someya, N., Endo, M.Y., Miura, A., Fukuba, Y.

    Experimental Physiology   91 ( 1 ) 481 - 481  2006年

    DOI

  • Cardiovascular responses to static extension and flexion of arms and legs

    Tokizawa, K., Mizuno, M., Hayashi, N., Muraoka, I.

    European Journal of Applied Physiology   97 ( 2 ) 249 - 252  2006年

     概要を見る

    This study compared cardiovascular responses to static extension and flexion exercises at four upper and lower limb joints. Eight males performed a 2 min static contraction at 30% of maximal voluntary torque followed immediately by 2 min post-exercise muscle ischaemia (PEMI) using each of four joints: the wrist, elbow, ankle, and knee. In the PEMI, an occlusion cuff placed around the proximal portion of the exercising muscle was inflated to 250 mmHg immediately before the cessation of exercise. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), calf blood flow, and calf vascular conductance (CVC) in the non-exercised calf were measured. There was a significant interaction for direction of movement (extension vs. flexion) and limb (upper vs. lower) in HR and CVC during both exercise and PEMI; extension in the wrist and elbow evoked a greater increase in HR and a greater decrease in CVC than flexion, whereas flexion in the ankle and knee elicited a greater increase in HR and a greater decrease in CVC than extension. These results suggest that the cardiovascular responses to extension and flexion differ between arms and legs, partly arising from the activation of the muscle metaboreflex.

    DOI

  • 133.屈筋伸筋の昇圧応答特性(呼吸・循環,一般口演,第60回 日本体力医学会大会)

    時澤健, 水野正樹, 林直亨, 村岡功

    体力科學   54 ( 6 )  2005年12月

    CiNii

  • 151.精神ストレスは内臓血管抵抗の増大に部位差をもたらす(呼吸・循環,一般口演,第60回 日本体力医学会大会)

    染矢菜美, 林直亨, 遠藤雅子, 三浦朗, 福場良之

    体力科學   54 ( 6 )  2005年12月

    CiNii

  • Sympathetically induced renal vasoconstriction during stimulation of mesencephalic locomotor region in rats

    Koba, S., Yoshida, T., Hayashi, N.

    Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical   121 ( 1-2 ) A613 - A613  2005年

    DOI

  • Disuse atrophy increases the muscle mechanoreflex in rats

    Hayashi, N., Koba, S., Yoshida, T.

    Journal of Applied Physiology   99 ( 4 ) 1442 - 1445  2005年

     概要を見る

    We investigated the effect of disuse atrophy on the magnitude of the muscle mechanoreflex. The left leg of eight rats (6-7 wk, male) was put in a plaster cast for 1 wk. The rats were decerebrated at the midcollicular level. We recorded the pressor and cardioaccelerator responses to 30-s stretch of the calcaneal tendon, which selectively stimulated the muscle mechanosensitive receptors in the left atrophied and right control triceps surae muscles. Atrophied muscles showed significantly lower mass control muscles (1.0 +/- 0.1 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.1 g; P &lt; 0.05). At the same stretch tension (229 +/- 20 g), the pressor response to stretch was significantly greater in the atrophied muscles than in the control muscles (13 +/- 3 vs. 4 +/- 2 mmHg, P &lt; 0.05). The cardioaccelerator response was not significantly different (8 +/- 4 vs. 4 +/- 2 beats/min). Comparing responses at the same relative tension (57 +/- 6 vs. 51 +/- 8% of maximal tension), the pressor response was still significantly greater in the atrophied triceps surae than in the control (14 +/- 4 vs. 4 +/- 2 mmHg; P &lt; 0.05). These results suggest that disuse atrophy increases the magnitude of muscle mechanoreflex.

    DOI

  • 筋痛は運動時の昇圧応答に影響しない(呼吸・循環, 第59回日本体力医学会大会)

    林直亨, 木場智史

    体力科學   53 ( 6 )  2004年12月

    CiNii

  • 筋代謝受容器・機械受容器反射は交感神経の賦活を介して腎血管を収縮させる(呼吸・循環, 第59回日本体力医学会大会)

    木場智史, 吉田敬義, 林直亨

    体力科學   53 ( 6 )  2004年12月

    CiNii

  • 運動習慣および加齢が1日の心拍数に及ぼす影響(生活・健康, 第59回日本体力医学会大会)

    杣田真弓, 林直亨, 生田香明

    体力科學   53 ( 6 )  2004年12月

    CiNii

  • Pressor response to static and dynamic knee extensions at equivalent workload in humans

    Koba, S., Hayashi, N., Miura, A., Endo, M., Fukuba, Y., Yoshida, T.

    Japanese Journal of Physiology   54 ( 5 ) 471 - 481  2004年

     概要を見る

    Static exercise has been thought to induce greater pressor response than dynamic exercise, but in contrast it has been recently reported that repetitive muscle contraction recruiting small muscles evokes greater response than sustained contraction. It remained unknown whether sustained contraction induces greater pressor response if large muscles were recruited. Nine subjects performed three types of isometric knee extensions recruiting the large muscle group, i.e., 2-min sustained (20% and 40% maximal voluntary contraction [MVC]) and 4-min repetitive (40% MVC, duty cycle = 1:1 s) muscle contractions. Compared under the equivalent TTI and exercising duration (2 min), the changes in femoral arterial blood flow and VO2 from baseline (DeltaBF, DeltaVO(2)) were significantly less during sustained contraction than during repetitive contraction (sustained vs. repetitive; DeltaBF +92 +/- 195 vs. +1, 174 +/- 269 ml.min(-1), DeltaVO(2): +53 +/- 12 vs. +180 +/- 32 ml.min(-1), mean +/- SE, p &lt; 0.05), although the change in mean arterial pressure (DeltaMAP) was greater during sustained contraction (+24 +/- 3 vs. + 19 +/- 3 mmHg). Compared under the equivalent TTI and peak tension (40% MVC), DeltaBF and DeltaVO(2) were less and DeltaMAP was greater during sustained contraction (DeltaBF: -296 +/- 176 vs. +868 +/- 272 ml.min(-1); DeltaVO(2): +104 +/- 16 vs. + 212 +/- 46 ml.min(-1): DeltaMAP: +37 +/- 8 vs. +20 +/- 4 mmHg). Moreover DeltaMAP during postexercise occlusion of the active limb was significantly greater after sustained contraction than after repetitive contraction (+17.0 +/- 2.8 vs. +9.5 +/- 4.4 mmHg). These results demonstrated that pressor response is greater during sustained than during repetitive contraction.. recruiting a large muscle group. This finding should be mainly due to the greater accumulation of metabolites in active muscles during sustained contraction.

    DOI

  • 運動時における腎循環の神経性調節:中枢コマンドと運動昇圧反射の役割.

    木場智史, 吉田敬義, 林直亨

    第19回生体・生理工学シンポジウム論文集, 117-118    2004年

  • 368. 不動化ラットの脛骨神経刺激時における下腿三頭筋の血流量変化(呼吸・循環)

    林直亨, 吉田敬義

    体力科學   52 ( 6 )  2003年12月

    CiNii

  • Exercise pressor reflex in decerebrate and anesthetized rats

    Naoyuki Hayashi

    American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology   284 ( 6 53-6 ) H2026 - H2033  2003年06月

     概要を見る

    <jats:p> I investigated whether muscular contraction evokes cardiorespiratory increases (exercise pressor reflex) in α-chloralose- and chloral hydrate-anesthetized and precollicular, midcollicular, and postcollicular decerebrated rats. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and minute ventilation (V˙e) were recorded before and during 1-min sciatic nerve stimulation, which induced static contraction of the triceps surae muscles, and during 1-min stretch of the calcaneal tendon, which selectively stimulated mechanosensitive receptors in the muscles. Anesthetized rats showed various patterns of MAP response to both stimuli, i.e., biphasic, depressor, pressor, and no response. Sciatic nerve stimulation to muscle in precollicular decerebrated rats always evoked spontaneous running, so the exercise pressor reflex was not determined from these preparations. None of the postcollicular decerebrated rats showed a MAP response or spontaneous running. Midcollicular decerebrated rats consistently showed biphasic blood pressure response to both stimulations. The increases in MAP, HR, and V˙e were related to the tension developed. The static contractions in midcollicular decerebrated rats (381 ± 65 g developed tension) significantly increased MAP, HR, andV˙e from 103 ± 12 to 119 ± 24 mmHg, from 386 ± 30 to 406 ± 83 beats/min, and from 122 ± 7 to 133 ± 25 ml/min, respectively. After paralysis, sciatic nerve stimulation had no effect on MAP, HR, or V˙e. These results indicate that the midcollicular decerebrated rat can be a model for the study of the exercise pressor reflex. </jats:p>

    DOI

  • The Effect of Muscle Contraction Velocity on Cardiorespiratory Responses to Repetitive Isokinetic Exercise in Humans

    Hayashi, N., Koba, S., Yoshida, T.

    Japanese Journal of Physiology   53 ( 5 ) 327 - 333  2003年

     概要を見る

    We investigated the effect of muscle contraction velocity on cardiorespiratory responses during exercise. Eight males (23+/-2 years, 175+/-5cm, 64+/-6kg, mean+/-SD) performed 3-min repetitive one-leg extension exercises at various angular velocities (30, 60, 120, and 240 deg/s) with a controlled relaxation interval, relatively constant (duty cycle=1 : 1, A trial) and absolutely constant (relaxation time=0.75s, B trial) at a total work of 2,100-2,400 J in an isokinetic mode, using a Cybex 11 dynamometer. We measured heart rate (HR), mean blood pressure (MAP), minute ventilation ((V)over dotE), and oxygen uptake ((V)over dotO(2)) during the exercise. The angular velocity significantly affected the increase in HR, MAP, (V)over dotE, and (V)over dotO(2) at the end of exercise from resting in both A and B trials (e.g., MAP: 12+/-2, 10+/-2, 11+/-2, and 18+/-2 mmHg in the A trial). The result suggests that muscle contraction velocity affects cardiorespiratory responses during repetitive isokinetic exercise.

    DOI

  • 静的運動と動的運動とに対する昇圧応答の差異をもたらす機序

    第18回生体・生理工学シンポジウム論文集   75-78  2003年

  • V<inf>O2</inf> kinetics in heavy exercise is not altered by prior exercise with a different muscle group

    Fukuba, Y., Hayashi, N., Koga, S., Yoshida, T.

    Journal of Applied Physiology   92 ( 6 ) 2467 - 2474  2002年

     概要を見る

    We examined whether lactic acidemia-induced hyperemia at the onset of high-intensity leg exercise contributed to the speeding of pulmonary O-2 uptake ((V) over dot O-2) after prior heavy exercise of the same muscle group or a different muscle group (i.e., arm). Six healthy male subjects performed two protocols that consisted of two consecutive 6-min exercise bouts separated by a 6-min baseline at 0 W: 1) both bouts of heavy (work rate: 50% of lactate threshold to maximal (V) over dot O-2) leg cycling (L1-ex to L2-ex) and 2) heavy arm cranking followed by identical heavy leg cycling bout (A1-ex to A2-ex). Blood lactate concentrations before L1-ex, L2-ex, and A2-ex averaged 1.7 +/- 0.3, 5.6 +/- 0.9, and 6.7 +/- 1.4 meq/l, respectively. An "effective" time constant (tau) of (V) over dot O-2 with the use of the monoexponential model in L2-ex (tau: 36.8 +/- 4.3 s) was significantly faster than that in L1-ex (tau: 52.3 +/- 8.2 s). Warm-up arm cranking did not facilitate the (V) over dot O-2 kinetics for the following A2-ex [tau: 51.7 +/- 9.7 s]. The double-exponential model revealed no significant change of primary tau (phase II) (V) over dot O-2 kinetics. Instead, the speeding seen in the effective tau during L2-ex was mainly due to a reduction of the (V) over do O-2 slow component. Near-infrared spectroscopy indicated that the degree of hyperemia in working leg muscles was significantly higher at the onset of L2-ex than A2-ex. In conclusion, facilitation of (V) over dot O-2 kinetics during heavy exercise preceded by an intense warm-up exercise was caused principally by a reduction in the slow component, and it appears unlikely that this could be ascribed exclusively to systemic lactic acidosis.

    DOI

  • 運動時の呼吸循環系の応答に対する筋弛緩時間の影響

    木場智史, 林直亨, 三浦朗, 遠藤雅子, 福場良之, 吉田敬義

    信学技報   MBE2002-12(2002-05), 45-48 ( 89 ) 45 - 48  2002年

     概要を見る

    本研究では,運動時の筋弛緩時間の有無が呼吸循環系の応答に与える影響を検討した.7名の健常被験者が3種類の等尺性片脚膝伸展運動((1)筋弛緩時間のない2分間の20%最大随意筋収縮,(2)筋弛緩時間のない2分間の40%最大随意筋収縮,(3)筋弛緩時間がある4分間の40%最大随意筋収縮(1秒収縮1秒弛緩))をそれぞれ行った.運動負荷(力積)と運動時間が同じ場合,また運動負荷と筋力ピーク値が同じ場合の応答を比較した結果,筋弛緩時間がない試行では,筋弛緩時間がある試行よりも,運動時の酸素摂取量,脚への血流は小さく,昇圧応答は大きかった.このことから,筋弛緩時間の有無が運動時の呼吸循環系の応答に影響を与えることが示された.これは,静的・動的運動時の応答の特徴を説明するものである.

    CiNii

  • 153.呼吸運動が一回拍出量に及ぼす影響(【呼吸・循環】)

    林直亨, 吉田敬義

    体力科學   50 ( 6 )  2001年12月

    CiNii

  • 230.吸入酸素濃度の変化が運動時の筋肉Piピークの分裂に与える影響(【代謝】)

    吉田敬義, 林直亨, 福場良之

    体力科學   50 ( 6 )  2001年12月

    CiNii

  • 筋収縮タイミングの違いによる心拍リズムの変動とその要因

    林直亨, 新井野哲, 吉田敬義

    生体・生理工学シンポジウム論文集   16   237 - 240  2001年08月

    CiNii

  • Comparison of the exercise pressor reflex between forelimb and hindlimb muscles in cats

    Hayashi, N., Hayes, S.G., Kaufman, M.P.

    American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology   281 ( 4 50-4 ) R1127 - R1133  2001年

     概要を見る

    In thirteen cats anesthetized with alpha -chloralose, we compared the cardiovascular and ventilatory responses to both static contraction and tendon stretch of a hindlimb muscle group, the triceps surae, with those to contraction and stretch of a forelimb muscle group, the triceps brachii. Static contraction and stretch of both muscle groups increased mean arterial pressure and heart rate, and the responses were directly proportional to the developed tension. The cardiovascular increases, however, were significantly greater (P&lt; 0.05) when the triceps brachii muscles were contracted or stretched than when the triceps surae muscles were contracted or stretched, even when the tension developed by either maneuver was corrected for muscle weight. Likewise, the ventilatory increases were greater when the triceps brachii muscles were stretched than when the triceps surae muscles were stretched. Contraction of either muscle group did not increase ventilation. Our results suggest that in the anesthetized cat the cardiovascular responses to both static contraction and tendon stretch are greater when arising from forelimb muscles than from hindlimb muscles.

  • 筋収縮速度が呼吸循環系の応答に及ぼす影響

    木場智史, 林直亨, 吉田敬義

    信学技報   MBE2001-17 (2001-05),125-132 ( 93 ) 125 - 132  2001年

     概要を見る

    呼吸循環系の応答に対する筋収縮速度の影響を検討するため、被験者8名に同一仕事量となるような3分間の片脚伸展運動を行わせた。4種類の脚伸展速度(30〜240度/秒)と、2種類の脚屈曲(筋弛緩)時間を組み合わせて8試行行わせた。その結果、脚屈曲時間の違いに関わらず、脚伸展速度が30、240度/秒の試行での応答が大きかった。最大筋力に対する相対的仕事率は30度/秒の試行で大きく、酸素摂取量は30、240度/秒の試行で大きかった。これらのことから、応答の違いは相対的仕事率の違いに主に起因することが示唆された。また、同じ筋収縮速度でも筋弛緩時間の違いが応答に影響したことから、筋弛緩時間は呼吸循環系に影響を及ぼすことが示唆された。

    CiNii

  • 307.高強度運動時の酸素摂取経時変化に対する顔面冷却刺激の影響

    福場良之, 高橋綾, 三浦朗, 吉田敬義, 林直亨

    体力科學   48 ( 6 )  1999年12月

    CiNii

  • 運動開始時の心拍数上昇に対するセントラルコマンドの役割

    新井野哲, 林直亨, 吉田敬義

    生体・生理工学シンポジウム論文集   14   471 - 474  1999年10月

    CiNii

  • 浸水時における上肢の血液量の変化

    矢沢誠, 木村真規, 岩川孝志, 林直亨, 宮本忠吉, 村岡功, 中村好男

    体力科学   48 ( 6 )  1999年

    J-GLOBAL

  • Water immersion delays the oxygen uptake response to sitting arm-cranking in humans

    Hayashi, N., Yoshida, T.

    European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology   80 ( 2 ) 132 - 138  1999年

     概要を見る

    We investigated the effect of central hypervolaemia during water immersion up to the xiphoid process on the oxygen uptake ((V)over dot O-2) and heart rate (HR) response to arm cranking. Seven men performed a 6-min arm-cranking exercise at an intensity requiring a (V)over dot O-2 at 80% ventilatory threshold both in air [C trial, 29 (SD 9) W] and immersed in water [WI trial, 29 (SD 11) W] after 6 min of sitting. The (V)over dot O-2 (phase 2) and HR responses to exercise were obtained from a mono-exponential fit [f(t) = baseline + gain (1 - e(-(t-TD)/tau))]. The response was evaluated by the mean response time [MRT; sum of time constant (tau) and time delay (TD)]. No significant difference in (V)over dot O-2 and HR gains between the C and WI trials was observed [(V)over dot O-2 0.78 (SD 0.1) vs 0.80 (SD 0.2) l . min(-1). HR 36 (SD 7) vs 37 (SD 8) beats . min(-1), respectively]. Although the HR MRT was not significantly different between the C and WI trials [17 (SD 3), 19 (SD 8) s, respectively), (V)over dot O-2 MRT was greater in the WI trial than in the C trial [40 (SD 6), 45 (SD 6) s, respectively; P &lt; 0.05]. Assuming no difference in (V)over dot O-2 in active muscle between the two trials, these results would indicate that an increased oxygen store and/or an altered response in muscle blood distribution delayed the (V)over dot O-2 response to exercise.

    DOI

  • Impeding O<inf>2</inf> unloading in muscle delays oxygen uptake response to exercise onset in humans

    Hayashi, N., Ishihara, M., Tanaka, A., Yoshida, T.

    American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology   277 ( 5 46-5 ) R1274 - R1281  1999年

     概要を見る

    We tested whether the leftward shift of the oxygen dissociation curve of hemoglobin with hyperpnea delays the oxygen uptake ((V) over dotO(2)) response to the onset of exercise. Six male subjects performed cycle ergometer exercise at a work rate corresponding to 80% of the ventilatory threshold (VT) (V)over dotO(2) of each individual after 3 min of 20-W cycling under eupnea [control (Con) trial]. A hyperpnea procedure (minute ventilation = 60 l/min) was undertaken for 2 min before and during 80% VT exercise in hypocapnia (Hypo) and normocapnia (Normo) trials. In the Normo trial, the inspired CO2 fraction was 3% to prevent hypocapnia. The subjects completed two repetitions of each trial. To determine the kinetic variables of (V) over dotO(2) and heart rate (HR) at the onset of exercise, a nonlinear least-squares fitting was applied to the data averaged from two repetitions by a monoexponential model. The end-tidal CO2 partial pressure before the onset of exercise was significantly lower in the Hypo trial than in the Con and Normo trials (22 +/- 1 vs. 38 +/- 3 and 36 +/- 1 mmHg, respectively, P &lt; 0.05). The time constant of (V) over dotO(2) and HR was significantly longer in the Normo trial (28 +/- 7 and 39 +/- 18 s, respectively) than in the Con trial (21 +/- 7, 34 +/- 16 s, respectively, P &lt; 0.05). The (V) over dotO(2) time constant of the Hypo trial (37 +/- 12 s) was significantly longer than that of the Normo trial, although no significant difference in the HR time constant was seen (Hypo, 41 +/- 28 s). These findings suggested that respiratory alkalosis delayed the kinetics of oxygen diffusion in active muscle as a result of the left;ward shift of the oxygen dissociation curve of hemoglobin. This supports an. important role for hemoglobin-O-2 off loading in setting the (V) over barO(2) kinetics at exercise onset.

  • 13. 血中乳酸濃度増加のみでは運動開始時酸素摂取量応答は促進しない

    林直亨, 吉田敬義

    日本運動生理学雑誌   5 ( 1 )  1998年03月

    CiNii

  • Delayed vagal withdrawal slows circulatory but not oxygen uptake responses at work increase

    Hayashi, N., Tanaka, A., Ishihara, M., Yoshida, T.

    American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology   274 ( 5 43-5 ) R1268 - R1273  1998年

     概要を見る

    The effect of delayed vagal activity withdrawal on cardiorespiratory responses at an increase in workload was examined. Eleven volunteers (21 +/- 3 yr, 66 +/- 4 kg) per formed cycle ergometer exercise at a work rate corresponding to 80% of ventilatory threshold after 3 min of unloaded cycling. Facial stimulation was given by applying a vinyl bag filled with cold water (3-5 degrees C) to the face 1 min before to 1 min after the increase in workload (S2 trial) or no stimulation was given (Nr trial). Oxygen uptake (V over dot O-2), heart rate (HR), and cardiac output (Q over dot) were continuously recorded in four transitions for each trial. Data were averaged for each subject and trial. Mean response time (MRT, sum of delay and time constant) was calculated with a monoexponential fitting. Facial stimulation induced acute bradycardia (-10 +/- 5 beats/min in S2 trial). The MRT of HR and Q over dot was significantly longer in the S2 trials (46 +/- 35 and 37 +/- 23 s) than in the Nr trials (26 +/- 18 and 28 +/- 19 s, respectively), but no significant change in V over dot O-2 MRT was shown (36 +/- 7 vs. 38 +/- 12 s). These findings suggest that increased vagal activity delays the central circulatory responses, which does not alter the V over dot O-2 kinetics at the onset of stepwise increase in workload. The maintenance of V over dot O-2 kinetics during acute bradycardia may either reflect the fact that some intramuscular processes (such as oxidative enzyme inertia) limit V over dot O-2 kinetics or alternatively that increased sympathetic vasoconstriction at some remote site defends exercising muscle blood flow.

  • 575.呼吸性アルカローシスによる酸素摂取量応答の遅延

    石原睦久, 林直亨, 吉田敬義

    体力科學   46 ( 6 )  1997年12月

    CiNii

  • 574.ステップ負荷運動入力に対する酸素摂取量応答に影響する因子

    林直亨, 吉田敬義

    体力科學   46 ( 6 )  1997年12月

    CiNii

  • 運動開始時における迷走神経活動抑制の遅れが呼吸循環応答に及ぼす影響

    林直亨, 吉田敬義

    日本体育学会大会号   ( 48 )  1997年08月

    CiNii

  • 68. 運動開発時における筋での脱酸素化ヘモグロビンの動態

    林直亨, 吉田敬義

    日本運動生理学雑誌   4 ( 1 )  1997年01月

    CiNii

  • Little effect of endurance training on heart rate and heart rate variability at sitting rest

    Advance in Exercise and Sports physiology   3 ( 1 ) 17 - 22  1997年

  • Face immersion increases vagal activity as assessed by heart rate variability

    Hayashi, N., Ishihara, M., Tanaka, A., Osumi, T., Yoshida, T.

    European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology   76 ( 5 ) 394 - 399  1997年

     概要を見る

    We examined whether the diving reflex without breath-holding (face immersion alone) increases vagal activity, as determined by heart rate variability. A group of 15 men [mean age 20 (SD 3) stars, height 172 (SD 5) cm, body mass 68 (SD 9) kg] performed 12 trials tit various breathing frequencies (5 10, 15, 20, 30 breaths.min(-1) and uncontrolled breath) with or without face immersion. The R-R intervals of the ECG and gas exchange variables were recorded during the 2 min of each trial. The subjects immersed their faces in 8-10 degrees C water while breathing through a, short snorkel. The subject sat in the same position either with or without face immersion, The mean R-R interval (RRmean), standard deviations (SDRR) and coefficient of variance (CVRR) Of the R-R interval were calculated from the R-R intervals during 30-120 s. The face immersion significantly increased SDRR and CVRR (P &lt;0.05), and increased RRmean (P &lt; 0.05) at 20 breaths min Face immersion itself had no effect on oxygen uptake, tidal volume, end-tidal O-2 and CO2 partial pressures. The diving reflex without breath-holding increased the heart rate variability, indicating that face Immersion alone increases vagal activity.

    DOI

  • 102.体格・体力・ライフスタイルからみた骨密度影響因子の検討

    武田ひとみ, 中林朋子, 林直亨, 吉田敬義, 広田孝子

    体力科學   45 ( 6 )  1996年12月

    CiNii

  • 70.繰り返し運動時における筋のDeoxy-(Hb+Mb)動態

    林直亨, 吉田敬義

    体力科學   45 ( 6 )  1996年12月

    CiNii

  • O2 kineticsの基礎(共著)

    理学療法ジャーナル   30 ( 1 ) 5 - 11  1996年

    DOI

  • 持久的トレーニングが安静時の心拍数および自律神経活動に及ぼす影響

    心臓リハビリテーション   1 ( 1 ) 139 - 144  1996年

  • Effect of Exercise Intensity on Autonomic Nervous System Activity during And After Acute Exercises

    Naoyuki Hayashi, Yoshio Nakamura, Isao Muraoka

    Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine   44 ( 2 ) 279 - 286  1995年

     概要を見る

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on the recovery of autonomic nervous activity after exercise. Ten subjects performed four kinds of 10–min cycle exercise with target heart rates of 100, 120, 140, and 160beats/min (THR 100, THR 120, THR 140 and THR 160, respectively) following 5 min of exercise to increase the heart rate to the target level. The beat-by-beat variability of the R–R interval was recorded throughout the experiment including the 5-min pre-exercise control period and the 30-min recovery period. Spectral analysis (fast Fourier transform) was applied to every 5-min R-R interval data set before, during (5 —10 min) and after exercise at the target heart rate. The low- (0.05 ∼ 0.15 Hz : P1) and high- (0.15 ∼ 1.0 Hz : Ph) frequency areas were calculated to evaluate sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic (PNS) nervous activities as P1/Ph and Ph, respectively. During exercise, SNS of THR 160 was significantly higher, and PNS of THR 140 and THR 160 was significantly lower than the respective pre-exercise values (p&lt
    0.05). Although all indicators recovered to, or overshot the pre-exercise values at 20∼30 min after THR 100 and THR 120, heart rate and SNS were still higher and PNS was still lower than the pre-exercise value after THR 160. These results suggest that the recovery of cardiac autonomic nervous activity is slower after high-intensity exercise than after low-intensity exercise, and that the recovery of autonomic nervous activity after acute exercise does not always corrrespond linearly on the exercise intensity. © 1995, The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Effect of physical training on autonomic nervous system

    Nakamura, Y., Hayashi, N., Muraoka, I.

    Bulletin of the Physical Fitness Research Institute   ( 88 ) 65 - 73  1995年

  • 身体トレーニングが自律神経系機構に与える効果

    体力研究   ( 88 ) 65 - 73  1995年

  • Autonomic requlation after submaximal exercise studied by heart rate variability

        35 - 40  1993年

  • 心拍数の神経性調節および心拍変動の定量的意義(共著)

      12 ( 8 ) 489 - 493  1993年

  • 心拍変動からみた運動後自律神経応答におよぼす加齢の影響(共著)

    東京体育学研究     35 - 40  1993年

  • Cardiac autonomic regulation after moderate and exhaustive exercises.

    Hayashi, N., Nakamura, Y., Muraoka, I.

    The Annals of physiological anthropology = Seiri Jinruigaku Kenkyūkai kaishi   11 ( 3 ) 333 - 338  1992年

    DOI

  • 運動強度と心拍変動回復動態との関係

    林直亨

    日本体育学会41回大会講演要旨, 1990   295  1990年

    CiNii

▼全件表示

Works(作品等)

  • Lifespan of Japanese traditional artists, https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/S9UUYJ, Harvard Dataverse, V1

    Hayashi, Naoyuki, Kezuka, Kazuhiro  データベース 

    2018年07月
    -
    継続中

その他

  • Lifespan of Japanese traditional artists

    2020年04月
    -
     

     概要を見る

    doi:10.7910/DVN/S9UUYJ
    We collected the birth date or both the birth and death dates of males in a personal-names dictionary and official webpage for Japanese traditional arts events (Kabuki, Sado, Rakugo, Nagauta and Noh), and for the Imperial Family (Emperor family members) and families positioned to accede to the shogunate (Shogun family members) among those who were born after 1700 AD.

受賞

  • 令和元年度東工大教育賞

    2021年03月   東京工業大学   大学院生と学士課程学生の学び合いを実現するカリキュラムデザインと実践  

    受賞者: 室田真男, 林直亨, 小泉勇人

  • 平成30年度東工大教育賞優秀賞

    2020年03月   東京工業大学   将来へ向けて学びを見つめ直す「教養卒論」の教育  

    受賞者: 林 直亨(代表)

  • 平成29年度東工大教育賞優秀賞

    2019年02月   東京工業大学   東工大生の個性を伸ばす「リーダーシップ道場」の教育内容と方法  

    受賞者: 代表 林 直亨:他3名と共同

  • 研究助成優秀賞

    2017年04月   第42回一般財団法人日本健康開発財団  

    受賞者: 林 直亨

  • 平成27年度東工大教育賞優秀賞

    2017年03月   東京工業大学   リベラルアーツ新カリキュラムにおけるコア学修プログラムの開発  

    受賞者: 伊藤亜沙(代表)

  • 研究発表奨励賞

    2011年11月   やずや食と健康研究所  

    受賞者: 林 直亨

  • 大学体育奨励賞

    2010年03月   (社)全国大学体育連合  

    受賞者: 林 直亨

  • 第1回奨励賞

    2008年09月   呼吸研究会  

    受賞者: 林 直亨

▼全件表示

共同研究・競争的資金等の研究課題

  • 眼底循環に及ぼす加齢の影響と運動習慣に伴う予防効果の検討

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(C)

    研究期間:

    2021年04月
    -
    2024年03月
     

    林 直亨

  • 大学院生を対象にしたリーダーシップ教育の効果検証

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(C)

    研究期間:

    2020年04月
    -
    2023年03月
     

    上田 紀行, 林 直亨, 室田 真男, 中野 民夫, 岡田 佐織

  • 動脈血管内皮機能の新たな測定評価手法の開発とその応用

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(C)

    研究期間:

    2020年04月
    -
    2023年03月
     

    福場 良之, 山岡 雅子, 鍛島 秀明, 林 直亨

  • 運動による抗動脈硬化作用:全身への波及メカニズムの解明とその応用

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(C)

    研究期間:

    2017年04月
    -
    2021年03月
     

    福場 良之, 山岡 雅子, 鍛島 秀明, 宮地 元彦, 林 直亨

     概要を見る

    2年間の研究成果から,本年度は,上下肢を入れ替え,下腿部皮膚への温熱刺激の影響を検討した。下肢への伝導血管は浅大腿動脈(SFA)と大腿深動脈(PFA)で構成されているので,両血管のシェアストレス(SS)を分けて観察した。若年の成人男女9名が,30分間の仰臥位安静後,片脚の下腿を42℃の水に(加温肢),反対側の下腿を対照として30℃の水に30分間浸漬した。1試行を通して,SFAあるいはPFAのいずれか一方の血流速度および血管径を,超音波ドップラー法を用いて測定し,SSの指標であるシェアレート(SR)を算出した。試行中を通して,両下腿の皮膚血流を連続的に測定した。脚の浸水中,下腿の皮膚血流は加温肢では著しく増大した。SFAの血管径およびSRは,加温肢のみで著しく増大した。PFAの血管径およびSRは,両肢で変化しなかった。従って,下腿への加温によるSSの増大は,下腿の組織へ血液を供給する血管でのみ生じることが示唆された。また,大腿動脈血管内皮機能を血流依存性血管拡張反応(%FMD)で評価しようと試みたが,カフ解放直後の画像描画が,通常の上腕動脈血管の場合と比較して,その動きが不規則で激しく描画が困難であり,うまく施行できなかった。この点は将来への課題である。
    下肢による一般的な運動トレーニングが非運動肢の上腕動脈の血管内皮機能へ与える効果についての実験も当初の予定通りに行った。被験者をトレーニング(T)群と対照(C)群にランダムに分けた。トレーニングは,脚自転車運動(心拍数:約130bm相当強度)を60分,週3回の頻度で4週間継続した。介入前後に血管内皮機能の評価を行った。T群では,peakVO2は有意な増加したが,%FMDは増加傾向ではあったものの統計的に有意ではなかった。C群ではいずれの測定項目でも有意な変化はなかった。

  • イメージトレーニング中の得手・不得手場面を顔面皮膚血流の反応から抽出する試み

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 挑戦的萌芽研究

    研究期間:

    2016年04月
    -
    2018年03月
     

    林 直亨, 正木 宏明

     概要を見る

    顔面の皮膚血流が,味覚などの情動に伴って変化する.顔面の皮膚血流の反応からスポーツ動作イメージ中の不安場面を抽出することが可能であると予想した.バレーボール選手に1人称および3人称で,アンダーハンドおよびフローターのサーブ動作をイメージさせた際の顔面の皮膚血流を計測した.被験者が動作イメージを鮮明に得られた場合には,瞼部の血流増加反応が大きかった.この反応が他のスポーツの動作でも得られるのか,またスポーツの習熟に応じて増加反応が顕著になるのかについて検討すれば,動作イメージ時の顔面皮膚血流応答の記録から,得手・不得手場面を抽出することが可能になると考えられる.

  • 顔面皮膚血流を用いた情動と味覚の判別手法の開発

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(B)

    研究期間:

    2014年04月
    -
    2017年03月
     

    林 直亨, 福場 良之, 鍛島 秀明

     概要を見る

    我々は,おいしいと感じると瞼の血流が増加し,まずいと感じると鼻の血流が低下することを報告した.顔面血流から味覚を容易に判別することが可能かを検討するために,男女89名を対象に,おいしい飴とまずい飴をなめた際の顔面皮膚血流を簡易的に記録した.特異的な変化はなく,いわゆる実験環境以外で味覚を判別するのは困難であった.次に,皮膚血流に部位差が表れる要因を解明するため,顔に温度刺激を与えた.頬,額では,温度変化に伴い血流が変化した一方,瞼では温熱に伴う血流増加はなく,鼻でも冷却に伴う血流減少はなかった.顔面皮膚血流の特異的応答は,血管の拡張・収縮の容易さではなく,神経性因子によるものと示唆された.

  • 運動時呼吸循環機能の統合的調節機構の解明 -上・下肢によるサイン波運動を用いて-

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(C)

    研究期間:

    2014年04月
    -
    2017年03月
     

    福場 良之, 福岡 義之, 山岡 雅子, 古賀 俊策, 林 直亨

     概要を見る

    上肢・下肢単独運動と,両者を組み合わせた上下肢同時運動を,サイン波・ステップ負荷の2つの運動様式で組み合わせ,呼吸循環系応答を検討した。結果は,最大下の運動である限り,上下肢同時運動の応答は,基本的には,上・下肢の単独運動での応答を加算した関係にあることがわかった。次に,下肢サイン波状運動時の呼吸循環系応答特性を,特に脳と非運動肢への血流調節に注目して検討した。その結果,両血流応答共にサイン波状応答は示すものの,脳血流はほぼ一定に維持されていたのに対して,上肢への血流は大きな振幅を伴う逆位相応答が認められ,筋血流も含め他の部位,臓器への血流配分とは異なる調節を受けていることがわかった。

  • スマートフォンを用いて動脈硬化を評価する試み

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 挑戦的萌芽研究

    研究期間:

    2014年04月
    -
    2016年03月
     

    林 直亨, 高安 美佐子

     概要を見る

    眼底は,身体内で唯一非侵襲的に直接観察可能な動脈・血管を含んでいる.本研究では,簡便に眼底の血管や血流を記録して,血管の硬化を判定する手法を探索した.スマートフォンを用いる最も簡易な解析は困難であることが分かった.一方,レーザースペックル血流計を用いて眼底血管を撮影し,血流波形を解析したところ,加齢に伴い血流波形が変化することが示された.また,動脈硬化の標準的な指標である頸動脈内膜中膜複合体厚との相関関係も観察された.これらのことから,眼底の血流を記録することによって,加齢に伴う血管の硬化が判定できる可能性が示唆された.

  • 大学生におけるメンタルヘルスと発達障害傾向についての大規模調査と継続的支援の試み

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 挑戦的萌芽研究

    研究期間:

    2013年04月
    -
    2015年03月
     

    松下 智子, 一宮 厚, 福盛 英明, 熊谷 秋三, 眞崎 義憲, 高柳 茂美, 林 直享, 梶谷 康介, 池永 恵美, 小田 真二

     概要を見る

    本研究で作成した発達的修学困難チェックシートなどの簡便なチェックシートを、大学入学時に用いることが、発達障害傾向を有する学生への支援の糸口になる可能性が示唆された。特に、保護者の回答や相談希望の有無は、非常に重要であることが分かった。発達的修学困難チェックシートの高得点者では、ストレスを感じやすく不規則な生活になりやすいものの、発達障害傾向は大学での低単位や退学等の問題に直接的には影響していないことが明らかとなった。また、チェックシートの得点には、発達障害傾向だけでなく不安や自信なさが影響している場合や、低得点者でも発達障害を有する場合もあり、質問紙だけでは把握できない部分があることが伺えた。

  • 顔の皮膚血流変化からヒトの情動をセンシングする試み

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 挑戦的萌芽研究

    研究期間:

    2012年04月
    -
    2014年03月
     

    林 直亨, 福場 良之

     概要を見る

    顔や顔色には様々な情動に関連した変化が予想される.そこで,顔の皮膚血流にも情動に特異的な変化があるという仮説を検証した.幸福,悲しみ,恐怖,驚き,怒りを起こすビデオを視聴した際の顔面皮膚血流を計測したものの,特異的な皮膚血流の変化を示す部位はなかったことから,顔面皮膚血流から情動をとらえることは現段階では困難であることが推察された.今後強い情動を起こすような手段を用いた検討が必要かもしれない.

  • 大学生の身体活動記録からうつを診断する試み―大規模前向き調査による検証―

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 挑戦的萌芽研究

    研究期間:

    2012年04月
    -
    2014年03月
     

    一宮 厚, 熊谷 秋三, 林 直亨, 中村 亨, 山本 義春

     概要を見る

    本研究では,活動のパターンから大学生の気分障害の程度を判定することが可能であるかについて検討することを目的とした.
    まず,市販され標準的に利用されている活動量計を研究に利用できるかを検討するために,比較的安価なO社製のデバイスを腰につけ,比較のために高価なA社製のアクチグラフを非利き腕につけた1~2日間にわたる同時計測を,学生6名に実施した.両デバイスの日中のデータの単相関は低かった.このことから,O社のデバイスによって日中の不活動を計測することは困難であると判断した.そこで,当初行うことにしていた比較的安価な活動量計を用いた大規模前向き調査を行うことは中止することとした.

  • 昼食後の短時間仮眠がその後の運動パフォーマンスに与える効果に関する研究

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 挑戦的萌芽研究

    研究期間:

    2011年
    -
    2013年
     

    福場 良之, 辻 敏夫, 林 直亨, 三浦 朗, 山岡 雅子

     概要を見る

    昼食後の眠気による作業効率低下対策として知られている短時間仮眠が,その後の運動パフォーマンスやそれを支える基礎的な生理機能に与える効果について,包括的かつ実践的な検討を行った。結果として,1)昼食後に睡眠ステージ2までの浅い短時間仮眠(napと呼ばれ,10-20分程度)をとると,覚醒したまま安静で過ごすよりも,スポーツ競技時に必要と想定される脳の情報処理能力や視力に正の効果がありそうであること,2)昼食後に睡眠ステージ4まで含む1時間程度のより深い仮眠をとると,安静やnapをとる過ごし方よりも,無酸素性最大発揮パワーに正の効果がありそうであること,の2点が示唆された。

  • 新たなヒト有酸素性作業能力評価方法の開発

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(B)

    研究期間:

    2009年
    -
    2011年
     

    福場 良之, 古賀 俊策, 福岡 義之, 林 直亨, 狩野 豊, 三浦 朗, 山岡 雅子

     概要を見る

    本研究の目的は,ヒトの身体活動を支える有酸素性作業能力評価のための運動テストにおける,新たな負荷方法を検討し,開発することであった。結果として2つの新たな負荷方法が提案された。1)日常の身体活動を模したような,非定常状態の連続であるサイン波状に運動負荷が変動する運動を用いる方法, 2)指数関数的に負荷が漸増する運動を用いる方法,であった。特にサイン波状負荷運動テストについては,基礎的ならびに実用的な視点から詳細な検討を加え,新たな具体的手法が提案された。

  • 運動選手が風邪を引きやすい理由の解明

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 挑戦的萌芽研究

    研究期間:

    2009年
    -
    2010年
     

    林 直亨, 永富 良一

     概要を見る

    運動選手は風邪を引きやすいと言われるように,いわゆる行動体力の高い運動選手や活動的な学生の上気道感染率は高い.この状況を免疫で説明することは難しい.むしろ,長期的にはトレーニング実施による防衛体力の向上があったとしても,低温環境下での身体運動という環境への暴露の増加が感染リスクを高めていると予想される.運動選手に風邪の罹患が多いことが,トレーニング時の上気道の血流量低下と関連するとの仮説を検証するために,運動時および運動後に上気道部の血流が低下するかどうかについて検討した.
    昨年度は,心拍数100~140拍/分相当強度の自転車エルゴメータ運動時には上気道部の血流はほとんど変化しないことを観察したことから,今年度は疲労困憊に至る強度での運動時の上気道部の血流を観察した.健常成人男女11名に,自転車エルゴメータ運動を疲労困憊にいたるまで行わせた.運動前および運動終了5分,10分後の上気道部の血流をレーザースペックルフローグラフィーを用いて,計測した.その結果,上気道部の血流は運動前値と比較して,運動終了後10分後まですることはなかった.このことから,本研究では血流減少と上気道感染との関連は明示されなかった.
    補足的ではあるが,舌部では120, 140拍/分強度の運動時に観察されたのと同様に,高強度運動後にも血流低下が観察されたことを追記しておく.
    本研究の限界としては,高強度運動時に上気道部の血流を観察することが極めて困難であるため,運動後の観察にとどまる点,また呼吸に伴う気道部温度の影響も微弱ではあるものの観察された.

  • 唾液中アミラーゼを指標としたストレス評価とストレスマネジメントへの応用

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(C)

    研究期間:

    2008年
    -
    2010年
     

    入江 正洋, 林 直亨

     概要を見る

    唾液αアミラーゼ活性を用いたストレス評価の有用性を明らかにするために、大学生と事務系企業社員を対象として、種々のストレス負荷やリラクセーションの際の変動、入社後の変化や日常の職業性ストレスとの関係、職業生活における長期的な個人内変動などの観点から、唾液αアミラーゼ活性について検討した。厳密な安静や頻回な測定などの条件下では、唾液αアミラーゼ活性とストレスとの関連が認められた。しかし、測定値の個人差が大きく、個人内変動も少なくないことが問題であり、横断的調査よりも縦断的調査のストレス評価指標とする方が妥当と考えられた。

  • 運動時の眼底血流調節

    研究期間:

    2008年
    -
     
     

  • 運動パフォーマンスに果たす感覚入力の役割

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 萌芽研究

    研究期間:

    2007年
    -
    2008年
     

    福場 良之, 林 直亨, 三浦 朗, 福岡 義之, 青木 朋子, 遠藤 雅子

     概要を見る

    運動強度が徐々に漸増し疲労困憊に至るランプ負荷運動を課し,運動に対する中枢の関与を傍証する目的で,運動中は,定期的な時間間隔で痛み閾値を測定する実験をまず実施した。運動中を通して温熱刺激に対する痛み閾値を1分毎に調べた。併せて交感神経出力の指標として瞳孔径も測定した。その結果,安静時に比較して,ランプ負荷運動中,有意な差異を認められなかったが,瞳孔径はAT付近の運動強度を境に増大した。この実験の結果を,研究への協力ならびに助言者として来日いただいた,Dr. B. J. Whipp(英国・Leeds大学)と協議し,運動強度と時間の組み合わせを考慮する必要性,また知覚系の測定も行う必要性が認識されたので,次の実験を計画した。3段階の運動強度(低・中・高強度)での一定負荷運動で,それぞれのエネルギー消費がほぼ等しくなるような運動時間を設定し,運動中と後で,電気刺激に対する知覚ならびに痛みを感じる閾値と脳の情報処理能力(カラーワードコンフリクトテスト:CWCT)を測定し,運動前と比較した。知覚感覚閾値はすべての運動強度で,運動中,有意に低下した。さらに中・高強度運動では,運動直後もその状態が継続した。痛み感覚閾値は,中・高強度運動で同様に,運動中に有意な低下を示し,運動直後も継続した。情報処理能力は必ずしも仮説に反して,CWCTの正答率が運動強度による違い(影響)は特に認められなかった。これらの結果は,運動強度が増大するにつれて,上位脳の活動が運動に占有されてくる度合いが大きくなり,痛みの処理までできなくなるという仮説は支持するものであったが,このことと上位脳の情報処理能力への影響は必ずしも同じように起こるというわけではなく,脳の有する複雑さと,今後のさらなる研究の必要性を示した。

  • 唾液の粘度を用いた無酸素性作業閾値の簡易推定法の開発

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 萌芽研究

    研究期間:

    2007年
     
     
     

    林 直亨, 福場 良之, 丸山 徹

     概要を見る

    本研究は、唾液の粘度が運動強度に伴って高くなるのか、唾液の粘度には変曲点があるのか、あるとしたらそれは無酸素性作業閾値(AT)と関連するのか、について明らかにすることを目的とした。被験者14名(内女性3名)に3分毎に40W(女性では30W)ずつ負荷が増加する自転車エルゴメータ運動を行わせた。各負荷段階の最後の2分間に唾液を採取し、その粘度を計測した。別の日に、ランプ負荷試験を行わせ、その際のガス分析結果よりATを判定した。スピンドル回転数60rpmで計測した唾液粘度は安静時に3.0±0.2cPだったものが、強度の増加とともに減少を示し、ATよりも56±4W低い強度において2.38±0.1cPの最低値を示した(p<0.05)。AT近辺の強度においても安静値よりも有意に低い2.4cP台を示したが、ATを58±4W超えた時点では3.0±0.2cPを示し、安静値と有意差を示さなかった。最大運動強度時には2.71±0.2cPを示し、安静値と有意差はなかった。唾液粘度は運動強度に対してU字状のカーブを描いたので、全被験者の変曲点を14名の被験者全員に判定させた。ところが、これはガス分析の結果から求めたATと関連しておらず、唾液粘度からATを予想することは難しいことが明らかになった。本研究結果は唾液粘度が運動強度に対してU字状に変化することを示した。また、最大運動時であっても、唾液粘度は安静値と差がないことを示した。交感神経活動が唾液粘度を増加させる、というこれまでの予想は、運動時には適応できないことが示唆された。

  • ヒト有酸素性作業能力評価指標の開発に関する共同研究のための企画調査

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(C)

    研究期間:

    2006年
     
     
     

    福場 良之, 福岡 義之, 三浦 朗, 林 直亨, 佐藤 広徳, 遠藤 雅子

     概要を見る

    有酸素性作業能力(AWC)は,ヒトの日常の身体活動遂行能力である。生理人類学の立場から,それに支える生体内の諸機能やそれら相互の連関といった生理的メカニズムの解明と,その結果に基づいた今日的な諸問題解決を念頭においた新たなAWC評価手法の開発が課題としてあげられる。そこで本企画調査では,関連する海外の専門家を招請して,AWC評価指標の現状を,その生理的メカニズムと実際のAWC評価を目的とした運動負荷試験方法(特に負荷様式)の観点の両者から,次年度の共同研究立案を念頭に議論した。具体的な招請研究者として,7月に運動時循環調節の立場からDr.P.Fadel (USA・Missouri大)と運動時自律神経制御の立場からDr.S.Koba (USA・Pennsylvania大)を,8-9月に運動時骨格筋バイオエナジェテクスの立場からDr.H.Rossiter (UK・Leeds大)を,12月に運動時換気調節の立場からDr.J.Mateika (USA・Wayne State大)と運動負荷試験の数理解析の立場からDr.H.Morton (NZ・Massey大)をそれぞれ招請し,分担研究者や研究協力者を交えて活発な議論を重ねた。その結果,運動負荷試験方法としては,日常での身体活動に重要な動的特性を反映したサイン波状負荷変動の運動負荷試験によるAWC評価法が優れていること,ならびに高齢者や体力の弱い対象者(実際に生理人類学領域の調査研究が必要とされる集団)にとって,ATやVO2maxといったこれまでの調査成果と比較できる静的な指標を捉えるためには,現在のランプ負荷より指数関数型負荷の方が有用であることの2点がコンセンサスとしてえられた。最終的に,本研究を具体的に遂行するにあたり,新たな共同研究者を加え,来年度から2年間に及ぶ科学研究費補助金・基盤研究(B)を申請するに至った。

  • 運動のストレス解消効果は低次脳機能にも及ぶのか -延髄の循環調節から-

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 若手研究(B)

    研究期間:

    2005年
    -
    2006年
     

    林 直亨

     概要を見る

    運動が精神ストレスを軽減させるのに有効であることが知られている.生理的な知見として,運動が血圧を低下させるという報告は多いものの,メカニズムについては明らかではない.今年度は,短期の精神ストレスが起こす高血圧が運動によって軽減されるメカニズムを探るために,精神作業を行った後に運動を行わせ,それによる血圧低減効果が圧反射の機能変化によってもたらされるという仮説を検証した.圧反射は,頸動脈および大動脈弓にある圧受容器に対する動脈圧変化を入力として,延髄内で処理された情報を,自律神経を介して出力する反射系である.したがって,圧反射の短期間の機能変化は延髄の機能変化と捉えられる.【方法】9名の被験者にカラーワードテストを4分間行わせた.CWT試行(対照実験)では,その後8分間の安静を保たせた.一方,CX試行では精神作業の後4分間25Wの自転車運動を行わせた後に,8分間の安静を保たせた.圧反射を評価するため,新たに作成した頸部圧刺激装置によって圧受容器に20mmHgを負荷した.圧受容器周辺の血管は伸展の程度を抑制されるので,実際の血圧よりも低圧を感知し,心拍数が増加する.この心拍数の増加量より圧反射の機能を評価した.【結果と考察】精神作業は心拍数と血圧を増加させた.頸部の加圧に対する心拍数の増加幅は,精神作業によって初期値から増加した.精神作業8分後までの平均血圧の最低値が出現した際の各変量を求めた.CWT試行では平均血圧の最低値と初期値との間に有意差はなかった.一方,CX試行では初期値よりも4±3mmHg有意に減少していた.この際,頸部の加圧による心拍数の増加幅はCWT試行では初期値と有意差がなかった.一方,CX試行では,初期値から有意に減少した.これらの結果から,精神ストレス後における短時間の低強度運動が昇圧を減少させ,その背後には圧反射の機能変容があることが示唆された.

  • 身体システムとしての運動時換気亢進メカニズムの解明

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(C)

    研究期間:

    2004年
    -
    2006年
     

    福場 良之, 三浦 朗, 西保 岳, 林 直亨, 遠藤 雅子

     概要を見る

    近年,主に動物実験に基づいて,従来は運動時循環系調節でその重要性が指摘される筋内化学受容器に加えて,血管壁への機械的な刺激を介した血液還流状態などの筋内機械受容器情報が,運動時の換気亢進に寄与する可能性が示唆されている。そこで本研究では,この仮説について,ヒト運動時を対象に実験的な証拠を提出することを目的として,以下に述べるような実験を行い,その検証を試みた。1:運動終了直後の回復期に焦点をあて,運動肢に持続的あるいはリズミックな圧迫刺激を与えることで筋機械受容器を刺激し,その時の換気応答を観察した,2:水平位のチルト台上での運動終了時にあわせてすばやく姿勢を立位に変化させることによって下肢の特に静脈系へ血液貯留を起こすプロトコールを行って,その時の換気応答を観察した,3:運動開始前に過換気を行い運動肢内の末梢血管収縮を起こした条件のもとで運動を開始し,その際に観察される換気亢進抑制が,運動肢内の血液環流低下と関連したものか否かを検討した。これら一連の実験結果は,一部のデータは仮説を支持し,一部は逆に支持しないという相反したものであった。本研究の仮説にはさらなる実験的な検討が必要であるが,もしも実証されれば,そのシステム特性への理解が進み,運動時の循環調節の研究者にも大きなインパクトをもつと思われる。さらに,運動に直接かかわっている筋内の血流還流状態の程度や筋収縮の程度を機械的な情報としてモニタし,それと換気亢進が連関しているという考え方は合目的で理解しやすく運動時の生体調節機構解明という身体システム科学の中の1つの研究領域に,新たな展開を促す引き金になると予想される。

  • 精神ストレス負荷時の血流応答

    研究期間:

    2005年
    -
     
     

  • 不活動による筋の萎縮が筋内情報を介した昇圧応答に与える影響

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 若手研究(B)

    研究期間:

    2003年
    -
    2004年
     

    林 直亨

     概要を見る

    不活動期間後には,同一運動負荷に対する昇圧応答が減少するが,それを起こすメカニズムは明らかではない.運動時には,運動を開始させる中枢からの情報(セントラルコマンド)と筋からの情報(運動昇圧反射)との2つの神経入力が交感神経性の循環応答を起こす.本研究では,不活動による筋の萎縮によって,活動筋から惹起する運動昇圧反射が減弱し,その結果運動時の昇圧応答が減少する,という仮説を検討した.
    ラット(7〜8週齢,オス)の左脚を1週間ギプス固定した.その後,麻酔下にて動静脈および気道にカテーテルを導入し,左右の下腿三頭筋を露出した後,除脳した.筋の機械受容器を刺激して運動昇圧反射を起こすため,30秒間下腿三頭筋を伸張した.ギプス固定した左脚の筋重量は1.0±0.1g(平均±SE)であり,対照の右脚の1.4±0.1gよりも有意に小さい値であった.筋の伸張(229±20g)は,萎縮脚では13±3mmHgの昇圧を起こし,これは対照脚の4±2mmHgよりも有意に大きいものであった。刺激の大きさを下腿三頭筋の重量で除して,相対的に等しい張力に対する応答を比較しても,萎縮脚刺激による応答は,対照脚のそれよりも有意に大きいものであった.このことから,廃用性萎縮が機械受容器を介する運動昇圧反射の大きさを大きくすることが明らかになった.したがって,機械受容器を介した運動昇圧反射は,不活動期間後に見られる昇圧応答の減少を説明できないものと結論された.
    また,本研究ではラットの腎臓交感神経活動を記録した.セントラルコマンドおよび昇圧反射を入力した際には,血圧および心拍数の増加と同時に腎臓交感神経活動の増加が見られた.また,これは腎血流の減少を伴っていた.上記ラットでもこれらの計測を試みたが,ギプス固定の影響か,ラットの状態が悪化してしまい,残念ながら良好な記録を得ることが困難であった.

  • Blood flow/distribution responses to mental task

  • Regulation of circulatory system dnring exercise.

  • Kinetics of oxygen uptake at the onset of exercise

  • Effect of Respriration Pattern on Heart Rate Variability

  • 運動時・精神ストレス時の脳血流調節

  • 運動や食事に対する唾液・食欲の変化

  • 運動時の循環の神経性調節

  • 運動時の循環調整

  • 運動開始時の酸素摂取量の動態

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    計測自動制御学会ライフエンジニアリング部門運営委員会  副部門長

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    PLOS One  Academic Editor

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    研究内容(Hamada Y, Kashima H and Hayashi N. Obesity 2013)の報道  

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