JUNGHEIM Owen Nicholas (ユングハイム ニコラス オーエン)

写真a

所属

文学学術院

職名

名誉教授

ホームページ

http://www.f.waseda.jp/jungheim/gyouseki/

学歴 【 表示 / 非表示

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    1995年

    テンプル大学ジャパン   教育学研究科   第二言語習得  

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    1995年

    Temple University, Japan   Graduate School, Division of Education   Second Language Acquisition  

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    1989年

    テンプル大学、ジャパン   教育学研究科   英語教育  

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    1989年

    Temple University, Japan   Graduate School, Division of Education   Teaching of English to Speakers of Other Languages  

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    1975年

    上智大学   国際部   歴史  

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学位 【 表示 / 非表示

  • テンプル大学ジャパン   教育修士

  • テンプル大学ジャパン   教育学博士

経歴 【 表示 / 非表示

  • 2002年
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    継続中

    早稲田大学文学部教授

  • 2002年
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    継続中

    Waseda University School of Letters Arts and Sciences, professor

  • 1996年
    -
    2002年

    青山学院大学法学部教授

  • 1996年
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    2002年

    青山学院大学

  • 1979年
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    1996年

    流通経済大学助教授

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所属学協会 【 表示 / 非表示

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    大学英語教育学会

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    全国語学教育学会

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    Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL)

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    American Association for Applied Linguistics (AAAL)

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    International Society for Gesture Studies

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研究キーワード 【 表示 / 非表示

  • 第二言語習得

  • Second Language Acquisition

書籍等出版物 【 表示 / 非表示

  • The unspoken aspect of communicative competence: Evaluating the nonverbal ability of language learners in Japan. In T. Hudson & J. D. Brown, (Eds.). A focus on language test development: Expanding the language proficiency construct across a variety of ・・・

    University of Hawaii  2001年

     概要を見る

    The unspoken aspect of communicative competence: Evaluating the nonverbal ability of language learners in Japan. In T. Hudson & J. D. Brown, (Eds.). A focus on language test development: Expanding the language proficiency construct across a variety of tests

  • The unspoken aspect of communicative competence: Evaluating the nonverbal ability of language learners in Japan. In T. Hudson & J. D. Brown, (Eds.). A focus on language test development: Expanding the language proficiency construct across a variety of ・・・

    University of Hawaii  2001年

     概要を見る

    The unspoken aspect of communicative competence: Evaluating the nonverbal ability of language learners in Japan. In T. Hudson & J. D. Brown, (Eds.). A focus on language test development: Expanding the language proficiency construct across a variety of tests

  • The unspoken aspect of communicative competence: Evaluating the nonverbal ability of language learners in Japan. In T. Hudson & J. D. Brown, (Eds.). A focus on language test development: Expanding the language proficiency construct across a variety of ・・・

    University of Hawaii  2001年

     概要を見る

    The unspoken aspect of communicative competence: Evaluating the nonverbal ability of language learners in Japan. In T. Hudson & J. D. Brown, (Eds.). A focus on language test development: Expanding the language proficiency construct across a variety of tests

  • The unspoken aspect of communicative competence: Evaluating the nonverbal ability of language learners in Japan. In T. Hudson & J. D. Brown, (Eds.). A focus on language test development: Expanding the language proficiency construct across a variety of ・・・

    University of Hawaii  2001年

     概要を見る

    The unspoken aspect of communicative competence: Evaluating the nonverbal ability of language learners in Japan. In T. Hudson & J. D. Brown, (Eds.). A focus on language test development: Expanding the language proficiency construct across a variety of tests

  • Keeping track with free readin'. in J.D. Brown (Ed.), New Ways of Classroom Assessment

    TESOL  1998年

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Misc 【 表示 / 非表示

  • Learner and native speaker perspectives on a culturally-specific Japanese refusal gesture

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    IRAL - International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching   44 ( 2 ) 125 - 143  2006年06月

     概要を見る

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how learners of Japanese as a second language (n=16) and Japanese native speakers (n=17) interpret a Japanese refusal gesture, the so-called Hand Fan, to observe how these interpretations are accompanied by similar manual gestures, and to see how participants perceive its comprehensibility. Results indicate that learners are significantly poorer than native speakers at interpreting this uniquely Japanese refusal gesture, although there was no significant difference between the two groups in their judgments of the difficulty to interpret the Hand Fan gesture. This suggests that the acquisition of allegedly simple conventional gestures may not be so easy for language learners either for reception or production. © Walter de Gruyter.

    DOI

  • Hand in hand: A comparison of gestures accompanying Japanese native speaker and JSL learner refusals

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    JALT Journal   26 ( 2 ) 127 - 146  2005年

  • (Un)conventionality of Japanese Native Speaker and JSL Refusal Gestures

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    The 14th World Congress of Applied Linguistics (AILA)    2005年

  • (Un)conventionality of Japanese Native Speaker and JSL Refusal Gestures

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    The 14th World Congress of Applied Linguistics (AILA) 2005    2005年

  • (Un)conventionality of Japanese Native Speaker and JSL Refusal Gestures

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    The 14th World Congress of Applied Linguistics (AILA)    2005年

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共同研究・競争的資金等の研究課題 【 表示 / 非表示

  • 日本語学習者の「断り」に伴う非言語行動の認識と習得

  • The recognition and acquisition of refusal gestures in Japanese

特定課題研究 【 表示 / 非表示

  • 語学学習者とネイティブ・スピーカーのスピーチアクトに伴うジェスチャーについて

    2006年  

     概要を見る

    Wilkins (2003) introduced the idea obligatory cospeech gestures for pointing behavior noting how he caused misunderstandings with Arrernte speakers when he didn't use the obligatory form. In a recent study of Japanese refusals (Jungheim, 2004) the presence of gestures with refusals of an offer also appeared to be obligatory as all participants performed a gesture with their refusals. The purpose of this exploratory study is to examine the extent to which Japanese native speakers feel that gestures are obligatory for the correct interpretation of refusals of an offer. Participants who performed refusals for evaluation were Japanese native speakers (n=17) and learners of Japanese as a second language (n=16). The native speaker interlocutor perspective was taken by two Japanese raters who evaluated the participants� output. Data were collected using 99 randomly ordered video clips of the participants interpreting three silent videos of persons refusing an offer of a drink. In the first stage, raters rated whether the transcripts of each of the responses was a refusal on a scale of 1 to 5. Two months later the same raters rated the videos themselves on a scale of 1-5 for appropriateness. Raters stated their ratings orally to a research assistant along with reasons for their rating. This was followed by post-rating retrospection. The results showed that ratings of the interpretations of the three refusals were consistently lower for the videos than for the transcripts. Interrater reliability was relatively high in the textual mode, but it was low in the video mode. Both raters included comments about gestures in some of their explanations as well as in their retrospections, but there were no instances in which they suggested that the absence of a gesture affected their rating. Results show that even though gestures can be considered part of the formula for refusals of an offer in Japanese, there are other factors that affect an observer's interpretation of intent.

  • 日本語学習者の「断り」に伴う非言語行動の認識と習得

    2002年  

     概要を見る

     As part of their pragmatic competence, language learners may need to be able to interpret and perform nonverbal behaviors accompanying speech acts to make up for deficiencies in their L2 competence. Previous research suggest that the performance of gestures by nonnative speakers is sometimes evaluated as less than appropriate according to native speaker norms (Jungheim, 2001; Neu, 1990). Although, McNeill's (1992) pragmatic synchrony rule states that gestures and speech occurring together have the same pragmatic function, this is a largely unexplored area in second language acquisition. Gass and Houck (1999) looked at gestures and refusals of Japanese learners of English but failed to include either baseline data on gestures or examples of how the participants performed them in their first language. Jungheim (2000) investigate how Japanese native speakers performed gestures with refusals in roll plays as baseline data for a study of how refusals are portrayed nonverbally with scripted dialogue in Japanese animation. He found variation in how refusal gestures were performed by Japanese native speakers, as well as in where they performed them in the gesture space. Finally, as for the interpretation of gestures, nonnative speakers do not necessarily understand gestures performed in their second language (Jungheim, 1995), and the salience of the gestures may be affected by where they are performed in the gesture space (Gullberg & Holmqvist, 1999).  This study will look at how learners of Japanese and Japanese native speakers perceive and perform gestures accompanying refusals performed by Japanese native speakers and Japanese animation. Gesture perception is examined by having 18 JSL learners and 17 Japanese native speakers view silent video clips of native speakers taken from Yamashita's (1996) study and the Japanese television animation Sazae-san. The first task is for participants to identify what they think is being said in the clips. In the second task, the participants rate the difficulty of another set of clips on a three-point Likert scale. These tasks are followed by the administration of a short questionnaire and introspective interviews. In addition, two learners and two native speakers perform the tasks while wearing an eye camera in order to examine the degree of their visual fixation on the gestures performed in the video clips. The results show that there is variation in the performance of gestures by learners and native speakers with learners having more difficulty for each item. This supports the concept of an interlanguage of gestures (Jungheim, 2000b) arising from crosslinguistic influence. Furthermore, qualitative evidence indicates that JSL learners do not necessarily realize that they are using gestures to interpret the clips, and gestures accompanying interpretations are often different from those seen by the participants. Gestures accompanying explanations during introspection were often different from those in the clips as well as from Yamashita's (1996) data. Learners also fixated less on the gestures than did native speakers, if at all. Finally, where a gesture is performed in the gesture space appears to affect the salience of the gesture and thus the ability of the learner to interpret it.・Gass, S. M. & Houck, N. (1999). Interlanguage refusals: A cross-cultural study of Japanese-English. Berlin, Mouton de Gruyter.・Gullberg, M. & Holmqvist, K. (1999). Keeping an eye on gestures: Visual perception of gestures in face-to-face communication. Pragmatics & Cognition 7 (1), 35-63.・Jungheim, N. O. (2001). The unspoken element of communicative competence: Evaluating language learners' nonverbal behavior. In T. Hudson & J. D. Brown, (Eds.), A focus on language test development: Expanding the language proficiency construct across a variety of tests (Technical Report #21, pp. 1-34). Honolulu: University of Hawai'i, Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center.・Jungheim, N. O. (2000a). Nonverbal behavior and refusals in Japanese anime: Sazae-san. Pragmatic Matters 2 (1), 9-10.・Jungheim, N.O. (2000b). An interlanguage of gestures in Japanese learners' L2 discourse. Paper presented at the Second Language Research Forum, Madison, Wisconsin, September.・Jungheim, N.O. (1995). Assessing the unsaid: The development of tests of nonverbal ability. In Brown, J.D. & Yamashita, S.O. (Eds.). Language Testing In Japan (pp. 149-165). Tokyo: JALT.・McNeill, D. (1992). Hand and mind. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ・Neu, J. (1990). Assessing the role of nonverbal communication in the acquisition of communicative competence in L2. In R.C. Scarcella, E.S. Andersen, & S.D. Krashen (Eds.). Developing communicative competence in a second language. New York: Newbury House.・Yamashita, S. O. (1996). Six measures of JSL pragmatics. (Technical Report #14). Manoa, HI: University of Hawai'i Press.