Updated on 2024/04/13

写真a

 
JUNGHEIM, Nicholas O.
 
Affiliation
Faculty of Letters, Arts and Sciences
Job title
Professor Emeritus
Degree
Ed.D. ( Temple University, Japan )
M.Ed. ( Temple University, Japan )

Research Experience

  • 2002
    -
    Now

    Waseda University   School of Humanities and Social Sciences

  • 2002
    -
    Now

    Waseda University School of Letters Arts and Sciences, professor

  • 1996
    -
    2002

    Aoyama Gakuin University   Faculty of Law

  • 1996
    -
    2002

    Aoyama Gakuin University School of Law, professor

  • 1979
    -
    1996

    Ryutsu Keizai University

  • 1979
    -
    1996

    Ryutsu Keizai University, associate professor

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Education Background

  •  
    -
    1995

    テンプル大学ジャパン   教育学研究科   第二言語習得  

  •  
    -
    1995

    Temple University, Japan   Graduate School, Division of Education   Second Language Acquisition  

  •  
    -
    1989

    テンプル大学、ジャパン   教育学研究科   英語教育  

  •  
    -
    1989

    Temple University, Japan   Graduate School, Division of Education   Teaching of English to Speakers of Other Languages  

  •  
    -
    1975

    Sophia University  

  •  
    -
    1975

    Sophia University   International Division   History  

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Professional Memberships

  •  
     
     

    大学英語教育学会

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    全国語学教育学会

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    Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL)

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    American Association for Applied Linguistics (AAAL)

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    International Society for Gesture Studies

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    Japan Association for College English Teachers (JACET)

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    Japan Association for Language Teaching (JALT)

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    Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL)

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    American Association for Applied Linguistics (AAAL)

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    International Society for Gesture Studies

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Research Interests

  • 第二言語習得

  • Second Language Acquisition

 

Books and Other Publications

  • The unspoken aspect of communicative competence: Evaluating the nonverbal ability of language learners in Japan. In T. Hudson & J. D. Brown, (Eds.). A focus on language test development: Expanding the language proficiency construct across a variety of ・・・

    University of Hawaii  2001

     View Summary

    The unspoken aspect of communicative competence: Evaluating the nonverbal ability of language learners in Japan. In T. Hudson & J. D. Brown, (Eds.). A focus on language test development: Expanding the language proficiency construct across a variety of tests

  • The unspoken aspect of communicative competence: Evaluating the nonverbal ability of language learners in Japan. In T. Hudson & J. D. Brown, (Eds.). A focus on language test development: Expanding the language proficiency construct across a variety of ・・・

    University of Hawaii  2001

     View Summary

    The unspoken aspect of communicative competence: Evaluating the nonverbal ability of language learners in Japan. In T. Hudson & J. D. Brown, (Eds.). A focus on language test development: Expanding the language proficiency construct across a variety of tests

  • The unspoken aspect of communicative competence: Evaluating the nonverbal ability of language learners in Japan. In T. Hudson & J. D. Brown, (Eds.). A focus on language test development: Expanding the language proficiency construct across a variety of ・・・

    University of Hawaii  2001

     View Summary

    The unspoken aspect of communicative competence: Evaluating the nonverbal ability of language learners in Japan. In T. Hudson & J. D. Brown, (Eds.). A focus on language test development: Expanding the language proficiency construct across a variety of tests

  • The unspoken aspect of communicative competence: Evaluating the nonverbal ability of language learners in Japan. In T. Hudson & J. D. Brown, (Eds.). A focus on language test development: Expanding the language proficiency construct across a variety of ・・・

    University of Hawaii  2001

     View Summary

    The unspoken aspect of communicative competence: Evaluating the nonverbal ability of language learners in Japan. In T. Hudson & J. D. Brown, (Eds.). A focus on language test development: Expanding the language proficiency construct across a variety of tests

  • Keeping track with free readin'. in J.D. Brown (Ed.), New Ways of Classroom Assessment

    TESOL  1998

  • Keeping track with free readin'. in J.D. Brown (Ed.), New Ways of Classroom Assessment

    TESOL  1998

  • Assessing the unsaid: The development of tests of nonverbal ability. In J.D. Brown & S. Yamashita (Eds.), Language Testing in Japan

    全国語学教育学会  1995

  • Assessing the unsaid: The development of tests of nonverbal ability. In J.D. Brown & S. Yamashita (Eds.), Language Testing in Japan

    全国語学教育学会  1995

  • Keeping track with free readin'. in J.D. Brown (Ed.), New Ways of Classroom Assessment

    TESOL  1988

  • Keeping track with free readin'. in J.D. Brown (Ed.), New Ways of Classroom Assessment

    TESOL  1988

  • Language learner and native speaker perceptions of Japanese refusal gestures portrayed in video. In S. G. McCafferty & G. Stam (Eds.), Gesture: Second language acquisition and classroom research.

    Lawrence Earlbaum Associates 

  • Language learner and native speaker perceptions of Japanese refusal gestures portrayed in video. In S. G. McCafferty & G. Stam (Eds.), Gesture: Second language acquisition and classroom research.

    Lawrence Earlbaum Associates 

  • Language learner and native speaker perceptions of Japanese refusal gestures portrayed in video. In S. G. McCafferty & G. Stam (Eds.), Gesture: Second language acquisition and classroom research.

    Lawrence Earlbaum Associates 

  • Language learner and native speaker perceptions of Japanese refusal gestures portrayed in video. In S. G. McCafferty & G. Stam (Eds.), Gesture: Second language acquisition and classroom research.

    Lawrence Earlbaum Associates 

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Research Projects

  • 日本語学習者の「断り」に伴う非言語行動の認識と習得

  • The recognition and acquisition of refusal gestures in Japanese

Misc

  • Learner and native speaker perspectives on a culturally-specific Japanese refusal gesture

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    IRAL - International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching   44 ( 2 ) 125 - 143  2006.06

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how learners of Japanese as a second language (n=16) and Japanese native speakers (n=17) interpret a Japanese refusal gesture, the so-called Hand Fan, to observe how these interpretations are accompanied by similar manual gestures, and to see how participants perceive its comprehensibility. Results indicate that learners are significantly poorer than native speakers at interpreting this uniquely Japanese refusal gesture, although there was no significant difference between the two groups in their judgments of the difficulty to interpret the Hand Fan gesture. This suggests that the acquisition of allegedly simple conventional gestures may not be so easy for language learners either for reception or production. © Walter de Gruyter.

    DOI

  • Hand in hand: A comparison of gestures accompanying Japanese native speaker and JSL learner refusals

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    JALT Journal   26 ( 2 ) 127 - 146  2005

  • (Un)conventionality of Japanese Native Speaker and JSL Refusal Gestures

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    The 14th World Congress of Applied Linguistics (AILA)    2005

  • (Un)conventionality of Japanese Native Speaker and JSL Refusal Gestures

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    The 14th World Congress of Applied Linguistics (AILA) 2005    2005

  • (Un)conventionality of Japanese Native Speaker and JSL Refusal Gestures

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    The 14th World Congress of Applied Linguistics (AILA)    2005

  • Hand in hand: A comparison of gestures accompanying Japanese native speaker and JSL learner refusals

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    JALT Journal   26 ( 2 ) 127 - 146  2005

  • (Un)conventionality of Japanese Native Speaker and JSL Refusal Gestures

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    The 14th World Congress of Applied Linguistics (AILA)    2005

  • (Un)conventionality of Japanese Native Speaker and JSL Refusal Gestures

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    The 14th World Congress of Applied Linguistics (AILA) 2005    2005

  • (Un)conventionality of Japanese Native Speaker and JSL Refusal Gestures

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    The 14th World Congress of Applied Linguistics (AILA)    2005

  • Perception of gestures in Japanese media: The interpretation of refusals in two contexts. In N. O. Jungheim (Ed.), Media no ibunkakan eikyo [Cross-cultural effects of media]

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    The Research Institute of Aoyama Gakuin University    2004

  • Perception of gestures in Japanese media: The interpretation of refusals in two contexts. In N. O. Jungheim (Ed.), Media no ibunkakan eikyo メディアの異文化間影響力

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    青山学院大学総合研究所    2004

  • Perception of gestures in Japanese media: The interpretation of refusals in two contexts. In N. O. Jungheim (Ed.), Media no ibunkakan eikyo [Cross-cultural effects of media]

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    The Research Institute of Aoyama Gakuin University    2004

  • Perception of gestures in Japanese media: The interpretation of refusals in two contexts. In N. O. Jungheim (Ed.), Media no ibunkakan eikyo メディアの異文化間影響力

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    青山学院大学総合研究所    2004

  • Pragmatics and intercultural communication compared. in M. Swanson, D. M. Murray and K. Lane (Eds.), Pac3 at JALT 2001 Conference Proceedings

    Nicholas O. Jungheim with, D. Fujimoto, S. Ryan, D. Tatsuki

    JALT     923 - 931  2002

  • Pragmatics and intercultural communication compared. in M. Swanson, D. M. Murray and K. Lane (Eds.), Pac3 at JALT 2001 Conference Proceedings

    Nicholas O. Jungheim with, D. Fujimoto, S. Ryan, D. Tatsuki

    全国語学教育学会     923 - 931  2002

  • Pragmatics and intercultural communication compared. in M. Swanson, D. M. Murray and K. Lane (Eds.), Pac3 at JALT 2001 Conference Proceedings

    Nicholas O. Jungheim with, D. Fujimoto, S. Ryan, D. Tatsuki

    JALT     923 - 931  2002

  • Pragmatics and intercultural communication compared. in M. Swanson, D. M. Murray and K. Lane (Eds.), Pac3 at JALT 2001 Conference Proceedings

    Nicholas O. Jungheim with, D. Fujimoto, S. Ryan, D. Tatsuki

    全国語学教育学会     923 - 931  2002

  • Nonverbal behavior and refusals in Japanese anime: Sazae-san

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    Pragmatic Matters   2 ( 1 ) 9 - 10  2000

  • Nonverbal behavior and refusals in Japanese anime: Sazae-san

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    Pragmatic Matters   2 ( 1 ) 9 - 10  2000

  • Nonverbal behavior and refusals in Japanese anime: Sazae-san

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    Pragmatic Matters   2 ( 1 ) 9 - 10  2000

  • Nonverbal behavior and refusals in Japanese anime: Sazae-san

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    Pragmatic Matters   2 ( 1 ) 9 - 10  2000

  • Assessing the unsaid: The development of tests of nonverbal ability. In J.D. Brown & S. Yamashita (Eds.), Language Testing in Japan

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    JALT    1995

  • Assessing the unsaid: The development of tests of nonverbal ability. In J.D. Brown & S. Yamashita (Eds.), Language Testing in Japan

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    JALT    1995

  • Assessing Communicative Competence : Designing Scales for Testing Nonverbal Ability in a Foreign Language

    JUNGHEIM NICHOLAS O.

    The journal of Ryutsu Keizai University   28 ( 3 ) 31 - 45  1994

     View Summary

    This study investigates the designing of an instrument for assessing the nonverbal ability of foreign language learners in conjunction with other tests of English proficiency. A sample of target nonverbal behaviors is selected based on previous research. A series of thoroughly piloted role plays is suggested for collecting a sample of nonverbal behaviors from foreign language learners. Statistical analyses are outlined for examining nonverbal behaviors and their relation to oral and linguistic proficiency data. Finally, the implications of assessing the nonverbal ability of foreign language learners are discussed.

    CiNii

  • Through the learner's eyes: Nonverbal behavior and personality in the foreign language classroom

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    Temple University Japan Research Studies in TESOL   2  1994

  • Assessing communicative competence: Designing scales for testing nonverbal ability in a foreign language

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    流通経済大学論集   28 ( 3 )  1994

  • Through the learner's eyes: Nonverbal behavior and personality in the foreign language classroom

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    Temple University Japan Research Studies in TESOL   2  1994

  • Assessing communicative competence: Designing scales for testing nonverbal ability in a foreign language

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    The Journal of Ryutsu Keizai University   28 ( 3 )  1994

  • Through the learner's eyes: Nonverbal behavior and personality in the foreign language classroom

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    Temple University Japan Research Studies in TESOL   2  1994

  • Assessing communicative competence: Designing scales for testing nonverbal ability in a foreign language

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    流通経済大学論集   28 ( 3 )  1994

  • Through the learner's eyes: Nonverbal behavior and personality in the foreign language classroom

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    Temple University Japan Research Studies in TESOL   2  1994

  • Learner gaze and personality in the foreign language classroom

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    The Journal of Ryutsu Keizai University   27 ( 2 )  1992

  • Learner Gaze and Personality in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Jungheim Nicholas O.

    The journal of Ryutsu Keizai University   27 ( 2 ) 32 - 44  1992

     View Summary

    This study investigates the relationship between Japanese learners' gaze behavior in the EFL classroom and personality. Two university English classes were videotaped and analyzed for learner gaze in three directions - teacher, peer, and object - and frequency of gaze direction changes. One class was taught by a native speaker and the other by a non-native speaker. The subjects were administered the Maudsley Personality Inventory to determine their degree of introversion or extroversion and neuroticism. MANOVA was used to determine whether there were any significant differences among the subjects in gaze or frequency in three directions due to personality or English class. A significant difference between groups was found for frequency of gaze changes by class. The results indicate that the teacher may have a greater effect than the learner's personality on learner gaze behavior.

    CiNii

  • Learner gaze and personality in the foreign language classroom

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    The Journal of Ryutsu Keizai University   27 ( 2 )  1992

  • Learner gaze and personality in the foreign language classroom

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    流通経済大学論集   27 ( 2 )  1992

  • A Study on the Classroom Acquisition of Gestures in Japan

    Jungheim Nicholas O.

    The journal of Ryutsu Keizai University   26 ( 2 ) 61 - 68  1991

     View Summary

    Language teaching literature in recent years has reflected a strong interest in the teaching of nonverbal communication (NVC) . Much of what has been written is anecdotal about why and how to teach NVC. However, there is no empirical evidence of what really works in the classroom. This study uses a pretest, posttest quasi-experimental design to compare the effects of an inductive vs a deductive approach to teaching a type of gestures called emblems to two groups of Japanese university students. While the test instrument had low reliability, classroom observations and test results indicated that the deductive approach was more effective with this population of students.

    CiNii

  • A study on the classroom acquisition of gestures in Japan

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    流通経済大学論集   26 ( 2 )  1991

  • A study on the classroom acquisition of gestures in Japan

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    The Journal of Ryutsu Keizai University   26 ( 2 )  1991

  • A study on the classroom acquisition of gestures in Japan

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    流通経済大学論集   26 ( 2 )  1991

  • Developing communicative contexts for pronunciation practice

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    流通経済大学論集   22 ( 2 )  1988

  • A Strategic Interaction Approach to Reading and Writing

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    Temple University Japan Studies in Applied Linguistics   5 ( 1 )  1988

  • Developing communicative contexts for pronunciation practice

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    流通経済大学論集   22 ( 2 )  1988

  • A strategic interaction approach to reading and writing

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    Temple University Japan Studies in Applied Linguistics   5 ( 1 )  1988

  • Developing communicative contexts for pronunciation practice

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    流通経済大学論集   22 ( 2 )  1988

  • A Strategic Interaction Approach to Reading and Writing

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    Temple University Japan Studies in Applied Linguistics   5 ( 1 )  1988

  • Developing communicative contexts for pronunciation practice

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    流通経済大学論集   22 ( 2 )  1988

  • A strategic interaction approach to reading and writing

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    Temple University Japan Studies in Applied Linguistics   5 ( 1 )  1988

  • A Study of Variability in the Written Output of Japanese Learners of English

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

      22 ( 2 )  1987

  • A Study of Variability in the Written Output of Japanese Learners of English

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    流通経済大学論集   22 ( 2 )  1987

  • A Study of Variability in the Written Output of Japanese Learners of English

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

      22 ( 2 )  1987

  • A Study of Variability in the Written Output of Japanese Learners of English

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    流通経済大学論集   22 ( 2 )  1987

  • Hand in hand: A comparison of gestures accompanying Japanese native speaker and JSL learner refusals

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    JALT Journal   26 ( 2 ) 127 - 146

  • Learner and native speaker perspectives on a culturally-specific Japanese refusal gesture.

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    International Review of Applied Linguistics   44   125 - 143

    DOI

  • Learner and native speaker perspectives on a culturally-specific Japanese refusal gesture.

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    International Review of Applied Linguistics   44   125 - 143

    DOI

  • Hand in hand: A comparison of gestures accompanying Japanese native speaker and JSL learner refusals

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    JALT Journal   26 ( 2 ) 127 - 146

  • Learner and native speaker perspectives on a culturally-specific Japanese refusal gesture.

    Nicholas O. Jungheim

    International Review of Applied Linguistics   44   125 - 143

    DOI

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Internal Special Research Projects

  • 語学学習者とネイティブ・スピーカーのスピーチアクトに伴うジェスチャーについて

    2006  

     View Summary

    Wilkins (2003) introduced the idea obligatory cospeech gestures for pointing behavior noting how he caused misunderstandings with Arrernte speakers when he didn't use the obligatory form. In a recent study of Japanese refusals (Jungheim, 2004) the presence of gestures with refusals of an offer also appeared to be obligatory as all participants performed a gesture with their refusals. The purpose of this exploratory study is to examine the extent to which Japanese native speakers feel that gestures are obligatory for the correct interpretation of refusals of an offer. Participants who performed refusals for evaluation were Japanese native speakers (n=17) and learners of Japanese as a second language (n=16). The native speaker interlocutor perspective was taken by two Japanese raters who evaluated the participants� output. Data were collected using 99 randomly ordered video clips of the participants interpreting three silent videos of persons refusing an offer of a drink. In the first stage, raters rated whether the transcripts of each of the responses was a refusal on a scale of 1 to 5. Two months later the same raters rated the videos themselves on a scale of 1-5 for appropriateness. Raters stated their ratings orally to a research assistant along with reasons for their rating. This was followed by post-rating retrospection. The results showed that ratings of the interpretations of the three refusals were consistently lower for the videos than for the transcripts. Interrater reliability was relatively high in the textual mode, but it was low in the video mode. Both raters included comments about gestures in some of their explanations as well as in their retrospections, but there were no instances in which they suggested that the absence of a gesture affected their rating. Results show that even though gestures can be considered part of the formula for refusals of an offer in Japanese, there are other factors that affect an observer's interpretation of intent.

  • 日本語学習者の「断り」に伴う非言語行動の認識と習得

    2002  

     View Summary

     As part of their pragmatic competence, language learners may need to be able to interpret and perform nonverbal behaviors accompanying speech acts to make up for deficiencies in their L2 competence. Previous research suggest that the performance of gestures by nonnative speakers is sometimes evaluated as less than appropriate according to native speaker norms (Jungheim, 2001; Neu, 1990). Although, McNeill's (1992) pragmatic synchrony rule states that gestures and speech occurring together have the same pragmatic function, this is a largely unexplored area in second language acquisition. Gass and Houck (1999) looked at gestures and refusals of Japanese learners of English but failed to include either baseline data on gestures or examples of how the participants performed them in their first language. Jungheim (2000) investigate how Japanese native speakers performed gestures with refusals in roll plays as baseline data for a study of how refusals are portrayed nonverbally with scripted dialogue in Japanese animation. He found variation in how refusal gestures were performed by Japanese native speakers, as well as in where they performed them in the gesture space. Finally, as for the interpretation of gestures, nonnative speakers do not necessarily understand gestures performed in their second language (Jungheim, 1995), and the salience of the gestures may be affected by where they are performed in the gesture space (Gullberg & Holmqvist, 1999).  This study will look at how learners of Japanese and Japanese native speakers perceive and perform gestures accompanying refusals performed by Japanese native speakers and Japanese animation. Gesture perception is examined by having 18 JSL learners and 17 Japanese native speakers view silent video clips of native speakers taken from Yamashita's (1996) study and the Japanese television animation Sazae-san. The first task is for participants to identify what they think is being said in the clips. In the second task, the participants rate the difficulty of another set of clips on a three-point Likert scale. These tasks are followed by the administration of a short questionnaire and introspective interviews. In addition, two learners and two native speakers perform the tasks while wearing an eye camera in order to examine the degree of their visual fixation on the gestures performed in the video clips. The results show that there is variation in the performance of gestures by learners and native speakers with learners having more difficulty for each item. This supports the concept of an interlanguage of gestures (Jungheim, 2000b) arising from crosslinguistic influence. Furthermore, qualitative evidence indicates that JSL learners do not necessarily realize that they are using gestures to interpret the clips, and gestures accompanying interpretations are often different from those seen by the participants. Gestures accompanying explanations during introspection were often different from those in the clips as well as from Yamashita's (1996) data. Learners also fixated less on the gestures than did native speakers, if at all. Finally, where a gesture is performed in the gesture space appears to affect the salience of the gesture and thus the ability of the learner to interpret it.・Gass, S. M. & Houck, N. (1999). Interlanguage refusals: A cross-cultural study of Japanese-English. Berlin, Mouton de Gruyter.・Gullberg, M. & Holmqvist, K. (1999). Keeping an eye on gestures: Visual perception of gestures in face-to-face communication. Pragmatics & Cognition 7 (1), 35-63.・Jungheim, N. O. (2001). The unspoken element of communicative competence: Evaluating language learners' nonverbal behavior. In T. Hudson & J. D. Brown, (Eds.), A focus on language test development: Expanding the language proficiency construct across a variety of tests (Technical Report #21, pp. 1-34). Honolulu: University of Hawai'i, Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center.・Jungheim, N. O. (2000a). Nonverbal behavior and refusals in Japanese anime: Sazae-san. Pragmatic Matters 2 (1), 9-10.・Jungheim, N.O. (2000b). An interlanguage of gestures in Japanese learners' L2 discourse. Paper presented at the Second Language Research Forum, Madison, Wisconsin, September.・Jungheim, N.O. (1995). Assessing the unsaid: The development of tests of nonverbal ability. In Brown, J.D. & Yamashita, S.O. (Eds.). Language Testing In Japan (pp. 149-165). Tokyo: JALT.・McNeill, D. (1992). Hand and mind. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ・Neu, J. (1990). Assessing the role of nonverbal communication in the acquisition of communicative competence in L2. In R.C. Scarcella, E.S. Andersen, & S.D. Krashen (Eds.). Developing communicative competence in a second language. New York: Newbury House.・Yamashita, S. O. (1996). Six measures of JSL pragmatics. (Technical Report #14). Manoa, HI: University of Hawai'i Press.