Updated on 2024/04/07

写真a

 
MAGARA, Keiichi
 
Affiliation
Faculty of Education and Integrated Arts and Sciences
Job title
Professor Emeritus
Degree
(BLANK) ( Tohoku University )
(BLANK) ( Tohoku University )

Education Background

  •  
    -
    1980

    Tohoku University  

  •  
    -
    1980

    Tohoku University   Graduate School, Division of Education  

  •  
    -
    1975

    Tohoku University   The Faculty of Arts and Letters  

  •  
    -
    1975

    Tohoku University   Faculty of Literature  

Professional Memberships

  •  
     
     

    日本教育心理学会

  •  
     
     

    日本教授学習心理学会

Research Areas

  • Educational psychology

Research Interests

  • 理解

  • 学習過程

  • 教授方法

Awards

  • 日本教育心理学会・優秀論文賞

    2005  

  • とやま賞・学術研究部門

    1996  

  • 日本読書学会・読書科学研究奨励賞

    1995  

 

Books and Other Publications

  • 社会科領域における学習者の不十分な認識とその修正

    東北大学出版会  2008

  • 学習者の誤った知識をどう修正するか ル・バー修正ストラテジーの研究

    東北大学出版会  2006

  • Children's Misconceptions ; Research on Improving Understanding of Mathematics and Science. In D.W.Shwalb, et al. (Eds.) Applied Developmental Psychology: Theory, Practice, and Research from Japan

    Information Age Publishing  2005

  • Children's Misconceptions ; Research on Improving Understanding of Mathematics and Science. In D.W.Shwalb, et al. (Eds.) Applied Developmental Psychology: Theory, Practice, and Research from Japan

    Information Age Publishing  2005

  • 現代教育の原理と方法

    勁草書房  2004

  • じょうずな勉強法

    北大路書房  2002

  • 人間の発達と学習

    玉川大学通信教育部  2001

  • いじめられた知識からのメッセージ-ホントは知識が「興味・関心・意欲」を生み出す-

    北大路書房  1999

  • 子どものつまずきと授業づくり

    岩波書店  1995

  • 心理学者教科教育を語る

    北大路書房  1995

  • 授業づくりの心理学

    国土社  1993

  • 概念と知識の発達

    金子書房  1991

  • 新・児童心理学講座 第5巻 概念と知織の発達

    金子書房  1991

  • 児童心理学の進歩・1988

    金子書房  1988

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Presentations

  • 数学公式の適用に及ぼす抽象・具体表現の影響

    日本教授学習心理学会第9回年会予稿集 

    Presentation date: 2013

  • 内包量の公式における「変数の入れ替え原理」の理解

    日本教育心理学会第55回総会発表論文集 

    Presentation date: 2013

  • 物の浮沈ルールの学習における操作の効果

    日本教授学習心理学会第7回年会予稿集 

    Presentation date: 2012

  • 歴史に関する誤認識の修正に及ぼす「操作」援助の効果

    日本教育心理学会第54回総会発表論文集 

    Presentation date: 2012

  • パスカルの原理の学習に及ぼす「違和感への対処情報」の効果

    日本教授学習心理学会第7回年会予稿集 

    Presentation date: 2011

  • 数字なしの公式使用(関係操作)をどう促進するか

    日本教育心理学会第53回総会発表論文集 

    Presentation date: 2011

  • 操作結果の「実体化」の違いが学習に及ぼす効果

    日本教授学習心理学会第6回年回予稿集 

    Presentation date: 2010

  • 数字がない場合の公式利用-関係操作の成否-

    日本教育心理学会第52回総会発表論文集 

    Presentation date: 2010

  • 関係操作の練習を行うことで問題解決が促進されるか

    日本教授学習心理学会第5回年回予稿集 

    Presentation date: 2009

  • 問題解決に及ぼすルール命題操作の効果

    日本教授学習心理学会第5回年回予稿集 

    Presentation date: 2009

  • 法則理解における3段階モデル -数値操作・関係操作・因果操作-

    日本教育心理学会第50回総会発表論文集 

    Presentation date: 2008

  • 誤概念への回帰を防ぐ教授法の検討

    日本教授学習心理学会第3回年会予稿集 

    Presentation date: 2007

  • ルールに対する表面的な確信度の高さとその原因

    日本教授学習心理学会第3回年会予稿集 

    Presentation date: 2007

  • 誤概念のリバウンドを防ぐ教示の条件

    日本教育心理学会第49回総会発表論文集 

    Presentation date: 2007

  • ルール推理の根拠として位置づきやすい象徴事例の条件

    日本教育心理学会第49回総会発表論文集 

    Presentation date: 2007

  • 公式の変数間の関係操作による課題解決の促進

    日本教授学習心理学会第2回年会予稿集 

    Presentation date: 2006

  • 誤法則の修正に及ぼす融合法の効果

    日本教授学習心理学会第1回年会予稿集 

    Presentation date: 2005

  • 「例外への懸念」とルール適用の促進

    日本教育心理学会第47回総会発表論文集 

    Presentation date: 2005

  • 文学作品の誤った読みとりに及ぼす共感性の影響

    日本教育心理学会第47回総会発表論文集 

    Presentation date: 2005

  • 象徴事例が効果を持つ条件

    日本教育心理学会第46回総会発表論文集 

    Presentation date: 2004

  • 小学校教師の「小数のかけ算」に関する理解

    日本教育心理学会第46回総会発表論文集 

    Presentation date: 2004

  • 「象徴事例」概念の提案と歴史学習に及ぼす象徴事例の効果の検討

    日本教育心理学会第45回総会発表論文集 

    Presentation date: 2003

  • 不適切な経済ルール修正の試み ―山頂の缶ジュースはなぜ高い

    日本教育心理学会第41回総会発表論文集 

    Presentation date: 1999

  • ルール適用の促進要因としてのルールの方向性と適用練

    日本教育心理学会第41回総会発表論文集 

    Presentation date: 1999

  • 大学生の「商品の価格」に関する不適切な認識

    日本教育心理学会第39回総会発表論文集 

    Presentation date: 1997

  • 教師と子どもの学びのプロセスへのアプローチ:教室からの教育心理学理論の構築

    日本教育心理学会第39回総会発表論文集 

    Presentation date: 1997

  • 企業の競争に関する大学生の不十分な認識とその関連要因

    日本教育心理学会第39回総会発表論文集 

    Presentation date: 1997

  • 経済法則を適用すべき場面への不適切ルールの適用

    日本教育心理学会第38回総会発表論文集 

    Presentation date: 1996

  • 教育実践科学としての教育心理学は授業内容と授業の構造をどうとらえるか

    日本教育心理学会第38回総会発表論文集 

    Presentation date: 1996

  • 「図形の証明問題」の意味理解

    日本教育心理学会第36回総会発表論文集 

    Presentation date: 1994

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Research Projects

  • 新しい授業の創造と理論化

  • 誤概念の修正ストラテジーの開発

  • 学習者の誤概念の発見

  • 学習者の誤概念の修正ストラテジーに関する研究

  • Study on Strategy of Correcting Misconception in Learners

Misc

  • Effects of Operational Thinking in Reading a Text upon Rectifying a History Misconception

    MAGARA Keiichi, SHINDO Toshihiko

    THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY IN TEACHING AND LEARNING   8 ( 2 ) 67 - 76  2012

     View Summary

    Magara (1993) showed that many undergraduates had the misconception that in the Edo period the Tokugawas shogunate collected a land tax from daimyos (feudal rulers). This study dealt with such a misconception. In the textbooks used in high school, the following content is described. "The shogunate made daimyo give up a certain amount of rice as tax on their territories during 9 years in the Edo period. This system is called Agemai-no-sei" (We call the content of the first sentence proposition A.) Proposition A implies that the shogunate did not collected a land tax from daimyos for the rest of the 9 years in the Edo period (We call this content proposition B.) In experiment 1 (N=62), it was suggested that subjects who abandoned the misconception could transform proposition A into proposition B. In experiment 2 (N=34), we taught subjects that proposition A could be transformed into proposition B. As a result, most of them could abandon the misconception. Those results were discussed from the standpoint of operational thinking proposed by Kudo (2010).

    DOI CiNii

  • ルール命題の操作による問題解決の促進

    麻柄啓一, 進藤聡彦

    教育心理学研究   59 ( 1 ) 1 - 12  2011

  • 面積比の理解に及ぼす操作結果の実体化の効果

    進藤 聡彦, 麻柄啓一

    教育心理学研究   59 ( 3 ) 320 - 329  2011

  • 世界とよりよく交渉するための方法論

    麻柄啓一

    理科教室   53 ( 7 ) 20 - 25  2010

  • 象徴事例の違いが誤ルールの修正に及ぼす影響 -気体の溶解度に関するルールをめぐって-

    進藤聡彦, 麻柄啓一

    山梨大学人間教育学部紀要   10   183 - 194  2009

  • Why Can't Schoolchildren Use a Formula to Solve Math Problems That Don't Contain Numerical Values?

    MAGARA KEIICHI

    The Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology   57 ( 2 ) 180 - 191  2009

     View Summary

    Fifth and sixth graders were presented with 2 problems: (1) "Find the area of this triangle [base 8cm, height 5cm]," and (2) "How big is triangle B [an isosceles triangle] compared to triangle A [a right triangle]?" In figure accompanying the second question, the bases of the 2 triangles were equal, and triangle B was twice the height of triangle A. However, numerical values for the width of the base and the height were not provided. If the children were able to use the formula, "area of a triangle=base×height÷2", properly, they should have been able to realize that triangle B had twice the area of triangle A. This is called the "relational operation of a formula". Of the 135 children, 123 (91%) gave the correct answer to Question 1, but only 62 (46%) answered Question 2 correctly. In other words, the children who could calculate area by using the formula could not necessarily operate the variable in the formula. Further analysis suggested that prerequisites for giving the correct answer to Question 2 were: (a) grasping the relative, rather than absolute, difference in the areas of the 2 triangles, and (b) understanding the difference between "the difference in the area of 2 figures" and "their ratio".

    DOI CiNii

  • Learners' Misinterpretation of the Range of Instances as a Cause of the Restricted Application of Rules

    FUSHIMI YOHJI, MAGARA KEIICHI

    The Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology   57 ( 3 ) 284 - 294  2009

     View Summary

    Magara (2006) demonstrated that learners' notion that a rule that they had been taught might have some exceptions prevented them from applying the rule to new instances. However, those learners' notions of exceptions may have been influenced by their thinking of specific things. Another possible factor is their misinterpretation of the range of instances of the rule. In the present study, undergraduates (N=414) were given a scientific rule (e.g., the thermal conductivity of metal is higher than that of nonmetal), or a logical rule (e.g., all Xs are Q), and their estimation of the range of instances of the rules was investigated. Many participants discounted the range of instances of even the logical rules, not only the scientific ones. Those who discounted the range of instances of a rule did not apply the rule to new instances in the test session.

    DOI CiNii

  • Rectifying Japanese Students' Misconceptions About the Subject of English Sentences:Interference From the Japanese Particle(wa)

    MIZUSHINA ERIKO, MAGARA KEIICHI

    The Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology   55 ( 4 ) 573 - 583  2007

     View Summary

    In Japanese sentences, the particle (wa) is used not only to indicate the subject of a sentence, but also to mark the topic (e. g., in English,"as for..."). Words preceding (wa)I in a Japanese sentence do not, therefore, consistently correspond to the subject of that sentence when translated into English. Furthermore, in Japanese sentences, the subject is often unstated. As a result, when native speakers of Japanese are asked to translate into English sentences in Japanese in which the particle is used as a topic indicator, they may misidentify the topic as the subject of those sentences. In Study 1, junior high school students (N=57) and high school students (N=114) were presented with incorrect English sentences in which words preceding the particle (wa) were incorrectly translated as the subject of the sentence (e. g., Yesterday was a part-time job; January is my birthday; All my shirts bring to the laundry). The participants were asked to judge whether each sentence was correct. Incorrect sentences were judged to be correct by 40%-80% of the participants, suggesting that their knowledge of Japanese had interfered with their understanding of the concept of the subject in English sentences. In Study 2, high school students (N=89) read an instructional text which explained the difference between words preceding the particle (wa) in Japanese sentences and the subject of English sentences. After reading this material, the students correctly evaluated the incorrect sentences as incorrect.

    DOI CiNii

  • 誤概念の修正に有効な反証事例の使用方略

    進藤聡彦, 麻柄啓一, 伏見陽児

    教育心理学研究 日本教育心理学会   54 ( 2 ) 162 - 173  2006

    DOI

  • 例外への懸念がルール学習に及ぼす影響

    麻柄啓一

    教育心理学研究 日本教育心理学会   54 ( 2 ) 151 - 161  2006

    DOI

  • What Kind of Symbolic Instance is Effective in Correcting Learners' Misconceptions regarding Japanese History?

    SHINDO Toshihiko, MAGARA Keiichi

    THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY IN TEACHING AND LEARNING   2 ( 1 ) 1 - 11  2006

     View Summary

    Statements taught to students can, in general, be described in proposition form, as "if it is p, then it implies q." Instances where the antecedent "p" is illustrated are known as substitution instances. In addition, it is possible to obtain another type of instances by illustrating the consequent "q." We will refer to this type of instances as symbolic instances. The aim of this study is to clarify the condition under which symbolic instances can have a positive effect on learning. We focused in our study on the teaching of history. We prepared three different texts that involved one of three symbolic instances concerning the Meiji era. Each text was presented to one of three groups of undergraduate participants in the learning session of the experiment. After the learning session, we presented them with a problem to which learners had previously given an incorrect answer due to their misconception. The problem could be solved correctly by referring to the symbolic instance presented in the learning session. In addition, we asked the participants to specify whether they had referred to the symbolic instance at the time of problem solving, and if they had not, to explain their reasons for failing to do so. We found that failure to refer to the instance had two causes: the symbolic instance had been given a different interpretation or the subjects had been unable to incorporate it into their cognitive structure. However, the symbolic instances that could be incorporated into learners' cognitive structure easily and did not allow another interpretation were effective. In the second experiment, we presented learners with two symbolic instances simultaneously. This treatment was revealed to be very effective in correcting learners' misconception.

    DOI CiNii

  • Why Is It Difficult for Learners to Apply the Rule for Image Formation by a Convex Lens?

    MAGARA Keiichi, OKADA Izumi

    THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY IN TEACHING AND LEARNING   2 ( 1 ) 12 - 22  2006

     View Summary

    Children and adults know that when sunlight converges with a convex lens, it makes a small round dot. They, however, tend to think that no other light than sunlight (e.g., from a fluorescent lamp) can converge with a convex lens, and that even if a fluorescent light converged it would form a small round dot. These facts perplex us because in junior high school, students learn that when a light converges with a convex lens, it forms an image of an object that emits or reflects the light. Analyzing science textbooks in junior high school, we found that the textbook emphasized the manner in which the size and position of the reflected image is modified by changes in the position of the source. We considered the possibility that this mode of presentation made it difficult for students to grasp the mechanism of image formation per se. In study 1, university students (N=28) were divided into two groups. After the explanation of an experiment using a convex lens and a candle, the rule per se was emphasized to one group (group 1), and the place and the size of the image were emphasized to the other group(group 2). The target problem was as follows; "Does the light from a fluorescent ceiling lamp converge with a convex lens, and if so, what will you see on the screen-" Although the number of students in Group 1 who gave a correct answer was higher than the corresponding number in Group 2, the overall score in Group 1 was not very high. In study 2, university students (N=48) were asked to draw the path of the light and the shapes of the images projected on a screen when different light sources were used. In spite of the fact that the rule was emphasized to them, their performance did not improve. In study 3, we asked the subjects in study 2 why it was difficult for them to apply the rule to the target problem. Analysis of their answers revealed their misconceptions. Some thought that only parallel light rays like the sun's could converge. Others thought that the small round dot which a convex lens made when sunlight converged was not the image of the sun. The article examines the manner in which these results can be used to improve the efficiency of science teaching for this topic.

    DOI CiNii

  • 「小数のかけ算」に関する教師の不十分な意味理解と教員養成系学習への援助

    麻柄啓一, 進藤聡彦

    教授学習心理学研究 日本教授学習心理学会   1 ( 1 ) 3 - 19  2005

  • Preliminary Study on Conditions of Symbolic Instances for Effective Learning

    SHINDO Toshihiko, MAGARA Keiichi

    Bulletin of the Faculty of Education & Human Sciences   6 ( 1 ) 151 - 159  2004

    CiNii

  • 意見命題の受け入れに及ぼす象徴事例の効果

    進藤聡彦, 麻柄啓一

    読書科学 日本読書学会   48 ( 2 ) 61 - 69  2004

  • 「象徴事例」概念の提案と歴史学習に及ぼす象徴事例の効果の検討

    麻柄啓一, 進藤聡彦

    教育心理学研究 日本教育心理学会   52 ( 3 ) 231 - 240  2004

  • 子どもの思考プロセスに沿った教材とその効果

    麻柄啓一

    悠(はるか)/ぎょうせい   20 ( 2 ) 26 - 29  2003

  • 子どもの誤概念をどう修正するか

    麻柄啓一

    理科教室/星の環会   46 ( 3 ) 8 - 15  2003

  • Undergraduated' and Junior High School Students' Inadequate Cognition on the Merits of Sexual Reproduction of Seed Plants

    MAGARA Keiichi, FUSHIMI Yohji

    Journal of Science Education in Japan   26 ( 5 ) 385 - 393  2002

     View Summary

    Seed plants propagate by sexual and asexual reproduction. This study investigated to what extent undergraduates and junior high school students understand the merits of sexual reproduction of seed plants. Subjects were asked why the seed plant propagates by seed while it propagates ascxually by subterraneans. Many of them pointed out the extension of the habitat of the plant as a main merit of reproduction by seed. Only about 20% of the undergraduates and 10% of the junior high school students pointed out the variety of an inherited character and the possible chance of adaptation of the plant to various environments. This fact means most of undergraduates and junior high school students do not understand one of the fundamental reason why seed plants propagate by seed. Obtained results were discussed from the standpoint of class work study of science.

    DOI CiNii

  • 論理操作に及ぼすラベリングの効果

    麻柄啓一

    千葉大学教育学部研究紀要   50 ( 1 ) 21 - 28  2002

  • The Double Reasoning Method and its effect on rectifying misconceptions in learners

    MAGARA Keiichi

    Journal of Science Education in Japan   25 ( 2 ) 128 - 136  2001

     View Summary

    Magara (1999) proposed a strategy named the Double Reasoning Method in order to rectify learners' misconceptions. In this study the author aimed to examine the beneficial effects of this method by using different learning materials in a science classes. The Double Reasoning Method was exercised as follows. At the first stage, learners were presented with reading material contained useful information to help them answer correctly a target problem in physics. At the second stage the target problem was set and learners were asked two kinds of questions. One question them to solve the problem on the basis of their intuition. Their answers were generally incorrect because they were based on misconception. The second required them to answer the question on the basis of information with which they had already been presented. In the latter case, their answers were generally correct. At the third stage, the result of the physics experiment was presented and learners came to know the correct answer. Subsequently, a transferable problem was set. Most students could solve it successfully. Thus they could rectify their misconceptions and the efficacy of this method was confirmed.

    DOI CiNii

  • Children's Fundamental Misconception of Intensive Quantity

    MAGARA Keiichi

    Journal of Science Education in Japan   25 ( 5 ) 295 - 303  2001

     View Summary

    Whereas Piaget established a conservation task to assess children's understanding of extensive quantity, this study aimed at establishing another kind of conservation task to assess children's understanding of the concept of intensive quantity, e.g. the thickness of paint on a board. The following study examined children's misconception by using our conservation task. Subjects were sixth graders and undergraduates. A typical question was asked in the conservation task : Which is thicker, the large part of a board or the small part, when it is painted uniformly? Although Subjects were taught in advance that the thickness of paint was given by its volume per unit area (1 cm^2) , commonly explained in school education, two-thirds of sixth graders and one-fourth of undergraduates failed to answer the question, suggesting they did not understand the concept of intensive quantity through the commonly given explanation. Results were discussed from the viewpoint of the method employed to teach the concept of intensive quantity.

    DOI CiNii

  • 修飾語句の係り方の表記とその理解

    麻柄啓一

    読書科学/日本読書学会   45 ( 1 ) 19 - 26  2001

  • 験証法と例外例が小学生の法則学習に及ぼす効果

    大木浩, 麻柄啓一

    千葉大学教育学部研究紀要   49 ( 1 ) 47 - 56  2001

  • 「落下スピード」と「重力の大きさ」に関する学習者の誤った関連づけとその修正

    麻柄啓一

    千葉大学教育実践研究   8   27 - 38  2001

  • 経済に関する不適切なルールとその修正に及ぼす上位ルールの効果

    麻柄啓一, 進藤聡彦

    千葉大学教育学部研究紀要   48 ( 1 ) 15 - 22  2000

  • 「円高・円安」は正しく理解されているか

    麻柄啓一

    千葉大学教育実践研究   7   1 - 10  2000

  • ルールの記述様式がルール適用の促進および抑制に及ぼす効果

    進藤聡彦, 麻柄啓一

    山梨大学教育人間科学部研究紀要   1 ( 2 ) 291 - 299  2000

  • How Can We Rectify a Misconception in Learners?

    MAGARA Keiichi

    Journal of Science Education in Japan   23/1,33-41 ( 1 ) 33 - 41  1999

     View Summary

    It is widely accepted that in order to rectify learners' misconception it is necessary to make them encounter scientific evidence that contradicts their misconception. In this paper an alternative strategy is proposed and its effect examined. The strategy was as follows. At the first stage a reading material was presented to learners which contained useful information that would help them to make solve aproblem in physics. At the second stage the problem was set and learners were asked two kinds of questions. One question requested them to solve the problem on the basis of their intuition. Their answers were generally wrong because they were guided by a misconception. The other question requested them to solve it on the basis of the information they had already read. Their answers were generally correct. At the third stage the consequence of the experiment in physics was presented and therefore the learners came to know which solution was correct. After these steps a transferable problem was set. Most of them could solve it successfully, being able to rectify their misconception. This teaching strategy was named "double reasoning method", because two contradictory reasoning processes (and answers) were provoked in each learner before he observed the consequence of the experiment.

    DOI CiNii

  • ルール適用の促進要因としてのルールの方向性と適用練習

    教育心理学研究   47/4,472-480  1999

  • 差別意識と共感性

    千葉大学教育学部研究紀要   47;1  1999

  • A Misconception of Electric Circuitry in Junior High School Students and Undergraduates

    MAGARA Keiichi

    Journal of Science Education in Japan   22/4,215-222 ( 4 ) 215 - 222  1998

     View Summary

    It is quite natural that a household electric appliance such as a television works in a electric circuit. But the author encountered several undergraduates who had the notion that an electric current was sent out one-sidedly from a power plant to a television and was consumed in it. This study investigated to what extent such a misconception was held by undergraduates and junior high school students. Subjects were presented several different figures illustrating schematically how an electric current flowed between a power plant and a television in a house, and then they were asked to select a correct one. About 55% of the undergraduates and 30% of the junior high school students selected a figure in which an electric current was illustrated as being sent out one-sidedly from a power plant to a television. Ss were then asked whether or not a man would be struck by electricity when he jumped and touched a transmission line that was torn off and dangling. Many subjects answered he would be struck. These results indicated that they pay no respect whether a load was incorporated into a circuit or not.

    DOI CiNii

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