Updated on 2024/07/18

写真a

 
NISHIMURA, Masao
 
Affiliation
Faculty of Letters, Arts and Sciences
Job title
Professor Emeritus
Degree
Ph.D ( University of Michigan )

Research Interests

  • Cultural Anthropology

 

Papers

  • Transformation of Cultural Landscape of Complex Societies in Southeast Asia: A Case Study of Cebu Central Settlement, Philippines

    NISHIMURA, Masao

    Human Relations and Social Developments - Anthropological Thoughts on Social Dynamics. (ed. Nishimura, M.)     275 - 308  2014.04  [Refereed]

  • Reestablishing National Identity by Reevaluating a Nation's Past - A University's Effort to Recover from War in the Late 1990s Cambodia: An Ethnographic Account

    NISHIMURA, Masao

    Natural Disaster and Reconstruction in Asian Econmics - A Global Synthesis of Shared Experiences (ed. by Yau Shuk-ting, Kinnia)     173 - 183  2013.12  [Refereed]  [Invited]

  • A Critical Review on "Invention of Tradition" from an Anthropological Archaeological Perspective: Based on the Study of Iron Slag found in the Cebu Central Settlement, Cebu City, Philippines

    NISHIMURA, Masao

    Bulletin of the Graduate Division of Letters, Arts and Sciences, Waseda University   58   71 - 96  2012.12  [Refereed]

    CiNii

  • What the Europeans Saw first in Cebu Island, and Why They Decided to Establish the First Colony at Cebu? - An Attempt to Reconstruct the Landscape of Cebu Island at the Time of the First European Contact -

    NISHIMURA, Masao

    Bulletin of the Graduate Division of Letters, Arts and Sciences, Waseda University   56 ( 3 ) 102 - 126  2010.12  [Refereed]

  • ヘリテージ・ツーリズムと文化的アイデンティティ-ラオス・カンボジアの国境地帯の調査から-

    西村 正雄

    アジア学のすすめ 第2巻アジア社会・文化論(村井吉敬 編集)     112 - 146  2010.03  [Refereed]  [Invited]

  • メコン川沿国境地帯のカルチュラル・ランドスケープの動態と観光開発-ラオス・カンボジアの国境地帯の事例から-

    西村 正雄

    東アジアの歴史・民族・考古     237 - 273  2009.03  [Refereed]  [Invited]

  • Some Negative Impact on Tourism Development: A Comparative Studies on Policy toward Tourism Development between Laos and Cambodia

    NISHIMURA, Masao

      54 ( 3 ) 159 - 177  2008.12

  • チャンパサック県の観光政策

    西村 正雄

    文化人類学年報(早稲田大学文学学術院)   3   47 - 50  2008.12

  • An Example of Cultural Landscape of World Heritage: Introduction of Vat Phu and Associated Archaeological Remains within the Cultural Landcape of Champasak

    NISHIMURA, Masao

    Members Report of World Heritage Academy   ( 1 ) 11 - 11  2008.04  [Invited]

  • The Procurement Pattern of Subsistence Materials of the People of Champasak, Lao PDR - An Application of Site Catchment Anaysis

    NISHIMURA, Masao

    Bulltin of Graduate School of Letters, Arts and Sciences   53 ( 3 ) 121 - 143  2008.02

  • Cultural Landscape and Memory of the Southern Part of Laos

    NISHIMURA, Masao

        1 - 33  2007.03  [Refereed]  [Invited]

  • Cultural Landscape and Memory among the People of Champasak

    NISHIMURA, Masao

    Southern Laos: A Quest for Cultural Landscape and Memory     34 - 55  2007.03  [Refereed]  [Invited]

  • Heritage nad Memory - For Good Maintenance of Champasak World Heritage

    NISHIMURA, Masao

    Southern Laos:A Quest for Cultural Landscape and Memory (edited by the Research Institure of Culture of Lao PDR (Masao Nishimura, director)     241 - 265  2007.03  [Refereed]  [Invited]

  • An Anthropological Studies on the Area of National Border between Lao PDR and Cambodia

    NISHIMURA, Masao

    Waseda Asia Review   3   22 - 27  2007.02  [Invited]

  • Re-Appraisal of the Concept of "Heritage"

    NISHIMURA, Masao

    Journal of Cultural Anthropology   7   1 - 22  2006.12  [Refereed]

    CiNii

  • Contested Voices concerning World Heritage - Subscription of Champasak Heritege on the World Heritage List and Marginalization of Local People: Reconsideration of the Relationship between the Center and Periphery

    NISHIMURA, Masao

        238 - 318  2006.03  [Refereed]

  • Collective Memory and Sharing among the People of Champasak

    NISHIMURA, Masao

    Annual Journal of Cultural Anthropology   2   15 - 24  2005.03

  • Long Distance Trade and the Development of Complex Societies in the Prehistory of the Central Philippines. The Cebu Central Settlement Case. 3 vol.

    NISHIMURA, Masao

    The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor     i - 1068  1992.05  [Refereed]

  • Shell Remains as Indicator of Environmental Change - A Case Study of the Change of Coastal Environment of Cebu Central Settlement in the First Millennium A.D. -

    NISHIMURA, Masao

    Annual Journal of Cultural Anthropology   5   1 - 30  [Refereed]  [Invited]

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Books and Other Publications

  • Human Relations and Social Developments - Anthropological Thoughts on Social Dynamics.

    NISHIMURA, Masao( Part: Edit, all articles)

    New Day Publication  2014.04

  • Southern Laos: A Quest for Cultural Landscape and Memory

    NISHIMURA, Masao( Part: Edit, all articles)

    2007.03

Presentations

  • An Attempt to Conserve the Philippine Heritage: Preliminary Analysis of the Data of Heritage Studies in Cebu City in 2016

    NISHIMURA, Masao  [Invited]

    The First International Conference on Philippine Studies 

    Presentation date: 2017.05

  • How Cebu People Think about Heritage: "Competitive Heritage"

    NISHIMURA, Masao  [Invited]

    The International Workshop on Re-Appraisal of the Concept of Heritage (held at Waseda Univesity) 

    Presentation date: 2017.03

  • Practicing Heritage - Living Heritage in Champasak, Lao PDR

    NISHIMURA, Masao

    The 5th International Conference of Lao Studies (held at Thammasat University, Bangkok, Thailand) 

    Presentation date: 2016.09

  • Tangible, Intangible and Living Heritage: A Variety of Heritage Concepts in Southeast Asia

    NISHIMURA, Masao

    IUAE Conference (held at Thammasat University, Bangkok, Thailand) 

    Presentation date: 2015.06

  • Issues on Heritage Management - with focus on sustainablity and capacity-building: A Case Study of Champasak World Heritage, Lao PDR, and Suggestiion to Cebu, Philippines

    NISHIMURA, Masao  [Invited]

    Research Talk at Casa Gorordo Museum, Cebu City, Philippines 

    Presentation date: 2014.08

  • Tourism Development and Its Impact on the Lao-Cambodian Border Region

    NISHIMURA, Masao

    The 4th International Conference on Lao Studies 

    Presentation date: 2013.04

  • Studying Dynamics of Cultures in Champasak, Lao PDR: A Report on the Anthropological Research Project in Champasak, Lao PDR from 2002 to 2007

    NISHIMURA, Masao

    The 10th International Conference on Thai Studies (held at Thammasat University, Bangkok) 

    Presentation date: 2008.01

  • World Heritage for Whom

    NISHIMURA, Masao

    The 2nd International Conference on Lao Studies (held at Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona) 

    Presentation date: 2007.05

  • Intangible Culture and Regional Studies of Southern Laos (with Mr. Chantapirith Chomsoraj, the former director of the Institute of Lao Culture, Vientiane, Lao PDR)

    NISHIMURA, Masao  [Invited]

    The International Conference on the Estalishment of Research on Local Cultures in Asia (held by the Center for Enhancing Local Culture in Asia, Waseda University) 

    Presentation date: 2006.10

  • World Heritage Nomination and Living Heritage Status: A Case Study of Champasak World Heritage Site, Lao PDR.

    NISHIMURA, Masao

    Cross-Cultural Perspective on Museums and Communities: An International Conference 

    Presentation date: 2005.09

  • Good Practice and Village Rule

    NISHIMURA, Masao  [Invited]

    Presentation date: 2005.09

  • Contested Views on the World Heritage Management: A Case Study of the Champasak World Heritage, Lao PDR

    NISHIMURA, Masao

    The Conference of European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeology (held at British Museum, London) 

    Presentation date: 2004.09

  • Landscape and Memory of Champasak People, Lao PDR

    NISHIMURA, Masao

    Presentation date: 2004.09

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Research Projects

  • Landscapes and Rituals of Wet Rice Culture in East Asian Villages

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research

    Project Year :

    2004
    -
    2007
     

    EBISAWA Tadashi, HORIGUTI Kenji, FUKAYA Katumi, KAMIYA Nobuyuki, SHINKAWA Tokio, NISHIMURA Masao

     View Summary

    The aim of this research was to demonstrate the historical and cultural relationships between wet-rice culture and societies in East Asia. In particular, it was intended to elucidate the cultural position of Japan in East Asia, with its focus on religious rites and village landscapes, through identifying specific fields of study. Japan is known as the easternmost edge of Indian culture. In order to clarify the cultural position of Japan, China and Japan are set as an east-west axis, with its focus on the study of the diffusion of wet-rice culture and Buddhism. Japan and Bali(Indonesia) were set as a north-south axis. Todai-ji temple in Japan, where research on the relationship between Buddhist culture and rice agriculture had already been carried out, was selected as the chief site. The study was conducted in the temple compound, and subsequently a symposium entitled Rice Field Development and the Wet-Rice Culture of Ancient and Medieval Buddhist Temples was organized on November 27, 2004. Another symposium, The Origin and Diffusion of Japonica Rice , organized on October 29, 2005, considered the Japanese cultural position, centering on the southern route which rice production took, and situations from the ancient period to the modern one were explained in part. In the east-west axis, the research paid main attention to state-led Buddhism and water irrigation, to which the research in Cambodia centering on Angkor Wat made a major contribution. In the north-south axis, the research in Bali was deepened, while the study of Yugeshima Island, in Ehime Prefecture, also advanced. In Bali, a report on Subak Basang Alas, in the east of the island, was produced. Subak is known as a village water-irrigation cooperative, and its report was written by the cooperative. This report was then translated into Japanese -a first. It was included, among other papers, in Lecture Series II-the Study of Wet-Rice Culture : Balinese Wet-Rice Culture and Rituals-Centering on Basang Alas Village of Karangasem Regency.
    In sum, it can be said that the foundations of the societies of wet-rice agriculture in East Asia have been clarified.

  • Research of rice field formation and the water field rice culture in east Asia (Center on Japan)'.

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research

    Project Year :

    2002
    -
    2003
     

    EBISAWA Tadashi, OKAUTI Mituzane, HORIGUTI Kenzi, NAKASIMA Minehiro, WADA Osamu, NISIMURA Masao

     View Summary

    The purpose of this research is to clarify the characteristic of the rice field society which extends to east Asia. Tsushima and Bali were chosen as the investigation field. It aimed to clarify a traditional form of the rice field and the village on these ground, and to do the comparison research on the water field rice culture. The digitalization of the survey material with a remarkable evolution was positively used now, and the restoration research on the rice field, the village, and etiquette was advanced interdisciplinary.
    The focus was decided in 豆酸(ツツ) located in the south end in Tsushima. An environment of the rice field where the red-kerneled rice divine service was held and historical details of the etiquette were investigated on this ground. In that case, it gave priority to digging up the history material. It investigated emphatically in the Tsushima history folk customs material pavilion. Nagasaki prefectural library, and Kongoin Temple, etc. The historical materials of about 6000 points was digitalized. These were input to the personal computer, it made to the table at once, and it used it to investigate the restoration. Moreover. 1/2000 topographical maps were made from the aerophotograph in this region by digital work, historical materials was used, and the spectacle restoration was advanced. As mentioned above, a pinpoint investigation of the village was advanced, and it served to clarify a historical role of Tsushima in this sea area.
    On the other hand, the existence of the autonomous village having been supported by the etiquette of Hinduism so far was known in Bali. Terraced paddy fields exist in whole island in Bali, and progressing the arts of the play, music, the sculpture, and the painting, etc. has been paid to attention. Mainly this time. Subak (irrigation organization in Bali) was investigated. The comparison research in the rice field irrigation form named Bali Basangalas and Tsushima Tsutsu (豆酸) was done. As a result, the traditional irrigation form of the Bali village having evolved more than Japan became clear. These results were able to be brought together in the report 'Research of rice field formation and the water field rice culture in east Asia (Center on Japan)'.

  • A Development Anthropological Research on Social Impact of Socio-Economic Development by International Cooperation Aid

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research

    Project Year :

    1999
    -
    2001
     

    ABE Yoshiaki, ITO Abito, NISHIMURA Masao, KOBAYASHI Hideo, KASAI Nobuyuki, KIKUCHI Kyoko

     View Summary

    This project was aimed to clarify the extent of cultural efficacy among the socio-economic development business, executed by the actors in international cooperation aid. During the first year 1999, the existence of unique geopolitical communities and the situation of leaderships among these communities was investigated by the members, so as to locate the field of interest and to decide the approach adequate to the field. The members started their anthropological field research on the academic year 2000. Each member took under their field research including interviews on social impact to the relative population. Although each investigator encountered with several difficulties during the interview research which usually includes hidden political meaning the interviews successfully brought important findings to the investigators thanks to the voluntary help of the population. The investigation team finally reached the stage to sum up their findings and try to build theoretical setting for the empowerment of the efficacy of cultural basis in development business during the last year of the term.
    Individually, Abe clarified practical issues of change occurred among the way of women's life in an Indonesian village influenced by a water supply infrastructure construction project held by the international agencies and the Japanese ODA. Kobayashi succeeded to investigate the social impacts of a regional development project in Thailand, held by a Japanese industrial company observed through the eyes of the population who don't receive direct benefits from the project. Nishimura, who took a research at Cambodia on the flow of the governmental aid budget during the election of a prefectural assembly, clarified the structure of relationship between the development aid policy and the internal politics of the country. Ito focused on the people-initiated reinvigorate movements of the Korean local communities after the Saemaul movement and particularly clarified the change and present situation of the local communities. Kyoko Kikuchi figured out the positive impact of a microfinance project in a Filipino village on the sense reform and living environment of the landless peasants, Kasai also found out a social diversification created between the young job winners and losers living near the location of the new airport construction project at Pudong, Shanghai in China. Yasushi Kikuchi, the head investigator of the first two years and the supporting investigator at the final year, investigated National Economy and Development Agency and several projects held by the agency in the depressed area of Metro Manila, Philippines. With his interview research, he also found out the needs of well established governmental evaluation system for the development projects in the country. Dr. Villacorta of the De La Salle University of Philippines, also contributed to this investigation project as a specialist of international politics surrounding Philippines development business.

  • リビングヘリテージの比較研究

    科学研究費助成事業(早稲田大学)  科学研究費助成事業(基盤研究(C))

  • アジア地域文化に関する共同研究:中国

    文部科学省 

 

Internal Special Research Projects

  • 無形遺産の保全と管理における政府の政策と方針についての研究-ラオスとフィリピンの比較研究-

    2018   小田島 理絵, 北田 綾, 増見 エミ, Sikhanxay, Phakhanxay, Gerra, Joy

     View Summary

       The present research is organized within a large research design: the research of heritage management in Southeast Asia.  The research has been conducted by the author and his team since the beginning of 2000.  The research has focused on the interrelationships between the heritage and people's perception for it.  In order to examine the aforementioned problems, the author has conducted a series of field studies in southern Laos, Champasak, and in Cebu, the Philippines.  We have so far had the following results: 1) people within or near by the heritage have a strong feeling with not only visible objects, but associated knowledge (often religious knowledge); 2) they exhibit their feeling in a variety of ways such as weaving design, daily worship; or everyday practice in their life.  We call these practices collectively, "living heritage".  Namely, living heritage is the one which makes the residence feel close to the heritage.     The present project, therefore,  focused on the living heritage among the residents in the heritage area.  Among others, one of the main components of living heritage is the so-called intangible heritage.  This year the research especially concentrated on the definition of intangible heritage by the government officers, and management by them.  In Laos, the officers of the central government and local government both appear to be confused about what intangible heritage is.  However, they recognize the importance of intangible heritage, and so they established a special section of intangible heritage within the Ministry of Information, Culture and Tourism.  However, they still don't know what to do for the management.      In respect with the Philippines, the intangible heritage is recognized among the residents, and it is quite personalized.  Just as the tangible heritage, they will talk about their family's intangible heritage.  And probably for this reason, the public sectors including the central and local governments, officers does not show interests in the preservation of intangible heritage.     In conclusion of the research, I would like to emphasize two points: 1) living heritage, including intangible heritage, make people be aware of heritage, and so intangible heritage is more important  in terms of conservation of local heritage; 2)  as so in the case of tangible heritage, we can observe a great variability in the perception of intangible heritage.  Therefore, in order to figure out the living heritage (intangible heritage), we have to conduct much more detailed field research in Southeast Asia. 

  • 有形・無形遺産カテゴリーの再検討

    2017   小田島 理絵, 三浦 恵子, Joy Gerra, Phakhanxay Sikhanxay

     View Summary

    The present research consists of a part ofthe large framework which intends tore-think the concept of heritage.  Inthis perspective, the research especially pursues two aims: 1) the heritageconcept is shared with almost everyone in an area; 2) the heritage concept isinherited from generation to generation. In order to examine this concept, the present research organized the fieldresearch in Lao PDR and the Philippines. In Lao PDR, a field research was conducted at one of the villagesoutside the Champasak World Heritage area. The village is inhabited by Christians, while all other villages areBuddhists residents.  The researchfocused on their feeling toward heritage, especially heritage in publicspace.  It is interesting to know that asfar as public heritage is concerned, their feeling and idea toward heritage isthe same as that of Buddhist residents. In the Philippines, the field research was conducted among the Muslimresidents in Cebu City.  Although theyreluctantly admit and accept the public heritage, most of which are related toChristianity, they also insist Muslim heritage should equally be recognized.  Although the analysis of two data sets isprogressing, the comparison between two areas provides an interesting view onthe variability of the heritage concept. It is clear that there are much more varieties in the heritage concepts.

  • ラオス共和国、チャンパサック州ワット・プー地域における、集落ネットワークの人類学的研究

    1997  

     View Summary

    本プロジェクトは、私が推進してきた、東南アジアにおける複合社会の発展に関する研究の一貫として行っているものである。この研究の主目的は、東南アジア社会―文化の「複合性」の定義と、複合性を測るスケールの確立にある。私がこれまで行ってきた研究により、特定の地域内での集落ネットワークに見られる階層化と、その階層のレベルの数が、複合社会の発展と、正の比例関係にあることがわかってきている。 そこで本プロジェクトでは、この考えを東南アジアの特定地域を選んで検証するために、集落ネットワークを作り上げている3つの主要素:物資の流れ;サービスの流れ(人的移動);情報の流れ、に関するデータを集め、分析することに集中している。そのための研究地域として、ラオス共和国、チャンパサック州、ワット・プー地域を選び、そこでのフィールドワークを通じて第一次データの収集は終了している。 フィールド調査は、1997年7月―8月、11月―12月、1998年1月―3月の期間行い、内、1998年1月―3月までの調査及びその後の分析に、本研究費を充当した。今回の調査では、時間と予算の関係から、物資の流れについての調査に集中した。調査は、ワット・プー遺跡に一番近い、すなわち地域の中心に近いものから開始した。20村落の調査を終了している。調査は、各村落の全世帯数の10%ランダムサンプリングの形で家族を抽出し、抽出した家族の中に入ってインタヴューと観察の2つの方法で行った。 現在まだ資料の分析中で、結論を述べるには時期が早すぎるが、以下4点について、この地域の資源利用に特異なパターンが見られるように思われる。1. 自給自足的経済システムがこの地域でよく確立している。生活必需品:食料、燃料、容器類等は、ほとんど身近な自然環境の開拓で調達している。2. 村落間の生産物の専門化が見られる。すべての村落の基本的生業形態は水田耕作であるが、それに加えて他の生産活動を行っている。この二次的生産活動から生じる産物の点で、多くの特殊化が見られる。特殊な手工芸をそれぞれの村落が持ち、それらを村落間交換の形で流通させている。3. 地域に大きなマーケットが存在しないため、村落間の物資の交換が、地域の経済で重要である。これにより、物資が広く分配され、資源へのアクセスの点で、一様化が図られている。この一様化が、地域の結束に重要な意義をもっている。4. 年に一度の大きな宗教的なお祭り(ワット・プーフェスティバル)が、地域外で生産された物資を地域内に入れる一種のマーケットの役割を演じている。研究成果の発表March 1998Capacity Building in Cultural Heritage Management within the Context of Assistance for the Preservation of Wat Phu. Research Report of UNESCO. Bangkok: UNESCO Office of the Regional Advisor for Culture in Asia and the Pacific.1999(予定)A Study of Settlement Systems in the Wat Phu Region, Champassak Province, Lao PDR (provisional) Journal of Asian Studies.1999(予定)ラオス共和国、ワット・プー地域における資源の利用状況と、集落システム。『史観』(早稲田大学史学会)。