Updated on 2022/12/02

写真a

 
TANISAWA, Kumpei
 
Scopus Paper Info  
Paper Count: 0  Citation Count: 0  h-index: 15

Citation count denotes the number of citations in papers published for a particular year.

Affiliation
Faculty of Sport Sciences, School of Sport and Sciences
Job title
Associate Professor
Mail Address
メールアドレス

Concurrent Post

  • Affiliated organization   Global Education Center

Education

  • 2012.04
    -
    2015.03

    Waseda University  

  • 2010.04
    -
    2012.03

    Waseda University  

  • 2006.04
    -
    2010.03

    Waseda University   School of Sport Sciences  

Degree

  • 早稲田大学   博士(スポーツ科学)

Research Experience

  • 2022.04
    -
    Now

    Waseda University   Faculty of Sport Sciences

  • 2019.04
    -
    2022.03

    Waseda University   Faculty of Sport Sciences

  • 2018.07
    -
    2019.03

    University of Brighton   Visiting Researcher,

  • 2016.04
    -
    2019.03

    医薬基盤・健康・栄養研究所   身体活動研究部   流動研究員

  • 2015.04
    -
    2019.03

    日本学術振興会   特別研究員PD

  • 2014.04
    -
    2015.03

    日本学術振興会   特別研究員DC2

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Professional Memberships

  •  
     
     

    American College of Sports Medicine

  •  
     
     

    JAPAN SOCIETY FOR BIOMEDICAL GERONTOLOGY

  •  
     
     

    THE JAPANESE SOCIETY OF PHYSICAL FITNESS AND SPORTS MEDICINE

 

Research Areas

  • Sports sciences

  • Nutrition science and health science

Research Interests

  • 個人差

  • 運動処方

  • 老化

  • 生活習慣病

  • 遺伝子多型

  • 体力

  • 身体活動

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Papers

  • Phase angle obtained via bioelectrical impedance analysis and objectively measured physical activity or exercise habits.

    Yosuke Yamada, Tsukasa Yoshida, Haruka Murakami, Ryoko Kawakami, Yuko Gando, Harumi Ohno, Kumpei Tanisawa, Kana Konishi, Tripette Julien, Emi Kondo, Takashi Nakagata, Hinako Nanri, Motohiko Miyachi

    Scientific reports   12 ( 1 ) 17274 - 17274  2022.10  [International journal]

     View Summary

    The phase angle (PhA), measured via bioelectrical impedance analysis, is considered an indicator of cellular health, where higher values reflect higher cellularity, cell membrane integrity, and better cell function. This study aimed to examine the relationship between PhA and exercise habits or objectively measured physical activity. We included 115 people aged 32-69 years. The body composition and PhA were measured using a bioelectrical impedance device. Physical activity and sedentary behavior (SB) were assessed using a triaxial accelerometer. Exercise habits were also obtained through structured interviews, and participants were categorized into the no exercise habit (No-Ex), resistance training exercise habit (RT), or aerobic training exercise habit (AT) groups. Objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity or step count significantly correlated with PhA, independent of age, sex, height, percent body fat, body cell mass, and leg muscle power. In contrast, SB was not significant determinants of PhA. People who exercised regularly (RT or AT) had significantly higher PhA values than did those in the No-Ex group. Furthermore, the PhA was not significantly different between the RT and AT groups. Regularly engaging in exercise with moderate-to-vigorous intensity may improve or maintain muscle cellular health and muscle quality.

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  • Coffee consumption and skeletal muscle mass: WASEDA’S Health Study

    Ryoko Kawakami, Kumpei Tanisawa, Tomoko Ito, Chiyoko Usui, Kaori Ishii, Isao Muraoka, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Shizuo Sakamoto, Mitsuru Higuchi, Koichiro Oka

    British Journal of Nutrition     1 - 33  2022.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Abstract

    Few studies have examined the association between coffee consumption and muscle mass; their results are conflicting. Therefore, we examined the association between coffee consumption and low muscle mass prevalence. We also performed an exploratory investigation of the potential effect modification by demographic, health status-related, and physical activity-related covariates. This cross-sectional study included 2085 adults aged 40–87 years. The frequency of coffee consumption was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Muscle mass was assessed as appendicular skeletal muscle mass/height2 using a multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analyser. We defined low muscle mass using cut-offs recommended by the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios for low muscle mass prevalence were estimated using a logistic regression model. The prevalence of low muscle mass was 5.4% (n = 113). Compared with the lowest coffee consumption group (<1 cup/week), the multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of low muscle mass prevalence were 0.62 (0.30, 1.29) for 1–3 cups/week, 0.53 (0.29, 0.96) for 4–6 cups/week or 1 cup/day, and 0.28 (0.15, 0.53) for ≥2 cups/day (P for trend <0.001). There were no significant interactions among the various covariates after Bonferroni correction. In conclusion, coffee consumption may be inversely associated with low muscle mass prevalence.

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  • Fat-Free Mass Index as a Surrogate Marker of Appendicular Skeletal Muscle Mass Index for Low Muscle Mass Screening in Sarcopenia

    Ryoko Kawakami, Kumpei Tanisawa, Tomoko Ito, Chiyoko Usui, Motohiko Miyachi, Suguru Torii, Taishi Midorikawa, Kaori Ishii, Isao Muraoka, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Shizuo Sakamoto, Mitsuru Higuchi, Koichiro Oka

    Journal of the American Medical Directors Association    2022.09  [Refereed]

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  • Oral administration of Blautia wexlerae ameliorates obesity and type 2 diabetes via metabolic remodeling of the gut microbiota

    Koji Hosomi, Mayu Saito, Jonguk Park, Haruka Murakami, Naoko Shibata, Masahiro Ando, Takahiro Nagatake, Kana Konishi, Harumi Ohno, Kumpei Tanisawa, Attayeb Mohsen, Yi-An Chen, Hitoshi Kawashima, Yayoi Natsume-Kitatani, Yoshimasa Oka, Hidenori Shimizu, Mari Furuta, Yoko Tojima, Kento Sawane, Azusa Saika, Saki Kondo, Yasunori Yonejima, Haruko Takeyama, Akira Matsutani, Kenji Mizuguchi, Motohiko Miyachi, Jun Kunisawa

    Nature Communications   13 ( 1 )  2022.08  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Abstract

    The gut microbiome is an important determinant in various diseases. Here we perform a cross-sectional study of Japanese adults and identify the Blautia genus, especially B. wexlerae, as a commensal bacterium that is inversely correlated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Oral administration of B. wexlerae to mice induce metabolic changes and anti-inflammatory effects that decrease both high-fat diet–induced obesity and diabetes. The beneficial effects of B. wexlerae are correlated with unique amino-acid metabolism to produce S-adenosylmethionine, acetylcholine, and l-ornithine and carbohydrate metabolism resulting in the accumulation of amylopectin and production of succinate, lactate, and acetate, with simultaneous modification of the gut bacterial composition. These findings reveal unique regulatory pathways of host and microbial metabolism that may provide novel strategies in preventive and therapeutic approaches for metabolic disorders.

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  • Dietary Vitamin B1 Intake Influences Gut Microbial Community and the Consequent Production of Short-Chain Fatty Acids.

    Jonguk Park, Koji Hosomi, Hitoshi Kawashima, Yi-An Chen, Attayeb Mohsen, Harumi Ohno, Kana Konishi, Kumpei Tanisawa, Masako Kifushi, Masato Kogawa, Haruko Takeyama, Haruka Murakami, Tetsuya Kubota, Motohiko Miyachi, Jun Kunisawa, Kenji Mizuguchi

    Nutrients   14 ( 10 )  2022.05  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    The gut microbiota is closely related to good health; thus, there have been extensive efforts dedicated to improving health by controlling the gut microbial environment. Probiotics and prebiotics are being developed to support a healthier intestinal environment. However, much work remains to be performed to provide effective solutions to overcome individual differences in the gut microbial community. This study examined the importance of nutrients, other than dietary fiber, on the survival of gut bacteria in high-health-conscious populations. We found that vitamin B1, which is an essential nutrient for humans, had a significant effect on the survival and competition of bacteria in the symbiotic gut microbiota. In particular, sufficient dietary vitamin B1 intake affects the relative abundance of Ruminococcaceae, and these bacteria have proven to require dietary vitamin B1 because they lack the de novo vitamin B1 synthetic pathway. Moreover, we demonstrated that vitamin B1 is involved in the production of butyrate, along with the amount of acetate in the intestinal environment. We established the causality of possible associations and obtained mechanical insight, through in vivo murine experiments and in silico pathway analyses. These findings serve as a reference to support the development of methods to establish optimal intestinal environment conditions for healthy lifestyles.

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  • The MMAAS Project: An Observational Human Study Investigating the Effect of Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Use on Gene Expression and the Molecular Mechanism of Muscle Memory.

    Giscard Lima, Alexander Kolliari-Turner, Guan Wang, Patrick Ho, Lyra Meehan, Kelly Roeszler, Jane Seto, Fernanda Rossell Malinsky, Antonia Karanikolou, Gregor Eichhorn, Kumpei Tanisawa, Jonathan Ospina-Betancurt, Blair Hamilton, Paulette Y O Kumi, Jonathan Shurlock, Vasileios Skiadas, Richard Twycross-Lewis, Liam Kilduff, Fergus M Guppy, Kathryn North, Yannis Pitsiladis, Chiara Fossati, Fabio Pigozzi, Paolo Borrione

    Clinical journal of sport medicine : official journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine    2022.05  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    OBJECTIVE: It remains unknown whether myonuclei remain elevated post anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) usage in humans. Limited data exist on AAS-induced changes in gene expression. DESIGN: Cross-sectional/longitudinal. SETTING: University. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-six men aged 20 to 42 years. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES: Non-resistance-trained (C) or resistance-trained (RT), RT currently using AAS (RT-AS), of which if AAS usage ceased for ≥18 weeks resampled as Returning Participants (RP) or RT previously using AAS (PREV). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Myonuclei per fiber and cross-sectional area (CSA) of trapezius muscle fibers. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between C (n = 5), RT (n = 15), RT-AS (n = 17), and PREV (n = 6) for myonuclei per fiber. Three of 5 returning participants (RP1-3) were biopsied twice. Before visit 1, RP1 ceased AAS usage 34 weeks before, RP2 and RP3 ceased AAS usage ≤2 weeks before, and all had 28 weeks between visits. Fiber CSA decreased for RP1 and RP2 between visits (7566 vs 6629 μm2; 7854 vs 5677 μm2) while myonuclei per fiber remained similar (3.5 vs 3.4; 2.5 vs 2.6). Respectively, these values increased for RP3 between visits (7167 vs 7889 μm2; 2.6 vs 3.3). CONCLUSIONS: This cohort of past AAS users did not have elevated myonuclei per fiber values, unlike previous research, but reported AAS usage was much lower. Training and AAS usage history also varied widely among participants. Comparable myonuclei per fiber numbers despite decrements in fiber CSA postexposure adheres with the muscle memory mechanism, but there is variation in usage relative to sampling date and low numbers of returning participants.

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  • The combination of cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness, and prevalence of diabetes mellitus in middle-aged and older men: WASEDA'S Health Study.

    Dong Wang, Susumu S Sawada, Hiroki Tabata, Ryoko Kawakami, Tomoko Ito, Kumpei Tanisawa, Mitsuru Higuchi, Kaori Ishii, Koichiro Oka, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Shizuo Sakamoto

    BMC public health   22 ( 1 ) 626 - 626  2022.03  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    BACKGROUND: Although the negative relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) or muscular fitness and diabetes mellitus were respectively observed in many previous studies, there is still a lack of studies that include CRF and muscular fitness simultaneously. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between the combination of CRF and muscular fitness and diabetes through a cross-sectional study.  METHODS: This study was part of WASEDA'S Health Study, a cohort study launched in 2014. We used a part of the baseline data collected for this study. Maximal exercise test using a cycle ergometer and leg extension power (LEP) test were respectively used to evaluate CRF and muscular fitness. Since LEP is affected by body weight, relative LEP (rLEP) which is LEP per body weight, was used as an index of muscular fitness. 796 men (56.5 ± 10.4 years old) who completed a medical examination and fitness tests, were divided into two groups based on CRF and rLEP, respectively. The prevalence of diabetes was collected based on a self-reported questionnaire or blood test. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the prevalence of diabetes were obtained using logistic regression models while adjusting for age, body mass index, exercise habits, family history of diabetes, smoking habits, and drinking habits. RESULTS: 55 (7%) participants had diabetes. Compared to participants with lower CRF or rLEP, the odds ratio (95% CIs) of diabetes in those with higher CRF or rLEP was 0.46 (0.21-0.98) or 0.34 (0.16-0.74), respectively. Furthermore, using the lower CRF and lower rLEP group as the reference, the odds ratio (95% CIs) for the lower CRF and higher rLEP group was 0.32 (0.12-0.88), and higher CRF and higher rLEP group was 0.21 (0.07-0.63), after adjusting for potential confounding factors. CONCLUSIONS: CRF and rLEP have independent and joint inverse associations with diabetes prevalence. In addition, participants with high CRF and high rLEP had a lower prevalence of diabetes compared to those with only high CRF or only high rLEP.

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  • Association Between Dietary Patterns and Different Metabolic Phenotypes in Japanese Adults: WASEDA'S Health Study.

    Kumpei Tanisawa, Tomoko Ito, Ryoko Kawakami, Chiyoko Usui, Takuji Kawamura, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Shizuo Sakamoto, Kaori Ishii, Isao Muraoka, Koichiro Oka, Mitsuru Higuchi

    Frontiers in nutrition   9   779967 - 779967  2022  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Although many studies have reported that a posteriori dietary pattern is associated with metabolic health, there is little evidence of an association between dietary patterns and different metabolic phenotypes. The present study aimed to examine the association between major dietary patterns and different metabolic phenotypes (metabolically healthy non-obese [MHNO], metabolically unhealthy non-obese [MUNO], metabolically healthy obese [MHO], and metabolically unhealthy obese [MUO]) in middle-aged and elderly Japanese adults. This cross-sectional study enrolled 2,170 Japanese adults aged ≥40 years. The four different metabolic phenotypes were determined based on the presence of obesity, abdominal obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia. The major dietary patterns were determined using principal component analysis based on energy-adjusted food intake. Two dietary patterns were identified: the healthy dietary pattern, which was characterized by a high intake of vegetables, fruits, potatoes, soy products, mushrooms, seaweeds, and fish; and the alcohol dietary pattern, which was characterized by a high intake of alcoholic beverages, liver, chicken, and fish. The healthy dietary pattern was associated with the MHNO and MHO phenotypes (MUNO and MUO as reference groups, respectively), and the multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) in the highest quartile of healthy dietary pattern score with the lowest quartile as the reference category were 2.10 (1.40-3.15) and 1.86 (1.06-3.25), respectively. Conversely, the alcohol dietary pattern was inversely associated with the MHNO and MHO phenotypes, while the multivariate-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) in the highest quartile of the alcohol dietary pattern score with the lowest quartile as the reference category were 0.63 (0.42-0.94) and 0.45 (0.26-0.76), respectively. There were no significant interactions between sex and healthy/alcohol dietary patterns in the prevalence of the MHNO and MHO phenotypes. In conclusion, the present study's findings suggest that major dietary patterns are associated with different metabolic phenotypes in middle-aged and elderly Japanese adults. These findings provide useful evidence for maintaining metabolic health through diet regardless of obesity status.

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  • Association Between Temporal Changes in Diet Quality and Concurrent Changes in Dietary Intake, Body Mass Index, and Physical Activity Among Japanese Adults: A Longitudinal Study.

    Daiki Watanabe, Haruka Murakami, Yuko Gando, Ryoko Kawakami, Kumpei Tanisawa, Harumi Ohno, Kana Konishi, Azusa Sasaki, Akie Morishita, Nobuyuki Miyatake, Motohiko Miyachi

    Frontiers in nutrition   9   753127 - 753127  2022  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    Background: Many cross-sectional studies have identified modifiable factors such as dietary intake, physique, and physical activity associated with diet quality but were unable to determine how a specific individual's diet quality changes with these factors. These relationships may vary depending on an individual's dietary intake. We aimed to determine the association between temporal changes in diet quality and concurrent changes in dietary intake, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity according to the diet quality trajectory pattern. Methods: This longitudinal prospective study included 697 Japanese adults aged 26-85 years, at baseline, with available data from at least two dietary intake surveys (4,118 measurements). Dietary intake and physical activity were evaluated using validated dietary questionnaires and a triaxial accelerometer. Diet quality was calculated using the Nutrient-Rich Food Index 9.3 (NRF9.3), while physical activity was calculated based on the duration of activity performed at each level of intensity (sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous). Body mass index was calculated from the measured height and weight. Statistical analyses involved latent class growth models (LCGM) and random-effect panel data analysis. Results: During a mean follow-up period of 6.8 years, NRF9.3 scores were assessed, on average, 5.4 times in men and 6.1 times in women. Based on the NRF9.3 score, three separate trajectory groups-"low-increasing," "medium-increasing," and "high-stable"-among individuals aged 26-90 years were identified using LCGM. In the multivariate analysis, the NRF9.3 score trajectory was positively associated with intake of energy, protein, dietary fiber, vitamins A and C, magnesium, and food items, such as fruits and vegetables, and was negatively associated with BMI and the intake of added sugar, saturated fats, sodium, and food items, such as meat and sugar and confectioneries, even after adjusting for covariates. These relationships displayed heterogeneity across the identified NRF9.3 score trajectory groups. In the low-increasing group, an inverse relationship was observed between sedentary behavior and NRF9.3 score trajectory. Conclusions: We identified modifiable factors associated with temporal changes in diet quality across a wide age range; however, these factors may vary according to the diet quality trajectories. Our findings may help develop effective strategies for improving diet quality, according to the trajectory of diet quality.

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  • Potential use of new cooling technologies during Tokyo 2020 Olympics and associated ethical dilemmas.

    Borja Muniz-Pardos, Konstantinos Angeloudis, Fergus M Guppy, Kumpei Tanisawa, Yuri Hosokawa, Garrett Ash, Wolfgang Schobersberger, Andrew Grundstein, Victor Bargoria, Gerald O Lwande, James H Ombaka, Emin Ergen, Fumihiro Yamasawa, Sebastien Racinais, Douglas J Casa, Yannis P Pitsiladis

    British journal of sports medicine   55 ( 23 ) 1315 - 1316  2021.12  [Refereed]  [International journal]

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  • Establishing a Global Standard for Wearable Devices in Sport and Exercise Medicine: Perspectives from Academic and Industry Stakeholders.

    Garrett I Ash, Matthew Stults-Kolehmainen, Michael A Busa, Allison E Gaffey, Konstantinos Angeloudis, Borja Muniz-Pardos, Robert Gregory, Robert A Huggins, Nancy S Redeker, Stuart A Weinzimer, Lauren A Grieco, Kate Lyden, Esmeralda Megally, Ioannis Vogiatzis, LaurieAnn Scher, Xinxin Zhu, Julien S Baker, Cynthia Brandt, Michael S Businelle, Lisa M Fucito, Stephanie Griggs, Robert Jarrin, Bobak J Mortazavi, Temiloluwa Prioleau, Walter Roberts, Elias K Spanakis, Laura M Nally, Andre Debruyne, Norbert Bachl, Fabio Pigozzi, Farzin Halabchi, Dimakatso A Ramagole, Dina C Janse van Rensburg, Bernd Wolfarth, Chiara Fossati, Sandra Rozenstoka, Kumpei Tanisawa, Mats Börjesson, José Antonio Casajus, Alex Gonzalez-Aguero, Irina Zelenkova, Jeroen Swart, Gamze Gursoy, William Meyerson, Jason Liu, Dov Greenbaum, Yannis P Pitsiladis, Mark B Gerstein

    Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.)   51 ( 11 ) 2237 - 2250  2021.11  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    Millions of consumer sport and fitness wearables (CSFWs) are used worldwide, and millions of datapoints are generated by each device. Moreover, these numbers are rapidly growing, and they contain a heterogeneity of devices, data types, and contexts for data collection. Companies and consumers would benefit from guiding standards on device quality and data formats. To address this growing need, we convened a virtual panel of industry and academic stakeholders, and this manuscript summarizes the outcomes of the discussion. Our objectives were to identify (1) key facilitators of and barriers to participation by CSFW manufacturers in guiding standards and (2) stakeholder priorities. The venues were the Yale Center for Biomedical Data Science Digital Health Monthly Seminar Series (62 participants) and the New England Chapter of the American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting (59 participants). In the discussion, stakeholders outlined both facilitators of (e.g., commercial return on investment in device quality, lucrative research partnerships, and transparent and multilevel evaluation of device quality) and barriers (e.g., competitive advantage conflict, lack of flexibility in previously developed devices) to participation in guiding standards. There was general agreement to adopt Keadle et al.'s standard pathway for testing devices (i.e., benchtop, laboratory, field-based, implementation) without consensus on the prioritization of these steps. Overall, there was enthusiasm not to add prescriptive or regulatory steps, but instead create a networking hub that connects companies to consumers and researchers for flexible guidance navigating the heterogeneity, multi-tiered development, dynamicity, and nebulousness of the CSFW field.

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  • Development and validation of a simple anthropometric equation to predict appendicular skeletal muscle mass.

    Ryoko Kawakami, Motohiko Miyachi, Kumpei Tanisawa, Tomoko Ito, Chiyoko Usui, Taishi Midorikawa, Suguru Torii, Kaori Ishii, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Shizuo Sakamoto, Mitsuru Higuchi, Isao Muraoka, Koichiro Oka

    Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland)   40 ( 11 ) 5523 - 5530  2021.11  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: A limited number of studies have developed simple anthropometric equations that can be implemented for predicting muscle mass in the local community. Several studies have suggested calf circumference as a simple and accurate surrogate maker for muscle mass. We aimed to develop and cross-validate a simple anthropometric equation, which incorporates calf circumference, to predict appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Furthermore, we conducted a comparative validity assessment of our equation with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and two previously reported equations using similar variables. METHODS: ASM measurements were recorded for 1262 participants (837 men, 425 women) aged 40 years or older. Participants were randomly divided into the development or validation group. Stepwise multiple linear regression was applied to develop the DXA-measured ASM prediction equation. Parameters including age, sex, height, weight, waist circumference, and calf circumference were incorporated as predictor variables. Total error was calculated as the square root of the sum of the square of the difference between DXA-measured and predicted ASMs divided by the total number of individuals. RESULTS: The most optimal ASM prediction equation developed was: ASM (kg) = 2.955 × sex (men = 1, women = 0) + 0.255 × weight (kg) - 0.130 × waist circumference (cm) + 0.308 × calf circumference (cm) + 0.081 × height (cm) - 11.897 (adjusted R2 = 0.94, standard error of the estimate = 1.2 kg). Our equation had smaller total error and higher intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values than those for BIA and two previously reported equations, for both men and women (men, total error = 1.2 kg, ICC = 0.91; women, total error = 1.1 kg, ICC = 0.80). The correlation between DXA-measured ASM and predicted ASM by the present equation was not significantly different from the correlation between DXA-measured ASM and BIA-measured ASM. CONCLUSIONS: The equation developed in this study can predict ASM more accurately as compared to equations where calf circumference is used as the sole variable and previously reported equations; it holds potential as a reliable and an effective substitute for estimating ASM.

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  • Effect of a 1-year intervention comprising brief counselling sessions and low-dose physical activity recommendations in Japanese adults, and retention of the effect at 2 years: a randomized trial.

    Julien Tripette, Yuko Gando, Haruka Murakami, Ryoko Kawakami, Kumpei Tanisawa, Harumi Ohno, Kana Konishi, Michiya Tanimoto, Noriko Tanaka, Hiroshi Kawano, Kenta Yamamoto, Akie Morishita, Motoyuki Iemitsu, Kiyoshi Sanada, Nobuyuki Miyatake, Motohiko Miyachi

    BMC sports science, medicine & rehabilitation   13 ( 1 ) 133 - 133  2021.10  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    BACKGROUND: In an effort to increase people's adherence to active lifestyles, contemporary physical activity (PA) guidelines now include low-dose PA. METHODS: PA was evaluated in 583 participants of the Nutritional and Physical Activity Intervention Study (NEXIS) cohort (30-65 years old); 349 inactive participants (MVPA, 2.7 ± 1.0 MET-h/day) were randomly assigned to the intervention or control groups, and 235 active participants participated in follow-up visits. The intervention aimed to increase MVPA and comprised five brief counseling sessions over 1 year. The 1-year target for the participant was increasing their step-count to 10,000 steps/d or +3000 steps/d, relative to the baseline score. The counseling sessions were designed to stimulate progressive changes in physical behaviors by recommendations promoting small and/or light-intensity bouts of PA. PA was measured at baseline, the end of the intervention, and 1 year after the intervention ended. Additionally, several nutrition, health, and fitness parameters were measured. RESULTS: Participants in the intervention group significantly increased their step-count from 8415 ± 1924 at baseline to 9493 ± 2575 at the end of the 1-year period. During the same period, MVPA significantly increased by 0.9 MET-h. The daily time spent in ≥ 3, ≥ 4 and ≥ 5 MET activities increased by 11, 6, and 3 min, respectively. This increase in PA remained observable 1 year after intervention concluded. The active group maintained higher physical activity levels throughout the two years. The intervention group showed smaller energy intakes at the end of the 2-year period. Significant correlations were noted between the 1-year change in MVPA and the change in resting heart rate (r =  - 0.22), and between the 2-year change in MVPA and the change in waist circumference (r =  - 0.08) and peak oxygen consumption capacity (r = 0.23) in the intervention group only. CONCLUSIONS: A prolonged and progressive PA intervention promoting small bouts of light-to-moderate PA may be used in healthy, not-optimally-active people to increase PA beyond the strict period of the intervention. Further studies are necessary to understand whether low-dose PA messages can be effective in initiating a progressive increase toward larger amounts of PA. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials.gov, NCT00926744, retrospectively registered.

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  • Combined association of cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle mass with the prevalence of diabetes mellitus: WASEDA’S Health Study

    Ryoko Kawakami, Dong Wang, Susumu S. Sawada, Kumpei Tanisawa, Hiroki Tabata, Tomoko Ito, Chiyoko Usui, Kaori Ishii, Suguru Torii, Mitsuru Higuchi, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Shizuo Sakamoto, Koichiro Oka

    J Phys Fitness Sports Med   in press  2021.09  [Refereed]

  • Female Athletes Genetically Susceptible to Fatigue Fracture Are Resistant to Muscle Injury: Potential Role of COL1A1 Variant.

    Eri Miyamoto-Mikami, Hiroshi Kumagai, Kumpei Tanisawa, Yuki Taga, Kosuke Hirata, Naoki Kikuchi, Nobuhiro Kamiya, Ryoko Kawakami, Taishi Midorikawa, Takuji Kawamura, Ryo Kakigi, Toshiharu Natsume, Hirofumi Zempo, Koya Suzuki, Yoshimitsu Kohmura, Kazunori Mizuno, Suguru Torii, Shizuo Sakamoto, Koichiro Oka, Mitsuru Higuchi, Hisashi Naito, Naokazu Miyamoto, Noriyuki Fuku

    Medicine and science in sports and exercise   53 ( 9 ) 1855 - 1864  2021.09  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the hypothesis that type I collagen plays a role in increasing bone mineral density (BMD) and muscle stiffness, leading to low and high risks of fatigue fracture and muscle injury, respectively, in athletes. As a potential mechanism, we focused on the effect of the type I collagen alpha 1 chain gene (COL1A1) variant associated with transcriptional activity on bone and skeletal muscle properties. METHODS: The association between COL1A1 rs1107946 and fatigue fracture/muscle injury was evaluated in Japanese athletes. Effects of the polymorphism on tissue properties (BMD and muscle stiffness) and type I collagen α1/α2 chain ratios in muscles were examined in Japanese non-athletes. RESULTS: The C allele carrier frequency was greater in female athletes with fatigue fracture than in those without (odds ratio [OR]: 2.44, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-5.77) and lower in female athletes with muscle injury than in those without (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.24-0.91). Prospective validation analysis confirmed that in female athletes, muscle injury was less frequent in C allele carriers than in AA genotype carriers (Multivariable adjusted hazard ratio: 0.27, 95% CI: 0.08-0.96). Among female non-athletes, the C allele of rs1107946 was associated with lower BMD and lower muscle stiffness. Muscle biopsy revealed that C allele carriers tended to have a larger type I collagen α1/α2 chain ratio than AA genotype carriers (2.24 vs. 2.05, P = 0.056), suggesting a higher proportion of type I collagen α1 homotrimers. CONCLUSION: The COL1A1 rs1107946 polymorphism exerts antagonistic effects on fatigue fracture and muscle injury among female athletes by altering the properties of these tissues, potentially owing to increased levels of type I collagen α1 chain homotrimers.

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  • Wearable and telemedicine innovations for Olympic events and elite sport.

    Borja Muniz-Pardos, Konstantinos Angeloudis, Fergus M Guppy, Iphigenia Keramitsoglou, Shaun Sutehall, Andrew Bosch, Kumpei Tanisawa, Yuri Hosokawa, Garrett I Ash, Wolfgang Schobersberger, Andrew J Grundstein, Douglas J Casa, Margaret C Morrissey, Fumihiro Yamasawa, Irina Zelenkova, Sébastien Racinais, Yannis Pitsiladis

    The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness   61 ( 8 ) 1061 - 1072  2021.08  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    Rapid advances in wearable technologies and real-time monitoring have resulted in major inroads in the world of recreational and elite sport. One such innovation is the application of real-time monitoring, which comprises a smartwatch application and ecosystem, designed to collect, process and transmit a wide range of physiological, biomechanical, bioenergetic and environmental data using cloud-based services. We plan to assess the impact of this wireless technology during Tokyo2020, where this technology could help characterize the physiological and thermal strain experienced by an athlete, as well as determine future management of athletes during a medical emergency as a result of a more timely and accurate diagnosis. Here we describe some of the innovative technologies developed for numerous sports at Tokyo2020 ranging from race walking (20 km and 50 km events), marathon, triathlon, road cycling (including the time trial event), mountain biking, to potentially team sports played outdoors. A more symbiotic relationship between sport, health and technology needs to be encouraged that harnesses the unique demands of elite sport (e.g., the need for unobtrusive devices that provide real-time feedback) and serves as medical and preventive support for the athlete's care. The implementation of such applications would be particularly welcome in the field of medicine (i.e., telemedicine applications) and the workplace (with particular relevance to emergency services, the military and generally workers under extreme environmental conditions). Laboratory and field-based studies are required in simulated scenarios to validate such emerging technologies, with the field of sport serving as an excellent model to understand and impact disease.

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  • Association between alcohol dietary pattern and prevalence of dyslipidaemia: WASEDA'S Health Study.

    Kumpei Tanisawa, Tomoko Ito, Ryoko Kawakami, Chiyoko Usui, Takuji Kawamura, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Shizuo Sakamoto, Kaori Ishii, Isao Muraoka, Koichiro Oka, Mitsuru Higuchi

    The British journal of nutrition     1 - 11  2021.07  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    The association between a dietary pattern characterised by high alcohol intake and dyslipidaemia has not been fully investigated. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the association between alcohol dietary patterns and the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and its components. This cross-sectional study enrolled 2,171 men and women aged ≥40 years who were alumni of a Japanese university. To identify dietary patterns, a principal component analysis was performed based on the energy-adjusted food intake estimated by a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. Three dietary patterns were identified, the second of which was named the alcohol dietary pattern and was characterised by a high intake of alcoholic beverages, liver, chicken, and fish. This alcohol dietary pattern was associated with reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. The fully adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of high LDL-C for the lowest through highest quartile of alcohol dietary pattern score were 1.00 (reference), 0.83 (0.64-1.08), 0.84 (0.64-1.10), and 0.68 (0.49- 0.94), respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that the alcohol dietary pattern was inversely associated with the prevalence of dyslipidaemia in women, whereas it was positively associated with high triglyceride levels in men. In conclusion, the alcohol dietary pattern, characterised by a high intake of alcoholic beverages, liver, chicken, and fish, was associated with the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and its components. This finding provides useful information for the prevention and treatment of dyslipidaemia by modifying the diet.

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  • Correction to: Integrating Transwomen and Female Athletes with Differences of Sex Development (DSD) into Elite Competition: The FIMS 2021 Consensus Statement.

    Blair R Hamilton, Giscard Lima, James Barrett, Leighton Seal, Alexander Kolliari-Turner, Guan Wang, Antonia Karanikolou, Xavier Bigard, Herbert Löllgen, Petra Zupet, Anca Ionescu, Andre Debruyne, Nigel Jones, Karin Vonbank, Federica Fagnani, Chiara Fossati, Maurizio Casasco, Demitri Constantinou, Bernd Wolfarth, David Niederseer, Andrew Bosch, Borja Muniz-Pardos, José Antonio Casajus, Christian Schneider, Sigmund Loland, Michele Verroken, Pedro Manonelles Marqueta, Francisco Arroyo, André Pedrinelli, Konstantinos Natsis, Evert Verhagen, William O Roberts, José Kawazoe Lazzoli, Rogerio Friedman, Ali Erdogan, Ana V Cintron, Shu-Hang Patrick Yung, Dina C Janse van Rensburg, Dimakatso A Ramagole, Sandra Rozenstoka, Felix Drummond, Theodora Papadopoulou, Paulette Y O Kumi, Richard Twycross-Lewis, Joanna Harper, Vasileios Skiadas, Jonathan Shurlock, Kumpei Tanisawa, Jane Seto, Kathryn North, Siddhartha S Angadi, Maria Jose Martinez-Patiño, Mats Borjesson, Luigi Di Luigi, Michiko Dohi, Jeroen Swart, James Lee John Bilzon, Victoriya Badtieva, Irina Zelenkova, Juergen M Steinacker, Norbert Bachl, Fabio Pigozzi, Michael Geistlinger, Dimitrios G Goulis, Fergus Guppy, Nick Webborn, Bulent O Yildiz, Mike Miller, Patrick Singleton, Yannis P Pitsiladis

    Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.)   51 ( 7 ) 1417 - 1418  2021.07  [International journal]

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  • Integrating Transwomen and Female Athletes with Differences of Sex Development (DSD) into Elite Competition: The FIMS 2021 Consensus Statement.

    Blair R Hamilton, Giscard Lima, James Barrett, Leighton Seal, Alexander Kolliari-Turner, Guan Wang, Antonia Karanikolou, Xavier Bigard, Herbert Löllgen, Petra Zupet, Anca Ionescu, Andre Debruyne, Nigel Jones, Karin Vonbank, Federica Fagnani, Chiara Fossati, Maurizio Casasco, Demitri Constantinou, Bernd Wolfarth, David Niederseer, Andrew Bosch, Borja Muniz-Pardos, José Antonio Casajus, Christian Schneider, Sigmund Loland, Michele Verroken, Pedro Manonelles Marqueta, Francisco Arroyo, André Pedrinelli, Konstantinos Natsis, Evert Verhagen, William O Roberts, José Kawazoe Lazzoli, Rogerio Friedman, Ali Erdogan, Ana V Cintron, Shu-Hang Patrick Yung, Dina C Janse van Rensburg, Dimakatso A Ramagole, Sandra Rozenstoka, Felix Drummond, Theodora Papadopoulou, Paulette Y O Kumi, Richard Twycross-Lewis, Joanna Harper, Vasileios Skiadas, Jonathan Shurlock, Kumpei Tanisawa, Jane Seto, Kathryn North, Siddhartha S Angadi, Maria Jose Martinez-Patiño, Mats Borjesson, Luigi Di Luigi, Michiko Dohi, Jeroen Swart, James Lee John Bilzon, Victoriya Badtieva, Irina Zelenkova, Juergen M Steinacker, Norbert Bachl, Fabio Pigozzi, Michael Geistlinger, Dimitrios G Goulis, Fergus Guppy, Nick Webborn, Bulent O Yildiz, Mike Miller, Patrick Singleton, Yannis P Pitsiladis

    Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.)   51 ( 7 ) 1401 - 1415  2021.07  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    Sport is historically designated by the binary categorization of male and female that conflicts with modern society. Sport's governing bodies should consider reviewing rules determining the eligibility of athletes in the female category as there may be lasting advantages of previously high testosterone concentrations for transwomen athletes and currently high testosterone concentrations in differences in sex development (DSD) athletes. The use of serum testosterone concentrations to regulate the inclusion of such athletes into the elite female category is currently the objective biomarker that is supported by most available scientific literature, but it has limitations due to the lack of sports performance data before, during or after testosterone suppression. Innovative research studies are needed to identify other biomarkers of testosterone sensitivity/responsiveness, including molecular tools to determine the functional status of androgen receptors. The scientific community also needs to conduct longitudinal studies with specific control groups to generate the biological and sports performance data for individual sports to inform the fair inclusion or exclusion of these athletes. Eligibility of each athlete to a sport-specific policy needs to be based on peer-reviewed scientific evidence made available to policymakers from all scientific communities. However, even the most evidence-based regulations are unlikely to eliminate all differences in performance between cisgender women with and without DSD and transwomen athletes. Any remaining advantage held by transwomen or DSD women could be considered as part of the athlete's unique makeup.

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  • Stool pattern is associated with not only the prevalence of tumorigenic bacteria isolated from fecal matter but also plasma and fecal fatty acids in healthy Japanese adults.

    Daiki Watanabe, Haruka Murakami, Harumi Ohno, Kumpei Tanisawa, Kana Konishi, Kikue Todoroki-Mori, Yuta Tsunematsu, Michio Sato, Yuji Ogata, Noriyuki Miyoshi, Naoto Kubota, Jun Kunisawa, Keiji Wakabayashi, Tetsuya Kubota, Kenji Watanabe, Motohiko Miyachi

    BMC microbiology   21 ( 1 ) 196 - 196  2021.06  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    BACKGROUND: Colibactin-producing Escherichia coli containing polyketide synthase (pks+ E. coli) has been shown to be involved in colorectal cancer (CRC) development through gut microbiota analysis in animal models. Stool status has been associated with potentially adverse gut microbiome profiles from fecal analysis in adults. We examined the association between stool patterns and the prevalence of pks+ E. coli isolated from microbiota in fecal samples of 224 healthy Japanese individuals. RESULTS: Stool patterns were determined through factorial analysis using a previously validated questionnaire that included stool frequency, volume, color, shape, and odor. Factor scores were classified into tertiles. The prevalence of pks+ E. coli was determined by using specific primers for pks+ E. coli in fecal samples. Plasma and fecal fatty acids were measured via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The prevalence of pks+ E. coli was 26.8%. Three stool patterns identified by factorial analysis accounted for 70.1% of all patterns seen (factor 1: lower frequency, darker color, and harder shape; factor 2: higher volume and softer shape; and factor 3: darker color and stronger odor). Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of the prevalence of pks+ E. coli for the highest versus the lowest third of the factor 1 score was 3.16 (1.38 to 7.24; P for trend = 0.006). This stool pattern exhibited a significant positive correlation with fecal isobutyrate, isovalerate, valerate, and hexanoate but showed a significant negative correlation with plasma eicosenoic acid and α-linoleic acid, as well as fecal propionate and succinate. No other stool patterns were significant. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that stool patterns may be useful in the evaluation of the presence of tumorigenic bacteria and fecal fatty acids through self-monitoring of stool status without the requirement for specialist technology or skill. Furthermore, it may provide valuable insight about effective strategies for the early discovery of CRC.

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  • Comprehensive analysis of gut microbiota of a healthy population and covariates affecting microbial variation in two large Japanese cohorts.

    Jonguk Park, Kumiko Kato, Haruka Murakami, Koji Hosomi, Kumpei Tanisawa, Takashi Nakagata, Harumi Ohno, Kana Konishi, Hitoshi Kawashima, Yi-An Chen, Attayeb Mohsen, Jin-Zhong Xiao, Toshitaka Odamaki, Jun Kunisawa, Kenji Mizuguchi, Motohiko Miyachi

    BMC microbiology   21 ( 1 ) 151 - 151  2021.05  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    BACKGROUND: Inter-individual variations in gut microbiota composition are observed even among healthy populations. The gut microbiota may exhibit a unique composition depending on the country of origin and race of individuals. To comprehensively understand the link between healthy gut microbiota and host state, it is beneficial to conduct large-scale cohort studies. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the integrated and non-redundant factors associated with gut microbiota composition within the Japanese population by 16S rRNA sequencing of fecal samples and questionnaire-based covariate analysis. RESULTS: A total of 1596 healthy Japanese individuals participated in this study via two independent cohorts, NIBIOHN cohort (n = 954) and MORINAGA cohort (n = 642). Gut microbiota composition was described and the interaction of these microorganisms with metadata parameters such as anthropometric measurements, bowel habits, medical history, and lifestyle were obtained. Thirteen genera, including Alistipes, Anaerostipes, Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Blautia, Eubacterium halli group, Faecalibacterium, Fusicatenibacter, Lachnoclostridium, Parabacteroides, Prevotella_9, Roseburia, and Subdoligranulum were predominant among the two cohorts. On the basis of univariate analysis for overall microbiome variation, 18 matching variables exhibited significant association in both cohorts. A stepwise redundancy analysis revealed that there were four common covariates, Bristol Stool Scale (BSS) scores, gender, age, and defecation frequency, displaying non-redundant association with gut microbial variance. CONCLUSIONS: We conducted a comprehensive analysis of gut microbiota in healthy Japanese individuals, based on two independent cohorts, and obtained reliable evidence that questionnaire-based covariates such as frequency of bowel movement and specific dietary habit affects the microbial composition of the gut. To our knowledge, this was the first study to investigate integrated and non-redundant factors associated with gut microbiota among Japanese populations.

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  • 習慣的な排便状況と便性状を評価する新しい質問票の再現性・内的妥当性の検討

    大野 治美, 村上 晴香, 中潟 崇, 谷澤 薫平, 小西 可奈, 宮地 元彦

    日本公衆衛生雑誌   68 ( 2 ) 92 - 104  2021.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    目的 ふん便(以下、便)は、我々の食事や栄養状態ならびに腸内細菌叢の特徴を反映し、身体の健康状態や栄養摂取状況を、簡便かつ非侵襲的に評価できるツールであると考えられる。一方で、便を包括的に評価し、簡便かつ客観的に評価する適切なツールに関する検討は十分に行われておらず、日常の排便状況や便性状を的確に把握できる有用な質問票が求められている。習慣的な排便状況(排便回数)や便性状(排便量、色、形状など)を把握するための評価ツールを作成し、排便日誌に基づく排便回数や便性状の記録と比較し内的妥当性を検討した。方法 22から78歳までの成人男女35人(45.2±17.1歳)を解析対象とした。習慣的な便に関する質問票(以下、習慣的便質問票)による最近1ヵ月間における平均的な排便回数、1回あたりの排便量、便の色や形状、便の浮きや腹部膨満感を調査した。この習慣的便質問票の各項目の再現性を検討するため、2回の調査を実施し、再現性を確認した。その後、排便日誌を用いて、毎日の排便時刻や便の性状などを1週間記録した。この排便日誌を基にした排便回数や便性状を内的妥当基準とし、習慣的便質問票により得られた回答を比較した。なお、習慣的便質問票における排便回数は、排便回数がカテゴリー化された回答を選択する選択回答法と数値による自由回答法の2種類で回答した。結果 習慣的便質問票の再現性を検討した結果、全ての項目においてスピアマン順位相関係数の有意な相関(ρ=0.431〜0.911)が認められ、重みづけκ係数においても高い一致度を示した(weighted κ=0.348〜0.841)。また、内的妥当性については、排便日誌による1週間あたりの排便回数と、習慣的便質問票における排便回数の回答を比較すると、自由回答法による1週間あたりの排便回数の方が、選択回答法より高い相関(ρ=0.855)を示した。さらに、便性状については、1週間の排便日誌における便性状の回答の中央値と習慣的便質問票での回答との相関を検討したところ、「便の浮き」を除いて有意な相関が示された(ρ=0.429〜0.800)。結論 本研究で作成した質問票は、習慣的な排便状況や便性状を評価する上で、再現性と内的妥当性が高いことが確認された。(著者抄録)

  • Determinants of Resting Oxidative Stress in Middle-Aged and Elderly Men and Women: WASEDA'S Health Study.

    Takuji Kawamura, Kumpei Tanisawa, Ryoko Kawakami, Chiyoko Usui, Tomoko Ito, Hiroki Tabata, Nobuhiro Nakamura, Sayaka Kurosawa, Wonjun Choi, Sihui Ma, Zsolt Radak, Susumu S Sawada, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Kaori Ishii, Shizuo Sakamoto, Koichiro Oka, Mitsuru Higuchi, Isao Muraoka

    Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity   2021   5566880 - 5566880  2021  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    Previous studies have not investigated the determinants of resting oxidative stress, including physical fitness, as it relates to redox regulation. The present study therefore was aimed at identifying lifestyle and biological factors that determine resting oxidative stress, including objectively measured physical fitness. In 873 middle-aged and elderly men and women, age and anthropometric parameters, lifestyle-related parameters, medication and supplementation status, physical fitness, biochemical parameters, and nutritional intake status, as well as three plasma oxidative stress markers: protein carbonyl (PC), F2-isoprostane (F2-IsoP), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), were surveyed and measured. The determinants of PC, F2-IsoP, and TBARS in all participants were investigated using stepwise multiple regression analysis. In PC, age (β=-0.11, P=0.002), leg extension power (β=-0.12, P=0.008), BMI (β=0.12, P=0.004), and HDL-C (β=0.08, P=0.040) were included in the regression model (adjusted R2=0.018). In the F2-IsoP, smoking status (β=0.07, P=0.060), BMI (β=0.07, P=0.054), and HbA1c (β=-0.06, P=0.089) were included in the regression model (adjusted R2=0.006). In TBARS, glucose (β=0.18, P<0.001), CRF (β=0.16, P<0.001), age (β=0.15, P<0.001), TG (β=0.11, P=0.001), antioxidant supplementation (β=0.10, P=0.002), and HbA1c (β=-0.13, P=0.004) were included in the regression model (adjusted R2=0.071). In conclusion, the present study showed that age, anthropometric index, lifestyle-related parameters, medication and supplementation status, objectively measured physical fitness, biochemical parameters, and nutritional intake status explain less than 10% of oxidative stress at rest.

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  • Ethical dilemmas and validity issues related to the use of new cooling technologies and early recognition of exertional heat illness in sport.

    Borja Muniz-Pardos, Konstantinos Angeloudis, Fergus M Guppy, Kumpei Tanisawa, Yuri Hosokawa, Garrett I Ash, Wolfgang Schobersberger, Andrew J Grundstein, Fumihiro Yamasawa, Sebastien Racinais, Douglas J Casa, Yannis P Pitsiladis

    BMJ open sport & exercise medicine   7 ( 2 ) e001041  2021  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    The Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games is expected to be among the hottest Games in modern history, increasing the chances for exertional heat stroke (EHS) incidence, especially in non-acclimatised athletes/workers/spectators. The urgent need to recognise EHS symptoms to protect all attendees' health has considerably accelerated research examining the most effective cooling strategies and the development of wearable cooling technology and real-time temperature monitoring. While these technological advances will aid the early identification of EHS cases, there are several potential ethical considerations for governing bodies and sports organisers. For example, the impact of recently developed cooling wearables on health and performance is unknown. Concerning improving athletic performance in a hot environment, there is uncertainty about this technology's availability to all athletes. Furthermore, the real potential to obtain real-time core temperature data will oblige medical teams to make crucial decisions around their athletes continuing their competitions or withdraw. Therefore, the aim of this review is (1) to summarise the practical applications of the most novel cooling strategies/technologies for both safety (of athletes, spectators and workers) and performance purposes, and (2) to inform of the opportunities offered by recent technological developments for the early recognition and diagnosis of EHS. These opportunities are presented alongside several ethical dilemmas that require sports governing bodies to react by regulating the validity of recent technologies and their availability to all.

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  • Cut-offs for calf circumference as a screening tool for low muscle mass: WASEDA'S Health Study.

    Ryoko Kawakami, Motohiko Miyachi, Susumu S Sawada, Suguru Torii, Taishi Midorikawa, Kumpei Tanisawa, Tomoko Ito, Chiyoko Usui, Kaori Ishii, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Shizuo Sakamoto, Mitsuru Higuchi, Isao Muraoka, Koichiro Oka

    Geriatrics & gerontology international   20 ( 10 ) 943 - 950  2020.10  [Refereed]  [Domestic journal]

     View Summary

    AIM: To re-evaluate the suitability of calf circumference as a surrogate marker of low muscle mass measured by both bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We also examined the effects of obesity and age on low muscle mass screening using calf circumference. METHODS: In total, 1239 adults participated in this cross-sectional study. We measured the maximum calf circumference in a standing position and appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) using BIA and DXA. We defined low muscle mass based on the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia 2019 consensus. RESULTS: Calf circumference was positively correlated with BIA-measured ASM/height2 (men: r = 0.81, women: r = 0.73) and DXA-measured ASM/height2 (men: r = 0.78, women: r = 0.76). In the subgroup analyses by obesity and age, calf circumference was also positively correlated with ASM/height2 . The optimal calf circumference cut-offs for low muscle mass screening measured by BIA and DXA were 35 cm (sensitivity 91%, specificity 84%) and 36 cm (sensitivity 82%, specificity 80%) for men, and 33 cm (sensitivity 82%, specificity 84%) and 34 cm (sensitivity 85%, specificity 72%) for women, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Calf circumference is positively correlated with BIA- and DXA-measured muscle mass regardless of obesity and age and is a simple and accurate surrogate marker of muscle mass for diagnosing sarcopenia. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 943-950.

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  • Association between dietary intake and the prevalence of tumourigenic bacteria in the gut microbiota of middle-aged Japanese adults.

    Daiki Watanabe, Haruka Murakami, Harumi Ohno, Kumpei Tanisawa, Kana Konishi, Yuta Tsunematsu, Michio Sato, Noriyuki Miyoshi, Keiji Wakabayashi, Kenji Watanabe, Motohiko Miyachi

    Scientific reports   10 ( 1 ) 15221 - 15221  2020.09  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    The relative contribution of diet to colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence is higher than that for other cancers. Animal models have revealed that Escherichia coli containing polyketide synthase (pks+ E. coli) in the gut participates in CRC development. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between dietary intake and the prevalence of pks+ E. coli isolated from the microbiota in faecal samples of 223 healthy Japanese individuals. Dietary intake was assessed using a previously validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. The prevalence of pks+ E. coli was evaluated using faecal samples collected from participants and specific primers that detected pks+ E. coli. The prevalence of pks+ E. coli was 26.9%. After adjusting for baseline confounders, the prevalence of pks+ E. coli was negatively associated with the intake of green tea (odds ratio [OR], 0.59 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.30-0.88] per 100 g/1,000 kcal increment) and manganese (OR, 0.43 [95% CI 0.22-0.85] per 1 mg/1,000 kcal increment) and was positively associated with male sex (OR, 2.27 [95% CI 1.05-4.91]). While futher studies are needed to validate these findings, these results provide insight into potential dietary interventions for the prevention of CRC.

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  • Sport and exercise genomics: the FIMS 2019 consensus statement update.

    Kumpei Tanisawa, Guan Wang, Jane Seto, Ioanna Verdouka, Richard Twycross-Lewis, Antonia Karanikolou, Masashi Tanaka, Mats Borjesson, Luigi Di Luigi, Michiko Dohi, Bernd Wolfarth, Jeroen Swart, James Lee John Bilzon, Victoriya Badtieva, Theodora Papadopoulou, Maurizio Casasco, Michael Geistlinger, Norbert Bachl, Fabio Pigozzi, Yannis Pitsiladis

    British journal of sports medicine   54 ( 16 ) 969 - 975  2020.08  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Lead author

     View Summary

    Rapid advances in technologies in the field of genomics such as high throughput DNA sequencing, big data processing by machine learning algorithms and gene-editing techniques are expected to make precision medicine and gene-therapy a greater reality. However, this development will raise many important new issues, including ethical, moral, social and privacy issues. The field of exercise genomics has also advanced by incorporating these innovative technologies. There is therefore an urgent need for guiding references for sport and exercise genomics to allow the necessary advancements in this field of sport and exercise medicine, while protecting athletes from any invasion of privacy and misuse of their genomic information. Here, we update a previous consensus and develop a guiding reference for sport and exercise genomics based on a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis. This SWOT analysis and the developed guiding reference highlight the need for scientists/clinicians to be well-versed in ethics and data protection policy to advance sport and exercise genomics without compromising the privacy of athletes and the efforts of international sports federations. Conducting research based on the present guiding reference will mitigate to a great extent the risks brought about by inappropriate use of genomic information and allow further development of sport and exercise genomics in accordance with best ethical standards and international data protection principles and policies. This guiding reference should regularly be updated on the basis of new information emerging from the area of sport and exercise medicine as well as from the developments and challenges in genomics of health and disease in general in order to best protect the athletes, patients and all other relevant stakeholders.

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  • Visceral fat and cardiorespiratory fitness with prevalence of pre-diabetes/diabetes mellitus among middle-aged and elderly Japanese people: WASEDA'S Health Study.

    Chiyoko Usui, Ryoko Kawakami, Kumpei Tanisawa, Tomoko Ito, Hiroki Tabata, Satoshi Iizuka, Takuji Kawamura, Taishi Midorikawa, Susumu S Sawada, Suguru Torii, Shizuo Sakamoto, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Kaori Ishii, Koichiro Oka, Isao Muraoka, Mitsuru Higuchi

    PloS one   15 ( 10 ) e0241018  2020  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    The relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) measurements not confounded by adiposity and the prevalence of pre-diabetes mellitus (pre-DM) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are not well known. Thus, we aimed to investigate the associations of visceral fat (VF) and CRF with the prevalence of pre-DM/DM among Japanese adults. The study included 970 individuals (327 women and 643 men) who were 40-87 years old and had complete health examinations, abdominal fat area, and fitness data from WASEDA'S Health Study during 2015-2018. The VF area was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. CRF was measured using a cycle ergometer and was defined as VO2peak divided by fat free mass. The pre-DM/DM was identified based on the questionnaire and fasting blood tests. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for prevalence of pre-DM/DM were calculated. Seventy-three participants had pre-DM and 48 participants had DM. Compared to the low VF group, the high VF group had a higher prevalence of pre-DM/DM (OR: 1.87, 95% CI: 1.18-2.96), although no significant relationship was observed between CRF and pre-DM/DM prevalence (P for trend = 0.239). The sub-group analyses also revealed no significant relationship between CRF and pre-DM/DM prevalence in the low VF group (P for trend = 0.979), although CRF values were inversely related to the prevalence of pre-DM/DM in the high VF group (P for trend = 0.024). Although CRF was not independently related to the prevalence of pre-DM/DM after adjusting for adiposity, higher VF values were related to a higher prevalence of pre-DM/DM. In addition, CRF levels were inversely associated with the prevalence of pre-DM/DM only among high VF individuals.

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  • MANTA, an integrative database and analysis platform that relates microbiome and phenotypic data.

    Yi-An Chen, Jonguk Park, Yayoi Natsume-Kitatani, Hitoshi Kawashima, Attayeb Mohsen, Koji Hosomi, Kumpei Tanisawa, Harumi Ohno, Kana Konishi, Haruka Murakami, Motohiko Miyachi, Jun Kunisawa, Kenji Mizuguchi

    PloS one   15 ( 12 ) e0243609  2020  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    With an ever-increasing interest in understanding the relationships between the microbiota and the host, more tools to map, analyze and interpret these relationships have been developed. Most of these tools, however, focus on taxonomic profiling and comparative analysis among groups, with very few analytical tools designed to correlate microbiota and the host phenotypic data. We have developed a software program for creating a web-based integrative database and analysis platform called MANTA (Microbiota And pheNoType correlation Analysis platform). In addition to storing the data, MANTA is equipped with an intuitive user interface that can be used to correlate the microbial composition with phenotypic parameters. Using a case study, we demonstrated that MANTA was able to quickly identify the significant correlations between microbial abundances and phenotypes that are supported by previous studies. Moreover, MANTA enabled the users to quick access locally stored data that can help interpret microbiota-phenotype relations. MANTA is available at https://mizuguchilab.org/manta/ for download and the source code can be found at https://github.com/chenyian-nibio/manta.

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  • Response to the Letter to the Editor Regarding "Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Body Composition and Physical Fitness in Healthy Adults: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial".

    Xiaomin Sun, Kumpei Tanisawa, Yuping Zhang, Tomoko Ito, Satomi Oshima, Mitsuru Higuchi, Zhen-Bo Cao

    Annals of nutrition & metabolism   76 ( 1 ) 87 - 87  2020  [Refereed]  [International journal]

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  • Micronutrient Intake Adequacy in Men and Women with a Healthy Japanese Dietary Pattern.

    Tomoko Ito, Kumpei Tanisawa, Ryoko Kawakami, Chiyoko Usui, Kaori Ishii, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Shizuo Sakamoto, Isao Muraoka, Koichiro Oka, Mitsuru Higuchi

    Nutrients   12 ( 1 )  2019.12  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    This study examined the relationship between a healthy Japanese dietary pattern and micronutrient intake adequacy based on the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese 2015 (DRIs-J 2015) in men and women. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1418 men and 795 women aged 40-87 years, who participated in the Waseda Alumni's Sports, Exercise, Daily Activity, Sedentariness, and Health Study. Dietary patterns were derived from principal component analysis of the consumption of 52 food and beverage items, which were assessed by a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. Micronutrient intakes were quantified using the dietary reference intakes score (DRIs-score) for 21 micronutrients (based on DRIs-J 2015). The healthy dietary pattern score was significantly and positively correlated with the intakes of all 21 micronutrients used for constructing the DRIs-score in men and in women (each, p < 0.001). In both sexes, the healthy dietary pattern scores were strongly and positively associated with DRIs-scores (in men: ρ = 0.806, p < 0.001; in women: ρ = 0.868, p < 0.001), and the DRIs-scores reached a plateau around the highest tertile of the healthy dietary pattern score. These results indicate that a healthy Japanese dietary pattern is associated with adequate micronutrient intakes based on the DRIs-J 2015 in both men and women.

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  • Renormalized basal metabolic rate describes the human aging process and longevity.

    Yasuhiro Kitazoe, Hirohisa Kishino, Kumpei Tanisawa, Keiko Udaka, Masashi Tanaka

    Aging cell   18 ( 4 ) e12968  2019.08  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    The question of why we age and finally die has been a central subject in the life, medical, and health sciences. Many aging theories have proposed biomarkers that are related to aging. However, they do not have sufficient power to predict the aging process and longevity. We here propose a new biomarker of human aging based on the mass-specific basal metabolic rate (msBMR). It is well known by the Harris-Benedict equation that the msBMR declines with age but varies among individual persons. We tried to renormalize the msBMR by primarily incorporating the body mass index into this equation. The renormalized msBMR (RmsBMR) which was derived in one cohort of American men (n = 25,425) was identified as one of the best biomarkers of aging, because it could well reproduce the observed respective American, Italian, and Japanese data on the mortality rate and survival curve. A recently observed plateau of the mortality rate in centenarians corresponded to the lowest value (threshold) of the RmsBMR, which stands for the final stage of human life. A universal decline of the RmsBMR with age was associated with the mitochondrial number decay, which was caused by a slight fluctuation of the dynamic fusion/fission system. This decay form was observed by the measurement in mice. Finally, the present approach explained the reason why the BMR in mammals is regulated by the empirical algometric scaling law.

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  • Association of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations With Glucose Profiles in Male Collegiate Football Athletes.

    Xiaomin Sun, Zhen-Bo Cao, Kumpei Tanisawa, Satomi Oshima, Mitsuru Higuchi

    International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism   29 ( 4 ) 420–425 - 23  2019.07  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations are associated with a high risk of insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults. However, it is unknown whether this is the case for American collegiate football and rugby football athletes. This study investigated the associations between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and glucose profiles in male collegiate football athletes. Thirty-four collegiate athletes (13 American football players and 21 rugby football players) aged 21 years were recruited. Their body fat percent and visceral fat area were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. The participants completed an oral glucose tolerance test (75 g glucose) with venous blood samples obtained at time points 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min for the determination of plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations. Fasting serum 25(OH)D concentrations were also measured. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was 17.6% and 58.8%, respectively. The serum 25(OH)D concentrations were negatively associated with the increments in the areas under the curve (iAUC) for glucose (r = -.429, p = .011) and were borderline significantly correlated with the Matsuda index (r = -.303, p = .082). No relationships were observed between the serum 25(OH)D concentrations and other glucose profiles. Multiple stepwise regression analysis of glucose iAUC concentrations as the dependent variable indicated that the serum 25(OH)D concentrations, but not body fat indicators, were independently associated with glucose iAUC (β = -0.390, p = .025). The serum 25(OH)D concentrations were only an independent predictor for glucose iAUC in male collegiate football athletes, suggesting that increased 25(OH)D concentrations would be helpful for maintaining glucose homeostasis.

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  • Altitude Training and Recombinant Human Erythropoietin: Considerations for Doping Detection.

    Shaun Sutehall, Borja Muniz-Pardos, Giscard Lima, Guan Wang, Fernanda Rossell Malinsky, Andrew Bosch, Irina Zelenkova, Kumpei Tanisawa, Fabio Pigozzi, Paolo Borrione, Yannis Pitsiladis

    Current sports medicine reports   18 ( 4 ) 97 - 104  2019.04  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    The benefit of training at altitude to enhance exercise performance remains equivocal although the most widely accepted approach is one where the athletes live and perform lower-intensity running at approximately 2300 m with high-intensity training at approximately 1250 m. The idea is that this method maintains maximal augmentations in total hemoglobin mass while reducing the performance impairment of high-intensity sessions performed at moderate altitude and thus preventing any detraining that can occur when athletes live and train at moderate altitude. This training regimen, however, is not universally accepted and some argue that the performance enhancement is due to placebo and training camp effects. Altitude training may affect an athlete's hematological parameters in ways similar to those observed following blood doping. Current methods of detection appear insufficient to differentiate between altitude training and blood doping making the interpretation of an athlete's biological passport difficult. Further research is required to determine the optimal method for altitude training and to enhance current detection methods to be able to differentiate better blood doping and altitude exposure.

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  • Validity of an observational assessment tool for multifaceted evaluation of faecal condition.

    Harumi Ohno, Haruka Murakami, Kumpei Tanisawa, Kana Konishi, Motohiko Miyachi

    Scientific reports   9 ( 1 ) 3760 - 3760  2019.03  [Refereed]  [International journal]

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    Faecal volume, form, colour, and odour are associated with various diseases, dietary habits, and the gut microbiome. Multifaceted assessment of faecal condition will be needed for future research and practice. Faecal observation has advantages, as it is non-invasive, frequent, and easy. We have developed and validated an illustrative card tool for comprehensively faecal assessment. In 38 healthy adults, observations of volume, form, colour, and odour of faeces using the tool were compared to the objective characteristics of the actual faeces determined using a weighing scale, moisture meter, hardness meter, colourimeter, and odour measuring device. A significant positive correlation (ρ = 0.778) was observed between the number of faecal model (2 cm × 10 cm) units and the actual weight. The Bristol Stool Form Scale showed a significant positive correlation with the moisture content (ρ = 0.717) and negative correlations with faecal hardness (ρ = -0.843) and adhesiveness (ρ = -0.761). The L*a*b* colour space values of the stool differed significantly among observational judgments using the colour card tool. No significant correlation was observed between the observation of odour and the measured odour index. In conclusion, the faecal volume, form, and colour can be estimated by observation using the multifaceted assessment card tool.

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  • Dietary patterns and abdominal obesity in middle-aged and elderly Japanese adults: Waseda Alumni's Sports, Exercise, Daily Activity, Sedentariness and Health Study (WASEDA'S Health Study).

    Tomoko Ito, Ryoko Kawakami, Kumpei Tanisawa, Rina Miyawaki, Kaori Ishii, Suguru Torii, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Shizuo Sakamoto, Isao Muraoka, Koichiro Oka, Mitsuru Higuchi

    Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.)   58   149 - 155  2019.02  [Refereed]  [International journal]

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    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and abdominal obesity among middle-aged and elderly Japanese people, using both waist circumference (WC) and visceral fat (VF) as indices. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 829 adults (534 men and 295 women), 40 to 79 y of age, who participated in the Waseda Alumni's Sports, Exercise, Daily Activity, Sedentariness and Health Study (WASEDA'S Health Study). Dietary patterns were derived from principal component analysis. VF was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. To examine the associations of each dietary pattern with WC and VF, we calculated multivariate-adjusted means and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of WC and VF for the tertile of each dietary pattern score. RESULTS: Two main dietary patterns were identified: "healthy Japanese" and "seafood and alcohol." The healthy Japanese dietary pattern score was inversely associated with WC and VF in men only. WC measurements were 84.9 cm (95% CI, 83.7-86.1), 83.9 cm (95% CI, 82.7-85.1), and 82.4 cm (95% CI, 81.2-83.6); Ptrend = 0.006, and VF measurements were 94.0 cm2 (95% CI, 85.6-102.4), 89.4 cm2 (95% CI, 81.1-97.7), and 80.4 cm2 (95% CI, 72.5-88.4); Ptrend = 0.027 for the lowest through the highest tertile of healthy Japanese dietary pattern scores in men. The seafood and alcohol dietary pattern was not associated with WC and VF. CONCLUSION: The healthy Japanese dietary pattern was negatively associated with WC and VF in middle-aged and elderly Japanese men.

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  • Nutrigenomics and personalized nutrition for the prevention of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Kumpei Tanisawa, Mitsuru Higuchi

    Molecular Nutrition Carbohydrates     339 - 352  2019.01  [Invited]

    Authorship:Lead author

     View Summary

    The prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been increasing in both developed and developing countries. Although a modernization of lifestyles represented by westernized diets with high energy, fat, and sugar and low fiber intakes are some of the contributing factors to the T2DM epidemic, genetic factors are also important contributing factors to T2DM. Importantly, several T2DM-associated variants possibly interact with diet to influence T2DM risk. Furthermore, the human gut microbiome has emerged as a key determinant of T2DM development and plays roles in the success of dietary intervention and interpersonal variability in glycemic response to diet. There is considerable heterogeneity in the association of dietary intake with T2DM risk and glycemic traits, which may be partly explained by genetic factors and gut microbiome features. Understanding of the complex interaction among genetic factors, gut microbiome, and diet may contribute to the establishment of genomic information-based personalized nutrition to effectively prevent T2DM.

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  • 運動誘発性低血糖時の血糖変化量の再評価 安静時との比較

    近藤 早希, 谷澤 薫平, 鈴木 克彦, 寺田 新, 樋口 満

    日本スポーツ栄養研究誌   12   77 - 85  2019.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    【目的】運動開始30〜45分前の糖質摂取は、運動開始直後に急激な血糖値の低下を生じさせる。一方、糖質摂取後に安静状態を保った場合に比べ、血糖値がどの程度低下するのかは明らかでない。本研究では、運動誘発性の血糖値の低下が、糖質摂取後に安静状態を保った場合に比べてどの程度であるのか、実際のスポーツ現場に近い状況である朝食摂取条件下にて検討した。【方法】男子大学生15名に対し、実験開始3時間前に朝食を摂取させた状態で、運動試行、安静試行の2試行を行わせた。運動試行では、150gの糖質を摂取してから30分間安静状態を保った後、最大酸素摂取量の75%の強度で60分間自転車運動を行った。安静試行では、糖質摂取後に90分間安静状態を維持した。それぞれの試行において採血を行い、血糖値を測定した。【結果】運動試行では、運動開始15分後に急激に血糖値が低下し、安静試行に比べて28±29mg/dl低い値を示した。また、安静試行から運動試行への血糖低下量が大きい被験者は、血糖低下量が小さい被験者に比べて、最大酸素摂取量が有意に高い値を示した。【結論】朝食摂取条件下においても、糖質摂取後に運動を行うことで、同量の糖質を摂取して安静状態を保った場合に比べて、約30mg/dl程度の血糖値の低下が生じることが明らかとなった。また、血糖低下量が大きい被験者では、最大酸素摂取量が高い傾向が認められた。(著者抄録)

  • Ageing affects the association between serum 25- hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and cardiorespiratory fitness in middle-aged and elderly men.

    Xiaomin Sun, Kumpei Tanisawa, Tomoko Ito, Satomi Oshima, Mitsuru Higuchi, Zhen-Bo Cao

    Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition   28 ( 3 ) 614 - 620  2019  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The studies investigated the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are few, and the results are controversial. We aim to evaluate the association of serum 25(OH)D concentrations with CRF in adults, and assess whether the associations vary with ageing. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: The study included 78 middle-aged (30-64 years) and 83 elderly (65-79 years) Japanese men. Hand grip strength and leg extension power were measured using hand grip and leg dynamometers, respectively. CRF was measured via a maximal graded exercise test and quantified as the peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). Fasting serum 25(OH)D concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. RESULTS: Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were positively related to hand grip strength (r=0.331, p<0.001), leg extension power (r=0.353, p<0.001), CRF (r=0.285, p<0.001) in all adults after adjustment for age. Significant interaction between 25(OH)D and age on CRF was observed (p<0.05). Age-related reduction of CRF was prevented in high 25(OH)D group (p<0.05). In the elderly, subjects in high 25(OH)D group had higher CRF compared with those in low group (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We found that serum 25(OH)D concentrations significantly related with leg extension power, hand grip strength and CRF after adjustment for age. The relationship of vitamin D and CRF was affected by ageing. Higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations are a key predictor for CRF in the elderly, but not in middle-aged men.

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  • Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Body Composition and Physical Fitness in Healthy Adults: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Xiaomin Sun, Kumpei Tanisawa, Yuping Zhang, Tomoko Ito, Satomi Oshima, Mitsuru Higuchi, Zhen-Bo Cao

    Annals of nutrition & metabolism   75 ( 4 ) 231 - 237  2019  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to clarify whether 1 year of vitamin D3 supplementation has a direct effect on body composition and physical fitness in healthy adults. METHODS: Ninety-five participants randomly received either 420 IU vitamin D3 per day (n = 48) or placebo (n = 47) in a double-blind manner for 1 year. Lean body mass and percentage body fat were determined. Physical fitness including hand grip strength, leg extension power and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) were assessed. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D) concentrations were assessed using ELISA kits. RESULTS: Serum 25(OH)D and (1,25[OH]2D) concentrations significantly increased by approximately 11.2 ± 9.2 ng/mL (pinteraction <0.001)and 7.0 ± 7.8 pg/mL (pinteraction <0.001) after 1 year of vitamin D3 supplementation respectively. Lean body mass significantly increased from 43.8 ± 9.6 to 44.3 ± 9.8 kg in vitamin D group, while no change was observed in placebo group (from 42.6 ± 8.9 to 42.4± 8.9 kg) after 1 year intervention. Furthermore, no treatment effects on other indicators of body composition and physical fitness were observed. CONCLUSIONS: One year of vitamin D supplementation effectively improves lean body mass, but not muscle strength and CRF in healthy adults.

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  • Preexercise Carbohydrate Ingestion and Transient Hypoglycemia: Fasting versus Feeding.

    Saki Kondo, Kumpei Tanisawa, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Shin Terada, Mitsuru Higuchi

    Medicine and science in sports and exercise   51 ( 1 ) 168 - 173  2019.01  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    PURPOSE: Carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion 30 to 45 min before exercise results in transient hypoglycemia after starting the exercise in some, but not all, subjects. However, whether transient hypoglycemia is more likely to occur under fed or fasted condition remains unknown. This study aimed to directly compare the effects of fasting versus feeding on plasma glucose responses after preexercise CHO intake and to examine the relationship between insulin responses and onset of transient hypoglycemia. METHODS: Sixteen subjects performed 60-min cycle ergometer exercises at 75% maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) under overnight fasted and fed (4 h after breakfast) conditions. In both conditions, they consumed 500 mL of beverage (150 g of glucose) 30 min before beginning exercise. RESULTS: The mean plasma glucose concentrations 15 min after starting the exercise did not fall below 4.0 mmol·L (criteria for hypoglycemia) in both states; however, individual differences in the occurrence of transient hypoglycemia were noted. In the fasted state, plasma glucose levels transiently dropped below 4.0 mmol·L in five subjects, who had substantially higher serum insulin levels at the start of exercise, compared with those who did not develop hypoglycemia. Although seven subjects developed transient hypoglycemia in the fed state, no relationship was observed between insulin responses and hypoglycemia. Three subjects developed hypoglycemia in both fasted and fed states. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that transient hypoglycemia after preexercise CHO ingestion occurs in some, but not all, subjects, under both conditions. Furthermore, subjects with enhanced insulin responses seem to be more prone to transient hypoglycemia in the fasted condition.

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  • Effects of short-term endurance exercise on gut microbiota in elderly men.

    Hirokazu Taniguchi, Kumpei Tanisawa, Xiaomin Sun, Takafumi Kubo, Yuri Hoshino, Masahito Hosokawa, Haruko Takeyama, Mitsuru Higuchi

    Physiological reports   6 ( 23 ) e13935  2018.12  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Lead author

     View Summary

    Regular exercise reduces the risks for cardiovascular diseases. Although the gut microbiota has been associated with fitness level and cardiometabolic risk factors, the effects of exercise-induced gut microbiota changes in elderly individuals are unclear. This study evaluated whether endurance exercise modulates the gut microbiota in elderly subjects, and whether these changes are associated with host cardiometabolic phenotypes. In a randomized crossover trial, 33 elderly Japanese men participated in a 5-week endurance exercise program. 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analyses revealed that the effect of endurance exercise on gut microbiota diversity was not greater than interindividual differences, whereas changes in α-diversity indices during intervention were negatively correlated with changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, especially during exercise. Microbial composition analyses showed that the relative abundance of Clostridium difficile significantly decreased, whereas that of Oscillospira significantly increased during exercise as compared to the control period. The changes in these taxa were correlated with the changes in several cardiometabolic risk factors. The findings indicate that short-term endurance exercise has little effect on gut microbiota in elderly individuals, and that the changes in gut microbiota were associated with cardiometabolic risk factors, such as systolic and diastolic blood pressure, providing preliminary insight into the associations between the gut microbiota and cardiometabolic phenotypes.

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  • Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Are Inversely Correlated with Hepatic Lipid Content in Male Collegiate Football Athletes.

    Xiaomin Sun, Zhen-Bo Cao, Kumpei Tanisawa, Satomi Oshima, Mitsuru Higuchi

    Nutrients   10 ( 7 )  2018.07  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    Lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations are associated with more weight and fat mass gain in adults in the general population, but it is unknown whether this is the case in collegiate football athletes with greater body weight. This study aimed to investigate associations of serum 25(OH)D concentrations with body fat and ectopic fat accumulation, and to determine which fat indicators are closely related to serum 25(OH)D in male collegiate football athletes. Thirty-four collegiate athletes aged 21 years were recruited. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations and the levels of visceral fat area (VFA), vastus lateralis intramyocellular lipid (IMCL), extramyocellular lipid (EMCL), and intrahepatic lipid (IHCL) were measured. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were negatively associated with the IHCL values (r = -0.372, p = 0.030), and the relationship remained after adjustment for several factors (r = -0.378, p = 0.047). Additionally, multiple stepwise regression analysis of IHCL content as the dependent variable indicated that 25(OH)D concentrations were a stronger predictor of IHCL content (β = -0.363, p = 0.030) than % body fat and VO₂peakFFM. Higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations are more closely related to lower IHCL content rather than any other fat indicators, suggesting that increasing serum 25(OH)D concentrations may have some effect that inhibits lipid accumulation in hepatic tissue, especially in heavy athletes.

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  • Inverse Association Between Height-Increasing Alleles and Extreme Longevity in Japanese Women.

    Kumpei Tanisawa, Nobuyoshi Hirose, Yasumichi Arai, Hiroshi Shimokata, Yoshiji Yamada, Hisashi Kawai, Motonaga Kojima, Shuichi Obuchi, Hirohiko Hirano, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Yoshinori Fujiwara, Yu Taniguchi, Shoji Shinkai, Kazushige Ihara, Maki Sugaya, Mitsuru Higuchi, Tomio Arai, Seijiro Mori, Motoji Sawabe, Noriko Sato, Masaaki Muramatsu, Masashi Tanaka

    The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences   73 ( 5 ) 588 - 595  2018.04  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Lead author

     View Summary

    Growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)/insulin signaling is one of the most plausible biological pathways regulating aging and longevity. Previous studies have demonstrated that several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the GH/IGF-1/insulin signaling-associated genes influence both longevity and adult height, suggesting the possibility of a shared genetic architecture between longevity and height. We therefore examined the relationship between 30 height-associated SNPs and extreme longevity in a Japanese population consisting of 428 centenarians and 4,026 younger controls. We confirmed that height-increasing genetic scores (HGSs) constructed based on 30 SNPs were significantly associated with height in the controls (p = 6.95 × 10-23). HGS was significantly and inversely associated with extreme longevity in women (p = .011), but not in men, although no SNPs were significantly associated with extreme longevity after Bonferroni correction. The odds ratio for extreme longevity in the lowest HGS group (≤27) and the second lowest HGS group (28-30) relative to the highest HGS group (≥37) was 1.71 (p = .056) and 1.69 (p = .034), respectively, for women. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated an inverse association between height-increasing alleles with extreme longevity in Japanese women, providing novel insight into the genetic architecture of longevity and aging.

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  • Effects of Ingestion of Different Amounts of Carbohydrate after Endurance Exercise on Circulating Cytokines and Markers of Neutrophil Activation.

    Kumpei Tanisawa, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Sihui Ma, Saki Kondo, Susumu Okugawa, Mitsuru Higuchi

    Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)   7 ( 4 )  2018.04  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Lead author

     View Summary

    We aimed to examine the effects of ingestion of different amounts of carbohydrate (CHO) after endurance exercise on neutrophil count, circulating cytokine levels, and the markers of neutrophil activation and muscle damage. Nine participants completed three separate experimental trials consisting of 1 h of cycling exercise at 70% V · O₂ max, followed by ingestion of 1.2 g CHO·kg body mass-1·h-1 (HCHO trial), 0.2 g CHO·kg body mass-1·h-1 (LCHO trial), or placebo (PLA trial) during the 2 h recovery phase in random order. Circulating glucose, insulin, and cytokine levels, blood cell counts, and the markers of neutrophil activation and muscle damage were measured. The concentrations of plasma glucose and serum insulin at 1 h after exercise were higher in the HCHO trial than in the LCHO and PLA trials. Although there were significant main effects of time on several variables, including neutrophil count, cytokine levels, and the markers of neutrophil activation and muscle damage, significant time × trial interactions were not observed for any variables. These results suggest that CHO ingestion after endurance exercise does not enhance exercise-induced increase in circulating neutrophil and cytokine levels and markers of neutrophil activation and muscle damage, regardless of the amount of CHO ingested.

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  • Effects of chronic endurance exercise training on serum 25(OH)D concentrations in elderly Japanese men.

    Xiaomin Sun, Zhen-Bo Cao, Kumpei Tanisawa, Hirokazu Taniguchi, Takafumi Kubo, Mitsuru Higuchi

    Endocrine   59 ( 2 ) 330 - 337  2018.02  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    BACKGROUND: Higher levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are positively related to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations; however, the response of 25(OH)D concentrations to chronic endurance exercise training is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to elucidate whether serum 25(OH)D concentrations were directly increased by 5 weeks of endurance exercise training and influenced by changes in body fat in elderly men. METHODS: Twenty elderly Japanese men were randomized to either the 5-week endurance exercise training group (ET group; N = 10) or the sedentary control group (SC group; N = 10). Fasting blood samples were collected to determine serum 25(OH)D and other blood parameters. The visceral fat area and hepatic fat content were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. RESULTS: After 5 weeks of endurance exercise training, the levels of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) were significantly increased from 23.3 at baseline to 28.1 mL/kg/min at the endpoint for the ET group; levels were unchanged for the SC group. A significant seasonal reduction in serum 25(OH)D concentrations was observed in the SC group (P < 0.05), while no change was found in the ET group. The results may be partly attributed to the slight decrease in intrahepatic fat in the ET group. No changes were observed in percent body fat or visceral fat area. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study suggest that 5 weeks of endurance training could inhibit the seasonal reduction in serum 25(OH)D concentrations without changes in body fat.

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  • Effect of an Acute Bout of Endurance Exercise on Serum 25(OH)D Concentrations in Young Adults.

    Xiaomin Sun, Zhen-Bo Cao, Hirokazu Taniguchi, Kumpei Tanisawa, Mitsuru Higuchi

    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism   102 ( 11 ) 3937 - 3944  2017.11  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    Context: Regular exercise or high physical activity levels are associated with higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations; however, the effect of acute exercise on serum 25(OH)D concentrations remains unclear. Objective: We aimed to clarify whether acute endurance exercise has a direct effect on the circulating 25(OH)D concentrations in young adults. Design and Setting: Exercise intervention trial in an institutional practice. Patients: Twenty young, active adults (males, n = 10; females, n = 10). Interventions: Participants were asked to perform a cycling exercise for 30 minutes at 70% maximal oxygen uptake. Main Outcome Measures: The serum concentrations of 25(OH)D and other blood parameters were assessed before exercise and at 0, 0.5, 1, 3, and 24 hours after exercise. Results: The serum 25(OH)D concentrations were significantly increased not only at 0 (P < 0.01), 1 (P < 0.05), and 3 hours (P < 0.01) after exercise, but they were also increased at 24 hours (P < 0.05) after acute endurance exercise in young adults. A significant sex × time interaction effect was observed (P < 0.05), and the incremental areas under the curve for the 25(OH)D concentrations were significantly higher in men than in the women (P < 0.01). Conclusions: There is a direct effect of endurance exercise on serum 25(OH)D concentrations. In addition, sex disparity was observed in the serum 25(OH)D response to acute endurance exercise, and the increase in 25(OH)D concentrations was greater in men than in women.

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  • An Alpha-kinase 2 Gene Variant Disrupts Filamentous Actin Localization in the Surface Cells of Colorectal Cancer Spheroids.

    Kensuke Nishi, Hao Luo, Kazuhiko Nakabayashi, Keiko Doi, Shuhei Ishikura, Yuri Iwaihara, Yasuhiro Yoshida, Kumpei Tanisawa, Tomio Arai, Seijiro Mori, Motoji Sawabe, Masaaki Muramatsu, Masashi Tanaka, Toshifumi Sakata, Senji Shirasawa, Toshiyuki Tsunoda

    Anticancer research   37 ( 7 ) 3855 - 3862  2017.07  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Alpha-kinase 2 (ALPK2), suggested to be a novel tumour-suppressor gene down-regulated by oncogenic KRAS, plays a pivotal role in luminal apoptosis in normal colonic crypts. The aim of this study was to determine the association between ALPK2 germline variants and colorectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Missense single nucleotide variants in the exons of the ALPK2 gene in 2,343 consecutive autopsy cases (1,446 cases with cancer and 897 cases without cancer) were screened using HumanExome BeadChip arrays. To address the functional effect of a missense ALPK2 variant, a 3D floating cell culture was performed using HCT116-derived human colorectal cancer cells stably expressing wild-type (wt) ALPK2 (HCT116-wtALPK2) or amino acid-substituted (sub) ALPK2 (HCT116-subALPK2). RESULTS: We identified that one of the ALPK2 germline variants, rs55674018 (p.Q1853E), was significantly associated with the presence of cancer (adjusted odds ratio(OR)=4.39; 95% confidence interval(CI)=1.31-14.78, p=0.001). The p.Q1853E variant was present in the East Asian population and located in the immunoglobulin-like domain. Notably, the basolateral polarity of actin in the surface of HCT116-wtALPK2 spheroids was more attenuated compared to that of HCT116-subALPK2 spheroids. Furthermore, luminal apoptosis and cell aggregation were promoted by wtALPK2, but not by subALPK2 in 3D culture. CONCLUSION: The p.Q1853E variant of ALPK2, which had been accumulating in the Japanese population, induced a metastatic phenotype by disrupting ALPK2 function.

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  • Method for preparing DNA from feces in guanidine thiocyanate solution affects 16S rRNA-based profiling of human microbiota diversity.

    Koji Hosomi, Harumi Ohno, Haruka Murakami, Yayoi Natsume-Kitatani, Kumpei Tanisawa, Soichiro Hirata, Hidehiko Suzuki, Takahiro Nagatake, Tomomi Nishino, Kenji Mizuguchi, Motohiko Miyachi, Jun Kunisawa

    Scientific reports   7 ( 1 ) 4339 - 4339  2017.06  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    Metagenomic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene is generally performed to examine the diversity and abundance of commensal bacteria in feces, which is now recognized to be associated with human health and diseases. Guanidine thiocyanate (GuSCN) solution is used as a less onerous way compared with a frozen method to transport and stock fecal samples at room temperature for DNA analysis; however, optimal methods to measure fecal bacterial composition in GuSCN solution remain to be investigated. Here, we examined the influence of various factors such as pretreatment (e.g., removing GuSCN solution and washing feces with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) before mechanical lysis), fecal concentration in the GuSCN solution, storage time, and position of fecal subsampling on the 16S rRNA-based analysis of fecal bacteria in GuSCN solution. We found that pretreatment and fecal concentration affected the bacterial composition, and a little change was noted with subsampling position. Based on these results, we propose a basic protocol, including fecal sampling, sample storage, and DNA extraction, for the 16S rRNA-based analysis of bacterial composition in feces suspended in GuSCN solution.

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  • Exome-wide Association Study Identifies CLEC3B Missense Variant p.S106G as Being Associated With Extreme Longevity in East Asian Populations.

    Kumpei Tanisawa, Yasumichi Arai, Nobuyoshi Hirose, Hiroshi Shimokata, Yoshiji Yamada, Hisashi Kawai, Motonaga Kojima, Shuichi Obuchi, Hirohiko Hirano, Hideyo Yoshida, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Yoshinori Fujiwara, Kazushige Ihara, Maki Sugaya, Tomio Arai, Seijiro Mori, Motoji Sawabe, Noriko Sato, Masaaki Muramatsu, Mitsuru Higuchi, Yao-Wen Liu, Qing-Peng Kong, Masashi Tanaka

    The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences   72 ( 3 ) 309 - 318  2017.03  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Lead author

     View Summary

    Life span is a complex trait regulated by multiple genetic and environmental factors; however, the genetic determinants of extreme longevity have been largely unknown. To identify the functional coding variants associated with extreme longevity, we performed an exome-wide association study (EWAS) on a Japanese population by using an Illumina HumanExome Beadchip and a focused replication study on a Chinese population. The EWAS on two independent Japanese cohorts consisting of 530 nonagenarians/centenarians demonstrated that the G allele of CLEC3B missense variant p.S106G was associated with extreme longevity at the exome-wide level of significance (p = 2.33 x 10(-7), odds ratio [OR] = 1.50). The CLEC3B gene encodes tetranectin, a protein implicated in the mineralization process in osteogenesis as well as in the prognosis and metastasis of cancer. The replication study consisting of 448 Chinese nonagenarians/centenarians showed that the G allele of CLEC3B p. S106G was also associated with extreme longevity (p =.027, OR = 1.51), and the p value of this variant reached 1.87 x 10(-8) in the meta-analysis of Japanese and Chinese populations. In conclusion, the present study identified the CLEC3B p. S106G as a novel longevityassociated variant, raising the novel hypothesis that tetranectin, encoded by CLEC3B, plays a role in human longevity and aging.

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  • Positive association between physical activity and PER3 expression in older adults.

    Masaki Takahashi, Atsushi Haraguchi, Yu Tahara, Natsumi Aoki, Mayuko Fukazawa, Kumpei Tanisawa, Tomoko Ito, Takashi Nakaoka, Mitsuru Higuchi, Shigenobu Shibata

    Scientific reports   7   39771 - 39771  2017.01  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    The circadian clock regulates many physiological functions including physical activity and feeding patterns. In addition, scheduled exercise and feeding themselves can affect the circadian clock. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between physical/feeding activity and expression of clock genes in hair follicle cells in older adults. Twenty adult men (age, 68 ± 7 years, mean ± SE) were examined in this cross-sectional study. Prior to hair follicle cell collection, the participants were asked to wear a uniaxial accelerometer for one week. The timings of breakfast, lunch, and dinner were also recorded. Hair follicle cells were then collected over a 24 h period at 4 h intervals. The amplitude of PER3 expression was positively correlated with moderate and vigorous physical activity (r = 0.582, p = 0.007) and peak oxygen uptake (r = 0.481, p = 0.032), but these correlations were not observed for NR1D1 or NR1D2. No association was noted between meal times and the amplitude or the acrophase for any of these three clock genes. These findings suggest that rhythmic expression of the circadian clock gene PER3 is associated with the amount of daily physical activity and physical fitness in older adults.

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  • Visceral fat area is a strong predictor of leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2, a potential biomarker of dyslipidemia.

    Kumpei Tanisawa, Hirokazu Taniguchi, Xiaomin Sun, Tomoko Ito, Ryoko Kawakami, Shizuo Sakamoto, Mitsuru Higuchi

    PloS one   12 ( 3 ) e0173310  2017  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Lead author

     View Summary

    BACKGROUND: Leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2) is a hepatokine linking obesity to skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Although previous studies reported that obesity was associated with high levels of circulating LECT2 in human, the associations of detailed body fat distribution with LECT2 levels have not been examined. Furthermore, although animal study suggested that exercise decreased circulating LECT2 levels, it remains unknown whether physical fitness is associated with LECT2 levels in human. We therefore examined the relationship of plasma LECT2 levels with various adiposity indices and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in middle-aged and elderly Japanese men. Furthermore, we examined the relationship of LECT2 levels with the presence of metabolic syndrome, hypertension, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia to determine the clinical significance of measuring circulating LECT2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 143 Japanese men (age: 30-79 years). Participants' plasma LECT2 levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To assess their abdominal fat distributions, visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. CRF was assessed by measuring peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]). RESULTS: All adiposity indices measured in this study were positively correlated with plasma LECT2 levels, while [Formula: see text] was negatively correlated with LECT2 levels after adjustment for age. The correlations, except for VFA were no longer significant with further adjustment for VFA. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that VFA was the strongest predictor of plasma LECT2 levels. Plasma LECT2 levels differed based on the presence of metabolic syndrome and dyslipidemia, but not hypertension and insulin resistance. Logistic regression analyses revealed that plasma LECT2 levels were significantly associated with dyslipidemia independently of VFA; VFA was not significantly associated with dyslipidemia after adjustment for LECT2. CONCLUSION: VFA was the strongest predictor of plasma LECT2 that is a potential biomarker linking visceral obesity to dyslipidemia.

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  • Acute endurance exercise lowers serum fibroblast growth factor 21 levels in Japanese men.

    Hirokazu Taniguchi, Kumpei Tanisawa, Xiaomin Sun, Mitsuru Higuchi

    Clinical endocrinology   85 ( 6 ) 861 - 867  2016.12  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    ObjectiveThe independent effects of acute endurance exercise on FGF21 metabolism are poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether acute endurance exercise modulates serum postprandial FGF21 levels in an age-dependent manner.
    DesignExercise intervention trial.
    PatientsTwenty-eight subjects participated in the experiment, of whom 13 were excluded mainly because of a serum FGF21 level below the limit of detection. Thus, data from seven young (age: 18-22 years) and eight elderly male subjects (age: 62-69 years) were analysed.
    MeasurementsParticipants were asked to perform a cycling exercise for 30 min at 70% maximal oxygen uptake, following carbohydrate intake. Blood samples were collected pre-exercise and 0 min, 30 min, 1 h, 3 h and 24 h after the cessation of exercise. Serum FGF21 levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
    ResultsHigher serum FGF21 was observed in the elderly subjects group throughout the experiment (P &lt; 005). There was no significant increase in serum FGF21 levels after the cessation of exercise, whereas serum FGF21 levels were significantly lower 24 h after the exercise compared with those pre-exercise, 0 min, 30 min and 1 h after the cessation of exercise in both groups (P &lt; 001). The response did not differ between the two groups because of no significant group x time interaction.
    ConclusionsAcute endurance exercise lowers serum FGF21 levels 24 h following exercise. The results suggest that acute endurance exercise modulates postprandial FGF21 metabolism regardless of age.

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  • 中高年を対象とした食事調査票からの食事パターンの抽出と栄養素摂取量の評価

    伊藤 智子, 谷澤 薫平, 川上 諒子, 樋口 満

    日本公衆衛生雑誌   63 ( 11 ) 653 - 663  2016.11

     View Summary

    目的 食事と健康との関連において食事パターンを用いた検討が行われているが、食事パターンを構成する複数の栄養素について、適正な量が摂取されているかを検討した報告は少ない。そこで、本研究では、主成分分析により中高年男性における代表的な食事パターンを同定し、各食事パターンと栄養素摂取量との関連を検討した。さらに、微量栄養素について、食事摂取基準(2010年版)で推奨されている指標を用いて複数の微量栄養素が適正量に摂取されているかを数値化して簡易的に評価し、食事パターンとの関連を検討することを目的とした。方法 40歳から79歳の中高年男性229人を対象として、簡易型自記式食事歴法質問票brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire(BDHQ)による栄養調査を行った。52の食品および飲料の摂取量から主成分分析を行い、食事パターンを同定した。BDHQによって推定された微量栄養素のうち、食事摂取基準値が策定されている21種類の微量栄養素が適正量に摂取されているかを数値化して評価するためにDietary reference intakes score(DRIs-score)を作成した。各食事パターンにおいて複数の微量栄養素が適正量摂取されているかを検討するために、各食事パターンの主成分得点とDRIs-scoreにおいてSpearmanの順位相関係数を求めた。結果 主成分分析の結果、3つの食事パターンが同定された。第1食事パターンは野菜、果物、海草、きのこ、いも類が多く、ご飯(めし)が少ない「副菜型」、第2食事パターンはアルコールが多い「晩酌型」、第3食事パターンは果物・乳製品・菓子類が多い「間食型」とした。第1食事パターンの「副菜型」において、主成分得点とDRIs-scoreを構成するすべての微量栄養素との間に有意な相関関係が認められ、DRIs-scoreとの間には有意な正の相関関係(p=0.782、P&lt;0.001)が認められた。結論 第1食事パターンの「副菜型」の主成分得点は、日本人の食事摂取基準をもとに複数の微量栄養素の摂取が適正量であるかを評価したDRIs-scoreと相関し、第1食事パターンの重み付けが高い程、微量栄養素の栄養バランスが良好であることが示唆された。(著者抄録)

  • Genetic risk score based on the lifetime prevalence of femoral fracture in 924 consecutive autopsies of Japanese males.

    Heying Zhou, Seijiro Mori, Tatsuro Ishizaki, Masashi Tanaka, Kumpei Tanisawa, Makiko Naka Mieno, Motoji Sawabe, Tomio Arai, Masaaki Muramatsu, Yoshiji Yamada, Hideki Ito

    Journal of bone and mineral metabolism   34 ( 6 ) 685 - 691  2016.11  [Refereed]  [Domestic journal]

     View Summary

    A genetic risk score (GRS) was developed for predicting fracture risk based on lifetime prevalence of femoral fractures in 924 consecutive autopsies of Japanese males. A total of 922 non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in 62 osteoporosis susceptibility genes were genotyped and evaluated for their association with the prevalence of femoral fracture in autopsy cases. GRS values were calculated as the sum of risk allele counts (unweighted GRS) or the sum of weighted scores estimated from logistic regression coefficients (weighted GRS). Five SNPs (alpha-EY-iduronidase rs3755955, C7orf58 rs190543052, homeobox C4 rs75256744, G patch domain-containing gene 1 rs2287679, and Werner syndrome rs2230009) showed a significant association (P &lt; 0.05) with the prevalence of femoral fracture in 924 male subjects. Both the unweighted and weighted GRS adequately predicted fracture prevalence; areas under receiver-operating characteristic curves were 0.750 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.660-0.840] and 0.770 (95 % CI 0.681-0.859), respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio (OR) for the association between fracture prevalence and unweighted GRS aeyen3 (n = 124) was 8.39 (95 % CI 4.22-16.69, P &lt; 0.001) relative to a score &lt; 3 (n = 797). Likewise, the OR for a weighted GRS of 6-15 (n = 135) was 7.73 (95 % CI 3.89-15.36, P &lt; 0.001) relative to scores of 0-5 (n = 786). The GRS based on risk allele profiles of the five SNPs could help identify at-risk individuals and enable implementation of preventive measures for femoral fracture.

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  • Vitamin D supplementation reduces insulin resistance in Japanese adults: a secondary analysis of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Xiaomin Sun, Zhen-Bo Cao, Kumpei Tanisawa, Tomoko Ito, Satomi Oshima, Mitsuru Higuchi

    Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.)   36 ( 10 ) 1121 - 1129  2016.10  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    Higher circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration has been linked to a lower prevalence of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, randomized controlled trials have not clarified the effect of vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance in healthy adults. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of vitamin D supplementation for 1 year on insulin resistance; the study was a secondary analysis of a clinical trial. We hypothesized that increased 25(OH)D concentration after vitamin D supplementation for 1 year would significantly improve insulin resistance. Ninety-six healthy adults participated in this study, of whom 81 completed the study. The participants randomly received daily either 420 IU vitamin D3 or placebo in a double-blind manner for 1 year. The levels of fasting insulin, glucose, and other parameters were assessed at baseline and after 1 year of intervention. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index was calculated from insulin and glucose levels. Visceral fat area and physical activity were also investigated. Serum 25(OH)D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations were significantly increased by approximately 29.5 nmol/L and 7.0 pg/mL, respectively, after 1-year vitamin D supplementation. After vitamin D supplementation, fasting glucose levels and values of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index significantly decreased from 88.3 to 85.3 mg/dL (P &lt; .01) and 1.17 to 0.84 (P &lt; .01), respectively, and the results were independent of physical activity and visceral fat accumulation. In conclusion, the present study showed that vitamin D supplementation for 1 year effectively improves fasting glucose level and insulin resistance in healthy Japanese adults. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    DOI PubMed J-GLOBAL

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  • 生活習慣病リスクに及ぼす身体運動・遺伝素因・加齢の相互作用

    谷澤 薫平, 樋口 満

    体力科学   65 ( 1 ) 145 - 145  2016

    DOI CiNii

  • Dietary patterns and nutritional assessment in middle-aged and elderly men.

    Tomoko Ito, Kumpei Tanisawa, Ryoko Kawakami, Mitsuru Higuchi

    [Nihon koshu eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health   63 ( 11 ) 653 - 663  2016  [Domestic journal]

     View Summary

    Objectives Dietary patterns are studied to determine the relationship between diet and health. However, little is known about whether various dietary patterns fulfill adequate nutrient intake. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the association between major dietary patterns and nutritional intakes in middle-aged and elderly men. Furthermore, we examined the associations between dietary patterns and micronutrients status by using the reference values from the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese 2010 (DRIs-J 2010).Methods A total of 229 middle-aged and elderly men (age range, 40-79 years) participated in this study. The dietary patterns were determined using principal component analysis of 52 food and beverage items via a validated brief diet history questionnaire. Overall, micronutrient intake status was quantified using a dietary reference intakes score (DRIs-score) for 21 micronutrients (based on the DRIs-J 2010). The association of the nutrient intake and the DRIs-score with each factor score was evaluated using Spearman's correlation coefficient.Results Three dietary patterns were identified: "side dish", "evening drink", and "snack". The "side dish" pattern was characterized by a high intake of vegetables, fruits, seaweeds, mushrooms, and potatoes, and low intake of rice. Spearman's correlation showed that the "side dish" pattern correlated with each of the 21 micronutrients, and positively correlated with the DRIs-score (ρ=0.782, P<0.001).Conclusions The "side dish" pattern was positively related with the DRIs-score, calculated from the DRIs-J 2010. The result suggested the "side dish" pattern may provide a favorable nutrient balance in middle-aged and elderly men.

    PubMed

  • Gene-exercise interactions in the development of cardiometabolic diseases

    Tanisawa Kumpei, Tanaka Masashi, Higuchi Mitsuru

    The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine   5 ( 1 ) 25 - 36  2016  [Invited]

    Authorship:Lead author

     View Summary

    Cardiometabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, stroke, and coronary heart disease are complex disorders influenced by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Physical activity is one of the most reliable predictors of cardiometabolic diseases among various lifestyle factors. Numerous epidemiological studies have revealed that higher levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are strongly associated with a lower incidence of cardiometabolic diseases and all-cause mortality in various populations. On the other hand, genetic factors also contribute to susceptibility to cardiometabolic diseases. Familial and twin studies have demonstrated that the strength of the contribution of genetic factors to cardiometabolic diseases is comparable to that of environmental factors, and a large number of genetic variants associated with cardiometabolic diseases have been identified. Importantly, genetic factors explain the heterogeneity of the effect that regular exercise has on the improvement of cardiometabolic risk, and there is evidence that regular exercise possibly attenuates the genetic predisposition to cardiometabolic diseases. Thus, genetic factors and exercise interact with each other to determine susceptibility to cardiometabolic diseases. This article reviews recent studies exploring genetic factors that determine susceptibility to cardiometabolic diseases, with an emphasis on the studies examining the gene-exercise interactions in cardiometabolic risk.

    DOI CiNii

  • Endurance Exercise Reduces Hepatic Fat Content and Serum Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Levels in Elderly Men.

    Hirokazu Taniguchi, Kumpei Tanisawa, Xiaomin Sun, Takafumi Kubo, Mitsuru Higuchi

    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism   101 ( 1 ) 191 - 8  2016.01  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Lead author

     View Summary

    Context: Age-related hepatic fat accumulation increases the risk of cardiometabolic diseases, and the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21-resistant state caused by fatty liver underlies the pathogenesis of these diseases.
    Objective: Previous studies suggested that a higher level of cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with both lower hepatic fat content and serum FGF21 levels; however, the effect of endurance exercise on hepatic fat content and serum FGF21 concentration has not been studied. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate whether endurance exercise reduced hepatic fat content and serum FGF21 levels.
    Design: This is a randomized crossover trial.
    Setting: The study setting was an institutional practice.
    Patients: Thirty-three elderly Japanese men participated in the study.
    Intervention: The intervention was a 5-week endurance exercise program comprising three cycle ergometer sessions per week.
    Main Outcome Measures: Hepatic fat content was assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and serum FGF21 level was determined by ELISA.
    Results: A5-week endurance exercise program decreased the hepatic fat content and serum FGF21 levels without weight loss, and the changes were higher in the exercise period than in the control period (P = .021 and P = .026, respectively). Correlation analysis demonstrated that only the change in hepatic fat content was significantly and positively correlated with change in serum FGF21 levels (r = 0.366, P = .006).
    Conclusions: A 5-week endurance exercise program decreased hepatic fat content and serum FGF21 levels without weight loss in elderly men, and exercise-induced hepatic fat reduction mediated the reduction in serum FGF21 levels. These findings suggest that endurance exercise modulates hepatic fat content and FGF21 resistance, regardless of obesity status.

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  • Associations between the orexin (hypocretin) receptor 2 gene polymorphism Val308Ile and nicotine dependence in genome-wide and subsequent association studies.

    Daisuke Nishizawa, Shinya Kasai, Junko Hasegawa, Naomi Sato, Hidetaka Yamada, Fumihiko Tanioka, Makoto Nagashima, Ryoji Katoh, Yasuo Satoh, Megumi Tagami, Hiroshi Ujike, Norio Ozaki, Toshiya Inada, Nakao Iwata, Ichiro Sora, Masaomi Iyo, Mitsuhiko Yamada, Naoki Kondo, Moo-Jun Won, Nobuya Naruse, Kumi Uehara-Aoyama, Masanari Itokawa, Kazutaka Ohi, Ryota Hashimoto, Kumpei Tanisawa, Tomio Arai, Seijiro Mori, Motoji Sawabe, Makiko Naka-Mieno, Yoshiji Yamada, Miki Yamada, Noriko Sato, Masaaki Muramatsu, Masashi Tanaka, Yoko Irukayama-Tomobe, Yuki C Saito, Takeshi Sakurai, Masakazu Hayashida, Haruhiko Sugimura, Kazutaka Ikeda

    Molecular brain   8   50 - 50  2015.08  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    BACKGROUND: Many genetic and environmental factors are involved in the etiology of nicotine dependence. Although several candidate gene variations have been reported by candidate gene studies or genome-wide association studies (GWASs) to be associated with smoking behavior and the vulnerability to nicotine dependence, such studies have been mostly conducted with subjects with European ancestry. However, genetic factors have rarely been investigated for the Japanese population as GWASs. To elucidate genetic factors involved in nicotine dependence in Japanese, the present study comprehensively explored genetic contributors to nicotine dependence by using whole-genome genotyping arrays with more than 200,000 markers in Japanese subjects. RESULTS: The subjects for the GWAS and replication study were 148 and 374 patients, respectively. A two-stage GWAS was conducted using the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), Tobacco Dependence Screener (TDS), and number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) as indices of nicotine dependence. For the additional association analyses, patients who underwent major abdominal surgery, patients with methamphetamine dependence/psychosis, and healthy subjects with schizotypal personality trait data were recruited. Autopsy specimens with various diseases were also evaluated. After the study of associations between more than 200,000 marker single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the FTND, TDS, and CPD, the nonsynonymous rs2653349 SNP (located on the gene that encodes orexin [hypocretin] receptor 2) was selected as the most notable SNP associated with FTND, with a p value of 0.0005921 in the two-stage GWAS. This possible association was replicated for the remaining 374 samples. This SNP was also associated with postoperative pain, the initiation of methamphetamine use, schizotypal personality traits, and susceptibility to goiter. CONCLUSIONS: Although the p value did not reach a conventional genome-wide level of significance in our two-stage GWAS, we obtained significant results in the subsequent analyses that suggest that the rs2653349 SNP (Val308Ile) could be a genetic factor that is related to nicotine dependence and possibly pain, schizotypal personality traits, and goiter in the Japanese population.

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  • Cardiorespiratory Fitness is a Strong Predictor of the Cardio-ankle Vascular Index in Hypertensive Middle-aged and Elderly Japanese Men.

    Kumpei Tanisawa, Tomoko Ito, Xiaomin Sun, Ryoko Kawakami, Satomi Oshima, Yuko Gando, Zhen-Bo Cao, Shizuo Sakamoto, Mitsuru Higuchi

    Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis   22 ( 4 ) 379 - 89  2015  [Refereed]  [Domestic journal]

    Authorship:Lead author

     View Summary

    Aim: This study aimed to examine whether cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with arterial stiffening, evaluated using the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), independent of visceral fat (VF) in middle-aged and elderly Japanese men. We also examined whether the relationship between CRF and the CAVI is modified by age and/or hypertension.
    Methods: The CAVI was determined in 157 Japanese men (age range, 30-79 years), including 96 hypertensive subjects (61.1%). CRF was assessed by measuring the peak oxygen uptake (VO(2)peak). The subjects were divided into low- and high-CRF groups, and the VF area was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging.
    Results: The VO(2)peak correlated with the CAVI following adjustment for age and body mass index in the middle-aged and elderly groups (all the subjects: r = -0.285, p&lt;0.001; middle-aged: r = -0.240, p = 0.040; elderly: r = -0.225, p = 0.049). VF also correlated with the CAVI (r = 0.230, p = 0.004). A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age (beta = 0.406, p&lt;0.001) and the VO(2)peak (beta = -0.186, p = 0.015) were associated with the CAVI independently of VF and the mean blood pressure. Two-way ANCOVA adjusted for age demonstrated that the hypertensive individuals had higher CAVI values than the normotensive individuals in the low-CRF group, whereas no significant differences in the CAVI were observed in the high-CRF group (p for interaction &lt;0.05).
    Conclusions: In the present study, CRF was found to be associated with the CAVI, independent of age and VF, in hypertensive middle-aged and elderly Japanese men.

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  • Associations between the Serum 25(OH)D Concentration and Lipid Profiles in Japanese Men.

    Xiaomin Sun, Zhen-Bo Cao, Kumpei Tanisawa, Tomoko Ito, Satomi Oshima, Yoshiko Ishimi, Izumi Tabata, Mitsuru Higuchi

    Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis   22 ( 4 ) 355 - 62  2015  [Refereed]  [Domestic journal]

     View Summary

    Aim: Low circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] concentration has been linked to a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease. One explanation for this phenomenon is that there is an association between the serum 25(OH) D level and lipid profiles. However, studies examining this relationship are limited and have yielded inconsistent results. We thus aimed to evaluate the association between the serum 25(OH) D concentration and lipid profiles in Japanese men taking into consideration confounding factors, including the visceral fat area (VFA) and cardiorespiratory fitness.
    Methods: A total of 136 men (age range: 20-79 years) participated in our study. Fasting blood samples were analyzed to determine the 25(OH) D, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), apolipoprotein (Apo) A-1 and ApoB levels. The VFA was evaluated on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by measuring the peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak).
    Results: The median 25(OH) D concentration was 35.6 nmol/L, and the prevalence of 25(OH) D deficiency was 78.7%. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the serum 25(OH)D concentration was inversely related to the LDL-C/HDL-C, TG, ApoB and ApoB/ApoA-1 values, even after adjusting for age, season, smoking status, alcohol consumption, medication use, vitamin D intake, calcium intake, VFA and cardiorespiratory fitness.
    Conclusions: Serum 25(OH) D level is inversely correlated with the LDL-C/HDL-C, TG, ApoB and ApoB/ApoA-1 values in Japanese men, independent of the VFA and cardiorespiratory fitness.

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  • The relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, cardiorespiratory fitness, and insulin resistance in Japanese men.

    Xiaomin Sun, Zhen-Bo Cao, Kumpei Tanisawa, Tomoko Ito, Satomi Oshima, Mitsuru Higuchi

    Nutrients   7 ( 1 ) 91 - 102  2014.12  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    Here, we aim to investigate the independent and combined associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with glucose metabolism. Fasting blood samples of 107 men aged 40-79 years were analyzed for 25(OH) D, glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, and lipid profile. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was calculated from the fasting concentrations of glucose and insulin. Visceral fat area (VFA) was determined by magnetic resonance imaging and CRF by measuring maximal oxygen uptake. Median 25(OH) D concentration was 36.3 nmol/L, while the prevalence of 25(OH)D deficiency was 74.8%. Participants with high CRF had significantly lower HOMA-IR, glycated hemoglobin, and insulin values than participants with low CRF (p &lt; 0.05). Higher 25(OH) D concentration was strongly correlated with lower HOMA-IR and insulin values independent of VFA (p &lt; 0.01) but significantly affected by CRF. In the high CRF group, participants with higher 25(OH) D concentration had lower HOMA-IR values than participants with low 25(OH) D concentration (p &lt; 0.05). Higher 25(OH) D and CRF are crucial for reducing insulin resistance regardless of abdominal fat. In addition, higher 25(OH) D concentration may strengthen the effect of CRF on reducing insulin resistance in middle-aged and elderly Japanese men with high CRF.

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  • Cardiorespiratory fitness and visceral fat are key determinants of serum fibroblast growth factor 21 concentration in Japanese men.

    Hirokazu Taniguchi, Kumpei Tanisawa, Xiaomin Sun, Zhen-Bo Cao, Satomi Oshima, Ryuken Ise, Shizuo Sakamoto, Mitsuru Higuchi

    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism   99 ( 10 ) E1877-84 - E1884  2014.10  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Lead author

     View Summary

    Context: Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) is an important metabolic regulator suggested to improve glucose metabolism and prevent dyslipidemia. An FGF21-resistant state that increases circulating FGF21 has been reported in obese patients. Although regular exercise prevents metabolic disease, the relationship of the fitness level to serum FGF21 level and body fat distribution in humans remains poorly understood.
    Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the relationship among the serum FGF21 concentration, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) level, and visceral fat area (VFA).
    Design: Serum FGF21 was measured by an ELISA in 166 middle-aged and elderly Japanese men (aged 30-79 y) and 25 untrained and 21 endurance-trained young men (aged 19-29 y). CRF was assessed by measuring the peak oxygen uptake (VO(2)peak) and VFA by magnetic resonance imaging.
    Results: In the middle-aged and elderly subjects, the serum FGF21 level correlated with the VO(2)peak (r = -0.355, P &lt; .001) and VFA (r = 0.487, P &lt; .001). Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed VFA to be most strongly associated with the serum FGF21 level (beta = .360, P &lt; .001), and VO(2)peak was also an independent predictor of the serum FGF21 level (beta = -.174, P = .019). Furthermore, the proportion of subjects with an FGF21 level below the limit of detection was significantly higher among the endurance-trained than among the untrained young men (71.4% vs 24.0%, P = .001), and the VO2 peak and VFA were independently associated with an undetectable FGF21 level (P &lt; .05).
    Conclusions: CRF and VFA are key determinants of the circulating FGF21 concentration.

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  • Strong influence of dietary intake and physical activity on body fatness in elderly Japanese men: age-associated loss of polygenic resistance against obesity.

    Kumpei Tanisawa, Tomoko Ito, Xiaomin Sun, Ryuken Ise, Satomi Oshima, Zhen-Bo Cao, Shizuo Sakamoto, Masashi Tanaka, Mitsuru Higuchi

    Genes & nutrition   9 ( 5 ) 416 - 416  2014.09  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Lead author

     View Summary

    Genome-wide association studies identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with body mass index (BMI) in middle-aged populations; however, it is unclear whether these SNPs are associated with body fatness in elderly people. We examined the association between genetic risk score (GRS) from BMI-associated SNPs and body fatness in elderly Japanese men. We also examined the contribution of GRS, dietary macronutrient intake, and physical activity to body fatness by different age groups. GRS was calculated from 10 BMI-associated SNPs in 84 middle-aged (30-64 years) and 97 elderly (65-79 years) Japanese men; subjects were divided into low, middle, and high GRS groups. Dietary macronutrient intake was assessed using a questionnaire, and physical activity was evaluated using both a questionnaire and an accelerometer. The middle-aged individuals with a high GRS had greater BMI; waist circumference; and total abdominal fat, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat areas than the middle-aged individuals with low GRS, whereas the indicators were not different between the GRS groups in elderly individuals. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that GRS was the strongest predictor of BMI, total abdominal fat, and visceral fat in the middle-aged group, whereas fat, alcohol, and protein intakes or vigorous-intensity physical activity were more strongly associated with these indicators than was GRS in the elderly group. These results suggest that GRS from BMI-associated SNPs is not predictive of body fatness in elderly Japanese men. The stronger contribution of dietary macronutrient intake and physical activity to body fatness may attenuate the genetic predisposition in elderly men.

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  • High cardiorespiratory fitness can reduce glycated hemoglobin levels regardless of polygenic risk for Type 2 diabetes mellitus in nondiabetic Japanese men.

    Kumpei Tanisawa, Tomoko Ito, Xiaomin Sun, Ryuken Ise, Satomi Oshima, Zhen-Bo Cao, Shizuo Sakamoto, Masashi Tanaka, Mitsuru Higuchi

    Physiological genomics   46 ( 14 ) 497 - 504  2014.07  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Lead author

     View Summary

    High cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with a reduced risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and improved beta-cell function; genetic factors also determine these risks. This cross-sectional study investigated whether CRF modifies the association of polygenic risk of T2DM with glucose metabolism in nondiabetic Japanese men. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were measured in 174 Japanese men (age: 20-79 yr). beta-Cell function and insulin resistance were evaluated by calculating HOMA-beta and HOMA-IR, respectively. CRF was assessed by measuring maximal oxygen uptake ((V) over dot(O2max)). Subjects were divided into the low and high CRF groups within each age group according to the median (V) over dot(O2max). Eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with T2DM were analyzed and used to calculate genetic risk score (GRS); subjects were divided into the low, middle, and high GRS groups. The high GRS group had higher HbA1c levels than the low GRS group in both the low and high CRF groups (P &lt; 0.05). Furthermore, the individuals with a high GRS had a lower HOMA-beta than those with a low GRS regardless of CRF (P &lt; 0.05). In multiple linear regression analysis, although GRS was a significant predictor of HbA1c (beta = 0.153, P = 0.025), (V) over dot(O2max) was also associated with HbA1c (beta = -0.240, P = 0.041) independent of GRS. These results suggest that CRF is associated with HbA1c levels independent of GRS derived from T2DM-related SNPs; however, it does not modify the association of GRS with increased HbA1c or impaired beta-cell function.

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  • Common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the FNDC5 gene are associated with glucose metabolism but do not affect serum irisin levels in Japanese men with low fitness levels.

    Kumpei Tanisawa, Hirokazu Taniguchi, Xiaomin Sun, Tomoko Ito, Zhen-Bo Cao, Shizuo Sakamoto, Mitsuru Higuchi

    Metabolism: clinical and experimental   63 ( 4 ) 574 - 83  2014.04  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Lead author

     View Summary

    Objective. This cross-sectional study analyzed the association of serum irisin concentrations with cardiorespiratory fitness levels and common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FNDC5 gene and examined the relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness levels, common SNPs in FNDC5, and glucose metabolism.
    Materials/Methods. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by measuring peak oxygen uptake (VO(2)peak) and serum irisin levels by ELISA in 163 Japanese men (age, 21-79 years). Subjects were divided into low- and high-fitness groups within each age group according to the median VO(2)peak value. Common SNPs (rs3480 and rs16835198) of the FNDC5 gene were genotyped with the TaqMan assay. Glucose metabolism was evaluated by measuring HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin levels, and HOMA-IR.
    Results. Serum irisin levels were negatively correlated with age (p &lt;0.001) and not associated with the VO(2)peak or HOMA-IR. In the low-fitness group, SNP analysis revealed that subjects with the rs3480 AG and GG genotypes had higher levels of insulin and HOMA-IR than those with the AA genotype (p &lt;0.01; no significant difference was observed in the high-fitness group). The GG genotypes of rs16835198 were associated with increased HbA1c and FPG in the low-fitness group only (p &lt;0.05). SNPs and both fitness groups were not associated with serum irisin levels.
    Conclusions. In Japanese men, cardiorespiratory fitness levels and common SNPs in FNDC5 are not associated with circulating irisin levels, whereas high cardiorespiratory fitness abolishes the association between the rs3480 and rs16835198 SNPs and glucose metabolism independent of serum irisin levels. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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  • Polygenic risk for hypertriglyceridemia is attenuated in Japanese men with high fitness levels.

    Kumpei Tanisawa, Tomoko Ito, Xiaomin Sun, Zhen-Bo Cao, Shizuo Sakamoto, Masashi Tanaka, Mitsuru Higuchi

    Physiological genomics   46 ( 6 ) 207 - 15  2014.03  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Lead author

     View Summary

    High cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with a reduced risk for dyslipidemia; however, blood lipid levels are also affected by individual genetic variations. We performed a cross-sectional study to determine whether CRF modifies polygenic risk for dyslipidemia. Serum levels of triglycerides (TG), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured in 170 Japanese men (age 20-79 yr). CRF was assessed by measuring maximal oxygen uptake ((V) over dot O-2max), and subjects were divided into low-fitness and high-fitness groups according to the reference (V) over dot O-2max value for health promotion in Japan. We analyzed 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with TG, LDL-C, or HDL-C levels. Based on these SNPs, we calculated three genetic risk scores (GRSs: TG-GRS, LDL-GRS, and HDL-GRS), and subjects were divided into low, middle, and high groups according to the tertile for each GRS. Serum TG levels of low-fitness individuals were higher in the high and middle TG-GRS groups than in the low TG-GRS group (P &lt; 0.01 and P &lt; 0.05, respectively), whereas no differences were detected in the TG levels of high-fitness individuals among the TG-GRS groups. In contrast, the high LDL-GRS group had higher LDL-C levels than did the low LDL-GRS group, and HDL-C levels were lower in the high HDL-GRS group than in the low HDL-GRS group regardless of the fitness level (P &lt; 0.05). These results suggest that high CRF attenuates polygenic risk for hypertriglyceridemia; however, high CRF may not modify the polygenic risk associated with high LDL-C and low HDL-C levels in Japanese men.

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  • Exome sequencing of senescence-accelerated mice (SAM) reveals deleterious mutations in degenerative disease-causing genes.

    Kumpei Tanisawa, Eri Mikami, Noriyuki Fuku, Yoko Honda, Shuji Honda, Ikuro Ohsawa, Masafumi Ito, Shogo Endo, Kunio Ihara, Kinji Ohno, Yuki Kishimoto, Akihito Ishigami, Naoki Maruyama, Motoji Sawabe, Hiroyoshi Iseki, Yasushi Okazaki, Sanae Hasegawa-Ishii, Shiro Takei, Atsuyoshi Shimada, Masanori Hosokawa, Masayuki Mori, Keiichi Higuchi, Toshio Takeda, Mitsuru Higuchi, Masashi Tanaka

    BMC genomics   14   248 - 248  2013.04  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Lead author

     View Summary

    Background: Senescence-accelerated mice (SAM) are a series of mouse strains originally derived from unexpected crosses between AKR/J and unknown mice, from which phenotypically distinct senescence-prone (SAMP) and -resistant (SAMR) inbred strains were subsequently established. Although SAMP strains have been widely used for aging research focusing on their short life spans and various age-related phenotypes, such as immune dysfunction, osteoporosis, and brain atrophy, the responsible gene mutations have not yet been fully elucidated.
    Results: To identify mutations specific to SAMP strains, we performed whole exome sequencing of 6 SAMP and 3 SAMR strains. This analysis revealed 32,019 to 38,925 single-nucleotide variants in the coding region of each SAM strain. We detected Ogg1 p.R304W and Mbd4 p.D129N deleterious mutations in all 6 of the SAMP strains but not in the SAMR or AKR/J strains. Moreover, we extracted 31 SAMP-specific novel deleterious mutations. In all SAMP strains except SAMP8, we detected a p.R473W missense mutation in the Ldb3 gene, which has been associated with myofibrillar myopathy. In 3 SAMP strains (SAMP3, SAMP10, and SAMP11), we identified a p.R167C missense mutation in the Prx gene, in which mutations causing hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (Dejerine-Sottas syndrome) have been identified. In SAMP6 we detected a p.S540fs frame-shift mutation in the Il4ra gene, a mutation potentially causative of ulcerative colitis and osteoporosis.
    Conclusions: Our data indicate that different combinations of mutations in disease-causing genes may be responsible for the various phenotypes of SAMP strains.

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Misc

  • Cardiorespiratory Fitness And Muscle Strength With The Prevalence Of Diabetes: WASEDA'S Health Study

    Dong Wang, Susumu S. Sawada, Hiroki Tabata, Kumpei Tanisawa, Ryoko Kawakami, Kaori Ishii, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Mitsuru Higuchi, Koichiro Oka, Shizuo Sakamoto

    MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE   52 ( 17 ) 548 - 548  2020.07

    Research paper, summary (international conference)  

  • Parasympathetic Nervous Regulation and Prevalence of Lifestyle-related Diseases In Japanese: Waseda's Health Study

    Masayuki Konishi, Susumu S. Sawada, Ryoko Kawakami, Kumpei Tanisawa, Hiroki Tabata, Nobuhiro Nakamura, Hyeon-Ki Kim, Tomoko Ito, Mitsuru Higuchi, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Suguru Torii, I-Min Lee, Steven N. Blair, Koichiro Oka, Shizuo Sakamoto

    MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE   51 ( 6 ) 216 - 216  2019.06

    Research paper, summary (international conference)  

    DOI

  • Cardiorespiratory Fitness is Associated With Age-Related Carotid Enlargement: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    Yuko Gando, Haruka Murakami, Ryoko Kawakami, Harumi Ohno, Kumpei Tanisawa, Kana Konishi, Susumu S. Sawada, Nobuyuki Miyatake, Motohiko Miyachi

    CIRCULATION   136  2017.11

    Research paper, summary (international conference)  

     View Summary

    0

  • 持久性運動開始直前の糖質摂取による運動誘発性低血糖(インスリン・ショック)の発生を規定する要因の解明

    谷澤 薫平, 近藤 早希, 伊藤 智子, 孫 暁敏, 鈴木 克彦

    デサントスポーツ科学   38   80 - 88  2017.05

     View Summary

    本研究は、持久性運動開始3時間前の食事摂取の有無が、運動開始直前の糖質摂取による低血糖の発生に及ぼす影響を明らかにすることと、運動開始直前の糖質摂取による低血糖を規定する要因を明らかにすることを目的として行った。16名の若年日本人男性を対象として、運動開始3時間前に朝食を摂取する条件と、一晩絶食の条件において、150gのグルコースを摂取した30分後に、最大酸素摂取量の75%の強度で60分の自転車運動を行った。両条件において、運動開始15分後における血糖値の平均値は低血糖の基準である70mg/dLを下回らなかったが、朝食摂取条件では7名、絶食条件では5名において低血糖が起こった。朝食摂取条件において、低血糖が起こった者は、正常血糖の者と比較して最大酸素摂取量が有意に高く、絶食条件においては、運動開始直前のインスリン濃度とインスリン分泌指標が高かった。以上の結果より、若年日本人男性において、摂食状況に関わらず、運動開始直前の糖質摂取により低血糖が起こる者がいることが明らかになった。また、運動3時間前に食事を摂取した状態においては最大酸素摂取量が、一晩絶食の状態においては、インスリン初期分泌反応が高い者において、低血糖が起こりやすい可能性が示唆された。(著者抄録)

  • DIETARY PATTERNS AND ABDOMINAL OBESITY IN JAPANESE MIDDLE-AGED AND ELDERLY MEN

    T. Ito, K. Tanisawa, X. Sun, S. Sakamoto, M. Higuchi

    GERONTOLOGIST   55   124 - 124  2015.11

    Research paper, summary (international conference)  

  • 元気高齢者の栄養

    樋口 満, 伊藤 智子, 谷澤 薫平, 孫 暁敏

    介護福祉・健康づくり   1 ( 2 ) 110 - 113  2014.12

  • 介護福祉・健康づくりの先端研究 遺伝とライフスタイル

    谷澤 薫平

    介護福祉・健康づくり   1 ( 2 ) 124 - 128  2014.12

    CiNii

  • 糖尿病の運動療法(第10回) 運動療法の効果発現と遺伝子多型

    谷澤 薫平, 樋口 満, 田中 雅嗣

    月刊糖尿病   6 ( 9 ) 84 - 94  2014.10

  • 老化促進モデルマウス(SAM)の促進老化・短寿命を規定する非同義置換の網羅的探索

    谷澤 薫平, 田中 雅嗣

    基礎老化研究   37 ( 3 ) 37 - 40  2013.09

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Awards

  • 論文賞

    2015.11   ネスレ栄養科学会議  

    Winner: 谷澤 薫平

  • 濱野吉生記念褒賞

    2015.03   早稲田大学スポーツ科学研究科  

    Winner: 谷澤 薫平

  • 小野梓記念学術賞

    2015.03   早稲田大学  

    Winner: 谷澤 薫平

  • 奨励賞

    2013.06   日本基礎老化学会  

    Winner: 谷澤 薫平

  • 若手研究奨励賞

    2012.07   SAM研究協議会  

    Winner: 谷澤 薫平

  • Special Award

    2012.04   International Congress on Sports Sciences for Students  

    Winner: Kumpei Tanisawa

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Research Projects

  • Assessing causal relationship of skeletal muscle- and fitness-related myokines with cardiometabolic risk factors

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)

    Project Year :

    2019.04
    -
    2022.03
     

  • Genetic epidemiological study for developing preventive methods of hyper-LDL cholesterolemia in non-obese individuals

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B)

    Project Year :

    2017.04
    -
    2019.03
     

  • 日本人における2型糖尿病の遺伝的背景・成因を考慮した個別化予防システムの構築

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 特別研究員奨励費

    Project Year :

    2016.04
    -
    2019.03
     

    谷澤 薫平

     View Summary

    本研究の目的は、個々の2型糖尿病の発症パターンを早期に予測するため、2型糖尿病の主要な成因であるインスリン分泌能低下とインスリン抵抗性を予測するための遺伝的リスクスコア(Genetic risk score: GRS)を構築し、GRSによる2型糖尿病発症パターンの分類を行うことと、これらGRSが2型糖尿病発症に及ぼす影響は、どのような生活習慣・身体特性を有する者において弱まるかを明らかにすることである。本年度は、2型糖尿病の既往歴のない中高齢者において、昨年度までに構築したインスリン分泌能低下を予測する遺伝的リスクスコア(insulin secretion-GRS [IS-GRS])とインスリン分泌能および空腹時血糖値との関連は、全身持久力が高い者において弱まるかどうか、また、それらの関連はBMIが低い者においても認められるかどうかを明らかにすることを目的として研究を行った。
    2型糖尿病の既往歴のない中高齢者882名を対象とした横断研究を行った。IS-GRSはインスリン分泌能との関連が報告されている20個のSNPより求めた。全身持久力は最大酸素摂取量の測定により評価した。BMIの中央値(BMI = 22.6 kg/m2)で対象者を高BMI群と低BMI群に分類し、それぞれの群において解析を行った。その結果、高BMI群においてIS-GRSと全身持久力との間に有意な交互作用が認められ、全身持久力が低い者においてはIS-GRSとインスリン分泌能および空腹時血糖値との間に有意な関連が認められたが、全身持久力が高い者においてはこれらの関連は認められなかった。しかし、低BMI群においてこれらの交互作用は認められなかった。
    以上の結果より、インスリン分泌能と空腹時血糖値に及ぼす遺伝要因の影響は、BMIが低い者においては高い全身持久力を有していても弱まらない可能性が示唆された。

  • 持久性運動直前の糖質摂取による運動誘発性低血糖(インスリン・ショック)の発生を規定する要因の解明

    石本記念デサントスポーツ科学振興財団  研究助成

    Project Year :

    2016.04
    -
    2017.03
     

    谷澤 薫平

  • 時計遺伝子多型に基づく生活習慣病予防に向けた時間栄養学的研究

    花王健康科学研究会  研究助成

    Project Year :

    2016.04
    -
    2017.03
     

    谷澤 薫平

  • 運動に対する身心のストレス耐性の遺伝的差異に着目した運動処方の開発

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 特別研究員奨励費

    Project Year :

    2014.04
    -
    2016.03
     

    谷澤 薫平

     View Summary

    本研究は、運動に対するストレス・炎症応答の遺伝的差異が、運動の健康増進効果の個人差を規定するという仮説のもと、運動に対するストレス・炎症応答の個人差を規定する遺伝要因を探索することを目的として行った。33名の高齢者(年齡:69.6 ± 4.2歳)を対象とした介入実験により、持久性トレーニングが、血中の炎症指標の一つであるfibroblast growth factor 21(FGF21)濃度に及ぼす影響を検討した。実験デザインにはランダム化クロスオーバー比較試験を用い、最大酸素摂取量の60~75%の強度で、1回30~45分、週3回の自転車運動を5週間負荷した。介入前後で血清FGF21濃度を測定し、トレーニング期間とコントロール期間における血清FGF21濃度の変化量を比較した。その結果、5週間の持久性トレーニングにより血清FGF21濃度は減少し、コントロール期間と比較してトレーニング期間における血清FGF21濃度の変化量は有意に低い値を示した。さらに、持久性トレーニングにより肝内脂肪量は減少し、その変化量は血清FGF21濃度の変化量と正に相関することが明らかとなった。したがって、持久性トレーニングによる肝内脂肪量の減少に伴い血清FGF21濃度は低下することが示唆された。血清FGF21濃度が高い者において、心血管疾患や2型糖尿病などのリスクが高まることが明らかとされているため、運動により肝内脂肪量および血清FGF21濃度が減少しにくい者は、運動の健康増進効果を得にくい可能性がある。しかし、持久性トレーニングによる血清FGF21濃度の減少量を規定する遺伝子多型の同定には至らなかったため、今後更なる検討が必要である。

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Specific Research

  • 血清SPARC濃度と大腸ポリープおよび大腸がん発生の因果関係解明

    2020  

     View Summary

    骨格筋から分泌されるマイオカイン"SPARC"は、大腸前がん細胞の増殖抑制作用を持つとされている。本研究の目的は、血中SPARC濃度と関連する一塩基多型(SNP)をゲノムワイド関連解析により同定し、それらを操作変数としたメンデルランダム化解析により血中SPARC濃度と大腸ポリープおよび大腸がん発生の因果関係を解明することである。本年度は中高齢男女1248名を対象として、一連の解析を実施するために必要なジェノタイプデータの取得、クオリティーコントロール、血中SPARC濃度の測定を実施した。クオリティーコントロールの結果、1219名、251,199個のSNPが解析対象となり、今後はこれらのデータを用いてゲノムワイド関連解析ならびにメンデルランダム化解析を進める。

  • 筋量・体力と真に関連するマイオカインの同定と心血管代謝リスク因子との因果関係解明

    2019  

     View Summary

     本研究の目的は、筋量・体力に関連するマイオカインの血中濃度を規定する一塩基多型(SNP)をゲノムワイド関連解析により同定し、それらを操作変数としたメンデルランダム化解析により血中マイオカイン濃度と心血管代謝リスクの因果関係を解明することである。本年度は、これらの解析を実施するために必要なジェノタイプデータの取得とクオリティーコントロールを行った。 男女864名を対象としてジェノタイピングを行い、約55万個のSNPについてジェノタイプデータを取得した。PLINKによるクオリティーコントロールの結果、857名、251,125個のSNPが解析対象となった。今後はこの857名のデータを用いて各種解析を実施し、血中マイオカイン濃度と心血管代謝リスクの因果関係解明を目指す。&nbsp;

 

Syllabus

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Teaching Experience

  • 健康スポーツ原論A(健康スポーツ生理・生化学)

    早稲田大学スポーツ科学部  

    2021
    -
    Now
     

  • 演習IV(健康スポーツの生化学・遺伝学)

    早稲田大学スポーツ科学部  

    2021
    -
    Now
     

  • 健康スポーツ基礎演習

    早稲田大学スポーツ科学部  

    2021
    -
    Now
     

  • 演習III(健康スポーツの生化学・遺伝学)

    早稲田大学スポーツ科学部  

    2020
    -
    Now
     

  • 演習II(健康スポーツの生化学・遺伝学)

    早稲田大学スポーツ科学部  

    2020
    -
    Now
     

  • Sport Sciences 01

    早稲田大学グローバルエデュケーションセンター  

    2020
    -
    Now
     

  • スポーツ遺伝学特論

    早稲田大学スポーツ科学研究科  

    2020
    -
    Now
     

  • スポーツ科学演習

    早稲田大学スポーツ科学研究科  

    2019
    -
    Now
     

  • 論文作成技法

    早稲田大学スポーツ科学研究科  

    2019
    -
    Now
     

  • 健康スポーツの体力・栄養科学

    早稲田大学スポーツ科学部  

    2019
    -
    Now
     

  • 生化学・運動生化学

    早稲田大学スポーツ科学部  

    2019
    -
    Now
     

  • 健康スポーツ論

    早稲田大学スポーツ科学部  

    2019
    -
    Now
     

  • 基礎栄養学

    早稲田大学スポーツ科学部  

    2019
    -
    Now
     

  • スポーツ英語D:文献(健康スポーツ)

    早稲田大学スポーツ科学部  

    2019
    -
    Now
     

  • 演習I(健康スポーツの生化学・遺伝学)

    早稲田大学スポーツ科学部  

    2019
    -
    Now
     

  • スポーツ教養演習II

    早稲田大学スポーツ科学部  

    2019
    -
    Now
     

  • スポーツ教養演習I

    早稲田大学スポーツ科学部  

    2019
    -
    Now
     

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