Updated on 2022/05/25

写真a

 
MITSUHASHI, Hitoshi
 
Affiliation
Faculty of Commerce, School of Commerce
Job title
Professor

Research Institute

  • 2019
    -
     

    産業経営研究所   兼任研究所員

Education

  •  
    -
    2001.05

    Cornell University   New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations   Organizational behavior  

  •  
    -
    1994.03

    Keio University   Faculty of Policy Management  

Research Experience

  • 2008.04
    -
    2019.03

    Former Institution / Organization Keio University, Faculty of Business and Commerce   Professor

  • 2000.11
    -
    2008.03

    Former Institution / Organization University of Tsukuba Graduate School of Systems and Information Engineering Doctoral Program in Social Systems and Management   Management Science   Associate Professor

Professional Memberships

  • 1996.07
    -
    Now

    Academy of Management

 

Research Areas

  • Business administration   Organization Science

Research Interests

  • Social networks

  • Organizational learning

  • Empirical studies

Papers

  • Off the rivals’ radar in emerging market segments: Non-mutual rival recognition between new firms and incumbents

    Hitoshi Mitsuhashi, Lailani L. Alcantara

    Long Range Planning   54 ( 2 )  2021.04

     View Summary

    We examine the causes of non-mutual rival recognition—a situation in which new firms in emerging market segments recognize incumbents in pre-existing and potentially related market segments as rivals, but the incumbents do not recognize the new firms as rivals. Drawing upon the prototype theory, which makes use of cognitive representations or images in recognition processes, we argue that managers use rival prototypes in making sense of competitive environments. Specifically, we argue that non-mutual rival recognition occurs when new firms are not proximate to the incumbents' prototype of rivals because their organizational attributes, such as size and age, are highly distinct. It also occurs when it is difficult for incumbents, owing to their diversification into multiple product markets, or their strong identity as players in emerging market segments, to clearly assess new firms’ proximity to the prototype. Using the context of U.S. online retailers that went public between 1995 and 2001, we find support for our arguments.

    DOI

  • Pay and networks in organizations: Incentive redesign as a driver of network change

    Hitoshi Mitsuhashi, Azusa Nakamura

    Strategic Management Journal    2021

     View Summary

    Research summary: We examine how corporate innovators adapt their intraorganizational networks when firms introduce performance-based incentive plans that center on the short-term achievement of individuals' measurable outputs. We postulate that such plans prompt individuals to revise goals and reconfigure their networks accordingly. Using the co-patenting data, we analyzed cases of this incentive redesign by Japanese electronics firms in the 1990s. We found that the redesign engendered the emergence of more closed and smaller networks in organizations. Although inconsistent, we found some evidence that it promoted corporate innovators to build networks with others with similar expertise. These findings support the notion of incentive-induced network adaptation and suggest a new theme to study the effects of incentive redesign on network evolution. Managerial summary: Research suggests that innovators' networks assist with generating novel ideas, and that some structural characteristics encourage innovation. However, knowledge about how managers can create social conditions that promote the emergence of “ideal” networks in their firms is limited. We focus on the effects of incentive redesign and explore how corporate innovators can change their intraorganizational networks when firms introduce performance-based incentive plans. We found that the redesign engendered the emergence of more closed and smaller networks in organizations. We also obtained some evidence that suggests that the redesign prompts inventors to include those with similar expertise in their networks. Thus, it is possible that managers can use incentive plans to design innovation networks in organizations.

    DOI

  • Measurement equivalence of the dispositional resistance to change scale

    Shaul Oreg, Mahmut Bayazıt, Maria Vakola, Luis Arciniega, Achilles Armenakis, Rasa Barkauskiene, Nikos Bozionelos, Yuka Fujimoto, Luis González, Jian Han, Martina Hřebíčková, Nerina Jimmieson, Jana Kordačová, Hitoshi Mitsuhashi, Boris Mlačić, Ivana Ferić, Marina Kotrla Topić, Sandra Ohly, Per Øystein Saksvik, Hilde Hetland, Ingvild Berg Saksvik, Karen van Dam

    Cross-Cultural Analysis: Methods and Applications, 2nd Edition     215 - 244  2018.01

     View Summary

    Individuals differ in their typical responses to change situations. Whereas some people readily accept them, others tend to resist. These differences in the typical reaction to change have been conceptualized as a personality trait, namely, dispositional resistance to change (Oreg, 2003). The resistance to change trait and its measurement scale (henceforth the RTC scale) were established through a series of studies in which the scale’s structural, construct, concurrent, and predictive validities were demonstrated. The more dispositionally resistant to change an individual is, the more likely will he or she exhibit negative attitudes toward specific changes, and the less likely to voluntarily initiate changes (e.g., Nov & Ye, 2008; Oreg, 2006; Oreg, Nevo, Metzer, Leder, & Castro, 2009). The trait is related to, yet both conceptually and empirically distinct from other traits (see Oreg, 2003), such as sensation seeking (Zuckerman, 1994), intolerance for ambiguity (Budner, 1962), risk aversion (Slovic, 1972), dogmatism (Rokeach, 1960), and openness to experience (Digman, 1990).

    DOI

  • Learning from Political Change and the Development of MNCs’ Political Capabilities: Evidence from the Global Mining Industry

    Naoki Yasuda, Hitoshi Mitsuhashi

    Management International Review   57 ( 5 ) 749 - 774  2017.10

     View Summary

    Previous studies have suggested that (1) a type of organizational capabilities—namely, political capabilities—are required for multinational corporations (MNCs) to grow in global markets, (2) political capabilities are important for building productive relations with governments in politically risky host countries, and (3) MNCs can develop political capabilities by accumulating foreign experiences. However, empirical studies have found both positive and negative effects of such experiences on global market expansions. This study attributes such mixed findings to our lack of understanding about MNCs’ procurement processes of political capabilities and proposes types of experiences critical for such procurements by focusing on their reactions to political changes in host countries. Using data on the global mining industry and political changes in host countries, we find that MNCs develop political capabilities and thus make entries into politically risky host countries when they accumulate the experience of partially divesting some of their assets after political changes in host countries. We also find that MNCs are less likely to enter such countries if they have more experiences of exiting from host countries following political change.

    DOI

  • Look at me: Overt status-seeking behavior and competitive emergence among securities analysts

    Anne H. Bowers, Henrich R. Greve, Hitoshi Mitsuhashi

    Research in the Sociology of Organizations   50   351 - 382  2017

     View Summary

    Using data from securities analysts, who are awarded status by the thirdparty organization Institutional Investor magazine, we examine the emergence of competition and articulate a model of competitive response among actors aware of the importance of status and some of the dimensions on which it may be gained. We predict analysts' initiating or ceasing coverage of stocks in response to other analysts initiating coverage on stocks they cover. We find that competition can emerge because of status seeking rather than as a response to own capabilities or market needs, with compelling, and potentially negative, market implications for overt status seeking.

    DOI

  • Sources of transfer problems in within-industry diversification

    Jungwon Min, Hitoshi Mitsuhashi

    Industrial and Corporate Change   25 ( 4 ) 591 - 609  2016.08

     View Summary

    This research examines how firms' accumulation of experience in other markets within an industry causes transfer problems and limits the performance advantage of within-industry diversification. Using data on the Japanese nonlife insurance industry between 1907 and 1940, we demonstrate that a firm's performance in a focal market decreases with more experience in other markets (i.e., nonfocal markets). This cumulative nonfocal market experience causes managers to transfer preexisting routines extensively and inappropriately to the focal market. We show that the negative effect deteriorates when the firms have already entered such nonfocal markets prior to their entry into the focal markets, and such nonfocal markets are populated by performance-comparable peers. We also find that the negative effect increases when firms transfer knowledge from nonfocal markets in which the focal market has low realized financial synergies, and when firms' experience prior to entry into the focal market was successful. These findings explicate mechanisms by which negative performance effects of withinindustry diversification occur, and advance our understanding of within-industry diversification by applying the idea of transfer problems from the literature on organizational learning.

    DOI

  • Embedded Networks and Suboptimal Resource Matching in Alliance Formations

    Hitoshi Mitsuhashi, Jungwon Min

    British Journal of Management   27 ( 2 ) 287 - 303  2016.02

     View Summary

    Interest has been growing in alliance networks, and research has demonstrated several advantages of embedded networks, including joint problem solving. How embedded networks function as social capital and promote alliance formation has also been explored. However, less is known about constraints that they impose on firms' extensive search for partners. In this study, we advance our understanding of the downsides of embedded networks by proposing that embedded networks facilitate alliance formations, but they may also cause suboptimal resource matching in alliance formations. Specifically, we predict that, in alliances where initial resource matching is more important than ex post collaborative activities, suboptimal resource matching is more likely when firms ally with partners with which they have pre-existing direct or indirect ties and that such alliances decrease firm-level resource utilization performance in operations. Using codeshare alliance data from the global airline industry, we find support for our predictions.

    DOI

  • Too many to handle? Two types of multimarket contacts and entry decisions

    Lailani Laynesa Alcantara, Hitoshi Mitsuhashi

    Management Decision   53 ( 2 ) 354 - 374  2015.03

     View Summary

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how firms with multimarket contacts in both product and geographic markets make foreign direct investments (FDI) location choices and to advance the understanding about how managers with cognitive limits cope with opportunities to take the advantage of mutual forbearance in two types of markets. Design/methodology/approach: Drawing upon the literatures on multimarket contact and decision making, the authors develop original hypotheses on how multimarket contacts in two types of markets influence firms’ choice of destination for foreign investments. The authors test the hypotheses using longitudinal archival data on foreign market entries of Japanese auto parts makers. Findings: The authors find that when choosing FDI locations, firms reduce the cognitive burdens of coping with multimarket contacts in the two types of markets by focussing exclusively on what is perceived as relevant to the decision at hand. The authors also find that this propensity is particularly significant for large firms, whereas small firms use different decision rules and avoid entering markets with the greater degree of multimarket contact with prior entrants, whether in product or national market. Practical implications: Although heuristics simplify competitive environments and reduce managers’ cognitive burdens, such a cost-saving orientation could increase the risk associated with international entry that may end in severe counterattacks from prior entrants, wasteful foreign investments, and substantial entry failures. Originality/value: This study contributes to the literature by adopting multimarket contact theory to foreign market entry, jointly analyzing two types of multimarket contacts, testing three alternative hypotheses about how boundedly rational managers cope with multimarket contacts in two markets, and demonstrating that managers focus on multimarket contacts only in one type of markets when making entry decisions.

    DOI

  • Competitive parity, status disparity, and mutual forbearance: Securities analysts' competition for investor attention

    Anne H. Bowers, Henrich R. Greve, Hitoshi Mitsuhashi, Joel A.C. Baum

    Academy of Management Journal   57 ( 1 ) 38 - 62  2014.02

     View Summary

    Most studies of responses to change in competitive environments focus on competitorspecific adaptations. However, rivals are often acutely aware of one another, and this awareness should influence their competitive behavior. In this study, we focus on three market structures that affect competitive behavior: competitive parity, status disparity, and multipoint contact. In particular, we examine how securities analysts responded to a regulatory discontinuity, Regulation Fair Disclosure (Reg-FD), which promotes competitive parity by eliminating privileged access to proprietary firm information as a critical source of competitive advantage. We predict and find that Reg-FD activated mutual forbearance among analysts linked through multipoint contact. We also predict and find that high-status analysts forbear more strongly. Analysts' responses to heterogeneity in competitive advantage thus depend importantly on their competitive overlap and status, which has implications for both their behavior and the information they provide to investors. © Academy of Management Journal.

    DOI

  • Founders' experiences for startups' fast break-even

    Akitsu Oe, Hitoshi Mitsuhashi

    Journal of Business Research   66 ( 11 ) 2193 - 2201  2013.11

     View Summary

    While some previous studies have found that the role of founders' collective experiences is paramount in resolving problems inherent in startups, others have failed to substantiate this. This study claims that this incongruence is attributable to a failure to consider organizational processes in which founders' experiences translate into organizational assets through information distribution and interpretation. Using the data from the Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics, this study demonstrates that startups reach their break-even point faster when their founders have had work experience in the same industry, and that this effect becomes stronger when these firms commit more resources to information distribution and interpretation. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

    DOI

  • Dynamics of entering politically risky foreign markets

    Lailani Laynesa Alcantara, Hitoshi Mitsuhashi

    Management Research Review   36 ( 6 ) 580 - 595  2013.05

     View Summary

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of political risk on firms' likelihood of foreign market entry and performance by adopting a strategic view of political risk and drawing upon the arguments of multimarket contact theory. Design/methodology/approach: This study estimates the location choice and performance of Japanese auto parts-makers using panel regression models. Findings: The study finds that firms with low multimarket contact in the home country and high multimarket contact in the host country are less likely to avoid politically risky host countries and that firms which entered politically risky host countries exhibit greater performance when the degree of multimarket contact with prior entrants is high. Research limitations/implications: Although the research design raises a concern about the generalizability of the findings, this study highlights the strategic importance of politically risky markets and suggests the importance of considering competitive interactions with rivals in examining interdependent behavior in foreign direct investments. Practical implications: Instead of consistently avoiding politically risky markets, managers should actively consider the potential strategic importance of these markets. A post-entry strategy suggested by the findings is taking positive steps to leverage the benefits of multimarket contacts for managing subsidiaries in politically risky host countries. Originality/value: Unlike previous studies, this study emphasizes the strategic potential of politically risky markets and takes a view that firms have variable political risk tolerance. Furthermore, the authors' adoption of multimarket contact theory allows a novel approach to benchmarking against rivals for foreign entry decisions. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

    DOI

  • Greener pastures: Outside options and strategic alliance withdrawal

    Henrich R. Greve, Hitoshi Mitsuhashi, Joel A.C. Baum

    Organization Science   24 ( 1 ) 79 - 98  2013.01

     View Summary

    Departing from prior work that demonstrates the stickiness and stability of alliance networks resulting from embeddedness, we extend matching theory to study firms' withdrawal from alliances. Viewing alliance withdrawal as a result of firms' pursuit of more promising alternative partners (outside options) rather than failures in collaboration, we predict that a firm is more likely to withdraw from an alliance when there is a higher density of outside options that have better match quality than the current partners. We also propose that, because matching is two-sided, outside options have a greater impact on a firm's withdrawal when they are more likely to initiate new alliances. Using data on alliances in the global liner shipping industry, we show that, controlling for internal tensions in the alliance, outside options predict alliance withdrawals. Thus, despite the alliance stickiness and stability, firms alter their alliances in response to the availability of promising outside options, even leaving alliances that appear successful. © 2013 INFORMS.

    DOI

  • Make-or-Break Decisions in Choosing Foreign Direct Investment Locations

    Lailani Laynesa Alcantara, Hitoshi Mitsuhashi

    Journal of International Management   18 ( 4 ) 335 - 351  2012.12

     View Summary

    Firms have variable risk preferences in decision-making processes, but previous studies in the field of international management tend to view firms as inherently risk averse, and risky location choice as rare and exceptional. Drawing upon the arguments of problemistic search and slack search, we investigate the conditions under which firms make risky choices of location for foreign direct investments. Using longitudinal international expansion data on firms in the Japanese auto parts industry, we find that although firms generally avoid risk in choosing foreign direct investment destinations, they take risks when facing intense home-country competition and a lack of business group affiliation. Nonetheless, we find that small firms with business group affiliation are more likely to enter host countries with high political instability than are large firms with such affiliation. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

    DOI

  • Almost identical experience biases in vicarious learning

    Hitoshi Mitsuhashi

    Industrial and Corporate Change   21 ( 4 ) 837 - 869  2012.08

     View Summary

    While previous research on vicarious learning assumes that managers pay adequate attention to any event in an environment, boundedly rational managers can only pay selective attention to salient events. This study proposes the hypothesis that managers pay disproportionately less attention to and learn less from an external event if it has attributes almost identical to those that they have encountered in the past in either a direct or an indirect manner. An analysis of errors by Japanese firms operating nuclear power plants supports this theory and presents an explanation about why an organization repeats an error that others have made in the past. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Associazione ICC. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Measurement equivalence of the dispositional resistance to change scale

    Shaul Oreg, Mahmut Bayazıt, Maria Vakola, Luis Arciniega, Achilles Armenakis, Rasa Barkauskiene, Nikos Bozionelos, Yuka Fujimoto, Luis González, Jian Han, Martina Hřebíčková, Nerina Jimmieson, Jana Kordačová, Hitoshi Mitsuhashi, Boris Mlačić, Ivana Ferić, Marina Kotrla Topić, Sandra Ohly, Per Øystein Saksvik, Hilde Hetland, Ingvild Berg Saksvik, Karen van Dam

    Cross-Cultural Analysis: Methods and Applications     249 - 278  2012.01

    DOI

  • Embeddedness and the dynamics of brokerage positions: Antecedents and performance consequences of persistence of brokerage positions

    Jungwon Min, Hitoshi Mitsuhashi

    Academy of Management 2011 Annual Meeting - West Meets East: Enlightening. Balancing. Transcending, AOM 2011    2011

     View Summary

    We depart from previous research that has substantiated brokerage advantages in interorganizational networks by shifting focus to the dynamics of brokerage positions and its performance consequences. The brokerage position disappears when triadic closures or bridge decays occur in a subnetwork consisting of a broker and its two partners. We predict that embedded structures of this subnetwork exert multilevel influences on the disappearance, and that structures that promote persistence constrain brokerage advantages. Our analysis of codeshare alliances in the global airline industry supports the theory, demonstrating that the persistence decreases brokersf performance but increases their partnersf performance. (96 words).

    DOI

  • Built to last but falling apart: Cohesion, friction, and withdrawal from interfirm alliances

    Henrich R. Greve, Joel A.C. Baum, Hitoshi Mitsuhashi, Timothy J. Rowley

    Academy of Management Journal   53 ( 2 ) 302 - 322  2010.04

     View Summary

    Although models of alliance network dynamics have focused primarily on alliance formation, this study advances research by investigating member withdrawal from alliances. We develop a model of cohesion and friction at the relationship, network, and market levels and propose cross-level cohesion and time-varying effects on member withdrawal, giving predictions that are distinct from those of alliance formation studies. Our analysis of alliances in the global liner shipping industry showed greater withdrawal rates as a result of market competition and time-dependent effects of prior direct and third-party ties, suggesting that member withdrawal has both social and task-related causes.

    DOI

  • A matching theory of alliance formation and organizational success: Complementarity and compatibility

    Hitoshi Mitsuhashi, Henrich Greve

    Academy of Management Journal   52 ( 5 ) 975 - 995  2009.10

     View Summary

    This study advances understanding of network dynamics by applying matching theory to the formation of interorganizational alliances. We introduce market complementary and resource compatibility as two critical matching criteria of alliance formation and argue that good matches increase firm performance. Using data from liner shipping, we found effects of matching on alliance formation. But contrary to our expectations, alliances by networked firms, rather than isolate firms, exhibited better match quality, suggesting that networks facilitate matching rather than sacrifice it. We also found evidence that alliances with matched partners improve firm performance and survival chances. © Academy of Management Journal.

    DOI

  • Centrality advantage and the creation of distant ties by peripheral firms in vertical networks

    Hitoshi Mitsuhashi, Lailani Laynesa Alcantara, Jung Won Min

    Academy of Management 2009 Annual Meeting: Green Management Matters, AOM 2009    2009

     View Summary

    The notion of centrality advantage in network evolution claims that well-connected firms have an advantage in tie creation. Using data from the Japanese automobile industry, this study articulates why the rich get richer in vertical networks and examines how peripheral producers in vertical networks create new distant ties regardless of the disadvantage caused by being peripheral. We find that peripheral producers create distant ties when they enter markets entered by other producers with high centrality and when they have ties with buyers that have higher structural equivalence with other buyers.

    DOI

  • Dispositional Resistance to Change: Measurement Equivalence and the Link to Personal Values Across 17 Nations

    Shaul Oreg, Mahmut Bayazit, Maria Vakola, Luis Arciniega, Achilles Armenakis, Rasa Barkauskiene, Nikos Bozionelos, Yuka Fujimoto, Luis González, Jian Han, Martina Hřebíĉková, Nerina Jimmieson, Jana Kordaĉová, Hitoshi Mitsuhashi, Boris Mlaĉić, Ivana Ferić, Marina Kotrla Topić, Sandra Ohly, Per Øystein Saksvik, Hilde Hetland, Ingvild Saksvik, Karen van Dam

    Journal of Applied Psychology   93 ( 4 ) 935 - 944  2008.07

     View Summary

    The concept of dispositional resistance to change has been introduced in a series of exploratory and confirmatory analyses through which the validity of the Resistance to Change (RTC) Scale has been established (S. Oreg, 2003). However, the vast majority of participants with whom the scale was validated were from the United States. The purpose of the present work was to examine the meaningfulness of the construct and the validity of the scale across nations. Measurement equivalence analyses of data from 17 countries, representing 13 languages and 4 continents, confirmed the cross-national validity of the scale. Equivalent patterns of relationships between personal values and RTC across samples extend the nomological net of the construct and provide further evidence that dispositional resistance to change holds equivalent meanings across nations. © 2008 American Psychological Association.

    DOI PubMed

  • Attributive change in top management teams as a driver of strategic change

    Riu Yokota, Hitoshi Mitsuhashi

    Asia Pacific Journal of Management   25 ( 2 ) 297 - 315  2008.06

     View Summary

    This study examines the role of top management team (TMT) member succession in breaking organizational inertia. We compare the impact of two types of change in TMTs-in member number and demographic heterogeneity-on subsequent strategic reorientation using data on the diversification activities of firms in the Japanese textile industry. Our findings suggest that executive succession does not trigger strategic change unless succession entails change in the values and interests of executives embedded in their demographic traits. © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

    DOI

  • Buyers' search for new market ties with strangers

    Hitoshi Mitsuhashi, Laynesa Lailani Alcantara, Jung Won Min

    Academy of Management 2008 Annual Meeting: The Questions We Ask, AOM 2008    2008

     View Summary

    Much is now known about the role of repeated ties in network evolution processes, but we know less about the establishment of ties with strangers. In this paper, we add to the literature on network dynamics by examining the patterns of buyers' search for new ties with partners in vertical relations that they have had no direct tie with in the past. Our hypothesis is that buyers favor previously unknown new partners that have specific network, social, and market characteristics. Our longitudinal analysis of supplier network formation in the Japanese automobile industry shows that a searching buyer favors strangers that have higher network centrality, ties with other buyers with which it has more shared bridges and similar product lines, and lower multimarket contact as new partners.

    DOI

  • Built to last but falling apart: Cohesion, friction and the durability of interfirm alliances

    Henrich R. Greve, Joel A.C. Baum, Hitoshi Mitsuhashi, Tim Rowley

    Academy of Management 2008 Annual Meeting: The Questions We Ask, AOM 2008    2008

     View Summary

    We examine how relationship, network, and market-level sources of cohesion and friction cause firms to persist in or withdraw from alliances that jointly provide assets for service production. Study of alliance withdrawal is needed to complete our models of network dynamics, which thus far have focused primarily on alliance initiation. We investigate withdrawal from open-ended interfirm alliances in the shipping industry, and the findings include greater withdrawal rates as a result of market competition and time-dependent effects of direct and third-party ties. The study of alliance withdrawal is a necessary complement to the vast literature on alliance formation in pursuit of an understanding of network evolution.

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  • Power and glory: Concentrated power in top management teams

    Henrich R. Greve, Hitoshi Mitsuhashi

    Organization Studies   28 ( 8 ) 1197 - 1220  2007.08

     View Summary

    Strategic change is one of the most critical decisions that organizations make. We focus on the role of groups at the upper echelon of hierarchies and propose that concentrated power either in the CEO or the top management team is prone to be exercised, leading to a high rate of strategic change. We derive hypotheses on how formal and informal power concentration in top management teams have an effect on changes in corporate diversification. The findings suggest that power concentration strongly affects decision making. Copyright © 2007 SAGE Publications.

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  • From plan to plant: Effects of certification on operational start-up in the emergent independent power sector

    Wesley D. Sine, Robert J. David, Hitoshi Mitsuhashi

    Organization Science   18 ( 4 ) 578 - 594  2007.07

     View Summary

    In this paper, we study the transition from planned venture to operational start-up in the emergent independent power sector. Planned ventures face tremendous obstacles in assembling the resources necessary to begin operations; we hypothesize and show that formal certification from authorized actors increases the likelihood of making this transition. Moreover, we find that the effects of certification are contingent on the legitimacy of the sector as a whole: Certifications have a stronger effect on start-ups when sector legitimacy is low than when it is high. This research helps us understand a rarely studied organizational transition-from entrepreneurial intention to actual operations-within nascent sectors. It directs attention to the legitimating effects of formal certification, highlights the importance of a multilevel approach to legitimacy, and contributes to the growing rapprochement between entrepreneurial studies and institutional theory. © 2007 INFORMS.

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  • Legitimacy in international joint ventures: It is still needed

    Lailani Alcantara, Hitoshi Mitsuhashi, Yasuo Hoshino

    Journal of International Management   12 ( 4 ) 389 - 407  2006.12

     View Summary

    International joint ventures (IJVs) enable foreign firms to complement their lack of local knowledge and resources by accessing their local partners' knowledge and resource bases. However, IJV formation is not simply a means of overcoming legitimacy-related challenges that stem primarily from a local market's unfamiliarity with foreign firms. This paper proposes that foreign firms can increase the legitimacy of their IJVs to facilitate local market penetration by building interorganizational linkages through which third parties and, especially, prospective customers in local markets can infer the viability and competence of IJVs. Our empirical analyses of manufacturing IJVs in Japan support our arguments. © 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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  • Powerful and Free: Intraorganizational Power and the Dynamics of Corporate Strategy

    Hitoshi Mitsuhashi, Henrich R. Greve

    Strategic Organization   2 ( 2 ) 107 - 132  2004  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author

  • Multiunit organization and multimarket strategy: The dynamics of market entry and commitment

    Henrich R. Greve, Hitoshi Mitsuhashi

    Scandinavian Journal of Management   20 ( 1-2 ) 9 - 30  2004

     View Summary

    Recent work on multiunit-multimarket (MUMM) firms has shown that the market entry behavior of these firms is influenced by learning processes and by opportunities for reduced competition with firms that have a high degree of multimarket contact. There is still uncertainty as to the prominence of these motives in guiding entry behavior, and the important implications for market competition and antitrust enforcement calls for further research on this theme. We review work on the way MUMM firms determine market entry and product innovation, and present some results on the patenting behavior of large Japanese shipbuilding firms. The findings suggest that firms are more likely to take out patents if their multimarket overlap with other firms in the market is high. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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  • The effect of human resource management practices on Japanese MNC subsidiary performace: A partial mediating model

    Hyeon Jeong Park, Hitoshi Mitsuhashi, Carl F. Fey, Ingmar Björkman

    International Journal of Human Resource Management   14 ( 8 ) 1391 - 1406  2003.12

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between a bundle or system of human resource (HR) practices and firm performance and the processes through which these HR practices affect organizational outcomes. Using a sample of fifty-two Japanese multinational corporation subsidiaries operating in the United States and Russia, we examine the impact of HR systems on firm performance mediated by employee skills, attitudes and motivation in an attempt to shed light on the so-called 'black box' through which HR practices lead to firm performance. The results support the notion that employee skills, attitudes and behaviours play a mediating role between HR systems and firm outcomes in multinational corporations. These findings illustrate the varying impact of synergistic systems of HR practices and their generalizability in different national contexts.

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  • Effects of the social origins of alliances on alliance performance

    Hitoshi Mitsuhashi

    Organization Studies   24 ( 2 ) 321 - 339  2003.02

     View Summary

    This research responds to the charges of two criticisms about the embeddedness approach - (1) that it does not treat embeddedness as a variable and (2) that it does not explain economic performance - by investigating how variations in the social origins of alliances account for alliance performance. The hypotheses of this research state that the strength of ties between individuals who initiate alliance formation processes is positively related to alliance performance, because such ties eliminate the uncertainty that firms face when forming alliances, reduce the likelihood of partners' malfeasance, and facilitate information exchange for sharing tacit knowledge. However, analysis of the mail survey data on biopharmaceutical R & D alliances indicates that such a simple association does not exist. Rather, one possible interpretation of the findings is that the activation of strong ties in forming alliances seems to be a double-edged sword that not only creates an opportunity for building successful alliances but also restricts the ability of organizations to acquire heterogeneous information and cutting-edge knowledge.

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  • Line and HR executives' perceptions of HR effectiveness in firms in the People's Republic of China

    Hitoshi Mitsuhashi, Hyeon Jeong Park, Patrick M. Wright, Rodney S. Chua

    International Journal of Human Resource Management   11 ( 2 ) 197 - 216  2000.04

     View Summary

    This paper examines the differences in perceptions of the importance and effectiveness of human resources (HR) practices in firms operating in the People's Republic of China. The major finding is that while there are no significant differences between HR and line executives' perceptions of the importance of each functional area in human resource management (HRM), there are significant differences between line and HR executives' perceptions of the effectiveness of these areas. Line and HR executives both view the issue of securing, developing and maintaining human resources as a critical issue for the execution of daily operations and long-term strategic plans. However, line executives perceive HR performance effectiveness as significantly lower in these functional areas than HR executives do. Therefore, HR departments are not meeting the performance expectations of line executives. There are three possible reasons for the poor performance of HR departments. First, government intervention may limit HR departments' ability to act strategically. Second, HR departments may not have enough power to act strategically. Third, HR departments may have few capabilities to respond to line executives' demands.

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  • Hrm in multinationals' operations in china: Building human capital and organizational capability

    Patrick M. Wright, Hitoshi Mitsuhashi, Rodney S.K. Chua

    Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources   36 ( 2 ) 3 - 14  1998

     View Summary

    This paper presents the results of a study on the human resource function in Chinese operations of large multinational companies. Surveys of both line and HR executives in these firms were conducted. Results reveal that line executives are quite sensitive to the critical nature of people management issues as busi ness issues, and that they see HR's strategic orientation as the most significant area for improvement. Both line and HR executives note the importance of acquiring, developing, and retaining human capital in order to successfully compete in China. The challenges and opportunities implied by these results are discussed.

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Awards

  • Highly Commended Paper Award

    2013.09   Management Research Review  

  • Best Paper Award

    2012.01   Asia Academy of Management  

  • Best Paper Award

    2008.08   Academy of Management  

Research Projects

  • Investigating the hybridity and scaling strategies of for-profit social enterprises

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)

    Project Year :

    2020.04
    -
    2024.03
     

  • The effect of communities of practice networks and geographical proximity based on inter-organizational trust on knowledge diffusion

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Research (Exploratory)

    Project Year :

    2020.07
    -
    2023.03
     

  • 二元的ネットワーク構造の循環によるパフォーマンス・モデルの提唱と実証

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(B)

    Project Year :

    2019.04
    -
    2022.03
     

    三橋 平, ALCANTARA L.L., 永山 晋, 安田 直樹, 閔 廷媛

     View Summary

    組織論分野の研究では、ネットワークの構造的な埋め込みと経路依存性が組織行動を形作っていることが知られている。本研究では、当初は、前者だけに着目をし、ネットワークを二元論的に分類、ネットワークが2つの形を時間の推移とともに循環的に移行するプロセスを解明しようとしていた。しかしながら、この着眼点だけではネットワークと歴史という2つの行動制約要因を網羅的に把握できないことから、経路依存性を加え、研究目的を発展させている。そして、組織は新しことを始めるよりも、今あるもの、既存のものを維持、持続させることが得意であり、これは、ネットワーク構築と学習パターンのいずれにも見られる。本研究では、このような慣性が持つ負の側面を低減し、正の側面を増長させるメカニズムを解明していく。我々の研究課題は、3つのサブ課題に分けて進めている。1つ目のサブ課題は、遺伝子組み換え作物に関するデータを用いた研究である。新しい市場においては、ラベル付けコンテストとでも呼ぶべき、名称に関する競争が発生している。誰がどのようなラベルの、どの時点で用いているのか、この問題を、ネットワーク、経路依存性の観点から明らかにし、新しい市場の成長メカニズムに関する新しい見方を提示したい。昨年度は、研究コンテクストの理解、および、データ収集の準備を行った。2つ目のサブ課題は、文化創造物、ラップ音楽市場に関するデータを用いた研究である。この研究では、ルート・コンセプトという概念を提唱し、新しい創造活動における歴史的な幹に関する見方を提示する。昨年度は、データの分析を行い、中間発表として位置づけで2回の学会発表を行った。3つ目のサブ課題は、経路依存性と埋め込みを50年以上の長期的な観点から捉え、企業の盛衰を説明するものであり、コンテクストの探索とデータベースの特定を行った。

  • 進化論的アプローチによる新しい学習研究プログラム:医療現場の実証研究を通じて

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 挑戦的研究(萌芽)

    Project Year :

    2018.06
    -
    2021.03
     

    三橋 平, 徳川 城治, 三橋 立

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    本研究の目的は、1. 進化論的な学習理論を礎としながら、新しい視点から学習理論の検討を行うこと、2. 経営学の研究者と臨床医が共同研究することで、これまでにない新しい考えとデータに基づく学習研究を行うこと、3. 臨床医に対して新しい知見を与えうる組織論研究を行うこと、にある。本研究は挑戦的研究(萌芽)課題であることから、これまで仮説検証型の研究が主であった学習の研究に、観察に基づく研究を持ち込み、どこまで医療現場のデータを使用できるのかを探っている。昨年度は2つのデータ収集プロジェクトを行った。なお、共に慶應義塾大学・順天堂大学の研究倫理委員会から承認を既に得ている。第1のプロジェクトは、いわゆるDoor to CTに関するプロジェクトである。脳卒中A患者(発症から24時間以内に脳卒中と疑われる患者)が救急外来で病院に来院した際に、病院のドアからCTまでの時間を指す。脳の血流が止まると1分間に約19万個の脳細胞が死滅すると言われており、この時間短縮に対する関心は高く、近年の研究例もいくつか発見された。昨年度は、学習論で言われるフィードバックを与えることによる効果を検証し、データを分析、論文にまとめて発表を行った。もう1つのプロジェクトは、手術中の術者の心拍数に関するプロジェクトである。術者は作業困難性が発生すると心拍数が上昇し、ストレスが生まれるため、手術室内の術者、および、助手の心拍数を計測し、データの収集を行った。

  • Co-evolution and firm growth: Through the extension of the Red-Queen Approach

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)

    Project Year :

    2016.04
    -
    2019.03
     

    Mitsuhashi Hitoshi

     View Summary

    In this research project, we studied cognitive aspects of interfirm competition. In particular, we followed an approach suggested in the Red Queen theory and focused on mechanisms that cause managers to miss and overlook emerging threats from competitive environments. The current literature suggested when and how firms respond to competitive threats and have pointed out the role of resource similarity and market commonality in identifying competitive threats. In contrast, we focused on cases wherein firms do not view other firms that they should view as rivals and explored under what conditions incumbents do not mutually recognize new firms as rivals that view them as rivals. We developed our predictions upon the prototype theory and tested our predictions. In addition, as a result of the progress, we also started a project about competition among organizational members.

  • Theories and Empirical Analyses about Organizational Attention Seeking

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)

    Project Year :

    2013.04
    -
    2016.03
     

    Mitsuhashi Hitoshi, ALCANTARA L. L., MIN Jungwon

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    This study is built upon the attention-based view of the firm, postulating that the behavioral patterns of organizations can be more fully understood by focusing on how managers as cognitive misers allocate their attentional resources to various problems that they are facing and to different parts of dynamically changing environments. We apply the attention-based view to explicate decision makings for developing mutual forbearance by firms in multiple markets, costs of search for partners in alliance networks, and co-evolutionary processes for making stars. We extend not only these literatures by incorporating the idea of attention but also the attention-based view itself by showing its applicability and utilities.

  • An empirical analysis of factors that promote and disturb interorganizational learning

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)

    Project Year :

    2010
    -
    2012
     

    MITSUHASHI Hitoshi

     View Summary

    This study proposes the hypothesis that managers pay disproportionately less attention to and learn less from an external event if it has attributes almost identical to those that they have encountered in the past in either a direct or an indirect manner.

  • On the comprehensive model of organizational slack search

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B)

    Project Year :

    2006
    -
    2008
     

    MITSUHASI Hitoshi

  • Econometric Analyses of Market and Organization in Health Care Service Industry

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)

    Project Year :

    2005
    -
    2007
     

    YOSHIDA Atsushi, MURASAWA Yasutomo, MITSUHASHI Hitoshi, KANO Shigeki

     View Summary

    In this study, we investigate health service industry of Japan from following three viewpoints. First we examine how hospitals or clinics compete with each other confronting on what types of market with industrial organization approach. Second we examine how physicians are supplied in what types of labor market of physicians. Third we examine how changes of health policies affect incentives of physicians or patients and thus how supply or demand for health services have changed. For the first point, namely competition in health service market, we investigate theoretically and empirically (1) entry and exit of dental clinics, (2) coalition between big hospitals and clinics, (3) selection between beds for acute diagnoses and those for long term care, and so on. For the second point, namely labor market of physicians, focusing on the career path and alumni network, we investigate (1) how female physicians decide their career paths, (2) what types of teaching hospitals can attract trainee physicians after the introduction of new post-graduation training systems (3) how concrete and stable of job networks of alumni. For the third point, namely health policies, we investigate (1) what decides allocation of the elderly patients into whether health-insurance-applied beds or long-term-care-insurance-applied bed from both aspects of demand and supply sides, (2) who bears the increase of premium, employee and employer, when contribution to the health services system for the elderly increases, (3) whether financial subsidy to municipality-based national health insurance leads to excess increase of per-capita health expense.

  • 組織衰退・滅亡の過程とそのパターンに関する実証研究

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 若手研究(A)

    Project Year :

    2003
    -
    2005
     

    三橋 平

     View Summary

    本研究では,組織が衰退・滅亡する過程とそのパターンについて,2つの大きな枠組みを見出し,研究を行った。まず第1に,組織の外的な要因,すなわち経営環境がもたらす競争的緊張や脅威,新しいテクノロジーの出現に伴う適応の問題が挙げられる。2つ目の枠組みとは,組織内部の要因であり,具体的には,組織構造,情報処理能力,パワー関係,そして,組織学習などの要因が考えられる。本研究では,衰退・滅亡にいたる過程の中で,必ず組織は外的な要因による脅威と,内的な要因による制約を受けており,この2つのフォースのインターアクションが,パターンを形作っているのではないかと考え分析を行った。前者に関する研究成果の1つとしては,東京23区内におけるホテルの企業行動を分析したものが挙げられる。競争力が高いホテルほど,より高いラック・レートを設定する傾向があることから,ラック・レートの偏差をホテルが持つ全国レベルでの複市場コンタクトによって説明したものである。これにより,複市場コンタクトと競争力についての知見を加え,また,組織が衰退するプロセスの中に,外部組織との競争的インターアクションがあることを見出した。後者については,私がGreveと発表した組織内パワーに関する論文では,部門間のパワーや組織内のパワー格差が固定化され,path-independentのレベルが高くなることによって,組織はより変革を行いにくく,特に,その影響は組織のパフォーマンスが低迷しているときに強くなることが明らかになっている。さらに,SineとKirschとの共同研究論文では,官僚的組織構造が実はベンチャー企業にとって成長の糧になることを実証的に発見した。

  • ネットワーク構成の決定要因とその影響:新規公開株シンジケート団に関する実証研究

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 若手研究(B)

    Project Year :

    2002
     
     
     

    三橋 平

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Committee Memberships

  • 2018.04
    -
    2022.03

    日本学術振興会 学術システム研究センター  専門研究員(経営学分野)