Updated on 2022/12/04

写真a

 
SHADRINA, Elena
 
Scopus Paper Info  
Paper Count: 0  Citation Count: 0  h-index: 4

Citation count denotes the number of citations in papers published for a particular year.

Affiliation
Faculty of International Research and Education, School of International Liberal Studies
Job title
Professor

Education

  • 2005.04
    -
    2009.03

    Niigata University Graduate School of Modern Society and Culture   Niigata University Graduate School of Modern Society and Culture   PhD in Economics  

  • 1995.10
    -
    1998.10

    Khabarovsk State Academy of Economics and Law   Graduate School of Economic Governance Studies   National Economy Governance  

  • 1990.09
    -
    1995.06

    Khabarovsk State Academy of Economics and Law   National Economy Governance   Economic Governance and Management in Organizations  

Degree

  • Niigata University Graduate School of Modern Society and Culture   PhD in Economics

  • Khabarovsk State Academy of Economics and Law   Candidate of Sciencies in Economics

  • Khabarovsk State Academy of Economics and Law   Diploma of Economist Specialising in "Economics and Production Management" (Honours)

Research Experience

  • 2017.04
    -
    Now

    Waseda University   School of International Liberal Studies   Professor (tenured)

  • 2011.04
    -
    2018.04

    Meiji University Graduate School of Governance Studies   Associate Professor (non-tenured)

Professional Memberships

  •  
     
     

    Institute of Eurasian Studies

  •  
     
     

    JAPAN ASSOCIATION FOR COMPARATIVE ECONOMIC STUDIES

  •  
     
     

    THE ASSOCIATION FOR NORTHEAST ASIA REGIONAL STUDIES

  •  
     
     

    Enerugī Anzen Hoshō Kyōdō Kenkyū. Research Group on Energy Security.

 

Research Areas

  • Economic history   Economic transition

Research Interests

  • renewable energy

  • conventional energy: oil and gas

  • energy integration

  • energy policy

  • Russia, Eurasia

  • institutional economics

  • comparative economics

▼display all

Papers

  • Energy security along the new silk road. Energy law and geopolitics in Central Asia

    Elena Shadrina

    Eurasian Geography and Economics   63 ( 3 ) 1 - 3  2022.05

    DOI

  • A double paradox of plenty: renewable energy deployment in Central Asia

    Elena Shadrina

    Eurasian Geography and Economics   63 ( 1 ) 1 - 26  2022.01

     View Summary

    Greater deployment of non-hydropower renewable energy sources in Central Asia appears to be a rational solution to energy security in the region. However, renewable energy diffusion in Central Asia is at an incipient stage. Moreover, the utilization of renewable energy sources varies substantially across the region. Whereas fossil fuel-rich, more developed Central Asian economies pursue the deployment of non-hydropower renewable energy sources, water-rich, lower-income countries retain their reliance on large-scale hydropower. This article argues that wider deployment of non-hydropower renewable energy sources is critical for Central Asian countries’ sustainability and attempts to explain the double paradox of plenty through the specifics of institutional environments in energy-poor and rent-dependent Central Asian economies.

    DOI

    Scopus

    1
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • On the Evolution of Hierarchical Urban Systems in Soviet Russia, 1897–1989

    K Kumo, E Shadrina

    Sustainability   13 ( 20: 11389 )  2021  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    One piece of evidence of the inefficiency of the spatial economy of modern Russia presented in the seminal work of Hill and Gaddy (2004) is that Russian urban agglomerations are non-viable. This was demonstrated using Zipf’s rank-size distribution, which does not hold for Russian urban systems. Hill and Gaddy explained this through the legacy of the Soviet command-administrative planning. Having constructed an original dataset, which incorporated comprehensive historical data for all the cities in the former Soviet Union republics and tested the rank-size distributions for the respective years, the study yielded more nuanced findings. First, unlike the modern Russian hierarchical urban systems, the Soviet ones followed rank-size distribution fairly well. Second, the Soviet urban systems were evolving. In the late Imperial era and early Soviet period, they followed the Zipf’s law prediction. However, between 1939 and 1959, the rank-size distribution diverged from the predicted one. Yet again, the Soviet hierarchical urban systems revealed a trend of convergence toward the traditional rank-size distribution in the late Soviet era. A corollary to such evidence from data trajectory appears that the evolution of the Soviet hierarchical urban systems was not necessarily the ultimate product of the urban development policies of the command-administrative system. It can be thus presumed that, contrary to the established belief, command administrative urban development might be ineffectual even in centrally planned socialist economies.

    DOI

    Scopus

    1
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Non-Hydropower Renewable Energy in Central Asia: Assessment of Deployment Status and Analysis of Underlying Factors

    Elena Shadrina

    Energies   13 ( 11 ) 2963 - 2963  2020.06

     View Summary

    Despite globally progressing energy transition, the deployment of non-hydropower renewable energy (NHRE) in Central Asia is moderate and varies by country. This paper aims to explain why Central Asian countries with significant challenges in the energy sector are least engaged in NHRE development. In doing so, the paper first reviews scholarly work on renewable energy (RE) deployment in developing countries. For assessing the NHRE development status in Central Asian countries, the paper adopts a two-stage analytical framework. First, it assesses the current situation in these states' energy sectors in connection to their economic growth and development, environmental sustainability and energy security. Then, it analyses the preparedness of the national energy sectors for NHRE diffiusion in six dimensions: Structure of energy sector, RE regulation, institutions and governance, capital and investment, infrastructure and business environment, and human capital. Based on the results of the two-stage analysis, the paper argues that more advanced economically and institutionally countries are more likely to commence NHRE development.

    DOI J-GLOBAL

    Scopus

    11
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Post-Soviet Integration: Case of Eurasian Economic Union

    SHADRINA Elena

    Waseda Global Forum    2020.03  [Refereed]

  • Chapter 8 "Energy Integration in Eurasian Economic Union: Preliminary Study on Progress and Policy Implications" in 30 Years since the Fall of the Berlin Wall: Turns and Twists in Economies, Politics, and Societies in the Post-Communist Countries

    Elena Shadrina

    Palgrave Studies in Economic History    2020

    DOI

  • Eurasian Economic Union: A Preliminary Examination of Integration Effects

    SHADRINA Elena

    Roshia yūrashia no keizai to shakai    2020  [Refereed]

  • Chapter 8 “Energy Cooperation and Security in Central Asia: The Possible Synergy between Hydrocarbon Rich and Water Rich Countries”. In “Achieving Energy Security in Asia: Diver-sification, Integration, and Policy Implications” ed. by Farhad Taghizadeh-Hesary, Naoyuki Yoshino, Young Ho Chang and Aladdin Rillo, World Scientific Press, 2019.

    Elena Shadrina

       2019.09

  • Energy Policies of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan: Case for Energy Security through Cooperation

    SHADRINA Elena

    Waseda Global Forum, 2019, 15: 23-55   15   23 - 55  2019  [Refereed]

  • The Common Gas Market of the Eurasian Economic Union: Progress and Prospects for the Institutionalisation.

    SHADRINA Elena

    Regional Studies of Russia, Eastern Europe, and Central Asia   7 ( 1 ) 105-137 - 137  2018  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper addresses the evolution of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU), focusing in particular on newly endorsed institutional provisions for the common gas market (CGM) of the EAEU. The article is organized as follows. First, it outlines a conceptual framework informed by institutional theory. Second, it incorporates necessary insight into manifold developments related to integration among those post-Soviet economies which up to this point have been less definite in setting their agenda for formal economic association with the EU and examines the determinants for Eurasian integration. Third, it explains the principal institutions and model for the proposed CGM. Fourth, the paper discusses institutional complementarity and institutional change as they relate to the process of the CGM’s formation. The study demonstrates that institutionally homogeneous EAEU economies display their intention to model the CGM by exploiting their existing complementarity in the gas sector, but assume the necessity of some institutional changes. The article concludes that institutional conversion and institutional drift (as they relate to market structure and pricing, respectively) will be the types of changes required to enforce complementarity in the process of materialization of the proposed CGM.

    DOI

    Scopus

    3
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Demography of Russia: From the Past to the Present

    Shadrina, E.

    Population studies   72 ( 2 ) 279 - 282  2018  [International journal]

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

  • Institutionalisation of the Common Gas Market in the context of institutional evolution of the Eurasian Economic Union

    Shadrina, E.

    Energy Policy: Perspectives, Challenges and Future Directions     135 - 178  2018

     View Summary

    The chapter addresses some of the aspects of the ongoing institutionalisation in the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU). Having briefly overviewed the history of the EAEU formation, it describes the overall institutional environment of the EAEU and characterises the contemporary stage of the EAEU’s economic integration depicting the impediments and the opportunities for the latter. The rest of the chapter is devoted to exploring the common gas market (CGM) recently endorsed by the institutional provisions of the EAEU. In doing so, it analyses contemporary gas relations within the EAEU with application of the most recent data published by the Eurasian Economic Commission, examines the CGM’s model and its principal institutions as they are envisioned. This chapter discusses potential benefits and concerns of the economies engaging in the CGM, as well as speculates on possible developments involving third parties. It concretises those through the analysis of the most salient issues of the CGM’s formation as they relate to gas price, pricing, competition and others. The chapter argues that despite long existing constraints for integration in the EAEU due to mainly the factor of the member states economies’ structural similarity, institutionally compatible economies display their intention to progress beyond supranational institution-building to include sectoral initiatives, within which the studied example of the CGM falls. The chapter demonstrates that the CGM exploits the existing institutional complementarity among the respective national gas sectors and extends Russia’s somewhat more advanced institutional arrangements to the projected common gas market.

  • Inclusive Economic Growth: Comparing Achievements of Russia, Central Asia and Caucasus.

    SHADRINA Elena

    Meiji Journal of Governance Studies   13   91-119  2017  [Refereed]

  • A Comparative Check on Inclusiveness of Economic Growth and Development: Russia vis-à-vis some Post-Soviet Economies.

    SHADRINA Elena

    Journal of Siberian and Far Eastern Studies   16 ( 8-45 )  2017  [Refereed]

  • Russia's Oil and Gas for Northeast Asian Markets: Means and Ways vs Realities.

    Journal of Self-Governance and Management Economics.   5 ( 1 ) 34 - 79  2017  [Refereed]

  • Russia’s Energy Export: Analytical Observations and Some Tentative Prospects.

    SHADRINA Elena

    Meiji Journal of Governance Studies   12 ( 12 ) 83-98 - 98  2016  [Refereed]

    CiNii

  • Choices to Diversify: EU’s Regulations, Sanctions and Russia’s Gas Policy.

    SHADRINA Elena

    Near East University Journal of Social Sciences.   IX ( 1 ) 45-8  2016  [Refereed]

  • Oil prices and Sanctions: Impact of External Factors on Russia's Economic Growth. Association of Comparative Economic Systems. 56th Annual Conference. Hirosaki University. June 4-5,2016.

       2016

  • Can Russia Succeed in Energy Pivoting to Asia? Institute for Energy Markets and Policies.

    Elena Shadrina

       2016.01

  • “Country Analyst for PRIX Index on politics and oil exports”

       2016  [Invited]

  • External Factors for Russia's Economic Growth. An Overview of Relevant Theoretical and Empirical Studies.

    Journal of Siberian and Far Eastern Studies   14   30 - 71  2016  [Refereed]

  • Institutional Transformations in Russia’s Gas Policy: Impact of the Ukrainian Crisis.

    SHADRINA Elena

    Journal of Governance Studies. Graduate School of Governance Studies Meiji University   11   95-128  2015  [Refereed]

  • Turkish Stream for Russia's Eurasian Gas Policy.

       2015

  • ウクライナ危機がロシアのエネルギー政策に与える影響:北東アジアでのロシアの天然ガス政策を中心に. ERINA REPORT. No. 124, June 2015. pp. 21-22, 34 (Japanese)

       2015

  • Shifts in Russia’s Pipeline Gas Policy: An Insight into Premises and Consequences. Journal of Siberian and Far Eastern Studies. No. 12, 2015, pp. 8-43.

       2015  [Refereed]  [Invited]

  • Russia's Pivot to Asia: Rationale, Progress and Prospects for Oil and Gas Cooperation

    Shadrina, E.

    Region. Regional Studies of Russia, Eastern Europe and Central Asia   2015 ( 4 ) 95-128 - 128  2015  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This article explores Russia’s engagement with Northeast Asia (NEA) in the area of oil and gas and examines the sustainability of Russia’s energy policy vis-à-vis Asia. The study argues that: (1) Russia’s eastward shift is a pragmatic choice to escape the evolution of the EU’s energy-governance institutions to establish a uniformly regulated European energy market, which has become increasingly incompatible with Russia’s state-capitalism mode of energy governance (2) Russia’s region-specific (Eastern Siberia and Far East) and sector-specific (oil and gas) arrangements prove to be an expedient means to forge Russia’s energy ties with the geopolitically complex region of NEA (3) to succeed in the long-term, Russia needs to replace its reactive energy policy towards Asia with a proactive attitude vis-à-vis both the evolving individual energy policies of NEA countries and the ongoing institutionalization of the energy markets in the region as a whole.

    DOI

    Scopus

    2
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Russia's natural gas policy toward Northeast Asia: Rationales, objectives and institutions

    Elena Shadrina

    ENERGY POLICY   74 ( C ) 54 - 67  2014.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The article examines the institutional dimensions of Russia's gas policy toward Northeast Asia (NEA(1) During the liberal economic reforms of the 1990s, development of natural gas deposits in the Russian Far East was made possible under the scheme of production sharing agreements (PSA). However, new PSAs were banned in Russia even before the advent of state capitalism in the early 2000s. This was, to a large extent, the result of strong anti-PSA lobbying led by the domestic energy business elite. Consequently, Russia's gas policy in the east began evolving from being project-specific toward being region-specific. Contemporary Russian gas policy toward NEA relies upon domestic (national and regional) and external institutions. In 2009, following the completion of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant in Sakhalin, Russia entered NEA gas markets. Transformations in the international gas markets facilitated the establishment of a two-pattern gas export policy in Russia in 2013. Under this policy, Russia's EU-oriented pipeline gas export remains monopolised by Gazprom, while Asia-oriented LNG export is partially liberalised. Russia has not been experiencing institutional discrepancy in NEA gas markets. However, as the markets evolve toward greater coordination, a rational option for Russia is to genuinely liberalise its gas policy. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI J-GLOBAL

    Scopus

    20
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Russia's Hydrocarbons for Northeast Asia: Dynamics and Dilemmas.

    Journal of Governance Studies, Meiji University Graduate School of Governnace Studies   2014 ( 10 ) 139 - 139-178  2014  [Refereed]

    CiNii

  • Russia's Gas Policy in Asia: The Driving Forces and the Nature of Institutional Changes

    International Journal of Business and Management   2014 ( II ) 4 - 60-79  2014  [Refereed]  [Invited]

  • Russia's Dilemmas about China's Gas Market.

    Elena Shadrina

    The Northeast Asian Economic Review   2014 ( 2 ) 2 - 39-62  2014  [Refereed]

  • Russia's energy governance transitions and implications for enhanced cooperation with China, Japan, and South Korea

    Elena Shadrina, Michael Bradshaw

    POST-SOVIET AFFAIRS   29 ( 6 ) 461 - 499  2013.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    A Tokyo-based economist and a noted western economic geographer, both specializing in the hydrocarbon resources of Russia, apply the framework of governance studies in an effort to gain a deeper understanding of the recent changes in the country's energy policy-making. The authors argue that, unlike the international relations paradigm prevailing in studies of Russia's energy policy, the country's multiple roles in the international energy arena (as producer, consumer, exporter, importer, and transit state) warrant a more nuanced approach, reflecting Russian energy policy's flexibility over time and diversity across space. This paper endeavors, therefore, to apply a political economy and governance perspective to an understanding of the significant changes in Russia's energy policy-making regarding its dynamic energy relations with the Northeast Asia (NEA; China, Japan, and South Korea). In exploring the complex interactions between Russia's internal energy policy-making and its emerging energy relations in NEA, the authors addresses three key questions, namely: (1) how Russia's Asian energy policy corresponds to its domestic needs, (2) how much coherence in energy governance and cooperation exists between Russia and the Northeast Asian states at the institutional and organizational levels, and (3) the extent to which Russia's expectations for increased energy cooperation with the Northeast Asian states are likely to materialize.

    DOI J-GLOBAL

    Scopus

    19
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Russia's Oil and Gas in Northeast Asia: Fait Accompli. Fait Favorable?

    Proceedings of 4th Humanities Korea International Conference "Changes and Challenges in Glocalising Russia and Northeast Asia". Institute of Russia Studies Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Seoul   2013  2013.10  [Refereed]  [Invited]

  • State Capitalism and Russia's Energy Policy in Northeast Asia.

    Near East University Journal of Social Sciences.   VI ( 2 ) 65-123  2013.10

  • Russia's state capitalism and energy geopolitics of Northeast Asia.

    Elena Shadrina

    Turku School of Economics, Pan European Institute, Finland.     PEI. 2013  2013.01

  • Russia’s Energy Governance in Transition: Explaining New Direction.

    Journal of Governance Studies. Graduate School of Governance Studies Meiji University(forthcoming).   1 ( 1 ) 49-75  2013

  • Russia's Oil and Gas in Northaest Asia: Institutional Setting and Policy Implications.

      2013 ( II ) 2-3 - 135-161  2013  [Refereed]

  • Japanese Energy Policy after Fukushima. Transition or U-turn?

    Journal of Governance Studies. Graduate School of Governance Studies Meiji University   2013 ( 9 ) 31 - 31-72  2013

    CiNii

  • Deregulation of Japanese Electricity Market after Fukushima.

    Oil, Gas and Energy Law Intelligence. Special Issue Nuclear Law and Policy.   2013 ( 11 ) 1 - 1-25  2013  [Refereed]

  • Fukushima Fallout: Gauging the Change in Japanese Nuclear Energy Policy

    Elena Shadrina

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DISASTER RISK SCIENCE   3 ( 2 ) 69 - 83  2012.06

     View Summary

    The Fukushima nuclear disaster is a special case: a major twin natural disaster (earthquake and tsunami) incited a large-scale technological disaster, which resulted in a serious nuclear accident. Because the various costs are so tremendous, this triple disaster has had a pervasive impact on all aspects of life in Japan. This article describes nuclear energy policy transformation in the aftermath of the Fukushim a disaster. The study draws on theoretical propositions of governance and disaster risk governance, and demonstrates that a vested interest perspective is important to understanding the results of Japan's energy policy before Fukushima. Safety, democracy, and openness were the fundamental principles of Japan's nuclear energy policy when the country decided to diversify its energy sources in the 1950s. But these basic premises were undermined by the vested interests that controlled policy administration and implementation as the nuclear energy industry developed. Analysis of Japan's recent nuclear energy policy transformation covers such dimensions as policy targets, policy issues such as safety, the fuel cycle, waste disposal, administrative structure, public awareness, and national and local policy considerations. The study identifies process deficiencies in Japan's post-Fukushima nuclear energy policy transformation and evaluates possible ways to eliminate defects through administrative reorganization and independent safety oversight.

    DOI J-GLOBAL

    Scopus

    12
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Government and Governance: Traditional and Novel Research Agenda.

       2012

  • Japan's Pre- and Post-3/11 Energy Policy: Distressing Lessons and Blurred Prospects.

    Near East University Journal of Social Sciences, October, 2012. pp. 94-136   Vol.V ( No. 2 )  2012

  • Russia`s Foreign Energy Policy: Paradigm Shifts within the Geographical Context of Europe, Central Eurasia and Northeast Asia

    Norwegian Institute for Defence Studies.     IFS Insights. 11.2010  2010.11

  • Russia's Foreign Policy: Norms, Ideas and Driving Dynamics

    Turku School of Economics, Pan European Institute     PEI 2010  2010

  • Modelss for Post-Crisis Development: Global War or New Consensus

       2010  [Invited]

  • Russia and the “Great Recession”

    Intenrational Affairs.   No. 2  2010

  • Russia’s New Energy Strategy 2030: Reflections on Novelty, Impediments and Implications.

    Oil, Gas and Energy Law Intelligence. 2009   Vol. 7 – Issue 4.  2009

  • Japan`s Energy Relations with Russia and Kazakhstan.

    Shingetsu Electronic Journal of Japanese-Islamic Relations (SEJJIR). March 2009. pp. 64-94   Vol. 5  2009

  • 『石油分野における日露間の協力: 現状・展望・提言集』

       2008.11

  • Environmentally Friendly Tourism and Emission Free Activities.

    5th International Forum on Northeast Asia Tourism (IFNAT) & Eastern Circle in Ulaanbaatar     Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia  2008.10

  • Considerations of Sustainable Development in Japan's RTA.

    Workshop on Sustainability in FTAs.     NDRC,China.  2008.06

  • Russia`s Energy Efficiency and Conservation Policy: Analytical Notes in the Light of the 2008 G8 Summit.

    Submitted to the Northeast Asia Economic Forum.    2008.03

  • Staying West. Going East. Russia`s energy politics

    Pan-European Institute 20th Anniversary Conference Energy Challenges in Northern Europe, November 27-30, 2008, Turku, Finland. Conference proceedings.    2008

  • Energy Policy as a Factor of Regional Cooperation in Northeast Asia.

    Shadrina Elena

    Gendai shyakai bunka kenkyuu (Journal of Niigata University Graduate School of Modern Society and Culture). 2008. pp. 167-200.   No. 42. ( 42 ) 167 - 200  2008

    CiNii

  • Energy Cooperation in NEA: an Insight into Frameworks and Dimensions.

    SHADRINA Elena N.

    Journal of Northeast Asian Studies. 2008. pp. 143-159.   Vol. 14. ( 14 ) 143 - 159  2008

     View Summary

    Throughout the latter half of the past century, almost every academic and policy paper addressing cooperation in Northeast Asia (NEA) has been developed upon the principle of the regional economies' complementarity. This very feature was anticipated to generate a robust stimulus for strengthening cooperation among the NEA countries (NEAs). Indeed, intra-regional cooperation has been expanding, but the interchange was mainly occurring in segments driven by market forces. On the flip side, in such spheres as finance, transport, and energy that require inter-governmental dialogue and official arrangements, joint initiatives were unfolding at a modest rate. Nowadays, given that the energy demand of the NEA economies is soaring despite the tightening of the world energy market, it seems rather unsound to continue neglecting the region's resource generation potential. Furthermore, the improving politico-diplomatic relations among the NEA states have created a favorable environment for regional energy partnership. The current paper is focused on the organizational aspect of energy cooperation in NEA. The study examines the barriers and prerequisites for energy cooperation among the NEA states, overviews principal schemes for regional energy partnership, and speculates about prospective patterns of energy cooperation frameworks for NEA.

    CiNii

  • Energy Cooperation Impact on Integration: EU Experience’s Applicability for Northeast Asia.

    13th Conference of the The Association for the Japan Sea Rim Studies.    2007.12

  • Regionalism and Energy Cooperation: in Attempt to Look at NEA through Comparative Prism.

    Shadrina Elena

    Gendai shyakai bunka kenkyuu (Journal of Niigata University Graduate School of Modern Society and Culture). 2007. pp. 189-222.   ( No. 39. ) 189 - 222  2007

    CiNii

  • Regionalization and Regionalism: Featuring Northeast Asia.

    Shadrina Elena

    Gendai shyakai bunka kenkyuu (Journal of Niigata University Graduate School of Modern Society and Culture). pp. 403-436.   37 ( No. 37 ) 403 - 436  2006

    CiNii

  • Is Pacific Oil Pipeline to Breathe New Life into the Far Eastern economy?

    Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Japan Institute of International Affairs.     Report 2004  2005.03

  • Energy cooperation in Northeast Asia as an Impetus for intraregional Integration

    Elina N.Shadrina

    The Journal of Economics. Niigata University. The Society of Economics in Niigata University. Niigata, Japan.   78 ( No. 78 ) 69 - 95  2005.03

    CiNii

  • Energy Cooperation in Northeast Asia.

    The Japan Institute of International Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Tokyo.     JIIA  2004

  • The Problems and Economic Outcome Associated with Construction of Trans-Siberian Pipeline (from the Russian Far East’s standpoint) (Part I, II)

    Khabarovsk State Academy of Economics and Law Herald, KHAEL.   ( No 1, 3 )  2004

  • Japan’s Oil Policy: A Changing Stance? )

    Khabarovsk State Academy of Economics and Law Herald, KHAEL.   No 2  2004

▼display all

Books and Other Publications

  • Shadrina, E. (2022). Internationalisation of Higher Education in Japan and the COVID-19 Pandemic. In Higher Education and the COVID-19 Pandemic (pp. 101-123). Brill.

    Elena Shadrina( Part: Contributor)

    2022

  • Renewable Energy in Central Asian Economies: Role in Reducing Regional Energy Insecurity

    SHADRINA Elena( Part: Contributor, In “Energy Insecurity in Asia: Challenges, Solutions, and Renewable Energy”, Naoyuki Yoshino, Farhad Taghizadeh-Hesary, Young Ho Chang, and Thai-Ha Le, eds.)

    ADBI Press  2020

  • Energy Integration in the Eurasian Economic Union: A Preliminary Study on Progress and Policy Implications

    SHADRINA Elena( Part: Contributor, In “Economies, Politics and Societies in the Post-Communist Countries: Thirty Years since the Fall of the Berlin Wall”, eds. Gennadi Kazakevitch and Alexandr Akimov.)

    Palgrave Macmillan  2020

  • Energy Cooperation and Security in Central Asia: The Possible Synergy between Hydrocarbon Rich and Water Rich Countries

    SHADRINA Elena( Part: Contributor, In “Achieving Energy Security in Asia: Diversification, Integration, and Policy Implications” ed. by Farhad Taghizadeh-Hesary, Naoyuki Yoshino, Young Ho Chang and Aladdin Rillo.)

    World Scientific Press  2019

  • “Institutionalisation of the Common Gas Market in the Context of Institutional Evolution of the Eurasian Economic Union” in Energy Policy: Perspectives, Challenges and Future Directions/ ed. by Sreekanth. K. J.

    SHADRINA Elena( Part: Contributor, ISBN 978-1-53613-744-6)

    Nova Science Publishers, Inc.  2018.06

  • Shifts in Russia's Foreign Energy Strategy in "Energy Security in Northeast Asia"

    SHADRINA, Elena( Part: Contributor, 「北東アジアのエネルギー安全保障。東を目指すロシアと日本の将来」/杉本 侃 編者. ERINA北東アジア研究叢書-5.)

    2016

  • Russia`s Role in Northeast Asia Economies` Development. Khabarovsk: Khabarovsk State Academy of Economics and Law, 2007. 218 p. (in Russian).

    Lysenko Vladimir, Shlyk Nadezhda( Part: Joint author, Chapter 2. “Russia`s Economic Cooperation with Northeast Asian States”. pp. 43-87)

    2007

  • Asia-Pacific Regionalization: Russia’s Involvement. Khabarovsk: Publishing House of the Far Eastern State Transport University, 2006. 160 p. (in Russian).

    Bury Anatoly, Kochemasova Anna( Part: Joint author, Section 1.1. “Globalization of World Economy”; Section 1.2. “Concepts and Grounds for Asia-Pacific Regionalism” in Chapter 1. “Asia-Pacific Region in the Globalizing World” (pp. 5-18); Chapter 3. “Russia and Northeast Asia: Perspectives for Closer Integra)

    極東鉄道輸送国立大学、ハバロフスク  2006

  • Russian-Japanese trade: current state and prospects. Vladivostok: Publishing House of Fareast University, 2003. 248 p. (in Russian).

    ( Part: Sole author)

    2003

  • Challenges to Russia's Gas Export Diversification. Asian Gas Infrastructure Conference. Singapore. 18-19 November 2015.

    ( Part: Sole author)

▼display all

Misc

  • Book Review Demography of Russia: From the Past to the Present, Population Studies

    SHADRINA Elena

    Population Studies   77 ( 2 ) 279-282  2018

    DOI

  • Book Review Karabchuk, Tatiana, Kazuhiro Kumo and Ekaterina Selezneva (2016) Demography of Russia: From the Past to the Present. Palgrave Macmillan

    SHADRINA Elena

    Japanese Journal of Comparative Economics   55 ( 1 ) 63-66  2018

    DOI

Works

  • Asian Markets and Russian LNG: Considering Important Trends.

    Other 

    2015
    -
     

  • 「露中天然ガスパイプラインの日露への影響」インタヴュー:一般社団法人「共同通信社」の杉田弘毅氏

    Other 

    2014.05
    -
     

  • Japan's LNG Policy. Interview by Sergey Kapitonov for "Oil and Gas Journal"

    Other 

    2013.10
    -
     

  • 「日露エネルギー協力」。一般社団法人「共同通信社」の杉田弘毅氏

    Other 

    2013.06
    -
     

  • by Anatoly Medetsky, Moscow Times (Quoted in: Putin Launches Pacific Oil Terminal, Moscow Times, December 29, 2009)

    Other 

    2009.12
    -
     

Research Projects

  • Environmental Trailblazers and Laggards: Global, International and National Perspectives on Climate Change Action

    Waseda University 

    Project Year :

    2022.04
    -
    2023.03
     

    Elena Shadrina

  • Global Energy Transition: Challenges and Responses of Post-Soviet Hydrocarbon Exporters

    Waseda University 

    Project Year :

    2021.04
    -
    2022.03
     

    Elena Shadrina

  • The Changing Patterns of Hierarchical Urban Systems in the Post-Soviet Economies: Analysis and Predictions

    Waseda University 

    Project Year :

    2020.04
    -
    2021.03
     

    Elena Shadrina

  • Resource Curse or Institutions Curse? Evidence from Hydrocarbon Rich Post-Soviet Economies. 2019R-069.

    Waseda University 

    Project Year :

    2019.04
    -
    2020.03
     

    SHADRINA Elena

  • Eurasian Economic Union: Benefits and Costs of Membership. 2019C-620

    Waseda University 

    Project Year :

    2019.04
    -
    2020.03
     

    SHADRINA Elena

  • Energy, Growth and Development in post-Soviet Economies: Incorporating Perspectives from Institutional Theory and Comparative Economic Studies

    Waseda University  2018B-312

    Project Year :

    2018.07
    -
    2019.03
     

    SHADRINA Elena

  • Energy, Growth and Development in post-Soviet Economies

    Waseda University  2018K-388

    Project Year :

    2018.04
    -
    2019.03
     

    SHADRINA Elena

  • A Comprehensive Study of Ukrainian Crisis and Energy Security Based on Constellation Theory

    KAKENHI  16KT0044

    Project Year :

    2016.04
    -
    2019.03
     

    蓮見 雄, 石郷岡 建, 東野 熱子, 前田 広毅, 末澤 恵美, SHADRINA Elena

     View Summary

    This study examines the correlation between Ukraine Crisis and Energy Security from the perspective of interaction between three elements: institutions (NATO and the EU), positioning of States (European countries and Russia) and interests of economic entities. The results show that "diversification” both of international cooperation and energy supply & mix are effective in solving these two intertwined issues simultaneously. This has implications for Japan's diplomacy and energy security.

  • Curse or Blessing? Energy Resources for Economic Growth and Development in post-Soviet Countries. 2017S-158

    Waseda University 

    Project Year :

    2017.04
    -
    2018.03
     

    SHADRINA Elena

  • Structure of Russian Foreign Trade and Prospects for Economic Coopetition with the Northeast Asian Countries

    National Bank Academic Research Foundation 

    Project Year :

    2016.04
    -
    2017.03
     

    SHADRINA Elena

  • Impact of International Economic Factors on the Russian Economy in the 2000s

    Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University 

    Project Year :

    2016.04
    -
    2017.03
     

    SHADRINA Elena

  • Evolving Asian Gas Market: Players and Rules

    Meiji University 

    Project Year :

    2014.04
    -
    2015.03
     

    Elena Shadrina

  • The Market Entry of Russian Natural Gas in Northeast Asia: From Institutional Convergence to New Forms of Institutionalisation

    Meiji University 

    Project Year :

    2013.04
    -
    2014.03
     

    Elena Shadrina

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Presentations

  • Post-Soviet Integration: Case of Eurasian Economic Union. 17th Asia Pacific Conference 2019 “Governance in the Asia Pacific: Politics, Economics, Business and Environment”. Beppu, Japan, November 30 - December 1, 2019.

    SHADRINA Elena

    Presentation date: 2019.12

  • What to Expect for Russia-Japan Relations: Contemplation against a Backdrop of Social and Economic Situation in Russia. Public Lecture “Japan and Russia: Contemporary Political, Economic, and Military Relations”. Temple University, ICAS, Tokyo, October 17

    SHADRINA Elena

    Presentation date: 2019.10

  • Energy Cooperation and Security in CAREC Region: The Possible Synergy between Hydrocarbon Rich and Water Rich Countries. ADB & CAREC Institute Work-shop: Achieving Energy Security in Asia: Diversification, Cooperation and Renewable Energy. Almaty, Kazakhs

    SHADRINA Elena

    Presentation date: 2019.10

  • Eurasian Economic Union: Benefits and Costs of Membership. The XXth East Asian Conference on Slavic Eurasian Studies. Tokyo, June 28 – June 30, 2019

    SHADRINA Elena

    Presentation date: 2019.06

  • Energy Integration in the Eurasian Economic Union: Progress, Asymmetry of Interests and Implications for the European Union. Australasian Association for Communist and Post-Communist Studies 14th Biennial Conference. Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus

    SHADRINA Elena

    Presentation date: 2019.02

  • Policies to Promote Renewable Energy and Enhance Energy Security in Central Asia. Session 8: Roundtable Discussion. ADB & CAREC Institute Workshop: Achieving Energy Security in Central Asia: Role of Renewable Energy. Baku, Azerbaijan. March 13, 2018.

    SHADRINA Elena

    Presentation date: 2018.03

  • Renewable Energy in Central Asia: Current Role and Possibilities for Regional Cooperation. Session 6: Enhancing Regional Power Trade in Central Asia: Role of Regional Integration and Cooperation. ADB & CAREC Institute Workshop: Achieving Energy Security i

    SHADRINA Elena

    Presentation date: 2018.03

  • Institutionalisation of the Common Gas Market of the Eurasian Economic Union: Actors, Interests and Progress. The 8th East Asian Conference “Conflict and Harmony in Eurasia in the 21st Century: Dynamics and Aesthetics”. Seoul, South Korea. June 3-4, 2017.

    SHADRINA Elena

    Presentation date: 2017.06

  • Powers and/or Streams: Russia’s Gas Strategies in Asia and Europe. European Gas Transmission Conference. Berlin, Germany. November 3-4, 2016.

    SHADRINA Elena

    Presentation date: 2016.11

  • Energy Resources for Russian Economy: Curse, Addiction or…? Energetika XXI: Economy, Policy, Ecology. The Role for Russian Resources under Changed Energy Prices and De-carbonization. Saint Petersburg. November 9-11, 2016.

    SHADRINA Elena

    Presentation date: 2016.11

  • Inclusive Economic Growth: Comparing Achievements and Prospects of Russia, Central Asia and Caucasus. The 7th East Asian Conference on Slavic-Eurasian Studies. New Opportunities and New Challenges in the Greater Eurasia. Shanghai, China. September 25-25,

    SHADRINA Elena

    Presentation date: 2016.09

  • Innovation for Empire: Pre-war Japan’s Search for Alternative Liquid Fuel and Its Post-war Legacies Technology, Innovation, and Sustainability: Historical and Contemporary Narratives. Session S3D “From Grey to Green: Sustainable Energy”. ICOHTEC. 43th Ann

    SHADRINA Elena

    Presentation date: 2016.07

  • Oil prices and Sanctions: Impact of External Factors on Russia’s Economic Growth. Association of Comparative Economic Systems. 56th Annual Conference. Hirosaki University. June 4-5, 2016.

    SHADRINA Elena

    Presentation date: 2016.06

  • Challenges to Russia’s Gas Export Diversification. Asian Gas Infrastructure Conference. Singapore. 18-19 November 2015.

    SHADRINA Elena

    Presentation date: 2015.11

  • Choices to Diversify: EU’s Regulations, Sanctions and Russia’s Gas Policy. Panel I-4-26 “Theorising Russia’s Resources and Rules: Choices in Changing Global Energy Markets” IX ICCEES World Congress, Makuhari, Japan. August 3-8, 2015

    SHADRINA Elena

    Presentation date: 2015.08

  • Turkish Stream for Russia’s Pivot to Asia. Eurasian Natural Gas Infrastructure Conference. Istanbul, Turkey. 9-10 June 2015.

    SHADRINA Elena

    Presentation date: 2015.06

  • Impact of the Ukrainian Crisis on Russia’s Energy Policy Towards Northeast Asia. ERINA, Niigata. February 27, 2015.

    SHADRINA Elena

    Presentation date: 2015.02

  • Russia’s Gas Policy in Asia: The Driving Forces and the Nature of Institutional Changes. 14th International Academic Conference. Malta, 28-31 October 2014.

    SHADRINA Elena

    Presentation date: 2014.10

  • Russia’s Dilemmas in China’s Gas Market. IV International Conference "Eastern Siberia and Russian Far East Oil and Gas", Moscow, 17-18 April 2014.

    SHADRINA Elena

    Presentation date: 2014.04

  • Russia’s Gas in Northeast Asia: Fait accompli. Fait Favorable? 4th Humanities Korea International Conference “Changes and Challenges in Glocalizing Russia and Northeast Asia” Institute of Russian Studies Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Seoul, Korea,

    SHADRINA Elena

    Presentation date: 2013.10

  • Russia’s Gas Policy in Northeast Asia. 13th Annual Aleksanteri Conference in Helsinki “Russia and the World”, Panel 2C “Russia's energy foreign policy between Eastern and Western vector”, Helsinki, Finland. October 24, 2013

    SHADRINA Elena

    Presentation date: 2013.10

  • Forecast for China's Gas Supply and Demand. Quantitative Parameters of Russian Gas Supply to China. 17th Annual Sakhalin Oil & Gas Conference Session “The Transformation of Global Energy Markets”, September 23-26, 2013, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Russia.

    SHADRINA Elena

    Presentation date: 2013.09

  • 日露間の領土問題、ロシアの認識.

    成田社会人大学. 

    Presentation date: 2013.07

  • Japan-Russia Territorial Dispute. Perceptions in Russia’s West and East. Guest Lecture at Narita University, Japan (日露間の領土問題、ロシアの西と東で認識. 成田社会人大学), July 13, 2013.

    SHADRINA Elena

    Presentation date: 2013.07

  • Russia’s Oil and Gas in Northeast Asia: Inter-regional and Intra-Regional Comparisons// Symposium “European and Asian Energy Markets: Too Many or Too Few Institutions?” April 9-10, 2013, Tokyo.

    SHADRINA Elena

    Presentation date: 2013.04

  • Russia’s Energy Governance Transition: Focus on the Far East.

    Conference “Energy Transitions: Regulation of Energy Markets at National, European And International Levels”. University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland. 

    Presentation date: 2013.03

  • Russia’s State Capitalism and Energy Geopolitics of Northeast Asia. Panel 22 “National and Transnational Dimensions of Russia’s Relations in the Asian Region”.

    Conference “Competition and Good Society – The Eastern Model” Aleksanteri Institute, Helsinki. 

    Presentation date: 2012.11

  • apan's Pre- and Post-3/11 Energy Policy: Distressing Lessons and Blurred Prospects.

    Annual Meeting of Association of American Geographers. New York, NY 

    Presentation date: 2012.02

  • Kyrgyzstan’s Way Toward Sustained Growth and Sustainable Development.

    National Institute for Strategic Studies of the Kyrgyz Republic, Bishkek. 

    Presentation date: 2012.02

  • Russia’s Energy Governance Transition in the XXIst Century: The Narrative of the (Clumsy) Bear and the (Canny) Dragon.

    Conference “The Dragon and the Bear: Strategic Choices of China and Russia” Aleksanteri Institute, Panel 13 “Energy Governance Challenges”. Helsinki 

    Presentation date: 2011.11

  • Russia’s Energy Strategy towards Northeast Asia.

    Seminar at the Norwegian Institute for Defence Studies “Russian Foreign Energy Policy: Politics or Economics?” Oslo, Norway. 

    Presentation date: 2010.04

  • EU- Russia Dialogue: Lines of Separation & Points of Cohesion// Deepened EU- Russia Dialogue. Meeting of the Permanent EU – Russian Working Group. Panel 3: Economic Dialogue and Political/ Security Issues: Separation or Tangle?

    Energy Dialogue. Vienna, Austria. 

    Presentation date: 2010.02

  • Energy cooperation in Northeast Asia: Impact on region formation.

    Seminar at the Norwegian Institute for Defence Studies, Oslo, Norway 

    Presentation date: 2009.11

  • Staying West. Going East... Russia`s Energy Politics.

    Pan-European Institute 20th Anniversary Conference Energy Challenges in Northern Europe. Turku, Finland. 

    Presentation date: 2008.11

  • Environmentally Friendly Tourism and Emission Free Activities.

    The 5th International Forum on Northeast Asia Tourism (IFNAT) & Eastern Circle in Ulaanbaatar. Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. 

    Presentation date: 2008.10

  • Considerations of Sustainable Development in Japan’s Regional Trade Agreements.

    The Roundtable Workshop on Sustainability in Free Trade Agreements. Institute for International Economic Research National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC). Beijing, China. 

    Presentation date: 2008.06

  • Russia`s Northeast Asia Energy Efficiency and Conservation Policy

    2008 Working Group on Energy Cooperation in Northeast Asia, by the Northeast Asia Economic Forum (NEAEF), Honolulu, Hawaii. 

    Presentation date: 2008.03

  • Energy Cooperation Impact on Integration: EU`s Experience Applicability for Northeast Asia.

    13th Conference of the Association for Pacific Rim Studies, Oita, Japan. 

    Presentation date: 2007.12

  • Energy Cooperation in NEA: Speculating about its Integrative Impact

    Young Leaders Training and Research Program in Re-gional Cooperation and Development. Toyama city, Japan. 

    Presentation date: 2007.10

  • Energy Cooperation in Northeast Asia.

    Japan Institute of International Affairs (JIIA), Tokyo, Japan. 

    Presentation date: 2004.02

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Specific Research

  • Global Energy Transition: Challenges and Responses of Post-Soviet Hydrocarbon Exporters

    2021   Kazuhiro Kumo

     View Summary

    Several post-Soviet economies, including Russia, are fossil fuels-exporting countries. The reliance of these economies on energy exports varies from being significant (e.g., Russia) to critical (e.g., Turkmenistan). The global energy transition translates into the thinning energy export revenues and prohibitively high costs of energy-intensive finished goods’ export. Both aspects are peculiar to the countries at study. However, energy transition not only challenges the economic sustainability of these countries but threatens the very existence of their established political regimes. The study examines the effects of the energy transition on these energy-producing economies, as well as analyses the national energy strategies for their adequacy in helping these post-Soviet regimes to adapt to the cardinally changing global context.

  • Resource Curse or Institutions Curse? Evidence from Hydrocarbon Rich Post-Soviet Economies.

    2020  

     View Summary

    Whathappens to economic performance in abundantly endowed by energy resources countrieswith strong state? The proposed research project addressed this question in thecontext of hydrocarbon resources-rich post-Soviet economies: Azerbaijan,Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkmenistan. The project aimed at examining empirically the contribution of two groups of factors – energy and institutions - toeconomic performance.

  • The Changing Patterns of Hierarchical Urban Systems in the Post-Soviet Economies: Analysis and Predictions

    2020   Kazuhiro Kumo

     View Summary

    Theproject aimed at examining the changes in the patterns of the hierarchical urbansystems in Russia. An urban agglomeration is invigorated by Dixit-Stiglitz typemonopolistic competition based on product differentiation and increasingreturns to scale (Fujita, Krugman & Venables 1999, Fujita & Thisse2002). In the Soviet practice, a corporate town, so-called monotown was foundedas a home to a limited number of specialised firms. The latter were functioningunder the principles of the centrally planned socialist economy (e.g.,non-existence of price signal). Such monotowns have been facing largerchallenges once the market transition began. The objectives of this project were: 1) to conduct comprehensive literature survey on the post-Soviettransformations of monotowns; 2) to compare principal findings in the existingresearch on monotowns with the theoretical and empirical research on thehierarchical urban systems; and 3) to run the empirical analysis of the effectsof market transition on the changes occurring in monotowns in relation to theirpopulation size, specialization of economic activity and economic performanceof urban systems.

  • Eurasian Economic Union: Benefits and Costs of Membership

    2019  

     View Summary

    The project aimedat analysing the effects of participation in the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU)on the economies of five member-states: Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan,Kyrgyzstan and Russia. Although the economicsignificance of Europe for Russia by far outweighs that of Eurasia, theimportance of Eurasia has been reconceptualised in Russian official rhetoric inpost-2014 geopolitical and economic situation. Contrarywise, having gainedeconomic vigour and adopted a multi-vector stance in foreign policy, Kazakhstanhas activated the pursuance of geographic diversification. Similarly, has beenevolving the attitude towards the Eurasian integration of other EAEU member-states,with Russia, nevertheless, remaining their primary economic partner. Since theEAEU is a young integration, a solid quantitative exercise is difficult.Therefore, based upon the review of relevant theoretical and empirical accountson economic integration, the study examined the effects of the EAEU on theintegrated economies, analysing them upon an original set of metrics in severalrealms: intra-EAEU trade, investment, labour mobility and economic andinstitutional convergence. Depending on the direction of the identifiedimpacts, the impacts were provisionally coined the "benefits” and the“costs” of membership.    

  • Energy, Growth and Development in post-Soviet Economies.

    2018  

     View Summary

    The project investigated various aspectsof energy - economic performance nexus. Drawing upon theoretical frameworks ofenergy resource endowment, institutions, energy transitions and economicgrowth, this research project empirically examined the interactions betweenfossil fuels and economic performance in the post-Soviet economies. The projectwas extended to include preliminary study on the role of renewable energy inCentral Asian economies.      Theproject’s principal outcomes are:(a) development of an originalinterdisciplinary approach for the case of post-Soviet economies;(b) examination of the impacts of energyendowment on economic performance;  (c) study of the effects of institutions’quality on economic outcomes;(d) comparative analysis of Eurasianenergy integration vis-à-vis Energy Union of the EU; and(e) analysis of renewable energydevelopment in Central Asian economies.

  • Energy, Growth and Development in post-Soviet Economies. Incorporating Perspectives from Institutional Theory and Comparative Economic Studies.

    2018  

     View Summary

    Drawing upon theoretical frameworks of energy resourceendowment, institutions and economic growth, this research project empiricallyexamined economic performance of hydrocarbons-rich post-Soviet economies withstrong states. Sharing institutional characteristics of coordinated marketeconomies, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkmenistan are similar in thatthey fail to grow steadily and reveal problems with the inclusiveness ofdevelopment.The principal research question of this project was:Is it resource curse or institutional curse that determines the performance offossil fuels-rich economies with strong state? To answer this question, theproject checked relationships between economic growth and development (EGD) andenergy resource (oil and natural gas) endowment, EGD and institutions for asample of post-Soviet economies. Panel data for 1991-2017 were composed based upon open databases of the World Bank, United Nations Comtrade,World Economic Forum, Natural Resource Governance Institution, EurasianDevelopment Bank, Asian Development Bank, Transparency International (CPI), as well as statistical portals of the respectivecountries and other sources (such as state-owned energy companies).

  • Curse or Blessing? Energy Resources for Economic Growth and Development in post-Soviet Countries

    2017  

     View Summary

    Each group of economies - having and not havingenergy resources – has its pattern of institutional parameters(the rule of law, governance efficiency, etc.). Resource-rich economies tend tounderperform in terms of the quality of institutions as they create regulationscentred on the extraction of rent. The study proved that energy resources can be anadditional supportive factor for economic dynamism provided the globalcommodity markets and external environment are favourable. Yet, a direct relationshipbetween the quality of domestic institutional factors and the sustainability ofeconomic growth and development is confirmed. An important finding is that sinceenergy specialisation determines an export-oriented pattern of a nationaleconomy, it is not only the domestic institutional environment that matters,but the compatibility of institutional environments of the partners. Provisionsfor energy trade and investment are being increasingly incorporated within the supranationaland regional institutional settings, like energy unions or common energymarkets. The economies with monopolised national energy systems, restrictionsin trade and prohibitive regulatory arrangements for investment face growingbarriers in reaching out to their traditional customers. Such reality is likelyto influence the deregulation course in energy exporting economies.

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Syllabus

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