Updated on 2024/06/19

写真a

 
ENDO, Sota
 
Affiliation
Faculty of Law, Waseda Law School
Job title
Associate Professor
Degree
LL.B. ( 2007.03 The University of Tokyo )
J.D. ( 2009.03 The University of Tokyo )
Profile

Sota ENDO is an associate professor of criminal law at Waseda Law School in Tokyo. His main research fields are general principles of justification and excuse in criminal law, such as necessity or duress. Endo was born in Hiroshima in 1984. He received the degree of Juris Doctor from the University of Tokyo School of Law (UTSL) in 2009. After finishing UTSL, Endo worked as a research associate at the University of Tokyo Graduate Schools for Law and Politics for three years. From 2012 to 2017, he was an associate professor at Tohoku University Graduate School of Law in Sendai, Japan, before moving to Waseda.

Research Experience

  • 2017.04
    -
    Now

    Waseda University   Law School   Associate Professor

  • 2022.10
    -
    2024.03

    Augsburg University   Faculty of Law   Guest Researcher

  • 2012.04
    -
    2017.03

    Tohoku University   Graduate School of Law   Associate Professor

  • 2009.04
    -
    2012.03

    The University of Tokyo   Graduate Schools for Law and Politics   Research Associate

  • 2022.04
    -
    2022.09

    Chiba University Law School   Lecturer

  • 2017.04
    -
    2019.03

    Tohoku University Law School   Lecturer

▼display all

Education Background

  • 2007.04
    -
    2009.03

    The University of Tokyo   Graduate Schools for Law and Politics   Law School  

  • 2003.04
    -
    2007.03

    The University of Tokyo   Faculty of Law  

Committee Memberships

  • 2024.04
    -
    2024.09

    Ministry of the Environment  Working Group on Article 38 of the Wildlife Protection and Management Law

  • 2016.09
    -
    2017.03

    Copyright Subdivision of the Cultural Council

  • 2015.04
    -
    2017.03

    Kohnan Hospital  Clinical Trial Review Committee

Professional Memberships

  • 2009.04
    -
    Now

    Criminal Law Society of Japan

Research Areas

  • Criminal law

Research Interests

  • Criminal Law

  • Necessity

  • Justification

  • Excuse

 

Papers

  • A Study on the Justification of Professional Activities

    Sota ENDO

    Festschrift in Honor of Professor Yamaguchi on the Occasion of His 70th Birthday     77 - 108  2023.11

     View Summary

    This paper identifies the inherent significance of lawful business acts from the perspective of 'realizing social benefits through respecting business practices based on professional judgment,' derived from discussions surrounding the theory of Berufsrecht at the time of drafting Article 35 of the Japanese Penal Code. After demonstrating that this concept can still be supported from the standpoint of contemporary criminal law theory, the paper further articulates the framework for determining lawful business acts based on this idea.

  • On the Justification of Copyright Infringement Offenses: Examining Retweet Case - Part 2: Conclusion

    Sota ENDO

    Horitsu Jiho   95 ( 6 ) 99 - 103  2023.05

  • On the Justification of Copyright Infringement Offenses: Examining Retweet Case - Part 1

    Sota ENDO

    Horitsu Jiho   95 ( 5 ) 124 - 127  2023.04

  • The Direction of Discussion on the Theory of Necessity

    Sota ENDO

    Keijiho no Riron to Jitsumu (Theory and Practice on Criminal Law)   ( 3 ) 151 - 181  2021.12

  • Social Benefits of AI-powered Devices and Criminal Responsibility for Safety.

    ENDO Sota

    Horitsu Jiho   91 ( 4 ) 19 - 26  2019.04

     View Summary

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is expected to bring diverse and enormous benefits to society by replacing humans with highly accurate cognition, judgment, and manipulation through machine learning, such as deep learning. On the other hand, AI researchers consider AI's decision-making process challenging to explain even by experts and point out the risk of serious accidents arising from behavior with unknown mechanisms. Therefore, legal discipline must develop and use such systems, considering both social benefits and risks. From the perspective of criminal law, it is necessary to appropriately delineate the scope in which illegality or punishability should be denied from the standpoint of social benefit for acts such as the development and use of AI that have the risk of infringing legal interests. As one such attempt, this paper makes a general study on determining the content of the duty of care in consideration of social benefits. It then clarifies what specific measures can be obliged to developers of AI and manufacturers and sellers of AI-powered devices to prevent risks.

    CiNii

  • Fatal Accidents Caused by Self-driving Cars and the Theory of Necessity

    ENDO Sota

    Keijihoh Journal   ( 58 ) 26 - 37  2018.11

     View Summary

    This paper reviews the legal situation in Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States about the relationship between the infringement of life and defense of necessity in general. It clarifies the factors that determine the rule's scope against infringement of life (a rule that prohibits the infringement of life even in an emergency). Then, based on the findings, it examines whether courts can recognize the defense of necessity for developers of automated vehicles that caused fatal accidents by following a program to minimize damage.
    It concludes as follows. The rule prohibiting the infringement of life in a state of emergency presupposes two things: that the defendant has remedies and that allowing the defense may worsen the order. However, these assumptions are lacking when an automatic vehicle infringes on life. Therefore, it is still theoretically possible to recognize the defense of necessity for the developers of automated vehicles, who made programming to minimize the damage, even when we mainly consider the infringement of life in the other cases of an emergency evacuation.

    CiNii

  • Rethinking the Theory of Necessity

    Sota ENDO

    KEIHO ZASSHI (JOURNAL OF CRIMINAL LAW)   57 ( 2 ) 212 - 228  2018.03

     View Summary

    This paper examines the principle of necessity that justifies or excuses an act that harmed legitimate interests to protect those of oneself or others from danger, based on the history of Article 37 (Japanese Criminal Code) and the arguments in Japan and Germany. It concludes that it would be necessary for impunity to minimize harm in the situation beyond the scope of existing legal systems’ assumption and under psychological pressure.

    CiNii

  • Case Note on Supreme Court Judgement, July 30, 2020, 74(4) Keishu 476.

    Sota ENDO

    Jurist   ( 1575 ) 163 - 167  2022.08  [Domestic journal]

  • Case Note on Supreme Court Judgement, March 19, 2018, 72(1) Keishu 1.

    Sota ENDO

    Keiho Hanrei Hyakusen (Criminal Law Case Book) II, 8th ed.     20 - 21  2020.11  [Domestic journal]

  • Rethinking the Theory of Necessity(7)

    Sota ENDO

    Journal of the Jurisprudence Association(HOGAKU KYOKAI)   133 ( 5 ) 555 - 622  2016.05

    CiNii

  • On criteria of "danger" in Necessity clauses of Penal Code (1)

    Sota ENDO

    the journal of law and political science, Tohoku University   79 ( 6 ) 495 - 512  2016.02

    CiNii

  • Rethinking the Theory of Necessity(6)

    Sota ENDO

    Journal of the Jurisprudence Association(HOGAKU KYOKAI)   132 ( 7 ) 1292 - 1340  2015.07

    CiNii

  • Rethinking the Theory of Necessity(5)

    Sota ENDO

    Journal of the Jurisprudence Association(HOGAKU KYOKAI)   131 ( 12 ) 2485 - 2513  2014.12

    CiNii

  • Rethinking the Theory of Necessity(4)

    Sota ENDO

    Journal of the Jurisprudence Association(HOGAKU KYOKAI)   131 ( 7 ) 1255 - 1310  2014.07

    CiNii

  • Rethinking the Theory of Necessity(3)

    Sota ENDO

    Journal of the Jurisprudence Association(HOGAKU KYOKAI)   131 ( 6 ) 1093 - 1113  2014.06

    CiNii

  • Rethinking the Theory of Necessity(2)

    Sota ENDO

    Journal of the Jurisprudence Association(HOGAKU KYOKAI)   131 ( 2 ) 450 - 491  2014.02

    CiNii

  • Rethinking the Theory of Necessity(1)

    Sota ENDO

    Journal of the Jurisprudence Association(HOGAKU KYOKAI)   131 ( 1 ) 105 - 149  2014.01

    CiNii

  • Case Note on Supreme Court Decision, November 19, 1979, 33(7) Keishu 710.

    Sota ENDO

    Keiho Hanrei Hyakusen (Criminal Law Case Book) II, 7th ed.     88 - 89  2014

  • Case Note on Supreme Court Judgement, March 26, 2009, 33(3) Keishu 265.

    Sota ENDO

    Jurist   ( 1407 ) 164 - 168  2010.09

    CiNii

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Books and Other Publications

  • Complete Check on Criminal Law

    Takayuki SHIMAYA, Shintaro KOIKE, Satoshi SHINADA, Sota ENDO( Part: Joint author, Section 10-13, 20, 21, 26, 34, 36, 37, 39)

    Yuhikaku  2022.06 ISBN: 9784641139541

  • Cybercrime and Law

    Motoki SHIZUME, Yoshiaki NISHIGAI, Takayoshi HOJO, Taiki ARAKI, Sota ENDO, Daisuke TSUTA, Makiko TSUDA( Part: Joint author, Justification of Cybercrime)

    Kobundo  2022.06 ISBN: 9784335358852

  • College Life and Law: A New Introduction to Legal Thinking.

    Shohei ETO, Tomomi OTSUKA, Sota ENDO, Shinobu AWAYA, Yoshinori TATSUNO, Kazuki TAHARA( Part: Joint author, Part1 Act1-2 Grounds and Limits of Prohibition [pp.10-17]; Act2-4 Banishment and Punishment [pp.57-64]; Act 4-3 Responsibility and Blameworthiness [pp.122-129]; Part2-2 Introduction to Criminal Law [pp.185-192].)

    Yuhikaku  2022.01 ISBN: 9784641126312

  • Keiho Hanrei Hyakusen (Criminal Law Case Book) II, 8th ed.

    Hitoshi Saeki, Takashi Hashizume( Part: Contributor, Case Note on Supreme Court Judgement, March 19, 2018, 72(1) Keishu 1.)

    Yuhikaku  2020.11 ISBN: 9784641115514

  • Hanrei Practice Keiho I Soron, 2nd ed.

    Yukinori NARUSE, Takuto YASUDA( Part: Contributor, Case 217- 233)

    Shinzansya  2020.02 ISBN: 9784797226805

  • Keiho Hanrei Hyakusen (Criminal Law Case Book) II, 7th ed.

    Atsushi YAMAGUCHI, Hitoshi SAEKI( Part: Contributor, Case Note on Supreme Court Decision, November 19, 1979, 33(7) Keishu 710.)

    Yuhikaku  2014.08 ISBN: 9784641115200

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Presentations

  • Workshop 'AI and Criminal Law': Comments from the Perspective of Substantive Criminal Law

    Sota ENDO

    The 102nd general meeting of CLSJ  (Ryukoku University (Kyoto))  Criminal Law Society of Japan

    Presentation date: 2024.06

    Event date:
    2024.06
     
     
  • Soft Law und Strafrecht

    Sota ENDO  [Invited]

    Halle-Waseda Workshop über Rechtsstaatliches Strafen  (Waseda Universität (Tokyo)) 

    Presentation date: 2024.03

    Event date:
    2024.03
     
     
  • Strafbare Störung der Geschäftstätigkeit

    Sota ENDO  [Invited]

    Einführung in das Japanische Recht  (Juristische Fakultät der Universität Augsburg)  Forschungsstelle für Japanisches Recht der Juristischen Fakultät der Universität Augsburg

    Presentation date: 2023.05

    Event date:
    2023.05
     
     
  • On AI and Criminal Law in Japan

    Sota ENDO  [Invited]

    Japan-Germany joint symposium: Artificial Intelligence and Law – Chances and Risks –  (Waseda University, Ono Auditorium, Tokyo)  Deutsch-Japanische Juristenvereinigung e.V. (DJJV)

    Presentation date: 2022.06

    Event date:
    2022.06
     
     

     View Summary

    You can view the reports at the following link. Japanese: https://youtu.be/kOh0SMt8AsU German: https://youtu.be/EHyuNtBmELM

  • Report on Supreme Court Judgement, July 30, 2020, 74(4) Keishu 476.

    Sota ENDO  [Invited]

    Criminal Law Case Seminar at the University of Tokyo  (via Zoom)  Criminal Law Seminar at the University of Tokyo

    Presentation date: 2021.12

  • On Necessity

    Sota ENDO  [Invited]

    LTRI Seminar for Judge-professors  (Wako, Saitama)  The Legal Training and Research Institute of Japan

    Presentation date: 2021.10

    Event date:
    2021.10
     
     
  • Comments on Prof. Liu's report

    Sota ENDO  [Invited]

    Japan-China joint symposium "New Technologies and Law II"  (Tokyo)  Institute of Comparative Law, Waseda University

    Presentation date: 2021.09

    Event date:
    2021.09
     
     
  • On the Scope of Crimnal Law Cases

    Sota ENDO  [Invited]

    The University of Osaka Law School FD Seminar  (Mchikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka-shi, Osaka.)  The University of Osaka Law School FD and Education Section

    Presentation date: 2019.11

  • Criminal regulations on Development and Use of AI

    Sota ENDO  [Invited]

    Japan-China joint symposium "New Technologies and Law"  (Beijing)  Chinese Academy of Social Sciences

    Presentation date: 2019.09

    Event date:
    2019.09
     
     
  • Fatal Accidents Caused by Self-driving Cars and the Theory of Necessity

    Sota ENDO

    The 96th general meeting of CLSJ, the Workshop 1 on Necessity  (Kansai University, Osaka)  Criminal Law Society of Japan

    Presentation date: 2018.05

  • Report on Suprem Court Decision, November 28, 2016, 70(7) Keishu 609.

    Sota ENDO  [Invited]

    Criminal Law Case Seminar at the University of Tokyo  (Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo)  Criminal Law Case Seminar at the University of Tokyo

    Presentation date: 2018.04

  • Rethinking the Theory of Necessity

    Sota ENDO

    The 95th general meeting of Criminal Law Society of Japan  (Keio University, Tokyo)  Criminal Law Society of Japan

    Presentation date: 2017.05

  • Report on Suprem Court Decision, February 13, 2012, 66(6) Keishu 405.

    Sota ENDO  [Invited]

    Tohoku Univ. Criminal Law Case Seminar  (Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi)  Tohoku Univ. Criminal Law Case Seminar

    Presentation date: 2015.01

  • On Necessity

    Sota ENDO

    The 21st Sendai meeting of Criminal Law Society of Japan  (Tohoku University, Sendai)  Criminal Law Society of Japan, Sendai section

    Presentation date: 2013.03

  • Report on Supreme Court Judgement, March 26, 2009, 63(3) Keishu 265.

    Sota ENDO  [Invited]

    Criminal Law Case Seminar at the University of Tokyo  (Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo)  Criminal Law Case Seminar at the University of Tokyo

    Presentation date: 2010.04

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Research Projects

  • 著作権法罰則の運用実態調査に基づく解釈・立法の構築

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業

    Project Year :

    2023.04
    -
    2027.03
     

    金子 敏哉, 谷川 和幸, 西貝 吉晃, 深町 晋也, 今井 康介, 前田 健, 仲道 祐樹, 遠藤 聡太, 今村 哲也, 渕 麻依子, 長谷川 遼

  • Research on the principle of necessity

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(KAKENHI)

    Project Year :

    2013.04
    -
    2016.03
     

    ENDO Sota

Misc

  • Strafbare Störung der Amtsausübung und der Geschäftstätigkeit

    Sota ENDO, Peter KASISKE, Yuki NAKAMICHI

    Einführung in das japanische Recht, 2 Aufl.     195 - 205  2024.03  [Invited]  [International journal]  [International coauthorship]

    Article, review, commentary, editorial, etc. (scientific journal)  

  • Round table: The Potential of Copyright Law and Criminal Law, Part 3 (The Dialogue between Copyright Law and Criminal Law, No. 12)

    Sota ENDO, Toshiya KANEKO, Yuki NAKAMICHI, Shinya FUKAMACHI, Ryo HASEGAWA, Takeshi MAEDA, Yoshiaki NISHIGAI, Kazuyuki TANIKAWA

    Horitsujiho   96 ( 3 )  2024.02

    Article, review, commentary, editorial, etc. (scientific journal)  

  • Round table: The Potential of Copyright Law and Criminal Law, Part 2 (The Dialogue between Copyright Law and Criminal Law, No. 11)

    Sota ENDO, Toshiya KANEKO, Yuki NAKAMICHI, Shinya FUKAMACHI, Ryo HASEGAWA, Takeshi MAEDA, Yoshiaki NISHIGAI, Kazuyuki TANIKAWA

    Horitsujiho   96 ( 2 )  2024.01

    Article, review, commentary, editorial, etc. (scientific journal)  

  • Round table: The Potential of Copyright Law and Criminal Law, Part 1 (The Dialogue between Copyright Law and Criminal Law, No. 10)

    Sota ENDO, Toshiya KANEKO, Yuki NAKAMICHI, Shinya FUKAMACHI, Ryo HASEGAWA, Takeshi MAEDA, Yoshiaki NISHIGAI, Kazuyuki TANIKAWA

    Horitsujiho   96 ( 1 )  2023.12

    Article, review, commentary, editorial, etc. (scientific journal)  

  • Review of Developments in the Criminal Law Community in 2022

    Gentaro KAMEI, Sota ENDO, Takuma SATO, Yuki NAKAMICHI

    Horitsu Jiho   94 ( 13 ) 42 - 58  2022.12

  • Review of Developments in the Criminal Law Community in 2021.

    Gentaro KAMEI, Sota ENDO, Takuma SATO, Yuki NAKAMICHI

    Horitsu Jiho   93 ( 13 ) 42 - 59  2021.12

    CiNii

  • Review of Developments in the Criminal Law Community in 2020.

    Gentaro KAMEI, Sota ENDO, Takuma SATO, Yuki NAKAMICHI

    Horitsu Jiho   92 ( 13 ) 42 - 58  2020.11

    Book review, literature introduction, etc.  

  • Excessive Use of Force in Self-Defense

    Sota ENDO

    Hogaku Kyoshitsu   ( 453 ) 14 - 17  2018.06

    CiNii

  • Resolutions of the 18 international congress of penal law

    Sota ENDO

    KEIHO ZASSHI (JOURNAL OF CRIMINAL LAW)   50 ( 3 ) 514 - 529  2011.03

    CiNii

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Other

  • Bar Examination [Japan]

     View Summary

    Passed in September 2009.

 

Syllabus

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Teaching Experience

  • Advanced Seminar: Criminal Law

    Waseda Law School  

    2017.10
    -
    Now
     

  • Advanced Criminal Law II

    Waseda Law School  

    2017.10
    -
    Now
     

  • Advanced Criminal Law I

    Waseda Law School  

    2017.04
    -
    Now
     

  • Introductory Seminar: Criminal Law2

    Waseda Law School  

    2017.10
    -
    Now
     

  • Introductory Seminar: Criminal Law1

    Waseda Law School  

    2017.04
    -
    Now
     

  • Introductory Seminar 1

    Waseda University  

    2017.04
    -
    Now
     

  • Introductory Seminar 2

    Waseda University  

    2017.10
    -
    2021.03
     

  • Advanced Criminal Law

    Tohoku University  

    2016.04
    -
    2019.03
     

  • Criminal Law III: Special Part

    Tohoku University  

    2014.10
    -
    2017.03
     

  • Seminar: Criminal Law

    Tohoku University  

    2012.04
    -
    2017.03
     

  • Criminal Law I: General Part 1

    Tohoku University  

    2012.04
    -
    2016.09
     

  • Criminal Law II: General Part2

    Tohoku University  

    2012.10
    -
    2015.03
     

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Social Activities

  • 鹿児島大学・法科大学院体験セミナー

    鹿児島大学法文学部法経社会学科・司法政策教育研究センター  (鹿児島大学郡元キャンパス) 

    2019.05
    -
     

  • 盛岡三高・緑丘カレッジ大学講座(高校出張講義)

    岩手県立盛岡第三高等学校 

    2016.10
    -
     

  • On the Present Situation of Criminal Substantive Law Education at Law Schools in Japan

    Japan Association of Law Schools  (The Legal Training and Research Institute of Japan) 

    2015.08
    -
     

  • 栃木高校・出張講義

    栃木県立栃木高等学校 

    2015.03
    -
     

  • 宮城一高・出張講義

    宮城県宮城第一高等学校 

    2014.10
    -
     

  • 安積高校・出張講義

    福島県立安積高等学校 

    2013.07
    -
     

  • 仙台二高・出張講義

    宮城県仙台第二高等学校 

    2012.12
    -
     

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Sub-affiliation

  • Faculty of Law   School of Law

  • Faculty of Law   Graduate School of Law

Internal Special Research Projects

  • 生命侵害事案における緊急避難の成否に関する比較法的考察

    2018  

     View Summary

     本研究では,緊急避難の法理すなわち特定の利益を侵害の危険から守るために他者の正当な利益を犠牲にする行為に対して犯罪の成立を否定する法理が,他人の生命を侵害することで危難を免れる「生命侵害事案」に対して,果たして又どのように適用され得るかという問題について,ドイツ法(Notstand) 及び英米法圏(Necessity, Duress)の議論を参照しつつ,比較法的見地から総合的な考察をおこない,その具体的成果は,「自動運転車による生命侵害と緊急避難」刑事法ジャーナル58号26-37頁(2018年11月),「人工知能(AI)搭載機器の安全性確保義務と社会的便益の考慮」法律時報91巻4号19-26頁(2019年4月)において公表した。