ケラム マリサ (ケラム マリサ)

写真a

所属

政治経済学術院 政治経済学部

職名

准教授

ホームページ

https://sites.google.com/site/marisakellam

プロフィール

Marisa Kellam is an associate professor at Waseda University, where she researches the quality of democracy in Latin America. Her research links institutional analysis to various governance outcomes in democracies within three lines of inquiry: political parties and coalitional politics; mass electoral behavior and party system change; and democratic accountability and media freedom. Marisa Kellam teaches international and Japanese students in the English-based degree programs of Waseda’s School of Political Science & Economics. After earning a Ph.D. in political science from UCLA, she spent several years as an assistant professor at Texas A&M University. She moved to Tokyo in 2013 with her Japanese husband and two children. Dedicated to her academic career and family, she engages daily in the pursuit of work-life balance.

学歴 【 表示 / 非表示

  • 1998年09月
    -
    2007年06月

    University of California, Los Angeles  

  • 1991年09月
    -
    1995年12月

    University of California, Santa Barbara   Political Science and Latin American & Iberian Studies   B.A.  

学位 【 表示 / 非表示

  • カリフォルニア大学ロサンゼルス校   博士

経歴 【 表示 / 非表示

  • 2016年04月
    -
    継続中

    早稲田大学   政治経済学術院

  • 2013年04月
    -
    2016年03月

    Waseda University   Waseda Institute for Advanced Study   Associate Professor (without Tenure)

  • 2007年
    -
    2013年

    Texas A&M University   Department of Political Science   Assistant Professor

 

研究分野 【 表示 / 非表示

  • 政治学

研究キーワード 【 表示 / 非表示

  • Media Freedom

  • Coalitions

  • Political parties

  • Latin America

  • Democracy

論文 【 表示 / 非表示

  • Citizenship and Contemporary Direct Democracy

    Marisa Kellam

    DEVELOPING ECONOMIES   57 ( 4 ) 374 - 377  2019年12月  [招待有り]

    DOI

  • The nationalization of presidential elections in the Americas

    Eduardo Alemán, Marisa Kellam

    Electoral Studies   47   125 - 135  2017年06月  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    This article examines the nationalization of electoral change in presidential elections. It presents a technique to measure the national electoral swing and the subnational deviation in the electoral swing for each major presidential contender, for each consecutive pair of elections. The national swing indicates the uniform shift across electoral districts, whereas the subnational deviation indicates the extent of new district-level variation for any particular election. In addition, the nationalization score reveals the relative magnitude of the national and subnational components of district-level electoral change, which has the advantage of allowing comparisons across countries, parties, and elections. The article analyzes relative nationalization scores for all major candidates in 74 presidential elections from 14 countries in the Americas, and for electoral change that occurs between first and second round contests in majority run-off presidential elections. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Why Pre-Electoral Coalitions in Presidential Systems?

    Marisa Kellam

    British Journal of Political Science   47 ( 2 ) 391 - 411  2017年04月  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    Why do political parties join coalitions to support other parties’ presidential candidates if presidents, once elected, are not bound to their pre-electoral pledges? This article argues that policy agreements made publicly between coalition partners during the campaign help parties pursue policy goals. However, parties cannot use pre-electoral coalitions to secure access to patronage, pork and government benefits under the control of presidents because they cannot hold presidents accountable to these agreements. Quantitative analysis of Latin American electoral coalitions demonstrates that political parties are more likely to form presidential electoral coalitions as the ideological distance between them decreases. Yet presidential electoral coalitions tend not to include non-programmatic political parties, even though such office-oriented parties are unconstrained by ideological considerations.

    DOI

  • Silencing Critics: Why and How Presidents Restrict Media Freedom in Democracies

    Marisa Kellam, Elizabeth A. Stein

    COMPARATIVE POLITICAL STUDIES   49 ( 1 ) 36 - 77  2016年01月  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    The media hold democratically elected leaders accountable by exposing corruption and policy failures. Although many politicians accept media criticism as intrinsic to liberal democracy, some politicians rein in freedom of the press or intimidate media outlets to silence their critics. We identify circumstances that motivate and enable presidents to curb media freedom in presidential democracies. We argue that (a) presidents who hold ideological positions contrary to those of the mainstream media adopt the media as viable opponents in the absence of an effective electoral opposition, and (b) the media are vulnerable to presidential infringements on their freedom where legislatures and judiciaries hold weak powers relative to presidents, and are therefore unable to constrain presidents' actions against media freedom. We support our argument with quantitative analyses of press freedom ratings in presidential and semi-presidential democracies from 1993 to 2013.

    DOI

  • Parties for hire: How particularistic parties influence presidents' governing strategies

    Marisa Kellam

    PARTY POLITICS   21 ( 4 ) 515 - 526  2015年07月  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    I argue that political parties oriented towards particularistic goods affect coalition government in presidential systems. Particularistic parties hire out their support on some item(s) of the presidential agenda in exchange for locally targeted policies or resources under the control of presidents. They are relatively cheap coalition partners for presidents in policy terms and their representation in the legislature provides presidents with coalitional flexibility. My empirical analysis of cabinets in 10 Latin American countries shows that when particularistic parties hold a larger share of the legislative seats minority presidents are less likely to form majority governments and more likely to change the party composition of their cabinets.

    DOI

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Misc 【 表示 / 非表示

  • アメリカで、日本で、ワークライフバランス挑戦中

    ケラム マリサ

    Sankaku News   22  2019年09月  [招待有り]

    記事・総説・解説・論説等(大学・研究所紀要)  

  • Media Freedom Decline in Democracies: Lessons from Latin America

    Marisa Kellam

    CP: Newsletter of the Comparative Politics Organized Section of the American Political Science Association   28 ( 2 ) 44 - 49  2018年  [招待有り]

    記事・総説・解説・論説等(大学・研究所紀要)  

  • Blog post on Why Pre-Electoral Coalitions in Presidential Systems?

    ケラム マリサ

    Presidential Power Blog    2017年05月  [招待有り]

    記事・総説・解説・論説等(その他)  

  • Trump's war on the news media is serious. Just look at Latin America

    KELLAM, Marisa, STEIN, Elizabeth A

    The Washington Post    2016年02月

    記事・総説・解説・論説等(その他)  

受賞 【 表示 / 非表示

  • Best Student Paper, Latin American Political Institutions Section, Latin American Studies Association

    2005年  

  • City Club Prize for academic achievement, First Place Recipient, University of California, Santa Barbara

    1996年  

  • Phi Beta Kappa Honor Society

    1995年  

共同研究・競争的資金等の研究課題 【 表示 / 非表示

  • Transitions within Democracy: Institutions, Interests, and Accountability

    基盤研究(C)

    研究期間:

    2020年04月
    -
    2025年03月
     

    Kellam Marisa.A

     概要を見る

    This project will improve understanding of democratic backsliding by considering the full range of intra-regime changes that occur within democracies, only some of which entail decline. The project explains (1) how different configurations of inclusive and exclusive institutions, vertical and horizontal accountability environments, and social and economic interests create distinct types of democratic regimes, (2) when within-democracy transitions occur from one democratic regime type to another, and (3) the distinct vulnerabilities of different democratic regimes to democratic backsliding

  • Explaning Media Freedom Decline in Democracies

    基盤研究(C)

    研究期間:

    2017年04月
    -
    2021年03月
     

    Kellam Marisa.A

     概要を見る

    During FY 2019, I focused on wrapping up my research project, sharing my findings, and planning for future research which builds upon this project.I planned and co-hosted a symposium at Waseda on “Democracy in Latin America: Presidents, Legislatures and Elections,” which brought together leading scholars from Latin America, the USA, and Japan to discuss current research on the quality of accountability and representation in this region. This symposium also gave me the opportunity to consult with Javier Corrales (Amherst College), an expert on presidents in Latin America, and to plan future collaborative research with Eduardo Aleman (University of Houston), an expert on legislative institutions and political parties in Latin America. In addition, I planned a research trip to UCLA and UC Riverside to meet with preeminent scholars of comparative politics for research consultation and collaboration on a larger project to study how democracies change and what makes the vulnerable to backsliding. Unfortunately this trip was canceled due to the outbreak of the novel coronavirus.

  • Parties for Hire: Non-Programmatic Parties in Coalitional Politics

    研究活動スタート支援

    研究期間:

    2013年08月
    -
    2015年03月
     

    KELLAM Marisa.A

     概要を見る

    この研究では政党連合が形成され持続する要因について検討を行った。政党同士が選挙戦や政権形成時に連立政権を結ぶ動機を理論化し、政党連立が政治的安定性や民主的ガバナンスにもたらす結果を明らかにした。この研究のもたらす主な貢献は、政策指向的ではない政党に焦点を当てたことだ。非政策指向的な政党は、特定利益のみを追求し、特定の公共政策上の目標をもっていない。こうした政党のもつインセンティブは他の政党のものと異なるため、 比較政治学の先行研究でこれまでいわれてきたやり方とは異なるかたちで、連合形成の政治に影響を与える。この研究プロジェクトの実証分析のために、ラテンアメリカ地域の民主主義諸国を主に検討した。

講演・口頭発表等 【 表示 / 非表示

  • Press Coverage and Popular Protests: An Alternative Path to Presidential Accountability in Latin America?

    Marisa Kellam, Elizabeth A. Stein

    Western Political Science Association annual meeting  

    発表年月: 2016年03月

  • Media Freedom in Ecuador

    Marisa Kellam  [招待有り]

    Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas (CIDE)  

    発表年月: 2015年12月

  • Latin America’s Accountability Deficit Trap: Declining Political Competition and Declining Media Freedom

    Marisa Kellam  [招待有り]

    Keio University  

    発表年月: 2015年10月

  • The Nationalization of Presidential Elections in the Americas

    Alemán, Eduardo, Marisa Kellam  [招待有り]

    The Nationalization of Electoral Politics: Frontiers of Research   University of Zurich  

    発表年月: 2015年09月

  • Latin America’s Accountability Deficit Trap: Declining Political Competition and Declining Media Freedom.

    Kellam, Marisa, Elizabeth A. Stein

    American Political Science Association annual meeting  

    発表年月: 2015年09月

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特定課題研究 【 表示 / 非表示

  • Democratic Change Versus Democratic Backsliding: Understanding Transitions within Democracy

    2020年  

     概要を見る

    This research project did not proceed due to the Covid-19 pandemic. 

  • Democratic Accountability in Comparative Perspective

    2019年   Elizabeth A. Stein, Antonio Benasaglio, Boldsaikhan Sambuu

     概要を見る

    This grant supported ongoing research on the deterioration of democracy around the globe. A large component of this project focuses on the variation in the level of media freedom among democratic countries, and how changes in media freedom affect other institutions and accountability actors within democracy. In addition, the project also examines the effect of ideology – namely, populism – and institutions – specifically, large government majorities – on democratic decline. Thus, this research contributes to an expanding area of research within comparative politics that focuses on “democratic backsliding.”This grant supplemented funding from a JSPS Grant-In-Aid For Scientific Research C, thereby allowing me to hire an additional research assistant and cover increased travel expenses related to a symposium on “Democracy in Latin America.”  This symposium, held at Waseda University on November 29, 2019, brought together leading scholars and researchers from Latin America, the USA and Japan.  Democratic backsliding has been most dramatic in Latin America, and the symposium presentations emphasized a range of contributing factors including populism, executive power, legislative politics, clientelism, vote-buying, and electoral fraud. Through the symposium presentations, eventual publication of this research, and the development of related projects for future research, I aim to improve scholarly and societal understanding of democratic accountability worldwide.

  • Democracy In Conflict: Political Institutions, Media Wars and Accountability

    2016年   Elizabeth A. Stein

     概要を見る

    This grant provided financial support for research on government-media relations and political accountability in democratic countries. The research contributes to a collaborative book project between the P.I. and Professor Elizabeth A. Stein, currently a postdoctoral scholar at the School of International and Global Studies at Indiana University (USA). The grant primarily funded travel for the primary investigator to spend one week at Indiana University for intensive writing and editing of the manuscript.This research project fills a gap in scholarly understanding of democratic leaders’ incentives and abilities to constrain the media’s autonomy.  The media play a vital role in democratic accountability by monitoring politicians’ behavior and policy performance, informing citizens, and sanctioning the abuse of power through their reporting. However, in the many young democracies around the globe, the autonomy of the media remains vulnerable and various political, economic, and legal conditions limit the freedom of the media. Severe conflicts between political leaders and the media – so called “media wars” – threaten the viability of democracy in some countries. On both theoretical and empirical grounds, the book project challenges the conventional wisdom that democratic institutions and procedures guarantee media freedom. 

  • Media Freedom and Democratic Accountability

    2015年   Elizabeth A. Stein

     概要を見る

    This research grant (tokutei B) from Waseda University provided financial support for my research project on democratic accountability.  The goal of this project is to improve understanding of the deficit of accountability faced by many relatively young democracies in Latin America, Africa and Asia. Although free and fair elections occur with regular frequency in these countries, democratic elections do not in and of themselves guarantee accountability.  Accountability means that political leaders, once elected, remain responsive to their constituents and do not abuse their powers in office. This research project investigates, in particular, the relationship between the media and government accountability, highlighting diminished media freedom as both a consequence, and a cause, of accountability deficits in democracies.The grant funded travel to California, where I met my collaborator on this project, and together we consulted with professors of political science at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).  I also participated in the Western Political Science Association conference in San Diego, California. My co-author and I presented our research findings from this project and met with a book publisher to discuss our manuscript on media freedom and presidential accountability in Latin America.

  • Coalitional Instability and Government Accountability in Comparative Perspective

    2013年  

     概要を見る

    The Waseda University Grant for Special Research Projects (for Newly-Hired Faculty) provided financial support for supplies and travel expenses related to my research on coalitional instability and government accountability. The goal of this project is the publication of a book which explains the role of non-programmatic political parties in electoral and governing coalitions and identifies the characteristics of partisan oppositions in the legislature that tend to strengthen their position as accountability actors relative to presidents in Latin America. With this goal in mind, during the 2013 fiscal year, I expanded my dataset on Latin American political parties and coalitions to include 12 countries through 2013, and carried out statistical analyses of these data. I presented preliminary results of this research at the American Political Science Association annual meeting in September 2013. I subsequently revised the analyses and edited the related manuscripts. Currently, I have one article-length manuscript that is under review, and much of this material will also appear as a chapter in the book. In addition, I am preparing to submit another co-authored article-length manuscript for review in March 2014. I believe that article publications related to the book will raise interest among publishers in the larger book project. I plan to meet with publishers in August/September 2014. Finally, I was awarded a KAKENHI grant (Research Activity Start-Up) for the funding period of September 2013 through April 2015 for research that builds upon this project.

 

現在担当している科目 【 表示 / 非表示

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