Updated on 2022/11/26

写真a

 
KELLAM, Marisa
 
Scopus Paper Info  
Paper Count: 0  Citation Count: 0  h-index: 4

Citation count denotes the number of citations in papers published for a particular year.

Affiliation
Faculty of Political Science and Economics, School of Political Science and Economics
Job title
Associate Professor
Profile
Marisa Kellam is an associate professor at Waseda University, where she researches the quality of democracy in Latin America. Her research links institutional analysis to various governance outcomes in democracies within three lines of inquiry: political parties and coalitional politics; mass electoral behavior and party system change; and democratic accountability and media freedom. Marisa Kellam teaches international and Japanese students in the English-based degree programs of Waseda’s School of Political Science & Economics. After earning a Ph.D. in political science from UCLA, she spent several years as an assistant professor at Texas A&M University. She moved to Tokyo in 2013 with her Japanese husband and two children. Dedicated to her academic career and family, she engages daily in the pursuit of work-life balance.

Education

  • 1998.09
    -
    2007.06

    University of California, Los Angeles   Political Science   M.A. and Ph.D.  

  • 1991.09
    -
    1995.12

    University of California, Santa Barbara   Political Science and Latin American & Iberian Studies   B.A.  

Degree

  • UCLA (United States of America)   Ph.D.

Research Experience

  • 2016.04
    -
    Now

    Waseda University   Faculty of Political Science and Economics   Associate Professor

  • 2013.04
    -
    2016.03

    Waseda University   Waseda Institute for Advanced Study   Associate Professor (without Tenure)

  • 2007
    -
    2013

    Texas A&M University   Department of Political Science   Assistant Professor

 

Research Areas

  • Politics

Research Interests

  • Media Freedom

  • Coalitions

  • Political parties

  • Latin America

  • Democracy

Papers

  • Citizenship and Contemporary Direct Democracy

    Marisa Kellam

    DEVELOPING ECONOMIES   57 ( 4 ) 374 - 377  2019.12  [Invited]

    DOI

  • The nationalization of presidential elections in the Americas

    Eduardo Alemán, Marisa Kellam

    Electoral Studies   47   125 - 135  2017.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This article examines the nationalization of electoral change in presidential elections. It presents a technique to measure the national electoral swing and the subnational deviation in the electoral swing for each major presidential contender, for each consecutive pair of elections. The national swing indicates the uniform shift across electoral districts, whereas the subnational deviation indicates the extent of new district-level variation for any particular election. In addition, the nationalization score reveals the relative magnitude of the national and subnational components of district-level electoral change, which has the advantage of allowing comparisons across countries, parties, and elections. The article analyzes relative nationalization scores for all major candidates in 74 presidential elections from 14 countries in the Americas, and for electoral change that occurs between first and second round contests in majority run-off presidential elections. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI

    Scopus

    3
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Why Pre-Electoral Coalitions in Presidential Systems?

    Marisa Kellam

    British Journal of Political Science   47 ( 2 ) 391 - 411  2017.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Why do political parties join coalitions to support other parties’ presidential candidates if presidents, once elected, are not bound to their pre-electoral pledges? This article argues that policy agreements made publicly between coalition partners during the campaign help parties pursue policy goals. However, parties cannot use pre-electoral coalitions to secure access to patronage, pork and government benefits under the control of presidents because they cannot hold presidents accountable to these agreements. Quantitative analysis of Latin American electoral coalitions demonstrates that political parties are more likely to form presidential electoral coalitions as the ideological distance between them decreases. Yet presidential electoral coalitions tend not to include non-programmatic political parties, even though such office-oriented parties are unconstrained by ideological considerations.

    DOI

  • Silencing Critics: Why and How Presidents Restrict Media Freedom in Democracies

    Marisa Kellam, Elizabeth A. Stein

    COMPARATIVE POLITICAL STUDIES   49 ( 1 ) 36 - 77  2016.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The media hold democratically elected leaders accountable by exposing corruption and policy failures. Although many politicians accept media criticism as intrinsic to liberal democracy, some politicians rein in freedom of the press or intimidate media outlets to silence their critics. We identify circumstances that motivate and enable presidents to curb media freedom in presidential democracies. We argue that (a) presidents who hold ideological positions contrary to those of the mainstream media adopt the media as viable opponents in the absence of an effective electoral opposition, and (b) the media are vulnerable to presidential infringements on their freedom where legislatures and judiciaries hold weak powers relative to presidents, and are therefore unable to constrain presidents' actions against media freedom. We support our argument with quantitative analyses of press freedom ratings in presidential and semi-presidential democracies from 1993 to 2013.

    DOI

    Scopus

    35
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Parties for hire: How particularistic parties influence presidents' governing strategies

    Marisa Kellam

    PARTY POLITICS   21 ( 4 ) 515 - 526  2015.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    I argue that political parties oriented towards particularistic goods affect coalition government in presidential systems. Particularistic parties hire out their support on some item(s) of the presidential agenda in exchange for locally targeted policies or resources under the control of presidents. They are relatively cheap coalition partners for presidents in policy terms and their representation in the legislature provides presidents with coalitional flexibility. My empirical analysis of cabinets in 10 Latin American countries shows that when particularistic parties hold a larger share of the legislative seats minority presidents are less likely to form majority governments and more likely to change the party composition of their cabinets.

    DOI

    Scopus

    23
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Programming Presidential Agendas: Partisan and Media Environments That Lead Presidents to Fight Crime and Corruption

    Elizabeth A. Stein, Marisa Kellam

    POLITICAL COMMUNICATION   31 ( 1 ) 25 - 52  2014  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This article examines how media and partisan mechanisms of accountability influence presidential agendas in Latin America. The authors argue that responsiveness increases in powerful presidential systems when opposition parties and free media help citizens hold presidents accountable between elections. Where presidents must contend with a cohesive, ideological opposition and effective constraints to their power, they turn to valence issues with broad appeal and over which they have greater control. A free media-one without significant economic, legal, or political constraints-pressures the president to respond to the electorate's concerns, which include crime and corruption due to the incentives that motivate news content and the media's agenda-setting powers. Analyzing more than 50 presidential terms across 18 countries, the authors show that when Latin American presidents face either free and competitive media or strong legislative oppositions, homicide rates and the level of perceived corruption tend to be lower. Thus, this study proposes that efforts to improve media or partisan environments, or both, would help address Latin America's accountability deficit and promote good governance in the region.

    DOI

    Scopus

    4
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Suffrage Extensions and Voting Patterns in Latin America: Is Mobilization a Source of Decay?

    Marisa Kellam

    LATIN AMERICAN POLITICS AND SOCIETY   55 ( 4 ) 23 - 46  2013.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This article examines whether changes in electoral participation contributed to electoral volatility in Latin America between 1945 and 2000. As a result of literacy voting requirements and authoritarian interludes that disenfranchised large portions of the population, new voters in Latin America probably had different political interests from the previous electorate and were not socialized to electoral politics. The article considers the hypothesis that the inclusion of new voters with different interests produces an immediate, short-term change in aggregate voting patterns, and a lack of socialization of new voters generates lingering instability in electoral behavior. Accounting for confounding factors, the analysis of legislative elections in 12 countries indicates that the expansion of the electorate temporarily disrupted voting patterns in Latin America but did not lead to long-run party system decay.

    DOI

    Scopus

    4
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • The nationalization of electoral change in the Americas

    Eduardo Aleman, Marisa Kellam

    ELECTORAL STUDIES   27 ( 2 ) 193 - 212  2008.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper examines the nationalization of electoral change in multiparty settings. We present a method to measure the relative magnitude of national and sub-national shifts in electoral support across parties and elections that is appropriate for the compositional structure of multiparty electoral data. We apply this new method to the analysis of legislative elections in six Latin American countries and the United States. Our findings indicate the widespread influence of local (i.e., state-specific) factors in electoral change, but highlight the drastic impact that intermittent nationalized shifts have on partisan support. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI

    Scopus

    35
    Citation
    (Scopus)

▼display all

Misc

  • In Pursuit of Work-Life Balance in America and in Japan

    KELLAM, Marisa

    Sankaku News   22  2019.09  [Invited]

    Article, review, commentary, editorial, etc. (bulletin of university, research institution)  

  • Media Freedom Decline in Democracies: Lessons from Latin America

    Marisa Kellam

    CP: Newsletter of the Comparative Politics Organized Section of the American Political Science Association   28 ( 2 ) 44 - 49  2018  [Invited]

    Article, review, commentary, editorial, etc. (bulletin of university, research institution)  

  • Blog post on Why Pre-Electoral Coalitions in Presidential Systems?

    KELLAM, Marisa

    Presidential Power Blog    2017.05  [Invited]

    Article, review, commentary, editorial, etc. (other)  

  • Trump's war on the news media is serious. Just look at Latin America

    KELLAM, Marisa, STEIN, Elizabeth A

    The Washington Post    2016.02

    Article, review, commentary, editorial, etc. (other)  

Awards

  • Best Student Paper, Latin American Political Institutions Section, Latin American Studies Association

    2005  

  • City Club Prize for academic achievement, First Place Recipient, University of California, Santa Barbara

    1996  

  • Phi Beta Kappa Honor Society

    1995  

Research Projects

  • Transitions within Democracy: Institutions, Interests, and Accountability

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(C)

    Project Year :

    2020.04
    -
    2025.03
     

    Kellam Marisa.A

     View Summary

    This project will improve understanding of democratic backsliding by considering the full range of intra-regime changes that occur within democracies, only some of which entail decline. The project explains (1) how different configurations of inclusive and exclusive institutions, vertical and horizontal accountability environments, and social and economic interests create distinct types of democratic regimes, (2) when within-democracy transitions occur from one democratic regime type to another, and (3) the distinct vulnerabilities of different democratic regimes to democratic backsliding

  • Explaning Media Freedom Decline in Democracies

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(C)

    Project Year :

    2017.04
    -
    2021.03
     

    Kellam Marisa.A

     View Summary

    During FY 2019, I focused on wrapping up my research project, sharing my findings, and planning for future research which builds upon this project.I planned and co-hosted a symposium at Waseda on “Democracy in Latin America: Presidents, Legislatures and Elections,” which brought together leading scholars from Latin America, the USA, and Japan to discuss current research on the quality of accountability and representation in this region. This symposium also gave me the opportunity to consult with Javier Corrales (Amherst College), an expert on presidents in Latin America, and to plan future collaborative research with Eduardo Aleman (University of Houston), an expert on legislative institutions and political parties in Latin America. In addition, I planned a research trip to UCLA and UC Riverside to meet with preeminent scholars of comparative politics for research consultation and collaboration on a larger project to study how democracies change and what makes the vulnerable to backsliding. Unfortunately this trip was canceled due to the outbreak of the novel coronavirus.

  • Parties for Hire: Non-Programmatic Parties in Coalitional Politics

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Research Activity Start-up

    Project Year :

    2013.08
    -
    2015.03
     

    KELLAM Marisa.A

     View Summary

    This research project investigated the formation and duration of political coalitions. The project theorized about the motivations that lead political parties to form partnerships in elections and in government, and demonstrated the consequences of parties’ coalitional strategies for political stability and democratic governance. The primary contribution of this research stems from its focus on non-programmatic political parties. Non-programmatic parties seek only particularistic benefits; they do not have public policy goals. Because their incentives differ from those of other parties, non-programmatic parties influence coalitional politics in ways not previously explained by the comparative politics literature. The empirical component of the project concentrated on the multiparty democracies of Latin America.

Presentations

  • Press Coverage and Popular Protests: An Alternative Path to Presidential Accountability in Latin America?

    Marisa Kellam, Elizabeth A. Stein

    Western Political Science Association annual meeting 

    Presentation date: 2016.03

  • Media Freedom in Ecuador

    Marisa Kellam  [Invited]

    Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas (CIDE)

    Presentation date: 2015.12

  • Latin America’s Accountability Deficit Trap: Declining Political Competition and Declining Media Freedom

    Marisa Kellam  [Invited]

    Keio University

    Presentation date: 2015.10

  • The Nationalization of Presidential Elections in the Americas

    Alemán, Eduardo, Marisa Kellam  [Invited]

    The Nationalization of Electoral Politics: Frontiers of Research  University of Zurich

    Presentation date: 2015.09

  • Latin America’s Accountability Deficit Trap: Declining Political Competition and Declining Media Freedom.

    Kellam, Marisa, Elizabeth A. Stein

    American Political Science Association annual meeting 

    Presentation date: 2015.09

  • Winning Coalitions in Presidential Systems: Pre-Electoral Alliances and Post-Electoral Governments

    Workshop on Political Institutions at Keio University 

    Presentation date: 2015.03

  • Corruption, Courts and Cartels: Why Federalism May Exacerbate Threats to Media Freedom in Latin America

    American Political Science Association 

    Presentation date: 2014.09

  • Winning Coalitions in Presidential Systems: Pre-Electoral Alliances and Post-Electoral Governments in Latin America

    American Political Science Association 

    Presentation date: 2013.09

  • Checking Presidents: Media Freedom and Political Accountability in Latin America

    American Political Science Association 

    Presentation date: 2013.09

▼display all

Specific Research

  • Democratic Change Versus Democratic Backsliding: Understanding Transitions within Democracy

    2020  

     View Summary

    This research project did not proceed due to the Covid-19 pandemic. 

  • Democratic Accountability in Comparative Perspective

    2019   Elizabeth A. Stein, Antonio Benasaglio, Boldsaikhan Sambuu

     View Summary

    This grant supported ongoing research on the deterioration of democracy around the globe. A large component of this project focuses on the variation in the level of media freedom among democratic countries, and how changes in media freedom affect other institutions and accountability actors within democracy. In addition, the project also examines the effect of ideology – namely, populism – and institutions – specifically, large government majorities – on democratic decline. Thus, this research contributes to an expanding area of research within comparative politics that focuses on “democratic backsliding.”This grant supplemented funding from a JSPS Grant-In-Aid For Scientific Research C, thereby allowing me to hire an additional research assistant and cover increased travel expenses related to a symposium on “Democracy in Latin America.”  This symposium, held at Waseda University on November 29, 2019, brought together leading scholars and researchers from Latin America, the USA and Japan.  Democratic backsliding has been most dramatic in Latin America, and the symposium presentations emphasized a range of contributing factors including populism, executive power, legislative politics, clientelism, vote-buying, and electoral fraud. Through the symposium presentations, eventual publication of this research, and the development of related projects for future research, I aim to improve scholarly and societal understanding of democratic accountability worldwide.

  • Democracy In Conflict: Political Institutions, Media Wars and Accountability

    2016   Elizabeth A. Stein

     View Summary

    This grant provided financial support for research on government-media relations and political accountability in democratic countries. The research contributes to a collaborative book project between the P.I. and Professor Elizabeth A. Stein, currently a postdoctoral scholar at the School of International and Global Studies at Indiana University (USA). The grant primarily funded travel for the primary investigator to spend one week at Indiana University for intensive writing and editing of the manuscript.This research project fills a gap in scholarly understanding of democratic leaders’ incentives and abilities to constrain the media’s autonomy.  The media play a vital role in democratic accountability by monitoring politicians’ behavior and policy performance, informing citizens, and sanctioning the abuse of power through their reporting. However, in the many young democracies around the globe, the autonomy of the media remains vulnerable and various political, economic, and legal conditions limit the freedom of the media. Severe conflicts between political leaders and the media – so called “media wars” – threaten the viability of democracy in some countries. On both theoretical and empirical grounds, the book project challenges the conventional wisdom that democratic institutions and procedures guarantee media freedom. 

  • Media Freedom and Democratic Accountability

    2015   Elizabeth A. Stein

     View Summary

    This research grant (tokutei B) from Waseda University provided financial support for my research project on democratic accountability.  The goal of this project is to improve understanding of the deficit of accountability faced by many relatively young democracies in Latin America, Africa and Asia. Although free and fair elections occur with regular frequency in these countries, democratic elections do not in and of themselves guarantee accountability.  Accountability means that political leaders, once elected, remain responsive to their constituents and do not abuse their powers in office. This research project investigates, in particular, the relationship between the media and government accountability, highlighting diminished media freedom as both a consequence, and a cause, of accountability deficits in democracies.The grant funded travel to California, where I met my collaborator on this project, and together we consulted with professors of political science at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).  I also participated in the Western Political Science Association conference in San Diego, California. My co-author and I presented our research findings from this project and met with a book publisher to discuss our manuscript on media freedom and presidential accountability in Latin America.

  • Coalitional Instability and Government Accountability in Comparative Perspective

    2013  

     View Summary

    The Waseda University Grant for Special Research Projects (for Newly-Hired Faculty) provided financial support for supplies and travel expenses related to my research on coalitional instability and government accountability. The goal of this project is the publication of a book which explains the role of non-programmatic political parties in electoral and governing coalitions and identifies the characteristics of partisan oppositions in the legislature that tend to strengthen their position as accountability actors relative to presidents in Latin America. With this goal in mind, during the 2013 fiscal year, I expanded my dataset on Latin American political parties and coalitions to include 12 countries through 2013, and carried out statistical analyses of these data. I presented preliminary results of this research at the American Political Science Association annual meeting in September 2013. I subsequently revised the analyses and edited the related manuscripts. Currently, I have one article-length manuscript that is under review, and much of this material will also appear as a chapter in the book. In addition, I am preparing to submit another co-authored article-length manuscript for review in March 2014. I believe that article publications related to the book will raise interest among publishers in the larger book project. I plan to meet with publishers in August/September 2014. Finally, I was awarded a KAKENHI grant (Research Activity Start-Up) for the funding period of September 2013 through April 2015 for research that builds upon this project.

 

Syllabus