Updated on 2021/12/08

写真a

 
TOYAMA, Noriko
 
Affiliation
Faculty of Human Sciences, School of Human Sciences
Job title
Professor

Concurrent Post

  • Faculty of Human Sciences   Graduate School of Human Sciences

Education

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    お茶の水女子大学   家政学研究科   児童学専攻修士課程  

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    Tokyo Institute of Technology   Interdisciplinary Science and Engineering  

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    Ochanomizu University  

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    Ochanomizu University  

Degree

  • 東京工業大学   博士(学術)

Research Experience

  • 2013.10
    -
     

    Waseda University   Faculty of Human Sciences

  • 2000.04
    -
    2013.09

    Tsuda College   Faculty of Liberal Arts, Department of International and Cultural Studies

Professional Memberships

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    法と心理学会

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    乳幼児医学・心理学会

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    認知心理学会

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    教育心理学会

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    日本心理学会

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    Society for Research in Child Development

  •  
     
     

    日本発達心理学会

▼display all

 

Research Areas

  • Educational psychology

Research Interests

  • 認知発達

Papers

  • 園の食事における新型コロナウイルス感染症対応からみる日本と中国の文化差

    韓雪, 長谷川智子, 外山紀子

    心理学研究   93 ( 3 )  2022  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

  • Developmental changes in infants’ physical contact with others across the transitional period from crawling to walking

    Noriko Toyama

    Infant and Child Development    2022  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author

  • 幼稚園・保育園における当番活動の実施状況と幼児期の発達に関する保育者の信念との関連性

    外山紀子

    乳幼児医学・心理学研究    2022  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author

  • カレーライスの盛り付けに応じた食器・食具操作の発達

    外山紀子, 大石紗希

    人間生活工学   22 ( 2 ) 46 - 52  2021.09  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author

  • 病気と死に関する理解

    外山紀子

    乳幼児医学・心理学研究     3 - 8  2021.09

    Authorship:Lead author

  • 学童期の調理への関わりと大学生の自立

    手島陽子, 長谷川智子, 小西史子, 外山紀子

    日本家政学会誌   72 ( 6 ) 362 - 376  2021.06  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

  • 食の社会性

    外山紀子

    子ども学    2021.05  [Invited]

    Authorship:Lead author

  • 歩行開始期において乳児が物と関わる行動の発達

    西尾千尋, 石井千夏, 外山紀子

    認知科学   28 ( 4 )  2021  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

  • Social exchanges with objects across the transition from crawling to walking

    Noriko Toyama

    Early Child Development and Care   190   1031 - 1041  2020.08  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author

  • Developmental changes in infants’ object interactions across the transitional period from crawling to walking

    Toyama, N

    European Journal of Developmental Psychology    2020  [Refereed]

  • 「手作り料理」に関する認識の世代差

    外山紀子, 吉留里乃

    日本食生活学会誌    2020  [Refereed]

  • Mothers’ environmental coordination to develop children’s finger-feeding skills

    M. Shikada, N. Toyama, Y. Aoki

       2019.12  [Refereed]

  • Development of implicit links between effort, pain, and recovery

    Noriko Toyama

       2019.12  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • Development of integrated explanations for illness

    Noriko Toyama

    Cognitive Development   51   1 - 13  2019.10  [Refereed]

  • 魔術的な心からみえる虚投射・異投射の世界

    外山紀子

    認知科学   26   98 - 107  2019.03  [Refereed]

  • カレーライスの摂食場面におけるスプーン操作の発達

    外山紀子, 荻原典亜

    日本食生活学会誌    2019  [Refereed]

  • 子どもの病気理解の能力に関する,看護師の考え

    外山紀子, 中島伸子, 住吉智子

    小児保健研究   77 ( 6 ) 668 - 675  2018.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    看護師は、病気について子どもや保護者に説明することをどの程度重視しているのだろうか。また、子どもが病気についてどの程度の理解力をもつと考えているのだろうか。本研究では、これらの考えが看護経験によって異なるかどうか、質問紙調査により検討した。調査対象者は、看護経験が5年以上あり主に小児看護に従事する看護師110人(小児群)と、主に成人看護に従事する看護師85人(成人群)である。子どもへの説明を重視する度合いについては群差が認められず、どちらの群でも子どもより保護者への説明を重視していた。病気の原因・経過・種類等に関する子どもの理解については、小児群の方が幼児期後半および児童期前半の子どもの能力をより高く評価していた。以上より、小児看護を専門とする看護師は、実践の中で病気理解に関する子どもの有能性を認めるようになることが示唆された。(著者抄録)

  • How people share food with friends and strangers

    H. Shibata, N. Toyama

       2018.09  [Refereed]

  • 幼児期における選択的信頼の発達

    外山紀子

    発達心理学研究   28 ( 4 ) 244 - 263  2017.12  [Refereed]

  • 口中調味の発達:観察データの分析から

    川﨑里沙, 外山紀子

    日本食生活学会誌   28 ( 3 ) 187 - 194  2017.12  [Refereed]

  • Development of the selection of trusted informants in the domain of illness

    Noriko Toyama

    INFANT AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT   26 ( 6 )  2017.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This study examined young children's information-seeking behavior for illness or injury by (1) identifying primary informants and (2) determining whether children's evaluations of trusted informants change with development. Studies 1a, 1b, 1c, and 1d showed that 3- and 4-year-old children preferred to ask adults, including experts, as well as familiar and unfamiliar adults, for illnesses and injuries, but did not prefer to ask other children and stuffed animals. It was also shown that 3- and 4-year-olds' previous experiences of medical examination were not related with their preferences of informants and that they valued doctors' information about specialized knowledge more than mothers' resources. Studies 2a and 2b examined whether evaluations of trusted informants changed with age. Adults tended to differentiate between informants for contagious and allergic illnesses. However, this differentiation was not observed in 4-, 7-, and 10-year-old children. Adults preferred to seek help from doctors rather than mothers for contagious illnesses and injuries, whereas for allergies they preferred mothers to doctors. However, their reliance on mothers was limited. Preferences for mothers were not observed for nonallergic illnesses, such as headache, toothache, and cancer.
    Highlights
    Three- and four-year-old preschoolers preferred to ask adults, including experts as well as familiar and unfamiliar adults, for help with illnesses and injuries, rather than other children and stuffed animals. Three- and four-year-olds valued doctors' information about medication and causes of illness more than mothers' resources, though such preferences were not observed for daily advice, such as dietary and rest for sick individuals. With development, evaluations of trusted informants in the domain of illness changed. Adults tended to differentiate between informants for contagious and allergic illnesses; however, this differentiation was not observed for 4-, 7-, and 10-year-old children.

    DOI

  • 科学と非科学のあいだ:質的研究への期待

    外山紀子

    質的心理学フォーラム   9   70 - 78  2017.09  [Refereed]

  • Japanese children's awareness of the effects of psychological taste experiences on biological processes

    Noriko Toyama

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL DEVELOPMENT   40 ( 5 ) 408 - 419  2016.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The present study examined Japanese children's and adults' awareness of the effects of psychological taste experiences on biological processes such as growth and illness. Studies 1 and 2 showed the following: (1) preschoolers tended to assume that good-tasting experiences would make one grow taller and gain more weight, while adults seldom accepted such ideas. Concerning illness, participants in all age groups were reluctant to accept the effects of taste experiences. (2) Process-dependent awareness (i.e., effects of psychological factors were assumed to depend on biological processes) was observed not only among young children, but also in older children and adults. Compared with younger children, adults' responses were more process sensitive. (3) When adults explained why they assumed that different taste experiences would lead to different bodily states, they often relied on vitalistic causality. The use of vitalistic concepts was uncommon among children. Finally, (4) Japanese participants seem to be more likely than Americans to assume that bad-tasting experiences would make them non-resistant to a cold.

    DOI

  • Adults' explanations and children's understanding of contagious illnesses, non-contagious illnesses, and injuries

    Noriko Toyama

    EARLY CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND CARE   186 ( 4 ) 526 - 543  2016.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The present study examined (1) whether children notice different causes for contagious illnesses, non-contagious illnesses, and injuries and (2) what information adults provide to children and to what extent this information is related to children's causal awareness. Studies 1 and 2 explored preschool teachers' and mothers' explanations of illnesses and injuries, and Studies 3 and 4 examined children's understanding of causality. The teachers and mothers frequently offered various kinds of information about illnesses and injuries to children. Explanations based on behaviour and life habits were most common. When explaining contagious illnesses, they tended to refer to contagion, while when explaining non-contagious illnesses, they sometimes mentioned inherited constitution. But mention of heredity was never observed for contagious illnesses and injuries. In Studies 3 and 4, 5-11-year-old children consistently denied a belief in immanent justice. For contagious illnesses, they appeared to notice that physical contact with contaminants make us sick. Older children's awareness appeared to become more differentiated and sophisticated. From middle childhood, they come to notice that inherited constitution plays some role in susceptibility to non-contagious illnesses.

    DOI

  • An intergenerational study of “the most memorable meal” and “good fare” in childhood

    N. Toyama, T. Hasegawa

    Journal for theIntegrated Study of Dietary Habit   26 ( 4 ) 215 - 222  2016.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Undergraduate students (n = 367), who were born in the 1990s, and the generation who were born in the 1960s and have undergraduate-aged children (n = 300), completed questionnaires describing the most memorable meals and good fare from their childhood. The results were summed up as follows. First, among the 1960's, meals at home with their families were mainly (about 80%) cited as their most memorable meal in childhood, whereas among the undergraduates, in addition to these, those with friends were also often reported (about fifty-fifty). Second, the undergraduates frequently responded that their most memorable meals were special meals, for example, a New Year party, at home with their parents and grandparents. On the other hand, the 1960's often responded that theirs were everyday mealtimes at home. Third, the 1960's frequently nominated specific foods as their most memorable meal and good fare, for example, "suki-yaki" and "sushi," while the undergraduates nominated annual events such as Christmas and New Year parties more often. These results suggest that over the last few decades, people have gradually placed less importance on daily mealtimes at home, and also on family life itself. The results also appear to reflect the shift in the nature of consumption, that is, from "goods" to "service" or "experience".

  • Intra-cultural variation in child care practices in Japan

    Noriko Toyama

    EARLY CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND CARE   186 ( 12 ) 1873 - 1892  2016  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This study, comprising three sub-studies, aims to examine how child-rearing practices vary according to different social circumstances in Japan. By comparing teacher-child interaction at mealtimes in day care centres both on an isolated small island located in Okinawa prefecture, Tarama, and in a large industrialised city, Tokyo, the following was shown. In Tarama, teachers, children, and their families were familiar with each other before the children's enrolment, while in Tokyo, it was typical that they first met when the children entered the centre. Such differences in social relationships were reflected in teacher-child interactions at mealtimes. First, in Tarama, ownership distinctions at the table were not so rigorous compared to those in Tokyo, implying that the teacher-child lunchtime in Tarama was similar to a home-like private situation. Second, in both Tarama and Tokyo, teachers encouraged children's eating by giving various kinds of assistance, but their approaches were different. Teachers in Tokyo paid much attention to improve children's eating skills, while in Tarama, teachers placed more weight on ensuring primary functions of mealtimes. The results indicated that child care practices were deeply rooted in social communities.

    DOI

  • Preschool Teachers' Explanations for Hygiene Habits and Young Children's Biological Awareness of Contamination

    Noriko Toyama

    EARLY EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT   27 ( 1 ) 38 - 53  2016.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Research Findings: Preschools have many norms and rules children are supposed to follow. Among them, behavioral norms associated with mealtime are of great consequence because eating is an essential life function. The present study examined young Japanese children's understanding of hygiene norms and rules at mealtime from the standpoint of their awareness of contamination. Previous studies on contamination sensitivity have mainly focused on children's knowledge itself and have paid little attention to the origins of such knowledge. However, the present study examined how adults talk to children about contamination as 1 possible source of children's knowledge. Practice or Policy: Study 1 involved 32 days of observations during lunchtime at 3 Tokyo preschools. The teachers frequently told children to adhere to hygiene habits such as washing their hands. Although preschool teachers attached much weight to hygiene, their explanations were not precise. They often used 1-word or 1-phrase directions (e.g., Dirty) or just input-output explanations such as Please wash your hands, or you'll get sick. Explanations of why breaking hygiene norms would lead to sickness were seldom offered to children. In Study 2, 26 children age 3 (M age = 3.7) and 22 children age 5 (M age = 5.7) were asked to explain why breaking hygiene norms would lead to sickness. In contrast with teachers' simple expressions in Study 1, even 3-year-old children frequently generated contamination mechanism explanations (e.g., referring to germs and disgust transmission spontaneously).

    DOI

  • Co-existence of scientific and non-scientific beliefs in illness conceptions

    N. Toyama

    Japanese Psychological Review   58 ( 2 ) 204 - 219  2015.12  [Refereed]

  • The development of Japanese mother-infant feeding interactions during the weaning period

    Noriko Toyama

    INFANT BEHAVIOR & DEVELOPMENT   37 ( 2 ) 203 - 215  2014.05  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    During the weaning period, infants are not skilled at self-feeding and caregivers play a prominent role in feeding. Solid feeding is therefore an inherently collaborative and interactive process between infants and caregivers. The present study examined how caregivers and infants coordinate their solid feeding interactions, based on naturalistic longitudinal observations of three Japanese mother-infant dyads. The main results were as follows. Four or five months after weaning (about 10-11 months of age), children's mouth movements and mothers' arm movements became more synchronized, and the success or failure of coordinated feeding became independent on children's gaze behavior. During this same period, both mothers' and children's body movements accelerated. Specifically, children's food-intake motions and mothers' food-carrying movements became faster together, although before 10-11 months fluctuations of these motions were not as correlated. Finally, at 9-11 months of age rhythmic body movements became frequent. From the first day of weaning, all three mothers swayed their bodies rhythmically while feeding, and about 2-3 months later their children also began to sway as they ate, at first infectiously but later spontaneously. These observations indicate how specific behavioral development contributes to mother-infant coordination in feeding. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • 元気を養う食

    外山紀子

    児童心理   991   40 - 45  2014

  • Japanese mother-infant collaborative adjustment in solid feeding

    Noriko Toyama

    INFANT BEHAVIOR & DEVELOPMENT   36 ( 2 ) 268 - 278  2013.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    During the weaning period, infants are not skilled at self-feeding and caregivers play a prominent role in feeding. Therefore, solid feeding is an inherently collaborative and interactive process between caregivers and infants. The present study examined how caregivers and infants coordinate to construct solid feeding interactions, as an analysis of naturalistic longitudinal observations of three Japanese mother-infant dyads. The main results were as follows. After 2 or 3 months post-weaning, mothers' arm movements became non-fluid while feeding children. This non-fluidity was associated with rapid changes in the movement patterns of the mother's arms and the child's mouth. Compared to the development of children's mouth movements, mothers' arm movements developed quickly. This imbalance in the pace of change may have been one cause of non-fluency. While feeding, even though mothers did not eat the children's food, they frequently moved their mouths as if they were eating. The frequency of this maternal behavior differed according to their feeding styles, and mothers' movement patterns corresponded well with their babies' mouth movements. These findings clarify the importance of mothers' eating-like mouth movements for the weaning process. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Children's Causal Explanations of Psychogenic Bodily Reactions

    Noriko Toyama

    INFANT AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT   22 ( 2 ) 216 - 234  2013.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In Experiment 1, 4-, 5-, 8- and 11-year-old Japanese children (n=69) and adults (n=21) explained their reasons for bodily induced reactions (e.g. overeating leads to vomiting) and psychogenic bodily reactions (bodily outcomes originating in the mind, e.g. frustration leads to vomiting). Children gave vitalistic explanations, that is, explaining causal connections by referring to a vital force, in responses concerning bodily induced reactions, whereas adults typically gave these explanations in responses concerning psychogenic bodily reactions. In Experiment 2, 5-, 8- and 11-year-old children (n=96) and adults (n=24) explained bodily induced and psychogenic bodily reactions, and psychological behaviour, for example, that frustration leads to nail biting. As in Experiment 1, vitalistic explanations tended to be found for psychogenic tasks but were seldom found in either children's or adults' explanations of psychological behaviour. The findings suggest that with age vitalistic causality obtains cross mind-body implications. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    DOI

  • 子どもの食をみる視点

    外山紀子

    食品と容器   54   27 - 31  2013

  • シンポジウム 授乳・離乳における母親の専門家志向性

    外山紀子

    乳幼児医学・心理学研究   22   17 - 24  2013

  • 離乳期における摂食スキルの発達

    外山紀子

    人間生活工学   13   17 - 20  2012

  • Japanese Children's and Adults' Reasoning About the Consequences of Psychogenic Bodily Reactions

    Noriko Toyama

    MERRILL-PALMER QUARTERLY-JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY   57 ( 2 ) 129 - 157  2011.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Four experiments were conducted with Japanese children and adult participants to assess their awareness of the effectiveness of biological and psychological treatments for psychogenic bodily reactions. Study 1 had 116 participants, composed of 4-year-olds (17), 5-year-olds (20), 7-year-olds (24), 10-year-olds (20), and college students (35). The preschoolers tended to respond that only biological cures were effective in treating psychogenic bodily reactions, whereas adults typically responded that only psychological cures were effective. In Studies 2-4, by modifying the wording of the questions, adults' and young children's awareness was reexamined. As a result, in Studies 2 and 3, Japanese adults frequently acknowledged the effectiveness of biological treatments, and, in Study 4 (32 five-year-olds and 34 seven-year-olds), about 70% of the 5-year-old preschoolers who were aware of psychogenic bodily reactions tended to respond that psychological cures were effective in treating these psychogenic reactions. The results were discussed in terms of the developmental course in cross-domain awareness (i.e., reasoning about phenomena that cross ontological domains) and cultural differences in biological understanding.

  • 人権に関する素人の法的判断と道徳的判断

    外山紀子, 長谷川真里

    法と心理   10   131 - 143  2011  [Refereed]

  • 心と身体の相互依存性に関する子どもの理解

    外山紀子

    心理学評論   53   597 - 610  2011  [Refereed]

  • 食物としてのふさわしさを学ぶ

    外山紀子

    心理学ワールド   56   13 - 16  2011

  • 母親における育児サポートとしてのインターネット利用

    外山紀子, 小舘亮之, 菊地京子

    人間工学   46   103 - 110  2010  [Refereed]

  • 保育園の作物栽培実践に基づく食物の生産過程に関する学び

    外山紀子, 野村明洋

    日本食育学会誌   4   103 - 110  2010  [Refereed]

  • 子どもたちに伝えたい食:食の共同性

    外山紀子

    保育問題研究   246   19 - 27  2010

  • Japanese children's and adults' awareness of psychogenic bodily reactions

    Noriko Toyama

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL DEVELOPMENT   34 ( 1 ) 1 - 9  2010.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In Experiment 1, Japanese children (4-, 5-, 7-, and 10-year-olds (n = 78)) and adults (n = 36), answered questions about the possibility of psychogenic bodily reactions, i.e., bodily outcomes with origins in the mind. The 4- and 5-year-old preschoolers typically denied that bodily conditions could originate in mental states. Developmentally, recognition of psychogenic bodily reactions appeared between ages 8 and 11. Experiment 2 showed that these findings did not depend on whether reactions were positive or negative. The preschoolers had some difficulty in assuming not only negative but also positive psychogenic bodily reactions. In Experiment 3, 5-, 6-, 8-, and 11-year-old children (n = 70) and adults (n = 18) were asked to explain why physical/psychological states would lead to bodily outcomes. Adults relied on mechanical causation for physically induced bodily reactions, while for psychogenic reactions they often referred to vitalistic concepts. In contrast, young children sometimes referred to vitalistic concepts for physically induced reactions, but seldom did so for psychogenic reactions. Vitalistic causality appears to change from causality based on only the body, to a framework that applies not only bodily but also to mental phenomena.

    DOI

  • 作物栽培の実践と植物に関する幼児の生物学的理解

    外山紀子

    教育心理学研究   57   491 - 502  2009  [Refereed]

  • 共食<共に食べること>の勧め

    外山紀子

    チャイルドヘルス   12   34 - 35  2009

  • ヒトの食における社会性

    外山紀子

    ベビーサイエンス   9   39 - 40  2009

  • 食事場面における1〜3歳児と母親の相互交渉

    外山紀子

    発達心理学研究   19   232 - 242  2008  [Refereed]

  • 食育から見た生活習慣づくり

    外山紀子

    児童心理   62   1038 - 1043  2008

  • 心因性の身体反応に関する子どもの理解と先行経験の役割

    外山紀子

    認知心理学研究   5   11 - 21  2007  [Refereed]

  • プライバシーと知る権利に関する子どもの理解

    外山紀子, 大林路代

    発達心理学研究   18   236 - 247  2007  [Refereed]

  • Young children's awareness of socially mediated rejection of food - Why is food dropped at the table "dirty"?

    N Toyama

    COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT   15 ( 4 ) 523 - 541  2000.10  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We sometimes drop food at mealtimes. Once dropped, the food becomes dirty or inedible not only in a physical but also in a social sense. Even without physical contact with contaminants, we may not eat fallen food in same social contexts, e.g., a high-quality restaurant. Such thinking is referred here as "socially mediated rejection." In Study 1, Japanese children were observed during mealtimes at home and at school. Even 2-year-olds reacted to fallen food differently between at school and home. In Study 2, 4- and 6-year-olds and adults were presented several stories in an experiment, and were asked to predict the story character's bodily and emotional reactions to eating fallen food. Preschoolers noticed that physically contaminated food would cause bodily harm more than socially rejected food. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  • "What are food and air like inside our bodies?": Children&apos;s thinking about digestion and respiration

    N Toyama

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL DEVELOPMENT   24 ( 2 ) 222 - 230  2000.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    A series of five experiments evaluated whether young children are aware of biological transformations associated with eating and breathing. In Experiment 1, children aged 4, 5, 7, and 8 years predicted that biological damage results from lack of eating and breathing. Children also recognised that food changes inside the body, but seldom referred spontaneously to biological transformation. In Experiments 2 and 2A, children were presented with several alternative explanations of what food and air would be like inside the human body. Both preschoolers and elementary schoolchildren assumed that air would acquire warmth and colour inside the body. The older children consistently understood biological transformation of food. Preschoolers accepted the idea that food undergoes a transformation necessary for health and growth, but did not think so when the transformation was expressed in a material sense. In Experiments 3 and 3A, some preschoolers predicted the transformation of resources inside familiar and unfamiliar living things, but not inside nonliving things. In addition, some 4- and 5-year-olds recognised the sun&apos;s contribution to "digestive" processes for plants, but not for mammals. Finally, the question of whether early understanding of digestion can be termed "theory-like" was discussed.

  • 幼稚園の食事場面における子どもたちのやりとり:社会的意味の検討

    外山紀子

    教育心理学研究   48   192 - 202  2000  [Refereed]

  • Developmental changes in the basis of associational contamination thinking

    N Toyama

    COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT   14 ( 2 ) 343 - 361  1999.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Three experiments evaluated the basis of associational contamination thinking among Japanese college students and 4- and 7-year-old children. "Associational contamination thinking" is the belief that mere proximity between a contaminant and a substance will render the substance noxious even without direct contact between contaminants and substances. In Experiment 1, 7-year-olds and adults engaged in associational contamination thinking more often for disgusting (feces and roaches) and dangerous (poison and O-157) contaminants than for taste contaminants (salt and sugar). However, 4-year-olds&apos; predictions were not different among the three types of contaminants. In Experiment 2, when contaminants were assumed to have some biological properties, both adults and 7-year-olds were somewhat more likely to engage in associational contamination thinking; however, such a relation was not found in 4-year-olds. Younger children&apos;s similar thinking with related to all contaminants was not attributable to ignorance of the necessity of physical contact. Instead, it appeared to be due in part to overreliance on perceptual cues, as was suggested in Experiment 3.

  • 食事場面における幼児の席とり行動:ヨコに座ると何かいいことあるの?

    外山紀子

    発達心理学研究   9   209 - 220  1998  [Refereed]

  • Japanese preschoolers' understanding of biological concepts related to procedures for animal care

    N Toyama, YM Lee, T Muto

    EARLY CHILDHOOD RESEARCH QUARTERLY   12 ( 3 ) 347 - 360  1997  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This study examined whether voluntary participation in animal care activities in school was associated with 6-year-old children's (N = 41) understanding of animal care procedures. Children who often participated in such activities had better understanding of animal care procedures, based on physical characteristics specific to target animals. But levels of participation were not associated with understanding of procedures which are common to both animals and humans. The results of this study suggest that voluntary participation in animal care activities, reflection on animal care procedures, and other factors all are related to young children's understanding of animal care procedures at school.

  • 装置操作学習における教示の役割

    古田貴久, 石川寿久, 外山紀子, 鈴木宏昭, 坂元昂

    電子情報通信学会論文誌, D-2, Vol.J76-D-2,   9   2031 - 2041  1993  [Refereed]

  • 手続きに関する知識の柔軟な使用をもたらす要因

    外山紀子, 鈴木高士

    心理学研究   64   378 - 383  1993  [Refereed]

  • 食事場面における幼児と母親の相互交渉

    外山紀子, 無藤隆

    教育心理学研究   38   395 - 400  1991  [Refereed]

  • スクリプトの意味的知識の発達:食事スクリプトをめぐって

    外山紀子

    発達心理学研究   1   87 - 96  1991  [Refereed]

  • 食事概念の獲得:小学生から大学生に対する質問紙調査による検討

    外山紀子

    日本家政学会誌   41   707 - 714  1990  [Refereed]

  • 小学生女児のごっこ遊びにおけるスクリプトとメタ発話の発達的変化

    外山紀子, 無藤隆

    発達心理学研究   1   10 - 19  1990  [Refereed]

  • 絵本場面における母親の発話

    外山紀子

    教育心理学研究   37   151 - 157  1989  [Refereed]

▼display all

Books and Other Publications

  • 生命を理解する心の発達

    外山紀子( Part: Sole author)

    2020.07

  • 生活のなかの発達

    外山紀子・安藤智子・本山方子(編)( Part: Edit, 1章 身体から始まる世界の探索)

    新曜社  2019.03

  • 「食に関する理解の発達」今田純雄・和田有史(編)『食行動の科学』

    外山紀子( Part: Contributor)

    朝倉書店  2017.04

  • 若者たちの食卓

    外山紀子, 長谷川智子, 佐藤康一郎( Part: Joint editor)

    ナカニシヤ出版  2017.03

  • Young Children's Cross Mind-Body Awareness. Japan Society of Developmental Psychology (Ed.) Frontiers in Developmental Psychology Research: Japanese Perspectives.

    Noriko Toyama( Part: Contributor)

    Hituzi Shobo  2016.07

  • 『発達心理学事典』(編集)

    発達心理学会

    丸善出版  2013.06

  • 『子どもと食』(編著)

    根ヶ山光一, 外山紀子, 河原紀子

    東京大学出版会  2013.04

  • 『乳幼児は世界をどう理解しているか』(共著)

    外山紀子, 中島伸子

    新曜社  2013.03

  • 『やさしい発達と学習』(共著)

    外山紀子, 外山美樹

    有斐閣  2010.03

  • 「今どきの『食卓の風景』」(pp.30-31)「家族の共食はいま」(pp.194-195) (外山紀子)『よくわかる家族心理学』(分担執筆)

    柏木恵子

    ミネルヴァ書房  2010.02

  • 「幼児期の認知発達の特徴は何か」(pp.48-49)「どのように科学的概念を獲得するのか」(pp.58-59) (外山紀子)『発達心理学』(分担執筆)

    無藤隆, 佐久間路

    学文社  2008.12

  • 『発達としての共食』(単著)

    外山紀子

    新曜社  2008.02

  • 「子どもは身体の仕組みがわかっているか」(pp.172-173)「『食育』の意味と意義はどのようなものか」(pp.186-187)(外山紀子) 『よくわかる乳幼児心理学』(分担執筆)

    内田伸子

    ミネルヴァ書房  2008.01

  • 『心と身体の相互性に関する理解の発達』(単著)

    外山紀子

    風間書房  2007.11

  • 「感覚と知覚」(pp.11-40)(外山紀子) 『未来をひらく心理学入門』(分担執筆)

    渡辺恒夫

    八千代出版  2007.04

  • 「来談者中心療法」(pp.59-73)「学習障害」(pp.145-158)(外山紀子) 『教育とカウンセリング』(共著)

    前田基成, 吉村真理子, 鈴木聡志, 外山紀子, 田中奈緒子

    八千代出版  2006.06

  • 「幼児期から児童期にかけての食の理解と実践」(pp.46-65) (外山紀子)『食教育論』(分担執筆)

    大村省吾, 川端晶子

    昭和堂  2005.06

  • 「論理的に考える時期」(pp.62-63)「言葉の上達」(pp.68-69)「読み書きの力」(pp.84-85)(外山紀子) 『よくわかる発達心理学』(分担執筆)

    無藤隆, 岡本祐子, 大坪治彦

    ミネルヴァ書房  2004.09

  • 「家の中の慣習をどう学ぶか」(pp.141-156)(外山紀子) 『<家の中>を認知科学する:変わる家族・モノ・学び・技術』(分担執筆)

    野島久雄, 原田悦子

    新曜社  2004.03

  • 「学習と認知発達」 (pp.155-176)(外山紀子) 『認知科学パースペクティブ:心理学からの10の視点』(分担執筆)

    都築誉史

    信山社  2002.06

  • 「日常場面で発揮される有能性:幼児期の知的能力」 (pp.127-138) (外山紀子)『発達心理学』(分担執筆)

    無藤隆

    ミネルヴァ書房  2001.10

  • 「生活・遊び・学習」(pp.15-60) (外山紀子・無藤隆)『新・児童心理学講座11巻:子どもの遊びと学習』(分担執筆)

    無藤隆

    金子書房  1991.01

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Misc

  • 病気に関する理解の発達

    外山紀子

    日本小児看護学会学術集会講演集   27th   72  2017.07

    J-GLOBAL

  • 病気に関する情報源の選択:幼児は誰の情報に信頼を置くのか

    外山紀子

    日本乳幼児医学・心理学会プログラム・抄録集   27th   10  2017

    J-GLOBAL

  • 子どもの痛み表現の社会的構成

    外山紀子, 向井隆久, 中島伸子, 亀崎路子, 木内妙子

    日本発達心理学会大会プログラム(CD-ROM)   28th   ROMBUNNO.SS7‐1  2017

    J-GLOBAL

  • 子どもの心の成長と食事 発達的視点からみた「共食」の意味

    外山紀子

    教育と医学   64 ( 9 ) 768‐774  2016.09

    J-GLOBAL

  • 病気に関する質問は誰にすべきなのか?:情報源のふさわしさに関する幼児の理解

    外山紀子

    日本発達心理学会大会プログラム(CD-ROM)   27th   ROMBUNNO.SS7‐1,TOYAMA  2016

    J-GLOBAL

  • 授乳・離乳の選択とその規定要因の検討

    河原紀子, 根ケ山光一, 外山紀子, 則松宏子

    日本発達心理学会大会論文集   26th   293  2015.02

    J-GLOBAL

  • 青年期の食―写真法から見える日常―

    外山紀子, 岡田努, 長谷川智子, 佐藤康一郎, 今田純雄

    日本教育心理学会総会発表論文集   56th   138 - 139  2014.10

    J-GLOBAL

  • 「元気」のない子 元気を養う食

    外山紀子

    児童心理   68 ( 13 ) 1064 - 1069  2014.09

    J-GLOBAL

  • Children's Interactions at Preschool Mealtime : Social Aspects

    Noriko Toyama

    Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology   48 ( 2 ) 192 - 202  2000

     View Summary

    The present research examined young children's interactions at preschool mealtime. In Study 1, 4-to 5-year olds were observed at 1 preschool for 1 year 3 months. While eating, the children talked about family, food, and other general topics. Ritualized interactions, that is, interactions that were routine or that followed a set pattern, were identified. In the 4-year-olds' class, interactions that followed set patterns were longer than non-ritualized ones, and more children participated in such interactions that in the non-ritualized ones. However, these results were not observed in the 5-year-olds. Rather, in the 5-year-olds' class, non-ritualized interactions were longer and had more participants than those with an established pattern. In Study 2, observations were made of a class 4-year-olds who had just entered the school. At first, interactions following the set patterns used in that classroom were not found, but they appeared about 1 month later. As in the 4-year-olds' class in Study 1, longer interactions and more participation were found for interactions following set routines than for non-ritualized interactions.

    DOI

  • Mental development of ‘meanings' related to scripts: ‘Dining' script as an example

    Noriko Toyama

    Shinrigaku Kenkyu   64 ( 5 ) 378 - 383  1993

     View Summary

    The purpose here is to investigate how the process of relating ‘meanings' to scripts is influenced by the developmental changes of concepts about these activities, with an example of ‘dining'. Based on previous studies that the concept of ‘dining' develops from physiological function orientation to social function orientation, second, fourth, and sixth graders, and college students were asked to plan ‘dining' with a physiological goal or a social one. The results are as follows. (1) Generated plans became more connected with goals developmentally in both social and physiological context. (2) Second graders who attached much importance to physiological function of ‘dining' were apt to generate plans with physiological meanings even in social goal context. © 1993, The Japanese Psychological Association. All rights reserved.

    DOI PubMed

  • Mother-toddler interaction in a meal time

    Noriko Toyama, Takashi Muto

    The Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology   38 ( 4 ) 395 - 404  1990

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mother toddler interaction in a meal time at home. Subjects were 17 one and two year-old-toddlers and their mothers. The interactions during lunch time at home were twice videotaped a week apart. The results were as follows: (1) Mothers picked up more topics not relevant to eating itself as information to children who were older and more able to eat by themselves than the younger and less able children
    also to older siblings than younger ones. (2) When children were eating, mothers would talk more about ‘taste’ and ‘tool’ and uttered more questions and praises to their children than when children would not be eating. (3) Only when the physiological function of the dining was satisfied, would the mothers spontaneously hold a conversation. (4) When children would not eat, mothers would try to clearly make the distinction between meal time and non-meal time. It was found in own studies that mothers seemed to try to corporate the physiological activity of ‘eating’ into a culturally determined script of ‘dining’. © 1990, The Japanese Association of Educational Psychology. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Maternal Speech in Mother-Toddler Picture Book Reading

    Noriko Toyama

    The Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology   37   151 - 157  1989.01

     View Summary

    Maternal Speech In Mother-Toddler Picture Book Reading Picture book reading provides children with various information about vocabularies and communication styles. The First research question examined here consisted on how mothers help toddlers to acquire vocabularies in picture book reading activity; the second one was made of what other kinds of acquisition were possible for toddlers. The investigation was made through the analysis of maternal speech to children. Five mother-toddler dyads (1:06-2:00) took part in this longitudinal, four-month study. Their interactions including picture book reading were videotaped and five minutes of each observation session were transcribed. The analysis of mothers&#039; strategies of reading labels in the books showed that their strategies did not strictly correspond with children&#039;s comprehension level, but that their speech always included labels in some phase of the reading cycle. Mothers gave opportunities to hear again the label of the thing children had misnamed in the preceding cycle. Classifying mothers&#039; speech suggested that in picture book reading mothers gave children various informations about print, category, story, book-handling, moral, and discipline. (170). © 1989, The Japanese Association of Educational Psychology. All rights reserved.

    DOI

▼display all

Research Projects

  • 生物領域における科学的知識と素朴信念の共存

    Project Year :

    2020.04
    -
    2023.03
     

     View Summary

    子どもの頃の未熟な理解が,論理的で抽象的,科学的な理解に置き換わるという発達観ではなく,未熟で素朴な信念と科学的知識が生涯を通じて共存するという発達モデル(共存モデル)にたち生物領域の理解を検討する。生物の成長,食物摂取,病気,死等の生物現象について生気論的因果がどのように使われるかを,日本・中国・オーストラリアにおいて検討する。具体的には,素朴信念と科学的知識との共存形態の発達的変化をみる実験,素朴信念の文化普遍性と固有性の分析,各文化における生活・衛生習慣の実践状況の観察を行う。種としてのヒトに本来的に備わった認知の傾向と文化的信念の伝承について示唆を得ることをめざす

  • 離島と都市部の保育園新入園児における保育場面への移行に関する縦断研究

    Project Year :

    2019.06
    -
    2022.03
     

     View Summary

    保育園は地域における重要なアロマザリング(母親以外による養育)の場であり,保育園への入園は子どもにとって生まれて初めて家庭から離れてアロマザーのもとに長時間身を置く体験である。その移行は親子関係のみならず,子どもの地域適応を考える貴重な場面である。本研究は,アロマザリングの発達した離島(沖縄県宮古郡多良間村)と都市部(東京都及び埼玉県)における新入園の場面を連日行動観察し,あわせて顔面皮膚温から分離時の子どものストレスを測定することによって,子どもの場面移行における適応過程を比較しようとするものである

  • 感覚モダリティ変換を応用した小児がん患児の食意欲の心理量測定ツールの開発

    Project Year :

    2017.04
    -
    2021.03
     

     View Summary

    本研究の目的は,小児がん患児の「食への意欲」の心理量を物理量に変換し,それを実装した意欲評価ツールを開発することを目的とする.同時に,小児がん患児の食欲の表現と,それを保護者がどのように捉えているかの差も明確にする.1.小児がん患児(男子4名,女子4名,平均6.3歳(範囲4-10歳))とその保護者9組に対して,食前と食後に空腹の具合,満腹状態について,開発した木製カード型の心理量測定ツール(5段階,数値が大きいほど満腹度高)およびVAS(13.5cm幅,数値が高いほど満腹度高))を使用して対応するt検定により,前後比較ならびに子どもと保護者比較を実施した.心理量測定ツールを用いた結果,有意に満腹度の上昇を認めた(t=-3.5,p=.009).しかし,母親は有意差を認めなかった(t=-1.4,p=.195).一方VASでは患児は前後比較で有意差を認め(t=-5.2,p=.001),母親も同様に有意差を認めた(t=-2.63,p=.006).この結果から,子ども自身の空腹―満腹感覚については,どちらの尺度でも測定できる可能性が示唆された.一方,母親の観察と判断は,子ども自身が感じていることと異なることが示唆された.2.小児がん児の晩期症状に関する養護教諭の支援と認識:新潟県内の小学校・中学校で,慢性疾患児童生徒の支援経験を有する養護教諭129人は,支援の中で困難に感じていることとして「本人の病気への理解不足」24.8%,「保護者との連絡調整」18.6%,「他の教員の理解不足」14.0%,「周囲の児童生徒の理解不足」14.0%と回答があった.小児がん児を含む,慢性疾患患児への退院支援として,症状や晩期合併症だけでなく,子どもの疾患についての表現方法について支援する必要性が示された.小児がん患児を対象としたデータ収集を進めていたが,COVID-19の感染拡大により,病院内の立ち入りができなくなったことによりデータ収集ができなくなったため.最終年度であることから,現在までの実験的データを収集し,空腹度や満腹度を測定できる心理量測定ツールの信頼性と妥当性確認を行う.さらに,看護職の食欲不振を有する小児へのケアを行なっているのか調査範囲を広げてデータ収集を行い,それらをまとめた「小児がん患児への食支援への看護指針」の完成を目指す

  • 共存モデルにたった病気理解の検討

    Project Year :

    2017.04
    -
    2020.03
     

     View Summary

    2019年度は,次の2つの研究を行った。(1)内在的正義・公正世界信念と科学的病因論の共存:前年度は内在的正義・公正世界信念に関する素朴信念と,西洋近代的な病気治癒に関する理解とが幼児から大人の年齢範囲でいかに共存しているかを検討した。その結果,病気が「とても深刻」だった場合,その病気にかかった二人の登場人物のうち,努力あるいは痛みを伴う治療に取り組んだ者の方が,努力あるいは痛みをほとんど伴わない治療に取り組んだ者よりも,早く治るだろうという判断が大人になるにつれ認められるようになった。また,努力する人が患者本人でない場合には,治療の効果が得られにくいだろうという判断も,大人になるにつれ顕著になった。2019年度は,病気の重症度を「とても深刻」な場合と「少し具合が悪い」場合における判断の相違を検討した。幼児・小学生・大学生を対象とした個別インタビュー実験を行った結果,病気が深刻な場合には,努力した方が早く治るという判断が大人になるにつれ多くなったが,軽症な場合には努力による影響はほとんど認められなかった。大人は文脈に応じて,素朴信念と科学的理解とを使いわけることが示唆された。以上を論文にまとめた(Toyama, N. (in press). The development of implicit links between effort, pain, and recovery. Child Development. )。(2) 病気に関する社会的情報の収集と分析:保育園での縦断観察調査を実施し,食事や朝の会などでの病気の予防と治療に関する発話を収集・分析した。社会的情報の文化差,とりわけ生気論的信念に関する実践を観察するために,中国の幼稚園での観察調査を計画していたが,新型肺炎の影響により実施できなかった。事業期間の延期を申請し,2020年度秋に実施予定である。素朴信念と科学的理解との共存を調べる実験調査については,予定通り進めることができた。一方,病気予防や治癒,衛生習慣に関する社会的情報を検討するための観察調査については,中国での観察を実施することができず,2020年度に実施を遅らせることにした。2020年度は, 2017年度から継続して実施している観察研究のデータ分析を行い,投稿論文にまとめたい。保育園での日常的な場面において,保育者が手洗いやうがい,栄養,睡眠と健康との関係をどのようなことばを用いて説明しているか,日常的な生活習慣の中に素朴信念がどのように織り込まれているかという観点から分析する。また,中国での観察調査を行い,保育者の子どもに対する働きかけ,保育室や園環境,生活ルーティンの相違を分析する

  • Study on children's understanding and expression of illness and injury, and adult's responses to children's expression

    Project Year :

    2015.04
    -
    2018.03
     

     View Summary

    Researchers from different disciplines, such as developmental psychology, pediatric nursing, school health, and nursing informatics, who had not shared their research findings until now, collaborated and conducted empirical research on the following six points. Their results can be applied to pediatric medical care and school health. We compiled the results of (4) - (6) on the pediatric medical environment as a brochure, which we distributed to pediatric health care facilities nationwide.(1) Development of understanding of illnesses (2) Children’s expressions on diseases and injuries and adult’s responses to their expressions (3) Adult estimation of children’s understanding of illnesses (4) Development views of pediatric medical staff (5) Environment of pediatric medical facilities in Japan (6) Guidelines for explanation and consent at pediatric medical facilities in Japa

  • 抱き上げ場面における親子の間身体的相互作用の初期発達に関する研究

    Project Year :

    2015.04
    -
    2018.03
     

     View Summary

    昨年度は3年間の研究期間の中間にあたり,協力の申し出のあった10家族に対して家庭訪問をし,抱き行動について,予め決められた手順に従ってモーションキャプチャおよびビデオ撮影の実施を行った。観察に先立って研究への参加についての同意書に署名・捺印を求めた。観察は赤ん坊の生後1.5か月,3か月,5か月,7か月時点(いずれもその時点の前後にプラスマイナス1週間の許容幅を設けた)で合計4回行った。観察は毎回,母親の頭・利き手側手首,利き手側人差し指・利き手側肩・利き手側腰・利き手側ヒザ・利き手側足首,赤ん坊の反対側肩・反対側手首・反対側足首にそれぞれマーカーを装着してもらい,抱き下ろし・抱き上げ・抱き歩きを3回反復して行った。さらに父親にも,可能な場合は同じ手順で抱き上げを行ってもらい,それを撮影して親の性差を分析するためのデータとした。それ以外に,母親には養育行動の健常性を判断するためにエジンバラうつ尺度,日常の抱きの状況を判断するために普段の抱き行動に関する質問紙調査,それと日常生活に対する質問紙調査を行った。また乳児の視力の発達を調べるために,縞識別による視力検査を毎回行った。さらに,乳児の心理行動的発達を調べるためにデンバー式によって該当月齢の検査も行った。そして最後に謝礼(3000円の図書カード)を渡して領収書をもらい,終了し退出した。現在はその最終段階で,2家庭の訪問を合計3回残すのみとなっている(終了予定は7月)。その後は分析を進める予定である。1年目に研究の枠組み作り,2年目にデータ収集,3年目に分析,というのが当初の計画であったが,緩やかにオーバーラップしつつもほぼ当初の予定通り進行している。今後はビデオのマイクロ分析と,モーションキャプチャに夜運動解析を行い,両データをつき合わせて抱きの行動発達を明らかにする。とくに乳児における予期的行動の発現が注目される。観察謝礼および観察終了後の分析謝金と分析用パソコ

  • Development of children's contamination sensitivity at mealtimes

    Project Year :

    2014.04
    -
    2017.03
     

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    The present study examined young children’s illness conception and understanding of hygiene norms and rules at mealtime.(1) By observing preschool mealtimes, the present study examined how adults talk to children about contamination, as one possible source of children’s knowledge. Although preschool teachers' explanations on hygiene were not precise, 3- and 5-year-old preschoolers have sophisticated understanding, i.e.,they frequently generated contamination-mechanism explanations. (2) By comparing teacher-child interaction at mealtimes in day care centers in Okinawa and in Tokyo, it was shown that hygiene habits were deeply rooted in social communities. (3) Examined whether children notice different causes for contagious illnesses, non-contagious illnesses, and injuries, it was shown that 4- and, 5-year-old children consistently denied a belief in immanent justice. For contagious illnesses, they appeared to notice that physical contact with contaminants make us sick

  • 離島におけるアロマザリングの総合的研究:守姉の風習を中心に

    科学研究費助成事業(早稲田大学)  科学研究費助成事業(基盤研究(B))

    Project Year :

    2013
    -
    2015
     

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    沖縄県宮古郡多良間村での守姉調査が円滑に進むように,分担者・協力者を集めて研究テーマ・内容などについて議論し,とりまとめて現地の各フィールドの責任者に連絡すると共に,協力の交渉を行った。同時に,取り掛かれるものからデータ収集を開始した。
    具体的には,1.行動観察,2.守姉体験に関する研究,3.島の守姉とその変遷の背景に関する調査を開始した。
    1.行動観察:根ヶ山・川田は1事例の守姉行動のビデオ観察を行った。宮内は,幼稚園児を終日追跡して相互作用の観察を行い,川田・外山は保育所における子どもの食事場面・送迎場面を中心とした観察を行った。
    2.守姉体験に関する研究:研究協力者の白石と石島は青年期以降の全島民を対象として戸別訪問をし,守姉をした・された体験の有無とその内容について,インタビュー調査を行った。近藤は,多良間島での養育経験の特徴を明らかにするため,幼少期に守姉がいた50代から80代の成人に対するインタビュー調査を行った。
    3.島の守姉とその変遷の背景に関する調査:守姉の衰退の一員として,島の保育所の設立があると推察されるため,川田は,島に保育所ができた当時のエピソードについての保育士への聞き取りを行った。山口・近藤は,対人関係に関する質問紙を作成した。小島は,乳児及び幼児の母親に対し,子どもの対人関係に関するインタビューと日誌調査を行った。石島と白石は,子育てをした経験のある親を対象として,守姉の平均開始年齢に相当する「10歳の女児」というもののイメージについての質問紙を作成し,質問項目の精査を行った。
    これらの本年度の取り組みをふまえ,今後も守姉との関係,親子関係,きょうだい関係,仲間関係,保育士との関係など,島の子どもにかかわる人間関係のあり方について検討していく予定である。

  • Vitalistic Causality in Children's Biological Thought

    Project Year :

    2010.04
    -
    2014.03
     

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    Vitalistic causality has been posited as a causal-explanatory framework in the domain of biology.In the present study, the following findings were obtained concerning the development of this causality. (1) Elementary school children often generated vitalistic explanations for bodily induced bodily reactions, while adults tended to refer to this type of explanations for psychogenic bodily reactions. (2) Children and adults often referred to vitalistic concepts when explaining the role of psychological factors of taste experiences on biological processes such as growth and illness. (3) Preschool teachers and mothers often offered vitalistic explanations when explaining about illnesses and injuries. (4) Vitalistic explanations were also observed among young children's explanations on hygiene habits. These results suggested that preschoolers' awareness of biological processes largely exceeded, both quantitatively and qualitatively, their mothers' or preschool teachers' verbal messages

  • 授乳・離乳の指針(ガイド)が食の養育行動に及ぼす影響

    科学研究費助成事業(共立女子大学)  科学研究費助成事業(挑戦的萌芽研究)

    Project Year :

    2011
    -
    2013
     

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    本研究は、授乳・離乳に関する厚生労働省の指針(ガイド)が病院(産科)、保健センターにおける指導や母親による食の養育行動等にどのような影響を与えているかについて、地域間による比較および日仏の文化比較を行い、よりグローバルな視点で食の問題を捉えようとするものである。
    このような視点に基づき、今年度は次のような研究活動を行った。第一に、質問紙の回収状況について把握した。その結果、調査地である東京都下の病院(総合病院、産婦人科、助産院対象)は96部、保健センターは21部回収でき、大阪府以下の病院は、72部、保健センターは14部回収された。これに対し、母親の質問紙の回収率は、1歳半健診における配布への協力自治体が少なかったため、東京について追加の配布依頼を行った。第二に、回収された質問紙の仮集計を行い、各地の結果を全国調査の結果と比較検討を行った。その結果、東京と大阪では次のような違いが見られた。それは、病院における「両親学級の開催」について大阪では実施しているところがほとんだったが、東京では大阪と比べると相対的に少ないこと、大阪では授乳期間が長い傾向や母乳に対する指導が東京よりもより積極的であることなどであった。この結果は、全国調査の結果とも共通する傾向であった。第三に、フランス・トゥールーズ市における調査では、少数の病院・産院に限定して、その施設の医療スタッフとそこを受診する母親を対象に調査を実施し、産科スタッフから約20部、母親からは約80部程度の調査用紙が回収された。
    今後、日本における地域差の検討、日仏の文化差についての検討を行っていく予定である。

  • Different aspects of development in children's eating : with a special attention to caregiver-child conflict and negotiation

    Project Year :

    2008
    -
    2010
     

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    Development of breast-/bottle feeding, weaning, and solid-feeding were studied with questionnaire, interviewing, and observation with a special attention to parent-child conflict and negotiation. The results showed that children's eating is a sign of their active participation which brings mutual assertions of care-givers and children resulting in conflict and negotiation. A trend of the times was reflected in it.

  • Children's awareness of psychosomatic phenomena

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    Nine studies examined children's awareness of psychosomatic phenomena.In Studies 1 and 2, one-hundred fifty-six children in 5-, 6-, 8-, and 11-year old groups, and fifty adults, were asked about the possibility of psychogenic bodily reactions as bodily ailments with origins in the mind. Young children typically denied that bodily conditions could originate in mental states.Studies 3 and 4 investigated Japanese adults' beliefs of psychosomatic phenomena. Thirty undergraduate students gave explanations for why mental states lead to bodily outcomes. These adults did not demonstrate a detailed and specific explanatory framework for psychogenic bodily reactions. Their explanations were based on two ideas, first that the mind and body are mutually related. The second idea was that mind and body exchange some unspecified energy (vital-force or stress) in the body or environment.Studies 5, 6, and 7 consisted of interviews with 101 children in preschool through fifth grade, and 42 adults, and showed that even young children noticed that taking in physical energy is good for physical and mental health, although they tended to believe they could totally control emotions by intention. Young children's difficulties in understanding psychosomatic phenomena may have involved their incorporating the mind into a bio-mechanical model of causation.Finally, in Studies 8 and 9, the role of experiences and social information on children's awareness was examined. Study 8 demonstrated that children's awareness did not depend on their previous experiences of psychosomatic diseases. Mothers in Study 9 seldom gave causal explanations for psychogenic bodily reactions.Based on these results, we cannot conclude that preschoolers have clear awareness of the mutuality of mind-body relations. But children do seem to have some primitive conceptual abilities for understanding phenomena that cross biology and psvcholoav

  • Development of the Vitalistic causality as an cross mind-body explanation framework.

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    Ten experiments were conducted on Japanese children and adults to assess their awareness of vitalistic causality as a cross mind-body explanatory framework. In Studies 1-3, 4- and 5-year-old preschoolers and 7- and 10-year-olds were asked to evaluate the effectiveness of biological and psychological treatments for psychogenic bodily reactions. The preschoolers tended to respond that only biological cures were effective in treating psychogenic bodily reactions, whereas adults typically responded that only psychological cures were effective. However, by modifying the wordings of the questions, both the preschoolers and adults tended to respond that psychological and biological cures were effective in treating these psychogenic bodily reactions. Next, through four experiments, the development of vitalistic causality was examined. Vitalistic causality presumes that bodily phenomena are attributed to the workings of vital force. Both adults and preschoolers responded that the concept of vigor, corresponding to a vital force, had implications that crossed mind and body. They assumed that a vigorous man would have both bodily and mental properties, and that vigor would be gained through bodily and mental activities. These results suggested that Japanese adults and young children were somewhat similar in their bio-psychological awareness of vital force. However, the results showed several age-related differences. Specifically, adults had a more elaborate awareness of understanding of mechanisms, and they assumed more kinds of pathways of mind-body interactions. Finally, we investigated whether A nursery school's practice of growing vegetables would affect children's biological awareness of plants and vitalistic conceptions. The children in A school were more likely to assume plants as living-things based on biological reasons and their predictions about "edible" plants in the situation of overwatering and lack of sunlight were more biological in A school than in the other school. The discussion focused on the developmental course of vitalistic causality and cross-domain awareness

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