Updated on 2022/05/19

写真a

 
IWASAKI, Hideo
 
Affiliation
Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Advanced Science and Engineering
Job title
Professor

Concurrent Post

  • Faculty of Science and Engineering   Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering

Research Institute

  • 2020
    -
    2022

    理工学術院総合研究所   兼任研究員

Education

  • 1997.04
    -
    1999.10

    Nagoya University   Graduate School of Science   Division of Biological Science  

  • 1995.04
    -
    1997.03

    Nagoya University   Department of Human Informatics   Division of Biological Informatics  

  •  
    -
    1995

    Nagoya University   School of Agricultural Sciences  

Degree

  • Nagoya University   Ph.D.

Research Experience

  • 2012
    -
    Now

    Waseda University   Dept. Electrical Engineering & Bioscience   Professor

  • 2007
    -
    Now

    metaPhorest (bioaesthtetics platform)   Founder and Director

  • 2005
    -
    2012

    Present: Associate Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering and Bioscience, Waseda University

  • 2004
    -
    2007

    Present: Visiting Researcher, Biomimetic Control Center, RIKEN

  • 2005
    -
    2006

    東京大学大学院生命農学研究科非常勤講師

  • 2000
    -
    2005

    : Assistant Professor, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University

  • 1999
    -
    2000

    Research Associate, Japanese Society for Promotion of Science (JSPS, DC1)

  • 1997
    -
    1999

    Research Associate, Japanese Society for Promotion of Science (JSPS, DC1)

▼display all

Professional Memberships

  •  
     
     

    Japanese Society of Molecular Biology

  •  
     
     

    Japanese Society for Chronobiology

  •  
     
     

    Japanese Society for History of Science, Division of History of Biology

  •  
     
     

    Japanese Society for Cell Synthesis Research

 

Research Areas

  • Aesthetics and art studies

  • Plant molecular biology and physiology

  • Cell biology

Research Interests

  • Circadian rhythm

  • Bioaesthetics

  • cyanobacteria

  • bioart

  • Chronobiology

Papers

  • Scattered migrating colony formation in the filamentous cyanobacterium, Pseudanabaena sp. NIES-4403

    Hiroki Yamamoto, Yuki Fukasawa, Yu Shoji, Shumpei Hisamoto, Tomohiro Kikuchi, Atsuko Takamatsu, Hideo Iwasaki

    BMC Microbiology    2021.12  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

    DOI

  • Na+/Ca2+ exchanger mediates cold Ca2+ signaling conserved for temperature-compensated circadian rhythms.

    Naohiro Kon, Hsin-Tzu Wang, Yoshiaki S Kato, Kyouhei Uemoto, Naohiro Kawamoto, Koji Kawasaki, Ryosuke Enoki, Gen Kurosawa, Tatsuto Nakane, Yasunori Sugiyama, Hideaki Tagashira, Motomu Endo, Hideo Iwasaki, Takahiro Iwamoto, Kazuhiko Kume, Yoshitaka Fukada

    Science advances   7 ( 18 )  2021.04  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    Circadian rhythms are based on biochemical oscillations generated by clock genes/proteins, which independently evolved in animals, fungi, plants, and cyanobacteria. Temperature compensation of the oscillation speed is a common feature of the circadian clocks, but the evolutionary-conserved mechanism has been unclear. Here, we show that Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) mediates cold-responsive Ca2+ signaling important for the temperature-compensated oscillation in mammalian cells. In response to temperature decrease, NCX elevates intracellular Ca2+, which activates Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and accelerates transcriptional oscillations of clock genes. The cold-responsive Ca2+ signaling is conserved among mice, Drosophila, and Arabidopsis The mammalian cellular rhythms and Drosophila behavioral rhythms were severely attenuated by NCX inhibition, indicating essential roles of NCX in both temperature compensation and autonomous oscillation. NCX also contributes to the temperature-compensated transcriptional rhythms in cyanobacterial clock. Our results suggest that NCX-mediated Ca2+ signaling is a common mechanism underlying temperature-compensated circadian rhythms both in eukaryotes and prokaryotes.

    DOI PubMed

  • Damped circadian oscillation in the absence of KaiA in Synechococcus

    Naohiro Kawamoto, Hiroshi Ito, Isao T. Tokuda, Hideo Iwasaki

    Nature Communications   11 ( 1 )  2020.12  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    <title>Abstract</title>Proteins KaiA, KaiB and KaiC constitute a biochemical circadian oscillator in the cyanobacterium <italic>Synechococcus elongatus</italic>. It has been reported <italic>kaiA</italic> inactivation completely abolishes circadian oscillations. However, we show here that <italic>kaiBC</italic> promoter activity exhibits a damped, low-amplitude oscillation with a period of approximately 24 h in <italic>kaiA</italic>-inactivated strains. The damped rhythm resonates with external cycles with a period of 24–26 h, indicating that its natural frequency is similar to that of the circadian clock. Double-mutation experiments reveal that <italic>kaiC</italic>, <italic>kaiB</italic>, and <italic>sasA</italic> (encoding a KaiC-binding histidine kinase) are all required for the damped oscillation. Further analysis suggests that the <italic>kaiA</italic>-less damped transcriptional rhythm requires KaiB-KaiC complex formation and the transcription-translation feedback loop, but not the KaiC phosphorylation cycle. Our results provide insights into mechanisms that could potentially underlie the diurnal/circadian behaviors observed in other bacterial species that possess <italic>kaiB</italic> and <italic>kaiC</italic> homologues but lack a <italic>kaiA</italic> homologue.

    DOI

  • Involvement of glycogen metabolism in circadian control of UV resistance in cyanobacteria

    Koji Kawasaki, Hideo Iwasaki

    PLOS Genetics   16 ( 11 ) e1009230 - e1009230  2020.11  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Most organisms harbor circadian clocks as endogenous timing systems in order to adapt to daily environmental changes, such as exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light. It has been hypothesized that the circadian clock evolved to prevent UV-sensitive activities, such as DNA replication and cell division, during the daytime. Indeed, circadian control of UV resistance has been reported in several eukaryotic organisms, from algae to higher organisms, although the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the unicellular cyanobacterium <italic>Synechococcus elongatus</italic> PCC 7942 exhibits a circadian rhythm in resistance to UV-C and UV-B light, which is higher during subjective dawn and lower during subjective dusk. Nullification of the clock gene cluster <italic>kaiABC</italic> or the DNA-photolyase <italic>phr</italic> abolished rhythmicity with constitutively lower resistance to UV-C light, and amino acid substitutions of KaiC altered the period lengths of the UV-C resistance rhythm. In order to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the circadian regulation of UV-C resistance, transposon insertion mutants that alter UV-C resistance were isolated. Mutations to the master circadian output mediator genes <italic>sasA</italic> and <italic>rpaA</italic> and the glycogen degradation enzyme gene <italic>glgP</italic> abolished circadian rhythms of UV-C resistance with constitutively high UV-C resistance. Combining these results with further experiments using ATP synthesis inhibitor and strains with modified metabolic pathways, we showed that UV-C resistance is weakened by directing more metabolic flux from the glycogen degradation to catabolic pathway such as oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and glycolysis. We suggest glycogen-related metabolism in the dark affects circadian control in UV sensitivity, while the light masks this effect through the photolyase function.

    DOI

  • A theoretical morphological model for quantitative description of the three-dimensional floral morphology in water lily (Nymphaea)

    Shiryu Kirie, Hideo Iwasaki, Koji Noshita, Hiroyoshi Iwata

    PLOS ONE   15 ( 10 ) e0239781 - e0239781  2020.10  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • Culturing <Paper>cut

    Hideo Iwasaki

    Performance Research   25 ( 3 ) 72 - 73  2020.04  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Last author, Corresponding author

    DOI

  • Route reassessment by transporter ants improves speed and directional accuracy of cooperative transport in Formica japonica

    Shumpei Hisamoto, Natsumi Hosaka, Yuka Matsunami, Hideo Iwasaki

    Journal of Ethology   38 ( 1 ) 107 - 116  2020.01  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

    DOI

  • Low temperature nullifies the circadian clock in cyanobacteria through Hopf bifurcation

    Murayama, Y., Kori, H., Oshima, C., Kondo, T., Iwasaki, H., Ito, H.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America   114 ( 22 ) 5641 - 5646  2017  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Cold temperatures lead to nullification of circadian rhythms in many organisms. Two typical scenarios explain the disappearance of rhythmicity: the first is oscillation death, which is the transition from self-sustained oscillation to damped oscillation that occurs at a critical temperature. The second scenario is oscillation arrest, in which oscillation terminates at a certain phase. In the field of nonlinear dynamics, these mechanisms are called the Hopf bifurcation and the saddle-node on an invariant circle bifurcation, respectively. Although these mechanisms lead to distinct dynamical properties near the critical temperature, it is unclear to which scenario the circadian clock belongs. Here we reduced the temperature to dampen the reconstituted circadian rhythm of phosphorylation of the recombinant cyanobacterial clock protein KaiC. The data led us to conclude that Hopf bifurcation occurred at similar to 19 degrees C. Below this critical temperature, the self-sustained rhythms of KaiC phosphorylation transformed to damped oscillations, which are predicted by the Hopf bifurcation theory. Moreover, we detected resonant oscillations below the critical temperature when temperature was periodically varied, which was reproduced by numerical simulations. Our findings suggest that the transition to a damped oscillation through Hopf bifurcation contributes to maintaining the circadian rhythm of cyanobacteria through resonance at cold temperatures.

    DOI PubMed

  • The initiation of nocturnal dormancy in Synechococcus as an active process

    Takano, S., Tomita, J., Sonoike, K., Iwasaki, H.

    BMC Biology   13 ( 1 ) 36  2015  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Background: Most organisms, especially photoautotrophs, alter their behaviours in response to day-night alternations adaptively because of their great reliance on light. Upon light-to-dark transition, dramatic and universal decreases in transcription level of the majority of the genes in the genome of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 are observed. Because Synechococcus is an obligate photoautotroph, it has been generally assumed that repression of the transcription in the dark (dark repression) would be caused by a nocturnal decrease in photosynthetic activities through the reduced availability of energy (e.g. adenosine triphosphate (ATP)) needed for mRNA synthesis.
    Results: However, against this general assumption, we obtained evidence that the rapid and dynamic dark repression is an active process. Although the addition of photosynthesis inhibitors to cells exposed to light mimicked transcription profiles in the dark, it did not significantly affect the cellular level of ATP. By contrast, when ATP levels were decreased by the inhibition of both photosynthesis and respiration, the transcriptional repression was attenuated through inhibition of RNA degradation. This observation indicates that Synechococcus actively downregulates genome-wide transcription in the dark. Even though the level of total mRNA dramatically decreased in the dark, Synechococcus cells were still viable, and they do not need de novo transcription for their survival in the dark for at least 48 hours.
    Conclusions: Dark repression appears to enable cells to enter into nocturnal dormancy as a feed-forward process, which would be advantageous for their survival under periodic nocturnal conditions.

    DOI PubMed

  • Mathematical study of pattern formation accompanied by heterocyst differentiation in multicellular cyanobacterium

    Ishihara, J.-I., Tachikawa, M., Iwasaki, H., Mochizuki, A.

    Journal of Theoretical Biology   371   9 - 23  2015  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The filamentous cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, is one of the simplest models of a multicellular system showing cellular differentiation. In nitrogen-deprived culture, undifferentiated vegetative cells differentiate into heterocysts at similar to 10-cell intervals along the cellular filament. As undifferentiated cells divide, the number of cells between heterocysts (segment length) increases, and a new heterocyst appears in the intermediate region.
    To understand how the heterocyst pattern is formed and maintained, we constructed a one-dimensional cellular automaton (CA) model of the heterocyst pattern formation. The dynamics of vegetative cells is modeled by a stochastic transition process including cell division, differentiation and increase of cell age (maturation). Cell division and differentiation depend on the time elapsed after the last cell division, the "cell age". The model dynamics was mathematically analyzed by a two-step Markov approximation. In the first step, we determined steady state of cell age distribution among vegetative cell population. In the second step, we determined steady state distribution of segment length among segment population. The analytical solution was consistent with the results of numerical simulations. We then compared the analytical solution with the experimental data, and quantitatively estimated the immeasurable intercellular kinetics. We found that differentiation is initially independent of cellular maturation, but becomes dependent on maturation as the pattern formation evolves. Our mathematical model and analysis enabled us to quantify the internal cellular dynamics at various stages of the heterocyst pattern formation. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI PubMed

  • Hypersensitive photic responses and intact genome-wide transcriptional control without the KaiC phosphorylation cycle in the Synechococcus circadian system

    Umetani, M., Hosokawa, N., Kitayama, Y., Iwasaki, H.

    Journal of Bacteriology   196 ( 3 ) 548 - 555  2014  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Cyanobacteria are unique organisms with remarkably stable circadian oscillations. These are controlled by a network architecture that comprises two regulatory factors: posttranslational oscillation (PTO) and a transcription/translation feedback loop (TTFL). The clock proteins KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC are essential for the circadian rhythm of the unicellular species Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. Temperature-compensated autonomous cycling of KaiC phosphorylation has been proposed as the primary oscillator mechanism that maintains the circadian clock, even in the dark, and it controls genome-wide gene expression rhythms under continuous-light conditions (LL). However, the kaiC(EE) mutation (where "EE" represents the amino acid changes Ser431Glu and Thr432Glu), where phosphorylation cycling does not occur in vivo, has a damped but clear kaiBC expression rhythm with a long period. This suggests that there must be coupling between the robust PTO and the "slave" unstable TTFL. Here, we found that the kaiC(EE) mutant strain in LL was hypersensitive to the dark acclimation required for phase shifting. Twenty-three percent of the genes in the kaiC(EE) mutant strain exhibited genome-wide transcriptional rhythms with a period of 48 h in LL. The circadian phase distribution was also conserved significantly in most of the wild-type and kaiC(EE) mutant strain cycling genes, which suggests that the output mechanism was not damaged severely even in the absence of KaiC phosphorylation cycles. These results strongly suggest that the KaiC phosphorylation cycle is not essential for generating the genome-wide rhythm under light conditions, whereas it is important for appropriate circadian timing in the light and dark.

    DOI PubMed

  • Heliotropika: Interfacing between humans and cyanobacteria

    Juan M. Castro, Hideo Iwasaki

    International Journal of Arts and Technology   7 ( 4 ) 373 - 376  2014.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This is a hybrid installation that creates an interface between people and cyanobacteria. The project integrates the photosynthetic activity of these microorganisms, the dynamics of environmental light and the bioelectrical activity of the participants. Using cell culture and computer vision, this work renders the photosynthetic activity of cyanobacteria in the form of an organic structure. It also produces dynamic geometries of solar energy by analysing environmental data. Simultaneously, this work transforms the activity of the nervous system of each participant into 'light' to stimulate the cells. As a result, visitors and cyanobacteria influence each other giving subsistence to a dynamic feedback system.

    DOI

  • Attenuation of the posttranslational oscillator via transcription- translation feedback enhances circadian-phase shifts in Synechococcus

    Norimune Hosokawa, Hiroko Kushige, Hideo Iwasaki

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America   110 ( 35 ) 14486 - 14491  2013.08  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Circadian rhythms are endogenous biological timing processes that are ubiquitous in organisms ranging from cyanobacteria to humans. In the photoautotrophic unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, under continuous light (LL) conditions, the transcription-translation feedback loop (TTFL) of KaiC generates a rhythmic change in the accumulation of KaiC relative to KaiA clock proteins (KaiC/KaiA ratio), which peak and trough at subjective dawn and dusk, respectively. However, the role of TTFL in the cyanobacterial circadian system remains unclear because it is not an essential requirement for the basic oscillation driven by the Kai-based posttranslational oscillator (PTO) and the transcriptional output mechanisms. Here, we show that TTFL is important for the circadian photic resetting property in Synechococcus. The robustness of PTO, which is exemplified by the amplitude of the KaiC phosphorylation cycle, changed depending on the KaiC/KaiA ratio, which was cyclic under LL. After cells were transferred from LL to the dark, the clock protein levels remained constant in the dark. When cells were transferred from LL to continuous dark at subjective dawn, the KaiC phosphorylation cycle was attenuated with a lower KaiC/KaiA ratio, a higher KaiC phosphorylation level, and a lower amplitude than that in cells transferred at subjective dusk. We also found that the greater the degree to which PTO was attenuated in continuous dark, the greater the phase shifts upon the subsequent light exposure. Based on these results, we propose that TTFL enhances resetting of the Kai-based PTO in Synechococcus.

    DOI PubMed

  • Circadian yin-yang regulation and its manipulation to globally reprogram gene expression

    Xu, Y., Weyman, P.D., Umetani, M., Xiong, J., Qin, X., Xu, Q., Iwasaki, H., Johnson, C.H.

    Current Biology   23 ( 23 ) 2365 - 2374  2013  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Background: The cyanobacterial circadian program exerts genome-wide control of gene expression. KaiC undergoes rhythms of phosphorylation that are regulated by interactions with KaiA and KaiB. The phosphorylation status of KaiC is thought to mediate global transcription via output factors SasA, CikA, LabA, RpaA, and RpaB. Overexpression of kaiC has been reported to globally repress gene expression.
    Results: Here, we show that the positive circadian component KaiA upregulates "subjective dusk" genes and that its overexpression deactivates rhythmic gene expression without significantly affecting growth rates in constant light. We analyze the global patterns of expression that are regulated by KaiA versus KaiC and find in contrast to the previous report of KaiC repression that there is a "yin-yang" regulation of gene expression whereby kaiA overexpression activates "dusk genes" and represses "dawn genes," whereas kaiC overexpression complementarily activates dawn genes and represses dusk genes. Moreover, continuous induction of kaiA latched KaiABC-regulated gene expression to provide constitutively increased transcript levels of diverse endogenous and heterologous genes that are expressed in the predominant subjective dusk phase. In addition to analyzing KaiA regulation of endogenous gene expression, we apply these insights to the expression of heterologous proteins whose products are of potential value, namely human proinsulin, foreign luciferase, and exogenous hydrogenase.
    Conclusions: Both KaiC and KaiA complementarily contribute to the regulation of circadian gene expression via yin-yang switching. Circadian patterns can be reprogrammed by overexpression of kaiA or kaiC to constitutively enhance gene expression, and this reprogramming can improve 24/7 production of heterologous proteins that are useful as pharmaceuticals or biofuels.

    DOI PubMed

  • Genome-wide and heterocyst-specific circadian gene expression in the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120

    Kushige, H., Kugenuma, H., Matsuoka, M., Ehira, S., Ohmori, M., Iwasaki, H.

    Journal of Bacteriology   195 ( 6 ) 1276 - 1284  2013  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The filamentous, heterocystous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is one of the simplest multicellular organisms that show both morphological pattern formation with cell differentiation (heterocyst formation) and circadian rhythms. Therefore, it potentially provides an excellent model in which to analyze the relationship between circadian functions and multicellularity. However, detailed cyanobacterial circadian regulation has been intensively analyzed only in the unicellular species Synechococcus elongatus. In contrast to the highest-amplitude cycle in Synechococcus, we found that none of the kai genes in Anabaena showed high-amplitude expression rhythms. Nevertheless, similar to 80 clock-controlled genes were identified. We constructed luciferase reporter strains to monitor the expression of some high-amplitude genes. The bioluminescence rhythms satisfied the three criteria for circadian oscillations and were nullified by genetic disruption of the kai gene cluster. In heterocysts, in which photosystem II is turned off, the metabolic and redox states are different from those in vegetative cells, although these conditions are thought to be important for circadian entrainment and timekeeping processes. Here, we demonstrate that circadian regulation is active in heterocysts, as shown by the finding that heterocyst-specific genes, such as all1427 and hesAB, are expressed in a robust circadian fashion exclusively without combined nitrogen.

    DOI PubMed

  • Cyanobacterial circadian clock is nullified under low temperature via Hopf bifurcation

    Yoriko Murayama, Hiroshi Kori, Takao Kondo, Hideo Iwasaki, Hiroshi Ito

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE EIGHTEENTH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ARTIFICIAL LIFE AND ROBOTICS (AROB 18TH '13)     97 - 100  2013  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    One of the key characteristics of all circadian rhythms is that the free-running period remains stable under a relatively broad range of ambient temperatures, referred to as "temperature compensation" of the period. Outside of the range of temperature compensation, circadian clocks stop running and are arrested at a certain phase. Based on bifurcation theory, Hopf bifurcation and saddle-node bifurcation are plausible scenarios of circadian arrhythmia at low temperature. We focused on a biochemical circadian oscillation, KaiC phosphorylation rhythms, which can be reconstituted in a test tube by mixing the three protines, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC in the presence of ATP. The KaiC phosphorylation rhythm in vitro is the simplest circadian oscillation to observe directly and precisely dynamics of circadian oscillator. We found that the phenomena of nullification of KaiC phosphorylation rhythm by low temperature was explained by theory of Hopf bifurcation.

  • Raman imaging of the diverse states of the filamentous cyanobacteria

    J. Ishihara, M. Tachikawa, A. Mochizuki, Y. Sako, H. Iwasaki, S. Morita

    NANO-BIO SENSING, IMAGING, AND SPECTROSCOPY   8879  2013

     View Summary

    The objective of our research was to predict cell fates of a multicellular system, accompanied by cellular differentiation. To fulfill this objective, we sought to distinguish the differentiated and undifferentiated cells of filamentous cyanobacteria (Anabaena sp. PCC 7120) using Raman imaging. This technique indicated Raman bands of the cellular system, in which several bands were assigned to vibrations of beta-carotene and scytonemin. We applied principal component analysis (PCA) to the Raman spectra to determine the PC1 and PC2 loading plots and their scores. The data points obtained for heterocyst tended to converge along the bottom of the scatterplot whereas those for vegetative cells were more widely distributed in the PC plane. This indicates that the chemical compositions of a heterocyst were relatively stable. As vegetative cells are capable of proliferation or differentiation, they may transit and exist in several states including the pseudo-differentiated state. The results suggest that the chemical compositions of a vegetative cell fluctuated according to its cellular condition. In conclusion, the results of Raman imaging indicate that the diverse states of vegetative cells are localized in a specific state through differentiation.

    DOI

  • RpaB, another response regulator operating circadian clock-dependent transcriptional regulation in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942

    Hanaoka, M., Takai, N., Hosokawa, N., Fujiwara, M., Akimoto, Y., Kobori, N., Iwasaki, H., Kondo, T., Tanaka, K.

    Journal of Biological Chemistry   287 ( 31 ) 26321 - 26327  2012  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The circadian clock of cyanobacteria is composed of KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC proteins, and the SasA-RpaA two-component system has been implicated in the regulation of one of the output pathways of the clock. In this study, we show that another response regulator that is essential for viability, the RpaA paralog, RpaB, plays a central role in the transcriptional oscillation of clock-regulated genes. In vivo and in vitro analyses revealed that RpaB and not RpaA could specifically bind to the kaiBC promoter, possibly repressing transcription during subjective night. This suggested that binding may be terminated by RpaA to activate gene transcription during subjective day. Moreover, we found that rpoD6 and sigF2, which encode group-2 and group-3 sigma factors forRNApolymerase, respectively, were also targets of the RpaAB system, suggesting that a specific group of sigma factors can propagate genome-wide transcriptional oscillation. Our findings thus reveal a novel mechanism for a circadian output pathway that is mediated by two paralogous response regulators.

    DOI PubMed

  • Circadian transcriptional regulation by the posttranslational oscillator without de novo clock gene expression in Synechococcus

    Hosokawa, N., Hatakeyama, T.S., Kojima, T., Kikuchi, Y., Ito, H., Iwasaki, H.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America   108 ( 37 ) 15396 - 15401  2011  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Circadian rhythms are a fundamental property of most organisms, from cyanobacteria to humans. In the unicellular obligately photoautotrophic cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, essentially all promoter activities are controlled by the KaiABC-based clock under continuous light conditions. When Synechococcus cells are transferred from the light to continuous dark (DD) conditions, the expression of most genes, including the clock genes kaiA and kaiBC, is rapidly down-regulated, whereas the KaiC phosphorylation cycle persists. Therefore, we speculated that the posttranslational oscillator might not drive the transcriptional circadian output without de novo expression of the kai genes. Here we show that the cyanobacterial clock regulates the transcriptional output even in the dark. The expression of a subset of genes in the genomes of cells grown in the dark was dramatically affected by kaiABC nullification, and the magnitude of dark induction was dependent on the time at which the cells were transferred from the light to the dark. Moreover, under DD conditions, the expression of some dark-induced gene transcripts exhibited temperature-compensated damped oscillations, which were nullified in kaiABC-null strains and were affected by a kaiC period mutation. These results indicate that the Kai protein-based posttranslational oscillator can drive the circadian transcriptional output even without the de novo expression of the clock genes.

    DOI PubMed

  • Factors involved in transcriptional output from the kai-protein-based circadian oscillator

    Hideo Iwasaki

    Bacterial Circadian Programs     157 - 168  2009  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, the central oscillator of the circadian system consists of three genes (kaiA, kaiB, kaiC) and their protein products. In the presence of ATP, the interactions among these proteins drive a temperature-compensated circadian rhythm of KaiC phosphorylation in vitro. The temporal information from this protein-based chemical oscillator regulates expression from essentially all gene promoters in vivo. Some insights have been reported that describe key factors involved in the transduction of temporal information from the central oscillator via circadian output pathways. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated that the rhythm in gene transcription is sustained, even in the absence of rhythmic KaiC phosphorylation, suggesting that several interconnected output pathways are integrated into the robust circadian oscillatory system in cyanobacteria.

    DOI

  • Cyanobacterial daily life with Kai-based circadian and diurnal genome-wide transcriptional control in Synechococcus elongatus

    Ito, H., Mutsuda, M., Murayama, Y., Tomita, J., Hosokawa, N., Terauchi, K., Sugita, C., Sugita, M., Kondo, T., Iwasaki, H.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America   106 ( 33 ) 14168 - 14173  2009  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, essentially all promoter activities are under the control of the circadian clock under continuous light (LL) conditions. Here, we used high-density oligonucleotide arrays to explore comprehensive profiles of genome-wide Synechococcus gene expression in wild-type, kaiABC-null, and kaiC-overexpressor strains under LL and continuous dark (DD) conditions. In the wild-type strains, &gt; 30% of transcripts oscillated significantly in a circadian fashion, peaking at subjective dawn and dusk. Such circadian control was severely attenuated in kaiABC-null strains. Although it has been proposed that KaiC globally represses gene expression, our analysis revealed that dawn-expressed genes were up-regulated by kaiC-overexpression so that the clock was arrested at subjective dawn. Transfer of cells to DD conditions from LL immediately suppressed expression of most of the genes, while the clock kept even time in the absence of transcriptional feedback. Thus, the Synechococcus genome seems to be primarily regulated by light/dark cycles and is dramatically modified by the protein-based circadian oscillator.

    DOI PubMed

  • Cyanobacterial cell lineage analysis of the spatiotemporal hetR expression profile during heterocyst pattern formation in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120

    Asai, H., Iwamori, S., Kawai, K., Ehira, S., Ishihara, J.-I., Aihara, K., Shoji, S., Iwasaki, H.

    PLoS ONE   4 ( 10 )  2009  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Diazotrophic heterocyst formation in the filamentous cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, is one of the simplest pattern formations known to occur in cell differentiation. Most previous studies on heterocyst patterning were based on statistical analysis using cells collected or observed at different times from a liquid culture, which would mask stochastic fluctuations affecting the process of pattern formation dynamics in a single bacterial filament. In order to analyze the spatiotemporal dynamics of heterocyst formation at the single filament level, here we developed a culture system to monitor simultaneously bacterial development, gene expression, and phycobilisome fluorescence. We also developed micro-liquid chamber arrays to analyze multiple Anabaena filaments at the same time. Cell lineage analyses demonstrated that the initial distributions of hetR::gfp and phycobilisome fluorescence signals at nitrogen step-down were not correlated with the resulting distribution of developed heterocysts. Time-lapse observations also revealed a dynamic hetR expression profile at the single-filament level, including transient upregulation accompanying cell division, which did not always lead to heterocyst development. In addition, some cells differentiated into heterocysts without cell division after nitrogen step-down, suggesting that cell division in the mother cells is not an essential requirement for heterocyst differentiation.

    DOI PubMed

  • An attempt to reveal a role of a transcription/translation feedback loop in the cyanobacterial KaiC protein-based circadian system by using a semi-synthetic method

    Tozaki, H., Kobe, T., Aihara, K., Iwasaki, H.

    International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications   4 ( 4 ) 435 - 444  2008  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The use of synthetic biology to design artificial gene circuits is an important approach for understanding the principles underlying the complicated dynamic behaviours of biomolecular networks, such as genetic switching and biological rhythms. The synthetic approach is also useful in systems biology in that it can be used to create artificial bypasses for processes related to cellular phenomena of interest for their easier analysis. To validate the role of transcription feedback in the cyanobacterial circadian system, we propose an experimental design for a 'semi-synthetic' approach that involves transplantation of the kaiABC genes into Escherichia coli and the construction of chimeric transcriptional outputs. The design principle and preliminary results are discussed. Copyright © 2008 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

    DOI PubMed

  • A mathematical model for the kai-protein-based chemical oscillator and clock gene expression rhythms in cyanobacteria

    Miyoshi, F., Nakayama, Y., Kaizu, K., Iwasaki, H., Tomita, M.

    Journal of Biological Rhythms   22 ( 1 ) 69 - 80  2007  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In the cyanobacterium, Synechococcus elongatus, most promoters are regulated by a circadian clock under continuous light (LL) conditions. Nevertheless, the basic circadian oscillation is primarily generated by alternating KaiC phosphorylation/dephosphorylation reactions at the posttranslational level. Indeed, the KaiC phosphorylation cycle was recently reconstituted in vitro by incubating KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC proteins with ATP. However, the molecular dynamics of this chemical oscillation and the mechanism that drives the circadian transcription/translation rhythms remain unknown. In this report, the KaiC phosphorylation cycle and the gene regulatory network in the cyanobacterial circadian system have been modeled. The model reproduces the robust KaiC phosphorylation cycle in the absence of de novo gene expression as is observed in vitro, as well as its coupling to transcriptional/translational feedback in LL conditions in vivo. Moreover, the model is consistent with most previous experiments, including various combinations of genetic knockout or overexpression of kai genes. It also predicts that multiple KaiC phosphorylation states and dynamic Kai protein interactions may be required for the cyanobacterial circadian system.

    DOI PubMed

  • Induction of a group 2 σ factor, RPOD3, by high light and the underlying mechanism in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942

    Seki, A., Hanaoka, M., Akimoto, Y., Masuda, S., Iwasaki, H., Tanaka, K.

    Journal of Biological Chemistry   282 ( 51 ) 36887 - 36894  2007  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Among the sigma(70) family bacterial sigma factors, group 2 sigma factors have similar promoter recognition specificity to group 1 (principal) sigma factors and express and function under specific environmental and physiological conditions. In general, the cyanobacterial genome encodes more than four group 2 sigma factors, and the unicellular Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 (Synechococcus) has five group 2 sigma factors (RpoD2 - 6). In this study, we analyzed expression of group 2 sigma factors of Synechococcus at both mRNA and protein levels, and we showed that the rpoD3 expression was activated only by high light (1,500 mu mol photons m(-2) s(-1)) among the various stress conditions examined. After high light shift, rpoD3 mRNA accumulated transiently within the first 5 min and diminished subsequently, whereas RpoD3 protein increased gradually during the first several hours. We also found that the rpoD3 deletion mutant rapidly lost viability under the same conditions. Analysis of the rpoD3 promoter structure revealed the presence of an HLR1 (high light-responsive element 1) sequence, which was suggested to be responsible for the high light-induced transcription under the control of the Nb1S (histidine kinase)-RpaB ( response regulator) two-component system (Kappell, A. D., and van Waasbergen, L. G. (2007) Arch. Microbiol. 187, 337 - 342), at +6 to +23 with respect to the transcriptional start site. Here we demonstrated that recombinant RpaB protein specifically bound to HLR1 of the rpoD3 and hliA genes in vitro, and overexpression of a truncated RpaB variant harboring only the phosphoreceiver domain derepressed the transcription in vivo. Thus, we have concluded that phosphorylated RpaB are repressing the rpoD3 and hliA transcription under normal growth conditions, and the RpaB dephosphorylation induced by high light stress results in transcriptional derepression.

    DOI PubMed

  • The global circadian gene expressions via translation regulation in cyanobacteria

    Michinori Mutsuda, Hakuto Kageyama, Yoriko Murayama, Yoko Kitayama, Hiroshi Ito, Hideo Iwasaki, Takao Kondo

    PLANT AND CELL PHYSIOLOGY   48   S151 - S151  2007  [Refereed]

  • Semi-synthetic analysis toward validating roles of a Transcription/Translation feedback process for the cyanobacterial KaiC-protein-based circadian system in Escherichia coli

    Hirokazu Tozaki, Taiichiro Kobe, Kazuyuki Aihara, Hideo Iwasaki

    OPTIMIZATION AND SYSTEMS BIOLOGY   7   89 - +  2007  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The use of synthetic biology to design artificial gene circuits is an important approach for understanding the principles underlying the complicated dynamic behaviors of biomolecular networks, such as genetic switching and biological rhythms. The synthetic approach is also useful in systems biology in that it can be used to create artificial bypasses for processes related to cellular phenomena of interest for their easier analysis. To validate the role of transcription feedback in the cyanobacterial circadian system, we propose an experimental design for such a "semi-synthetic" approach that involves transplantation of the kaiABC genes into Escherichia coli and the construction of chimeric transcriptional outputs. The design principle and some preliminary results have been reported.

  • A KaiC-associating SasA-RpaA two-component regulatory system as a major circadian timing mediator in cyanobacteria

    Naoki Takai, Masato Nakajima, Tokitaka Oyama, Ryotaku Kito, Chieko Sugita, Mamoru Sugita, Takao Kondo, Hideo Iwasaki

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA   103 ( 32 ) 12109 - 12114  2006.08

     View Summary

    KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC clock proteins from cyanobacteria and ATP are sufficient to reconstitute the KaiC phosphorylation rhythm in vitro, whereas almost all gene promoters are under the control of the circadian clock. The mechanism by which the KaiC phosphorylation cycle drives global transcription rhythms is unknown. Here, we report that RpaA, a potential DNA-binding protein that acts as a cognate response regulator of the KaiC-interacting kinase SasA, mediates between KaiC phosphorylation and global transcription rhythms. Circadian transcription was severely attenuated in sasA (Synechococcus adaptive sensor A)- and rpaA (regulator of phycobilisome-associated)-mutant cells, and the phosphotransfer activity from SasA to RpaA changed dramatically depending on the circadian state of a coexisting Kai protein complex in vitro. We propose a model in which the SasA-RpaA two-component system mediates time signals from the enzymatic oscillator to drive genome-wide transcription rhythms in cyanobacteria. Moreover, our results indicate the presence of secondary output pathways from the clock to transcription control, suggesting that multiple pathways ensure a genome-wide circadian system.

    DOI PubMed

  • Cyanobacterial circadian pacemaker: Kai protein complex dynamics in the KaiC phosphorylation cycle in vitro

    Hakuto Kageyama, Taeko Nishiwaki, Masato Nakajima, Hideo Iwasaki, Tokitaka Oyama, Takao Kondo

    MOLECULAR CELL   23 ( 2 ) 161 - 171  2006.07

     View Summary

    KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC are essential proteins of the circadian clock in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. The phosphorylation cycle of KaiC that occurs in vitro after mixing the three proteins and ATP is thought to be the master oscillation governing the circadian system. We analyzed the temporal profile of complexes formed between the three Kai proteins. In the phosphorylation phase, KaiA actively and repeatedly associated with KaiC to promote KaiC phosphorylation. High levels of phosphorylation of KaiC induced the association of the KaiC hexamer with KaiB and inactivate KaiA to begin the dephosphorylation phase, which is closely linked to shuffling of the monomeric KaiC subunits among the hexamer. By reducing KaiC phosphorylation, KaiB dissociated from KaiC, reactivating KaiA. We also confirmed that a similar model can be applied in cyanobacterial cells. The molecular model proposed here provides mechanisms for circadian timing systems.

    DOI PubMed

  • Reconstitution of circadian oscillation of cyanobacterial KaiC phosphorylation in vitro

    M Nakajima, K Imai, H Ito, T Nishiwaki, Y Murayama, H Iwasaki, T Oyarna, T Kondo

    SCIENCE   308 ( 5720 ) 414 - 415  2005.04

     View Summary

    Kai proteins globally regulate circadian gene expression of cyanobacteria. The KaiC phosphorylation cycle, which persists even without transcription or translation, is assumed to be a basic timing process of the circadian clock. We have reconstituted the self-sustainable oscillation of KaiC phosphorylation in vitro by incubating KaiC with KaiA, KaiB, and adenosine triphosphate. The period of the in vitro oscillation was stable despite temperature change (temperature compensation), and the circadian periods observed in vivo in KaiC mutant strains were consistent with those measured in vitro. The enigma of the circadian clock can now be studied in vitro by examining the interactions between three Kai proteins.

    DOI

  • No transcription-translation feedback in circadian rhythm of KaiC phosphorylation

    J Tomita, M Nakajima, T Kondo, H Iwasaki

    SCIENCE   307 ( 5707 ) 251 - 254  2005.01

     View Summary

    An autoregulatory transcription-translation feedback loop is thought to be essential in generating circadian rhythms in any model organism. In the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus, the essential clock protein KaiC is proposed to form this type of transcriptional negative feedback. Nevertheless, we demonstrate here temperature-compensated, robust circadian cycling of KaiC phosphorylation even without kaiBC messenger RNA accumulation under continuous dark conditions. This rhythm persisted in the presence of a transcription or translation inhibitor. Moreover, kinetic profiles in the ratio of KaiC autophosphorylation-dephosphorylation were also temperature compensated in vitro. Thus, the cyanobacterial clock can keep time independent of de novo transcription. and translation processes.

    DOI

  • Role of KaiC phosphorylation in the circadian clock system of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942

    T Nishiwaki, Y Satomi, M Nakajima, C Lee, R Kiyohara, H Kageyama, Y Kitayama, M Temamoto, A Yamaguchi, A Hijikata, M Go, H Iwasaki, T Takao, T Kondo

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA   101 ( 38 ) 13927 - 13932  2004.09

     View Summary

    In the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC are essential proteins for the generation of a circadian rhythm. KaiC is proposed as a negative regulator of the circadian expression of all genes in the genome, and its phosphorylation is regulated positively by KaiA and negatively by KaiB and shows a circadian rhythm in vivo. To study the functions of KaiC phosphorylation in the circadian clock system, we identified two autophosphorylation sites, Ser-431 and Thr-432, by using mass spectrometry (MS). We generated Synechococcus mutants in which these residues were substituted for alanine by using site-directed mutagenesis. Phosphorylation of KaiC was reduced in the single mutants and was completely abolished in the double mutant, indicating that KaiC is also phosphorylated at these sites in vivo. These mutants lost circadian rhythm, indicating that phosphorylation at each of the two sites is essential for the control of the circadian oscillation. Although the nonphosphorylatable mutant KaiC was able to form a hexamer in vitro, it failed to form a clock protein complex with KaiA, KaiB, and SasA in the Synechococcus cells. When nonphosphorylatable KaiC was overexpressed, the kaiBC promoter activity was only transiently repressed. These results suggest that KaiC phosphorylation regulates its transcriptional repression activity by controlling its binding affinity for other clock proteins.

    DOI

  • Global gene repression by KaiC as a master process of prokaryotic circadian system

    Y Nakahira, M Katayama, H Miyashita, S Kutsuna, H Iwasaki, T Oyama, T Kondo

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA   101 ( 3 ) 881 - 885  2004.01

     View Summary

    A kaiABC clock gene cluster was previously identified from cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, and the feedback regulation of kai genes was proposed as the core mechanism generating circadian oscillation. In this study, we confirmed that the Kai-based oscillator is the dominant circadian oscillator functioning in cyanobacteria. We probed the nature of this regulation and found that excess KaiC represses not only kaiBC but also the rhythmic components of all genes in the genome. This result strongly suggests that the KaiC protein primarily coordinates genomewide gene expression, including its own expression. We also found that a promoter derived from E. coli is feedback controlled by KaiC and restores the complete circadian rhythm in kaiBC-inactivated arrhythmic mutants, provided it can express kaiB and kaiC genes at an appropriate level. Unlike eukaryotic models, specific regulation of the kaiBC promoter is not essential for cyanobacterial circadian oscillations.

    DOI

  • KaiB functions as an attenuator of KaiC phosphorylation in the cyanobacterial circadian clock system

    Y Kitayama, H Iwasaki, T Nishiwaki, T Kondo

    EMBO JOURNAL   22 ( 9 ) 2127 - 2134  2003.05

     View Summary

    In the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, the KaiA, KaiB and KaiC proteins are essential for generation of circadian rhythms. We quantitatively analyzed the intracellular dynamics of these proteins and found a circadian rhythm in the membrane/cytosolic localization of KaiB, such that KaiB interacts with a KaiA-KaiC complex during the late subjective night. KaiB-KaiC binding is accompanied by a dramatic reduction in KaiC phosphorylation and followed by dissociation of the clock protein complex(es). KaiB attenuated KaiA-enhanced phosphorylation both in vitro and in vivo. Based on these results, we propose a novel role for KaiB in a regulatory link among subcellular localization, protein-protein interactions and post-translational modification of Kai proteins in the cyanobacterial clock system.

    DOI

  • Circadian formation of clock protein complexes by KaiA, KaiB, KaiC, and SasA in cyanobacteria

    H Kageyama, T Kondo, H Iwasaki

    JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY   278 ( 4 ) 2388 - 2395  2003.01

     View Summary

    Physical interactions among clock-related proteins KaiA, KaiB, KaiC, and SasA are proposed to be important for circadian function in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. Here we show that the Kai proteins and SasA form heteromultimeric protein complexes dynamically in a circadian fashion. KaiC forms protein complexes of similar to350 and 400-600 kDa during the subjective day and night, respectively, and serves as a core of the circadian protein complexes. This change in the size of the KaiC-containing complex is accompanied by nighttime-specific interaction of KaiA and KaiB with KaiC. In various arrhythmic mutants that lack each functional Kai protein or SasA circadian rhythms in formation of the clock protein complex are abolished, and the size of the protein complexes is dramatically affected. Thus, circadian-regulated formation of the clock protein complexes is probably a critical process in the generation of circadian rhythm in cyanobacteria.

    DOI

  • KaiA-stimulated KaiC phosphorylation in circadian timing loops in cyanobacteria

    H Iwasaki, T Nishiwaki, Y Kitayama, M Nakajima, T Kondo

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA   99 ( 24 ) 15788 - 15793  2002.11

     View Summary

    Cyanobacterial clock proteins KaiA and KaiC are proposed as positive and negative regulators in the autoregulatory circadian kaiBC expression, respectively. Here, we show that activation of kaiBC expression by kaiA requires KaiC, suggesting a positive feedback control in the cyanobacterial clockwork. We found that robust circadian phosphorylation of KaiC. KaiA was essential for in vivo KaiC phosphorylation and activated in vitro KaiC autophosphorylation. These effects of KaiA were attenuated by the kaiA2 long period mutation. Both the long period phenotype and the abnormal KaiC phosphorylation in this mutant were suppressed by a previously undocumented kaiC mutation. We propose that KaiA-stimulated circadian KaiC phosphorylation is important for circadian timing.

    DOI

  • A KaiC-interacting sensory histidine kinase, SasA, necessary to sustain robust circadian oscillation in cyanobacteria

    H Iwasaki, SB Williams, Y Kitayama, M Ishiura, SS Golden, T Kondo

    CELL   101 ( 2 ) 223 - 233  2000.04

     View Summary

    Both regulated expression of the clock genes kaiA, kaiB, and kaiC and interactions among the Kai proteins are proposed to be important for circadian function in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp, strain PCC 7942. We have identified the histidine kinase SasA as a KaiC-interacting protein. SasA contains a KaiB-like sensory domain, which appears sufficient for interaction with KaiC. Disruption of the sasA gene lowered kaiBC expression and dramatically reduced amplitude of the kai expression rhythms while shortening the period. Accordingly, sasA disruption attenuated circadian expression patterns of all tested genes, some of which became arrhythmic. Continuous sasA overexpression eliminated circadian rhythms, whereas temporal overexpression changed the phase of kaiBC expression rhythm. Thus, SasA is a close associate of the cyanobacterial clock that is necessary to sustain robust circadian rhythms.

    DOI

  • Nucleotide binding and autophosphorylation of the clock protein KaiC as a circadian timing process of cyanobacteria

    T Nishiwaki, H Iwasaki, M Ishiura, T Kondo

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA   97 ( 1 ) 495 - 499  2000.01

     View Summary

    A negative feedback control of kaiC expression by KaiC protein has been proposed to generate a basic oscillation of the circadian clock in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp, PCC 7942, KaiC has two P loops or Walker's motif As, that are potential ATP-/GTP-binding motifs and DXXG motifs conserved in various GTP-binding proteins. Herein, we demonstrate that in vitro KaiC binds ATP and, with lower affinity, GTP, Point mutation by site-directed mutagenesis of P loop 1 completely nullified the circadian rhythm of kaiBC expression and markedly reduced ATP-binding activity. Moreover, KaiC can be autophosphorylated in vitro. These results suggest that the nucleotide-binding activity of KaiC plays important roles in the generation of circadian oscillation in cyanobacteria.

    DOI

  • Physical interactions among circadian clock proteins KaiA, KaiB and KaiC in cyanobacteria

    H Iwasaki, Y Taniguchi, M Ishiura, T Kondo

    EMBO JOURNAL   18 ( 5 ) 1137 - 1145  1999.03

     View Summary

    The kai gene cluster, which is composed of three genes, kaiA, kaiB and kaiC, is essential for the generation of circadian rhythms in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp, strain PCC 7942. Here we demonstrate the direct association of KaiA, KaiB and KaiC in yeast cells using the two-hybrid system, in vitro and in cyanobacterial cells. KaiC enhanced KaiA-KaiB interaction iii vitro and in yeast cells, suggesting that the three Kai proteins were able to form a heteromultimeric complex. We also found that a long period mutation kaiA1 dramatically enhanced KaiA-KaiB interaction in vitro. Thus, direct protein-protein association among the Kai proteins may be a critical process in the generation of circadian rhythms in cyanobacteria.

    DOI

  • Expression of a gene cluster kaiABC as a circadian feedback process in cyanobacteria

    M Ishiura, S Kutsuna, S Aoki, H Iwasaki, CR Andersson, A Tanabe, SS Golden, CH Johnson, T Kondo

    SCIENCE   281 ( 5382 ) 1519 - 1523  1998.09

     View Summary

    Cyanobacteria are the simplest organisms known to have a circadian clock. A circadian crock gene cluster kaiABC was cloned from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus. Nineteen clock mutations were mapped to the three kai genes. Promoter activities upstream of the kaiA and kaiB genes showed circadian rhythms of expression, and both kaiA and kaiBC messenger RNAs displayed circadian cycling. inactivation of any single kai gene abolished these rhythms and reduced kaiBC-promoter activity. Continuous kaiC overexpression repressed the kaiBC promoter, whereas kaiA overexpression enhanced it. Temporal kaiC overexpression reset the phase of the rhythms. Thus, a negative feedback control of kaiC expression by KaiC generates a circadian oscillation in cyanobacteria, and KaiA sustains the oscillation by enhancing kaiC expression.

    DOI

  • 1SDP-05 Aesthetics related with synthetic biology(1SDP Developments in constructive approach towards cell synthesis,Symposium,The 51th Annual Meeting of the Biophysical Society of Japan)

    Iwasaki Hideo

    Seibutsu Butsuri   53 ( 1 ) S90  2013

    DOI CiNii

  • 2PT232 Cyanobacterial circadian clock is nullified by low temperature through Hopf bifurcation(The 50th Annual Meeting of the Biophysical Society of Japan)

    Murayama Yoriko, Kori Hiroshi, Kondo Takao, Iwasaki Hideo, Ito Hiroshi

    Seibutsu Butsuri   52   S144  2012

    DOI CiNii

  • バクテリアの生物時計 : システム解析と構成的アプローチ

    岩崎 秀雄

    化学と生物   47 ( 7 ) 493 - 498  2009.07

    CiNii

  • バイオメディア・アート

    久保田 晃弘, 岩崎 秀雄

    多摩美術大学研究紀要   ( 24 ) 177 - 186  2009

    CiNii

  • Proteins found in a CikA interaction assay link the orcadian clock, metabolism, and cell division in synechococcus elongatus

    Mackey, S.R., Choi, J.-S., Kitayama, Y., Iwasaki, H., Dong, G., Golden, S.S.

    Journal of Bacteriology   190 ( 10 ) 3738 - 3746  2008  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Diverse organisms time their cellular activities to occur at distinct phases of Earth's solar day, not through the direct regulation of these processes by light and darkness but rather through the use of an internal biological (circadian) clock that is synchronized with the external cycle. Input pathways serve as mechanisms to transduce external cues to a circadian oscillator to maintain synchrony between this internal oscillation and the environment. The circadian input pathway in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 requires the kinase CikA. A cikA null mutant exhibits a short cireadian period, the inability to reset its clock in response to pulses of darkness, and a defect in cell division. Although CikA is copurified with the Kai proteins that constitute the circadian central oscillator, no direct interaction between CikA and either KaiA, KaiB, or KaiC has been demonstrated. Here, we identify four proteins that may help connect CikA with the oscillator. Phenotypic analyses of null and overexpression alleles demonstrate that these proteins are involved in at least one of the functions-circadian period regulation, phase resetting, and cell division-attributed to CikA. Predictions based on sequence similarity suggest that these proteins function through protein phosphorylation, iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis, and redox regulation. Collectively, these results suggest a model for circadian input that incorporates proteins that link the circadian clock, metabolism, and cell division.

    DOI PubMed

  • 多細胞シアノバクテリアの周期的空間パターン形成のシステム解析に向けて

    浅井宏啓, 川合健太郎, 松岡正城, 岩森俊介, 庄子習一, 岩崎秀雄

       2007.11

  • Molecular networks ticking time: oscillatory systems of circadian clocks

    岩崎 秀雄

    Cell technology.   26 ( 7 ) 750 - 754  2007.07

    CiNii

  • バクテリアを用いた生物時計とパターン形成の構成的研究(生命リズムと振動子ネットワーク)

    岩崎 秀雄

    物性研究   87 ( 4 ) 562 - 563  2007

     View Summary

    この論文は国立情報学研究所の電子図書館事業により電子化されました。研究会報告

    CiNii

  • Analysis of the NtcA regulon of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongates PCC 7942

    Makiko Aichi, Hideo Iwasaki, Yorimichi Sato, Takao Kondo, Mamoru Sugita, Kazuo Nagai, Tatsuo Omata

    PLANT AND CELL PHYSIOLOGY   48   S183 - S183  2007  [Refereed]

  • 生命のリズムとパターン形成 (特集 生物時計--リズムを使った生体内コミュニケーション)

    岩崎 秀雄

    バイオニクス   3 ( 9 ) 27 - 31  2006.09

    CiNii

  • シアノバクテリアの概日時計システム--時計遺伝子の転写・翻訳のフィードバック制御とリン酸化振動のリズム (あゆみ 時計遺伝子)

    大川, 西脇, 妙子, 岩崎 秀雄

    医学のあゆみ   216 ( 3 ) 238 - 242  2006.01

    CiNii

  • 生命リズムへの複眼的まなざし:生物リズムの文化誌と分子機構

    岩崎秀雄

    科学(岩波)   75 ( 12 ) 1388 - 1393  2005.12

  • 連載コラム「生命のリズム」〜第8回:構成的生物学への期待

    岩崎秀雄

    バイオニクス    2005.07

  • 連載コラム「生命のリズム」〜第7回:交錯するリズムイメージと生命イメージ

    岩崎秀雄

    バイオニクス    2005.06

  • 連載コラム「生命のリズム」〜第6回:体内時計の試験管内再構成に成功

    岩崎秀雄

    バイオニクス    2005.05

  • 連載コラム「生命のリズム」〜第5回:バイオリズム・ブーム

    岩崎秀雄

    バイオニクス    2005.04

  • 連載コラム「生命のリズム」〜第4回:体内時計の発振機構(II)時計遺伝子はいかに時を刻むのか?

    岩崎秀雄

    バイオニクス    2005.03

  • 連載コラム「生命のリズム」〜第3回:体内時計の発振機構(I)振り子は細胞の中にある!

    岩崎秀雄

    バイオニクス    2005.02

  • 連載コラム「生命のリズム」〜第2回:体内時計論争の科学史と文化史

    岩崎秀雄

    バイオニクス    2005.01

  • 連載コラム「生命のリズム」〜第1回:体内時計:一日のリズムはどこから

    岩崎秀雄

    バイオニクス    2004.12

  • Circadian timing mechanism in the prokaryotic clock system of cyanobacteria

    H Iwasaki, T Kondo

    JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS   19 ( 5 ) 436 - 444  2004.10

     View Summary

    Cyanobacteria are the simplest organisms known to exhibit circadian rhythms and have provided experimental model systems for the dissection of basic properties of circadian organization at the molecular, physiological, and ecological levels. This review focuses on the molecular and genetic mechanisms of circadian rhythm generation in cyanobacteria. Recent analyses have revealed the existence of multiple feedback processes in the prokaryotic circadian system and have led to a novel molecular oscillator model. Here, the authors summarize current understanding of, and open questions about, the cyanobacterial oscillator.

    DOI

  • Circadian rhythms in the synthesis and degradation of a master clock protein KaiC in cyanobacteria

    K Imai, T Nishiwaki, T Kondo, H Iwasaki

    JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY   279 ( 35 ) 36534 - 36539  2004.08

     View Summary

    A circadian rhythm in the accumulation of the core clock protein KaiC has been proposed to be important for proper circadian timing in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 under continuous light conditions. Cycling in the abundance of the KaiC protein is delayed to the rhythm of its mRNA by similar to8 h, consistent with the proposed function of KaiC as a negative feedback regulator of kaiBC transcription. Here, we present temporal profiles of the synthesis and degradation of KaiC protein that determine the rhythm of its accumulation. The rate of KaiC synthesis shows a robust circadian oscillation, which is delayed to the mRNA rhythm slightly and advances the rhythm of KaiC accumulation by similar to6 h. The stability of KaiC protein also shows circadian fluctuations, such that KaiC degradation is suppressed during the mid-subjective night. These results suggest that transcriptional, translational, and posttranslational processes are important for the proper circadian changes in KaiC accumulation. Moreover, the turnovers of the phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of KaiC show robust circadian rhythms with an anti-phase relationship to each other. Interestingly, when translation was inhibited, KaiC degradation and phosphorylation proceeded within at least 4 h in a circadian phase-dependent manner. Thus, the circadian timing seems flexible even when any perturbation in protein synthesis occurs.

    DOI

  • シアノバクテリアの時計研究の舞台裏

    岩崎 秀雄

    時間生物学 = Journal of chronobiology   10 ( 1 ) 3 - 11  2004.05

    CiNii

  • 隠喩としての生命リズム:その歴史,文化,科学,芸術

    岩崎秀雄

    ドキュメント アートとレクチャーの10日間 COLD_SCHOOL MS004:「講義としての芸術」(メディアセレクト)    2004

  • シアノバクテリアの生物時計研究の舞台裏

    岩崎秀雄

    時間生物学   10 ( 3 ) 3 - 11  2004

  • 時間のネットワーク:概日時計を分子レベルで理解する (特集 体内リズム--複雑な遺伝子発現制御のネットワークをシステムとして理解する)

    Roenneberg Till, Merrow Martha, 岩崎 秀雄

    細胞工学   22 ( 12 ) 1320 - 1326  2003.12

    CiNii

  • シアノバクテリアの概日リズム制御機構研究の新展開 (特集 体内リズム--複雑な遺伝子発現制御のネットワークをシステムとして理解する)

    岩崎 秀雄

    細胞工学   22 ( 12 ) 1309 - 1314  2003.12

    CiNii

  • シアノバクテリアのサーカディアンリズム

    岩崎 秀雄

    バイオサイエンスとインダストリー = Bioscience & industry   61   26 - 27  2003.04

    CiNii

  • シアノバクテリアの概日リズム制御機構研究の新展開

    岩崎秀雄

    細胞工学   22   1309 - 1314  2003

  • Studies on the cyanobacterial circadian system

    Iwasaki H

    Seibutsu Butsuri   43 ( 0 )  2003

    CiNii

  • Histidine Kinases in the Cyanobacterial Circadian System

    Hideo Iwasaki, Takao Kondo

    Histidine Kinases in Signal Transduction     297 - 311  2002.11

     View Summary

    Circadian rhythms, endogenous biological oscillations with a period of about a day, have been observed in innumerable physiological processes in most of organisms from cyanobacteria to higher plants and mammals. These rhythms are thought to be adaptive to daily environmental changes on the earth. These rhythms are daily fluctuations in cellular, physiological, and behavioral parameters, which are observed ubiquitously in many organisms. The circadian system is composed schematically of a central oscillator and inputs to and outputs from the clock. The cyanobacterium is the simplest organism known to harbor circadian clocks, and now becomes one of most successful model organisms for comprehensive understanding the oscillatory system at the molecular level. Molecular genetic studies on circadian clocks in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus identified two histidine kinases, SasA, and CikA. SasA interacts with a well-established clock protein KaiC and is necessary to sustain robust circadian oscillation, whereas CikA functions in a photic input pathway to the clock. Thus, multiple His-to-Asp signaling pathways are likely to play important roles in the Synechococcus circadian system. © 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • シアノバクテリアの概日リズムの発振機構モデルの新たな展開

    岩崎 秀雄

    日本時間生物学会会誌: Journal of Chronobiology   8 ( 1 ) 5 - 10  2002.05

    CiNii

  • Prokaryotic biological clocks : Elegance and complexity in temporal programming of a bacterial life

    IWASAKI Hideo

    Bioscience & industry   60 ( 4 ) 17 - 22  2002.04

    CiNii

  • シアノバクテリアのサーカディアンリズム

    岩崎 秀雄

    バイオサイエンスとインダストリー = Bioscience & industry   60 ( 4 ) 9 - 10  2002.04

    CiNii

  • シアノバクテリアにおけるkai時計遺伝子作用モデルの再検討

    岩崎 秀雄, 中平 洋一, 片山 光徳, 近藤 孝男

    日本時間生物学会会誌: Journal of Chronobiology   7 ( 2 )  2001.10

    CiNii

  • 多重フィードバック制御による概日時計の振動安定化機構 (特集 生物時計--細胞はいかにして時を刻むか)

    岩崎 秀雄, 近藤 孝男

    細胞工学   20 ( 6 ) 801 - 807  2001.06

    CiNii

  • Two KaiA-binding domains of cyanobacterial circadian clock protein KaiC

    Y Taniguchi, A Yamaguchi, A Hijikata, H Iwasaki, K Kamagata, M Ishiura, M Go, T Kondo

    FEBS LETTERS   496 ( 2-3 ) 86 - 90  2001.05

     View Summary

    kaiABC, a gene cluster, encodes KaiA, KaiB and KaiC proteins that are essential to circadian rhythms in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942. Kai proteins can interact with each other in all possible combinations. This study identified two KaiA-binding domains (C-KABD1 and C-KABD2) in KaiC at corresponding regions of its duplicated structure. Clerk mutations on the two domains and kaiA altered the strength of C-KABD-KaiA interactions assayed by the yeast two-hybrid system. Thus, interaction between KaiA and KaiC through C-KABD1 and C-KABD2 is likely important for circadian timing in the cyanobacterium. (C) 2001 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • 多重フィードバック制御による概日振動の安定化機構

    岩崎秀雄, 近藤孝男

    細胞工学   20   801 - 807  2001

  • シアノバクテリアの概日リズムの発振機構について

    岩崎秀雄

    日本時間生物学会誌   8 ( 1 ) 5 - 10  2001

  • バクテリアの生物時計:その高度な調節機構と複雑さ

    岩崎秀雄

    バイオサイエンスとバイオインダストリ-   60   225 - 230  2001

  • The current state and problems of circadian clock studies in cyanobacteria

    H Iwasaki, T Kondo

    PLANT AND CELL PHYSIOLOGY   41 ( 9 ) 1013 - 1020  2000.09

     View Summary

    Circadian rhythms have been observed in innumerable physiological processes in most of organisms. Recent molecular and genetic studies on circadian clocks in many organisms have identified and characterized several molecular regulatory factors that contribute to generation of such rhythms. The cyanobacterium is the simplest organism known to harbor circadian clocks, and it has become one of most successful model organisms for circadian biology In this review, we will briefly summarize physiological observations and consideration of circadian rhythms in cyanobacteria, molecular genetics of the clock using Synechococcus, and current knowledge of the input and output pathways that support the cellular circadian system. Finally, we will document some current problems in the studies on the cyanobacterial circadian clock.

    DOI

  • Spectroscopic and electrochemical studies on structural chang of plastocyanin and its tyrosine 83 mutants induced by interaction with lysine peptides

    S Hirota, K Hayamizu, T Okuno, M Kishi, H Iwasaki, T Kondo, T Hibino, T Takabe, T Kohzuma, O Yamauchif

    BIOCHEMISTRY   39 ( 21 ) 6357 - 6364  2000.05

     View Summary

    Interactions of wild-type and Tyr83 mutant (Ys3F, Y83S, Y83L, and Y83H) plastocyanins (PCs) with lysine peptides as models for the PC interacting site of cytochrome f have been studied by absorption, resonance Raman, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies and electrochemical measurements. The spectral and electrochemical properties of PCs corresponded well with each other; species having a longer wavelength maximum for the S(Cys) pi --&gt; Cu 3d(x2)-(y2) charge transfer (CT) band observed around 600 nm and a stronger intensity for the 460-nm absorption band exhibited stronger intensities for the positive Met --&gt; Cu 3d(x2-y2) and negative His pi(1) --&gt; Cu 3d(x2-y2) circular dichroism (CD) bands at about 420 and 470 nm, respectively, a lower average v(Cu-S) frequency, a smaller \ A(parallel to)\ EPR parameter, and a higher redox potential, properties all related to a weaker Cu-S(Cys) bond and a more tetrahedral planar geometry for the Cu site. Similarly, on oligolysine binding to wild-type and several Tyr83 mutant PCs, a longer absorption maximum for the 600-nm CT band, a stronger intensity for the 460-nm absorption band, stronger 420-nm positive and 470-nm negative CD bands, and a lower average v(Cu-S) frequency were observed, suggesting that PC assumes a slight more tetrahedral geometry on binding of oligolysine. Since changes were observed for both wild-type and Tyr83 mutant PCs, the structural change due to binding of oligolysine to PC may not be transmitted through the path of Tyr83-Cys84-copper by a cation-pi interaction which is proposed for electron transfer.

    DOI

  • Microbial circadian oscillatory systems in Neurospora and Synechococcus: models for cellular clocks

    H Iwasaki, JC Dunlap

    CURRENT OPINION IN MICROBIOLOGY   3 ( 2 ) 189 - 196  2000.04

     View Summary

    Common regulatory patterns have emerged among the feedback loops lying within circadian systems. Significant progress in dissecting the mechanism of clock resetting by temperature and the role of the WC proteins in the Neurospora light response has accompanied documentation of the importance of nuclear localization and phosphorylation-induced turnover of FRQ to this circadian cycle. The long-awaited molecular description of a transcription/translation loop in the Synechococcus circadian system represents a quantal step forward, followed by the identification of additional important proteins and interactions, finally, the adaptive significance of rhythms in Synechococcus and by extension in all clocks nicely ties up an extraordinary year.

    DOI

  • シアノバクテリアの概日時計機構:解析の現状と課題

    岩崎秀雄, 近藤孝男

    脳の科学   22   505 - 507  2000

  • KaiC 結合性ヒスチジン・キナーゼ SasA による藍色細菌の概日発振の安定化

    岩崎 秀雄, 石浦 正寛, 近藤 孝男

    日本時間生物学会会誌: Journal of Chronobiology   5 ( 2 )  1999.10

    CiNii

  • 藍色細菌の Kai タンパク質の概日振動と KaiC のリン酸化

    冨田 淳, 西脇 妙子, 岩崎 秀雄, 石浦 正寛, 近藤 孝男

    日本時間生物学会会誌: Journal of Chronobiology   5 ( 2 )  1999.10

    CiNii

  • Structural conservation of the isolated zinc site in archaeal zinc-containing ferredoxins as revealed by x-ray absorption spectroscopic analysis and its evolutionary implications

    NJ Cosper, CMV Stalhandske, H Iwasaki, T Oshima, RA Scott, T Iwasaki

    JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY   274 ( 33 ) 23160 - 23168  1999.08

     View Summary

    The zfx gene encoding a zinc-containing ferredoxin from Thermoplasma acidophilum strain HO-62 was cloned and sequenced. It is located upstream of two genes encoding an archaeal homolog of nascent polypeptide-associated complex alpha subunit and a tRNA nucleotidyltransferase. This gene organization is not conserved in several euryarchaeoteal genomes, The multiple sequence alignments of the zfx gene product suggest significant sequence similarity of the ferredoxin core fold to that of a low potential 8Fe-containing dicluster ferredoxin without a zinc center. The tightly bound zinc site of zinc-containing ferredoxins from two phylogenetically distantly related Archaea, T. acidophilum HO-62 and Sulfolobus sp. strain 7, was further investigated by x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The zinc K-edge x-ray absorption spectra of both archaeal ferredoxins are strikingly similar, demonstrating that the same zinc site is found in T. acidophilum ferredoxin as in Sulfolobus sp, ferredoxin, which suggests the structural conservation of isolated zinc binding sites among archaeal zinc-containing ferredoxins, The sequence and spectroscopic data provide the common structural features of the archaeal zinc-containing ferredoxin family.

    DOI

  • Changing profiles of mRNA levels of Cdc2 and a novel Cdc2-related kinase (Bcdrk) in relation to ovarian development and embryonic diapause of Bombyx mori

    M Takahashi, H Iwasaki, T Niimi, O Yamashita, T Yaginuma

    APPLIED ENTOMOLOGY AND ZOOLOGY   33 ( 4 ) 551 - 559  1998.11

     View Summary

    To reveal the regulatory mechanism of G(2)-arrest of cell division in embryos at the diapause stage of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, the profiles for mRNA levels of a Bombyx homologue of Cdc2 and a novel Bombyx Cdc2-related kinase (Bcdrk) were examined during ovarian development, early embryogenesis and diapause stage, using a reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction system. Although levels of mRNAs for Cdc2 and Bcdrk were higher in paired ovaries during the early pupal stage, the levels decreased at the middle stage. Both mRNAs became abundant in oocytes toward the maturation. From oviposition up to the stage just before cellular blastoderm, high levels of both mRNAs were maintained, and thereafter the levels declined. In diapausing eggs kept at 25 degrees C, mRNA levels remained lower, whilst in diapause eggs exposed to 5 degrees C from 2 days after oviposition, in order to break diapause, relatively higher levels of mRNAs were found. In eggs treated with HCl to avert the entry into diapause, mRNA levels per egg for Cdc2 and Bcdrk increased 2 days after treatment, although these increases were not observed in terms of mRNA levels per actin mRNA. These results were discussed in relation to the activities of nuclear/cellular division in ovaries and eggs. In addition, Bcdrk was suggested to play a role similar to that in Bombyx Cdc2 kinase, because the changing profile for levels of Bcdrk mRNA resembled that for cdc2 mRNA.

    DOI

  • 藍色細菌の生物時計

    岩崎秀雄, 石浦正寛, 近藤孝男

    遺伝   51 ( 12 ) 41 - 46  1997.12

  • 藍色細菌の概日時計

    岩崎秀雄, 石浦正寛, 近藤孝男

    日本時間生物学会会誌   3 ( 1 ) 6 - 24  1997

  • Cloning of cDNAs encoding Bombyx homologues of Cdc2 and Cdc2-related kinase from eggs

    H. Iwasaki, M. Takahashi, T. Niimi, O. Yamashita, T. Yaginuma

    Insect Molecular Biology   6 ( 2 ) 131 - 141  1997

     View Summary

    In diapausing eggs of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, embryonic cells are arrested at G2 phase. The ability to undertake cell division is resumed in the course of dispause termination caused by such a treatment as acclimation to 5°C. As an initial trial to investigate the relationship between diapause end embryonic cell cycling, we have cloned and sequenced two Bombyx cDNAs encoding two distinct cdc2-related Ser/Thr protein kinases. One (Bm cdc2) encoded a 37.0 kDa protein which had all of the domains characteristic of other Cdc2 kinase. The other (Bcdrk) encoded a 45.1 kDa protein that was most similar to Drosophila and human cdc2-related protein kinases (Dcdrkprotein and PISSRLE kinase). Northern blot analysis was carried out to examine levels of Bm cdc2 end Bcdrk mRNA during embryogenesis of non-diapause eggs. The result demonstrated that the mRNA level of Bm cdc2 appeared to correspond to the activity of nuclear/cellular division in non-diapause eggs, and that the developmental profile in the level of Bcdrk mRNA was somewhat different from that of Bm cdc2 mRNA.

    DOI PubMed

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Books and Other Publications

  • 科学史事典 = Encyclopedia of the history of science

    日本科学史学会( Part: Contributor, 生命の創造 — 物質から生命を生み出す試み)

    丸善出版  2021.05 ISBN: 9784621306062

  • AKI INOMATA: Significant Otherness

    ( Part: Contributor)

    Bijutsu-Shuppan  2019.10 ISBN: 9784568105209

  • 〈生命〉とは何だろうか――表現する生物学、思考する芸術 (講談社現代新書)

    岩崎 秀雄( Part: Sole author)

    講談社  2013.02 ISBN: 4062881934

    ASIN

  • 「生命」とは何だろうか : 表現する生物学、思考する芸術

    岩崎 秀雄

    講談社  2013 ISBN: 9784062881937

  • シアノバクテリアの生物時計蛋白質KaiCの生化学的機能

    岩崎 秀雄

    名古屋大学大学院理学研究科  2005

  • シアノバクテリアの生物時計におけるリン酸化制御

    岩崎 秀雄

    [出版者不明]  2003

  • 時を刻むバクテリア

    岩崎秀雄

    中村桂子編集『愛づるの話。』(JT生命誌研究館)  2003

  • Histidine kinases in the cyanobacterial circadian system

    Iwasaki H, Kondo T

    Histidine Kinases (Eds. M. Inouye and R. Dutta), Academic Press  2002

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Misc

  • Metabolism of time axis: commemoration of artificial cells and artificial intelligence (in Japanese)

    Hideo Iwasaki

      11   27 - 40  2022.03  [Invited]

    Authorship:Lead author, Last author, Corresponding author

    Rapid communication, short report, research note, etc. (scientific journal)  

  • バイオメディア・アートの保存

    岩崎秀雄

    「芸術の保存・修復 ― 未来への遺産」展カタログ(東京藝術大学美術館)     64 - 69  2018.11  [Invited]

    Authorship:Lead author, Last author, Corresponding author

    Article, review, commentary, editorial, etc. (other)  

  • BioRealityをめぐる生命美学的遍歴

    岩崎 秀雄

    日本バーチャルリアリティ学会誌   23 ( 3 ) 7 - 12  2018.09  [Refereed]  [Invited]

  • 生命美学 : メビウスの環を生きるためのバイオ・アート (特集 バイオ・アート : アートは生命の未来を更新するのか?)

    岩崎 秀雄

    美術手帖 : monthly art magazine   70 ( 1063 ) 86 - 93  2018.01

    CiNii

  • 生物時計の分子メカニズム研究の展開 : 転写翻訳フィードバックループ・モデルを巡って (ノーベル生理学・医学賞2017)

    岩崎 秀雄

    科学   87 ( 12 ) 1121 - 1129  2017.12

    CiNii

  • バイオメディア・アート:美学的見地から観た合成生物学の可能性

    岩崎 秀雄

    科学   80 ( 7 ) 747 - 754  2010.07

    CiNii

  • From a Researcher/Artist Perspective

    岩崎 秀雄

    科学技術コミュニケーション   ( 18 ) 117 - 124  2015.12

    CiNii

  • Self-investigations in universities

    岩崎 秀雄

    情報科学芸術大学院大学紀要   6   39 - 44  2014

    CiNii

  • 生命は最後のスーパーコンセプト? (特集 生命とは何だろう?) -- (人工生命を作ることは可能か?)

    岩崎 秀雄

    Kotoba : 多様性を考える言論誌   ( 16 ) 86 - 89  2014

    CiNii

  • Kumagusu Minakata : possible sympathy to complex aesthetics

    岩崎 秀雄

    科学   83 ( 8 ) 931 - 933  2013.08

    CiNii

  • BioAesthetics Platforms : metaPhorest, Synthetic Aesthetics, and Biomedia Art

    岩崎 秀雄

    生物学史研究   ( 88 ) 69 - 72  2013.03

    CiNii

  • The dynamics of colony pattern formation of motile cyanobacteria

    FUKASAWA Yuki, IWASAKI Hideo

      26 ( 1 )  2011.06

    CiNii

  • Cyanobacterial Cell Lineage Analysis of the Spatiotemporal hetR Expression Profile during Heterocyst Pattern Formation in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120

    ISHIHARA Junichi, ASAI Hironori, IWAMORI Shunsuke, MIYAGI Yasuyuki, IWASAKI Hideo

      26 ( 1 ) 91 - 92  2011.06

    CiNii

  • Cyanobacterial Morphogenesis from the View of Biomedia Arts

    岩崎 秀雄

    形の科学会誌 = Bulletin of the Society for Science on Form   26 ( 1 ) 44 - 45  2011.06

    CiNii

  • 暗期におけるシアノバクテリアの遺伝子発現制御解析

    細川徳宗, 菊池欣之, 畠山哲央, 岩崎秀雄

    時間生物学   14 ( 2 ) 70  2008.10

    J-GLOBAL

  • The mechanisms for global circadian gene expressions in cyanobacteria

    M Mutsuda, Y Kitayama, Y Murayama, H Kageyama, T Oyama, H Iwasaki, T Kondo

    PLANT AND CELL PHYSIOLOGY   47   S66 - S66  2006

    Research paper, summary (international conference)  

  • The determinant of circadian amplitude shapes in cyanobacteria

    M Mutsuda, Y Murayama, H Iwasaki, M Nishimura, T Kondo

    PLANT AND CELL PHYSIOLOGY   46   S134 - S134  2005

    Research paper, summary (international conference)  

  • Anarysis of phosphorylation process of cyanobacterial clock protein, KaiC

    M Nakajima, K Imai, H Ito, T Nishiwaki, Y Murayama, H Iwasaki, T Kondo

    PLANT AND CELL PHYSIOLOGY   46   S98 - S98  2005

    Research paper, summary (international conference)  

  • Investigation for the role of KaiC phosphorylation in circadian clock system of Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942

    R Kiyohara, T Nishiwaki, C Lee, Y Satomi, H Kageyama, M Nakajima, M Temamoto, H Iwasaki, T Takao, T Kondo

    PLANT AND CELL PHYSIOLOGY   45   S219 - S219  2004

    Research paper, summary (international conference)  

  • Transcriptional regulation of the kaiABC clock genes in cyanobacteria

    Y Nakahira, M Katayama, H Iwasaki, T Kondo

    PLANT AND CELL PHYSIOLOGY   43   S76 - S76  2002

    Research paper, summary (international conference)  

  • Studies of the circadian oscillation using a large number of kaiC mutants of cyanobacterium

    K Imai, Y Nakahira, H Iwasaki, T Nishiwaki, T Kondo

    PLANT AND CELL PHYSIOLOGY   43   S76 - S76  2002

    Research paper, summary (international conference)  

  • Symposium on Molecular Basis for the Biological Clock

      5 ( 1 ) 59 - 67  1999.05

    CiNii

  • EFFECTS OF POINT MUTATIONS IN THE ATP-GTP-BINDING MOTIFS OF KaiC ON THE CIRCADIAN CLOCK

    NISHIWAKI Taeko, IWASAKI Hideo, ISHIURA Masahiro, KONDO Takao

      40   s58 - s58  1999.03

    CiNii

  • 藍色細菌の時計遺伝子産物 KaiC のATP/GTP結合モチーフの解析

    西脇 妙子, 岩崎 秀雄, 谷口 靖人, 石浦 正寛, 近藤 孝男

    日本時間生物学会会誌: Journal of Chronobiology   4 ( 2 ) 78 - 78  1998.10

    CiNii

  • シアノバクテリアの概日時計 : 時計遺伝子群 kaiABC 発現の自己制御

    石浦 正寛, 沓名 伸介, 岩崎 秀雄, 田部 暁郎, 近藤 孝男

    日本時間生物学会会誌: Journal of Chronobiology   4 ( 2 ) 77 - 77  1998.10

    CiNii

  • PHYSICAL ASSOCIATION AMONG CYANOBACTERIAL CIRCADIAN CLOCK PROTEINS

    IWASAKI Hideo, TANIGUCHI Yasuhito, ISHIURA Masahiro, KONDO Takao

      39   S81 - S81  1998.05

    CiNii

  • 藍色細菌の時計遺伝子産物KaiA, B, C間の相互作用の解析

    谷口 靖人, 岩崎 秀雄, 沓名 伸介, 近藤 孝男, 石浦 正寛

    日本時間生物学会会誌: Journal of Chronobiology   3 ( 2 ) 51 - 51  1997.10

    CiNii

  • 藍色細菌の kaiten 時計遺伝子群の遺伝学的相互作用および産物蛋白質間の相互作用

    岩崎 秀雄, 近藤 孝男, 沓名 伸介, 石浦 正寛

    日本時間生物学会会誌: Journal of Chronobiology   3 ( 2 ) 52 - 52  1997.10

    CiNii

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Awards

  • Excellent Prize of Japan Media Arts Festival

    2019.06  

    Winner: IWASAKI, Hideo

  • Good Design Award

    2017  

    Winner: Biolab, BioClub Shibuya

  • 日本ゲノム微生物学会研究奨励賞

    2011  

    Winner: 岩崎 秀雄

  • 文部科学大臣表彰若手科学者賞

    2008  

    Winner: 岩崎 秀雄

  • Toyota Triennale, Contemporary Art Award

    2004.02  

  • Research Award from Japanese Society for Chronobiology

    2003.09  

  • Inoue Research Award for Young Scientists

    2001  

▼display all

Research Projects

  • ライフ/デス・アートの美学

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(B)

    Project Year :

    2020.04
    -
    2023.03
     

    前川 修, 岩崎 秀雄, 水野 勝仁, 大橋 完太郎, 加須屋 誠, 松谷 容作, 岩城 覚久, 増田 展大

  • 芸術における真正性と同一性の保存 ―リバース・コンサベーションの確立

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(B)

    Project Year :

    2019.04
    -
    2023.03
     

    平 諭一郎, 岩崎 秀雄, 熊澤 弘, 古川 聖, 薩摩 雅登

  • 生けるバイオメディア・アートの保存

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 挑戦的研究(萌芽)

    Project Year :

    2019.06
    -
    2021.03
     

    平 諭一郎, 岩崎 秀雄

  • Temporal metabolic coordination of UV-resistance system via the circadian clock

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Research (Exploratory)

    Project Year :

    2018.06
    -
    2020.03
     

  • アウタースペース/インナースペース/インタースペース・アートの美学

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(B)

    Project Year :

    2017.04
    -
    2020.03
     

    前川 修, 岩崎 秀雄, 古賀 一男, 水野 勝仁, 大橋 完太郎, 森 公一, 松谷 容作, 岩城 覚久, 増田 展大, 真下 武久

     View Summary

    理論研究/事例研究に分けて説明する。
    理論研究:①生命・自然班/②映像班/③知覚・脳科学班のうち、①生命・自然班については、8月開催の研究報告会においてバイオ/メディア/アートの結びつきをめぐり、戦後の言説的系譜を取りまとめ、以後、メディア論を軸にしながら、引き続き最新の言説の整理へ向かう方向と、逆に生物学の起点(19世紀初頭)へ向かう方向の可能性が議論された。②映像班では、同じく8月の報告会で、宇宙映画を素材にしながら無重力を重力下で表象化する方法について議論を行なった。③知覚・脳科学班では、8月の報告会では宇宙服のもたらす知覚の問題について議論をし、3月の報告会では、宇宙空間で視点を喪失する状態から逆に地上での幽体離脱的な反重力的視点を捉え直す議論を行ない、さらに2009年に開催の『宇宙と美術と人体と』展の作家へのインタビューをもとにした報告を素材に議論を進めた。また、本科研メンバーの真下/森によるドローンを使った作品制作の経過報告についても脳科学の観点から意見を交換した。
    なお、生命自然班では、定期的に(年4回)バイオアートとメディア論に関する言説整理と文献消化の作業も行い、その一部を翻訳出版するプランも立ち上がっている。
    事例研究では、8月に早稲田の先端生命医科学センターおよびBioClub、筑波宇宙センターでの調査を行い、それぞれの分担者がオーストラリアのバイオアーティスト、オロン・カッツのラボ視察、アルスエレクトロニカの巡回展、佐賀宇宙科学館などの視察を行い、上記の研究会で意見交換を行った。西オーストラリアのSimbioticAでの学会には岩城・増田がそれぞれバイオアート、スペースアートについて報告を行い、各国の研究者と意見交換を行った。

  • Cyanobacterial strategy for survival under diurnal cycles with the clock system

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)

    Project Year :

    2015.04
    -
    2018.03
     

    Iwasaki Hideo

     View Summary

    The unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus provides an excellent model to study circadian systems. We have demonstrated (i) Hopf bifurcation underlying the in vitro reconstituted KaiC phosphorylation cycle at low temperature, ensuring damped oscillation resonated to external 24-h period cycles, (ii) a damped oscillation in transcriptional regulation even in the absence of KaiA, and (iii) circadian UV-resistance rhythms associated with carbon metabolism.

  • Structure-function studies of bacterial mitoNEET system

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research

    Project Year :

    2014.04
    -
    2016.03
     

    Iwasaki Toshio, KUSANO TERUO, KUMASAKA TAKASHI, IWASAKI HIDEO

     View Summary

    MitoNEET is a novel outer-mitochondrial membrane iron-sulfur protein, recently identified as a potential mitochondrial target that binds pioglitazone, an insulin sensitizer for the treatment of type II diabetes. Recently we constructed a null-deletion mutant strain of Thermus thermophilus lacking TthNEET (the thermophile homolog of mitoNEET), and found a “prokaryotic glucose intolerance” for this delta-TthNEET null strain. In this work, we characterized TthNEET mutant proteins and strains with altered [2Fe-2S] cluster redox potentials by X-ray crystallographic and physiological analyses to better understand the structure-function relationships of this class of proteins, and explored the protein interaction network of TthNEET by monitoring the whole-cell global changes of the Thermus protein components, using pulldown assays and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

  • Design Principle of Cyanoabacterial Colony Pattern Formations

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research

    Project Year :

    2013.04
    -
    2015.03
     

    IWASAKI HIDEO

     View Summary

    Dynamic colony pattern formations in cyanobacteria, espcially in Geitlerinema sp. and Pseudanabaena sp. were studied by combination of microscopic observations, quantitative analysis, mathematical simulations, and molecular genomics.

  • Structure-function of bacterial mitoNEET homologs

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research

    Project Year :

    2012.04
    -
    2014.03
     

    IWASAKI TOSHIO, KUSANO Teruo, KUMASAKA Takashi, IWASAKI Hideo

     View Summary

    MitoNEET is a mammalian mitochondrial outer membrane iron-sulfur protein with a potential pharmacological and clinical target of pioglitazone, an insulin-sensitizer for the treatment of type II diabetes. In this study, we conducted the phenotypal analyses of a deletion strain and several mutant strains of a bacterial mitoNEET homolog (TthNEET) of Thermus thermophilus HB8 in comparison with the wild-type strain, and re-analyzed the available metabolome and microarray datasets of this thermophile. We also obtained the high-resolution X-ray diffraction datasets of mammalian mitoNEET in complex with several drug compounds.

  • Surveillance Study on the Bio-media Art in the Post-genome Age

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)

    Project Year :

    2010.04
    -
    2013.03
     

    KUBOTA Akihiro, IWASAKI Hideo, TAKAHASHI Toru

     View Summary

    Surveillance study on the bio-media art in the post-genome age which can decode genome data on an individual level was performed. The portal site "Bioart.jp" of bio-media art was designed and opened. Joe Davis, the artist called the father of bioart, was invited to Japan, and the workshop etc. were held. Three exhibitions were held in the last year, and the book and the catalog were published.

  • ポストゲノム時代におけるバイオメディア芸術の調査研究

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 特別研究員奨励費

    Project Year :

    2011
    -
    2012
     

    岩崎 秀雄, CASTRO JuanM.

     View Summary

    1.生命情報科学とデザインアートに関する研究については、2012年4月にオーストラリアのWester nAustralia大学のSymbioticA(バイオ・アート・センター)とコラボレーションした。その目的は、日本のバイオアートを紹介し、アートと生物の融合、可能性を模索することであり、その結果はオーストラリアで発表した。
    2.生命科学技術を援用するバイオメディアアートの動向に関する調査研究については、生物のバイオマテリアル(生きている細胞)とリボソーム及びタンパク質等の人工細胞(soft interfaces)の研究を行い、バイオアートの可能性を追求した。研究結果については、学会発表で論文発表を行い、そのうち2本の論文は学会誌掲載。
    3.日本におけるバイオアートの展開に関する調査研究については、芸術と生物学の接点がよりよく理解される為に外国と国内で学会発表を積極的で行った。その目的は、社会に対してバイオアートの言語、技術、概念を説明し、また海外に対して日本におけるバイオアートの現状と可能性を提示するものであった0
    4.生命情報アートの可能性の模索に関しては、2012年度にベルギー、オーストラリア、カナダ、ロシア、2013年度に日本、イタリアで、アートとバイオテクノロジーの分野でのプレゼンテーションをした。

  • Mechanism of transcriptional rhythms independent of the kai clock genes in cyanoabcteria.

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research

    Project Year :

    2011
    -
    2012
     

    IWASAKI Hideo

     View Summary

    We identified triple mutations in specific set of transcriptional regulators affect dramatically the expression of kai-less-oscillating (klo) genes in Synechococcus. In the wild type strain, the klo genes did not show evident circadian cycles, while in the multiple mutant strains, they expressed in a circadian fashion.

  • Circadian clock mediated environmental adaptation dynamics in cyanobacteria

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (A)

    Project Year :

    2011
    -
    2012
     

    IWASAKI Hideo

     View Summary

    We demonstrated in Synechococcus the presence of circadian transcriptional regulation even without de novo transcription/translation of clock genes in the dark conditions. Moreover, we identified a response regulator gene, rpaB, as an important regulator of clock gene expression. In the multicellular cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, we described basic circadian transcriptomic profiles and revealed the presence of circadian transcription rhythms in heterocysts.

  • 時計遺伝子発現を伴わない原核生物の概日転写制御と光周的遺伝子発現

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 挑戦的萌芽研究

    Project Year :

    2010
     
     
     

    岩崎 秀雄

     View Summary

    目的:
    単細胞性シアノバクテリアは概日リズムを示す最も単純な生物群である。申請者は連続明条件下におけるゲノムワイドな転写リズムを示すが,夜間には時計遺伝子を含むほとんどのmRNAが直ちに分解されるダイナミックなゲノム発現動態を明らかにした。このことから,シアノバクテリアの概日時計は暗期中で転写を制御しないと考えられたが,最近一部の暗誘導遺伝子群の暗誘導に時刻依存性,時計遺伝子依存性が見られた。このことは,従来真核生物にのみ想定されていた概日時計を介する光周的な遺伝子発現が,原核生物においても存在することを初めて示している。さらに,暗期中でも減衰振動発現を示す遺伝子を発見し,時計遺伝子の転写が停止する夜間においても概日時計が転写を調節できることが明らかになった。本研究では,これらの解析を踏まえ,シアノバクテリアの明暗応答と概日応答の統合的制御の分子機構を解明することを目的とした。
    このため,とくに時計遺伝子kaiABCの転写翻訳が停止する暗期中で,digA遺伝子など少数の遺伝子群が概日転写振動(ただし減衰振動)を示すことに着目し,この発現パターンがシグマ因子に依存することを明らかにした(投稿中)。また,レポーターの作成も試みたが,暗期特有のマスキングがかかっているためか,あるいはレポーター蛋白質が発現しにくいためか暗誘導の転写レポーター作成には至っておらず,今後の課題として残った。いっぽう,その過程で時計遺伝子の概日発現の一細胞観測に成功し,コロニー内での位相の差(ばらつき)を確認した。

  • Circadian adaptation dynamics of cyanobacterial genome

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)

    Project Year :

    2008
    -
    2010
     

    IWASAKI Hideo

     View Summary

    Based on microarray analysis combined with molecular genetics, we revealed that more than one third of genes on the genome exhibit significant circadian transcription rhythms with peaking at either subjective dawn or dusk under continuous light conditions. When cells were transferred to the dark, most of gene expression was dramatically suppressed and gave rise to serious discrepancy between transcriptomic and proteomic profiles. Moreover, we found less than 8% of genes on the genome were induced even in the dark, and most of them were under the control of the Kai proteins. Since the kai gene mRNAs were rapidly lost in the dark, our observation revealed the first example of clock-controlled transcription without de novo clock gene expression.

  • 一細胞観測系による多細胞性シアノバクテリアの時空間パターン形成の解析

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 萌芽研究

    Project Year :

    2007
    -
    2008
     

    岩崎 秀雄

     View Summary

    本研究は,多細胞性シアノバクテリアAnabaena sp.PCC7120の窒素欠乏下における細胞分化(ヘテロシスト分化)・パターン形成のダイナミクスを明らかにするための観測操作系の確立を目指すものであった。その前提として,まず顕微鏡下で培養しつつ,分化誘導を行い,その様子(明視野像,光合成活性,遺伝子発現パターン)をタイムラプス観測するための同時多点同時モニタリング系をほぼ確立し,ヘテロシスト分化に関わる細胞系譜解析を行った。その結果,窒素欠乏処理直後の光合成活性,細胞分化の中枢遺伝子であるhetR遺伝子の初期のばらつきと,最初にヘテロシストを生み出すことになる細胞の位置には相関はなく,窒素欠乏処理直後の細胞のばらつきが後々直接の影響を及ぼしているわけではないことが示唆された。実際,hetR発現パターンの推移を詳しく観察することで,hetR発現強度には一過的な増減が多く観察されること,細胞分裂が揺らぎの一端を担っていることなどが確認された。
    さらに一細胞レベルで分化誘導実験を行うことで,パターン形成ダイナミクスの摂動実験を行うことが本研究計画の主要なテーマであった。そこで,MEMS(micro-electro mechanical system)技術を用い,複雑な流路を備えたPDMS-ガラスを素材とするマイクロデバイスを何パターンか作製した。とくに空気バルブを多用し,流路の切り替えを実現したPDMS-ガラスデバイスを作製した。かなり複雑な構成にしてしまったために,デバイスに脆弱な点もあり改善の余地が残ったが,従来にない微小空間流路培養系が確立し,デバイス内での通常の細胞分化を確認することが出来た。今後は,今回作製したデバイスを用い,分化誘導をきたす2-oxoglutarateを局所的に投与する実験を開始する予定である。

  • 構成的アプローチによる概日振動ネットワークの解明

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 特定領域研究

    Project Year :

    2006
    -
    2007
     

    松本 顕, 岩崎 秀雄

     View Summary

    真核生物型の概日振動遺伝子ネットワークの再構成に関しては、昨年に引き続き、再構成された短周期振動に影響を与えるパラメータセットの同定を目指した。さらに、新たな周期解析方法を導入して統計的な解析も行った。培地を高栄養なものに変え、フィードバックループを始動する際にpositive因子の発現誘導を短時間にすると、12時間を越えるような長周期振動が観察された。また、positive因子とnegative因子の挙動を波長の異なるルシフェラーゼを用いて同時モニターできる系を開発し、両者の振動がほぼ同位相であることを見出した。これは理論的な予想とは反する結果であった。この他、ハイスループットな実験系の確立を目指し、96ウェルマイクロプレートリーダーの導入を行い、観察系の細胞密度が低い場合に明瞭な振動が出やすいことを見出した。細胞毎に振動の周期・位相・振幅が異なるため集団レベルで同調した観察結果が得られにくかったのだと推測している。
    原核生物型の概日振動分子ネットワークの再構成に関しては、昨年度に引き続き、大腸菌へのkai遺伝子群(シアノバクテリアの時計遺伝子群)の移植実験を行った。今回はkaiAとkaiBCを独立に制御することで、さまざまな発現比での動態を追った。その結果、培養条件(細胞増殖速度)依存的にリン酸化上昇・脱リン酸化促進ダイナミクスが得られており、条件検討によってはリン酸化振動の再構成は可能であると思われるが、実現には至らなかった。一方、時刻情報を遺伝子発現に変換するSasA-RpaA系の大腸菌に移植してもKaiCによるリン酸化ジレーの変化は観察できなかった。リン酸化の一過的な変化などについては興味深い観察結果も得られたので論文にまとめた(Int.J.Bioinf.Res. Appl., 印刷中)。

  • シアノバクテリアの概日振動発生における転写翻訳制御機能の解析

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 若手研究(A)

    Project Year :

    2005
    -
    2007
     

    岩崎 秀雄

     View Summary

    シアノバクテリアの時計蛋白質KaiA, KaiB, KaiCを適当な濃度比でin vitroで混合することで,24時間周期のKaiCリン酸化の概日リズムを再溝成することができる。しかし,実際の細胞は,細胞分裂・増殖に伴う細胞内外のノイズ外乱のために,in vitroのようなstaticな場ではない。シアノバクテリアでは,増殖条件でのみ,kai遺伝子を含む大多数の遺伝子の転写翻訳リズムが観察されるが,kai遺伝子の転写振動は,コアの蛋白質振動ループの安定化に寄与している可能性が考えられる。この検証には転写翻訳ループ(すなわち時計遺伝子自体の転写リズム)のある条件と無い条件を再構成して,そのリン酸化振動の安定性解析をすればよい。そこで,概日リズムを示さない細胞として大腸菌に対し,kaiAもしくはkaiBCを,trcプロモーターもしくはbadプロモーターに連結した形質転換体を複数ヴァージョン作製し,KaiC蛋白質の量的変動・リン酸化の経時変化を検討した。その結果,さまざまな条件下でリン酸化プロファイルの変動に相違が見られた(Tozakiら,論文印刷中)。ただし,当面の目標は,大腸菌内でリン酸化振動を再構成することであるが,いまだ成功していない。理由としては,Kai蛋白質群の大腸菌内での発現量が,振動可能な範囲を逸脱していること,大腸菌内の細胞環境がシアノバクテリアのそれとは異なる可能性などが考えられる。
    さらに,マイクロアレイを用いた概日発現および明暗応答プロファイルの解析を続け,連続明条件下における発現位相が,明暗サイクル下でのそれと多くの場合乖離すること,比較的少数にとどまる暗誘導遺伝子群が,実際に蛋白質レベルでも誘導を受けること,例外的ではあったが,連続明条件下,高振幅で周期的に発現するnon-coding RNAが存在することなどを明らかにした。

  • Temporal integration of cellular system by circadian clock in cyanobacteria

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Creative Scientific Research

    Project Year :

    2003
    -
    2007
     

    KONDO Takao, IWASAKI Hideo, OYAMA Tokitaka

     View Summary

    In the cyanobacterium, Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, three genes (kaiA, kaiB and kaiC) code essential components of the circadian clock, and negative feedback regulation of kaiBC expression by Kai proteins was confirmed and proposed as a core loop of prokaryotic circadian oscillator. However, it would be difficult to explain the key feature of circadian oscillation, that is, about 24-hour periodicity and its stability, by the feedback model of clock gene expression. To address this question, we developed DNA-chips and bioluminescence reporter strain for all transcripts and elucidated basic feature of global regulation of transcription by Kai proteins.
    Recently, by studying kaiC phosphorylation in continuous darkm conditions, we found robust circadian cycling of kaiC phosphorylation even without kaiBC mRNA accumulation. Moreover, by incubating kaiC with kaiA, kaiB, and ATP, we found the self-sustainable circadian oscillation of kaiC phosphorylation. The in vitro oscillation of kaiC phosphorylation persisted for at least three cycles and the period was compensated against temperature change. These results demonstrate that the oscillation of kaiC phosphorylation is the primary pacemaker of the cyanobacterial circadian clock. We further analyzed the in vitro kaiC phosphorylation cycle and found that extraordinarily weak (16 ATP/day/kaiC) but temperature-compensated ATPase activity of kaiC is a key reaction in defining the circadian period.

  • シアノバクテリアの概日振動系の大腸菌での再構成

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 萌芽研究

    Project Year :

    2005
    -
    2006
     

    岩崎 秀雄

     View Summary

    私たちは,シアノバクテリアでは概日リズム発生の主要因が転写翻訳フィードバックではないことを最近明らかにした(Tomtia et al.2005)。さらに,in vitroではKaiA, KaiB, KaiCの三者でKaiCのリン酸化振動に十分であることを示した(Nakajima et al.2005)。本研究では,このリン酸化振動を大腸菌に移植できるかどうかを試み,さらに人工的な入出力系を付与出来るかどうかを試すことが主要目的である。
    いまのところ,誘導性プロモーターの下流にkai遺伝子群を組み込み,大腸菌株に導入したが,まだリン酸化振動の再構成には成功していない。しかしながら,出力系のデザインのため,KaiC結合ヒスチジンキナーゼSasAのパートナーとなる応答因子の探索を行い,有力な候補SyelRR16を得た。sasA同様,syelRR16欠失株においても転写リズムは著しく減衰した。興味深いことに,SasAの自己リン酸化ならびにSyelRR16へのリン酸基転移反応は,KaiCのリン酸化リズムの程度に応じて顕著に変化することが明らかになった。SyelRR16は典型的なOmpR型DNA結合蛋白質であることから,KaiABC蛋白質による翻訳後修飾レベルの基本振動が,SasA->SyelRR16のリン酸化リレーと介して転写調節に変換されることが強く示唆された。このシステムを用いれば,Kai振動をSasA->SyelRR16を介して下流遺伝子発現に変換し,自由に振動系を調節出来る可能性がある。

  • 概日振動系のin vitro再構成系の開発に向けた実験・理論的解析

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 特定領域研究

    Project Year :

    2005
     
     
     

    岩崎 秀雄, 松本 顕

     View Summary

    シアノバクテリアの時計蛋白質KaiA,KaiB,KaiCの組替え蛋白質をATPと試験管内で混合してインキュベートすることでKaiCのリン酸化の概日振動がin vitroで発生することを示した(Science,2005)。このことは,生物リズムの新しい展開を約束するだけでなく,新たな蛋白質機能を発見したという意味で蛋白質科学,新たな長周期振動発生機構の発見という意味で動的物理化学(非線形科学),数理生物学に画期的な材料を提供し,さらにその反応が極めて遅く,ATP消費も極端に少ないことから,ある種の新規機能性材料開発にも示唆を与えうる可能性がある。理論モデルについては,複数の理論系研究グループと共同研究を行い,実験系と理論系の研究者の相互乗り入れを図った。これらの研究成果は,現在投稿中である(Miyoshi et al.,submitted to BMC Bioinformatics ; Kurosawa et al. submitted to Biophysical J)。
    真核生物型のキメラ蛋白質を用いた,人工振動ネットワークの形成(担当・松本)については,キメラ蛋白質の分解速度,プロモーター活性の強弱,培養条件などを振り,いわゆる「inhibitor-activator系」を用いたモデルを取り入れることによって,いくつかの周期発現振動を開発することに成功した。現在,早稲田大学から,博士研究員が松本研究室に出向し,ショウジョウバエ培養細胞の取り扱いや基本的な技術を習得しつつある。岩崎グループでは,現在-細胞レベルの発光・蛍光長期モニタリングシステムを構築しつつあり,より精度の高い遺伝子発現の挙動や揺らぎの観測・制御を目指す予定である。

  • Biochemical functions of a cyanobacterial clock protein KaiC

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)

    Project Year :

    2003
    -
    2004
     

    IWASAKI Hideo, KONDO Takao

     View Summary

    Circadian rhythms are endogenous oscillations with a period of 〜24 h and observed from bacteria to higher plants and mammals. A dogmatic model has been believed in any model organisms that circadian oscillations are driven by an autoregulatory transcription/translation feedback loops. However, we recently broke this 'Central Dogma in circadian clock research' in cyanobacteria.
    Cyabacteria are the simplest organisms known to show circadian rhythms. In the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus, almost all gene promoter activities show circadian rhythms. Such transcriptional rhythms require three clock genes, kaiA, kaiB are kaiC. KaiC shows circadian change in its phosphorylation state. We found in continuous dark conditions that the KaiC phosphorylation cycle sustained even after all clock gene transcripts disappeared and de novo transcription and translation were abolished in the presence of excess transcription/translation inhibitors.
    KaiC has both autophosphorylation and autodephosphorylation activities that are modified by KaiA and KaiB. KaiA, KaiB and C proteins form transient complexes during a circadian cycle. Thus, we proposed that a protein dynamics among the three Kai proteins is the core of circadian timing mechanism in cyanobacteria. Indeed, we succeeded in reconstitution of circadian oscillation of KaiC phosphorylation in vitro by incubating the three Kai proteins with ATP.

  • Comprehensive study on transcriptional network system in the photoautotrophic cyanobacteria Synechococcusstrains

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas

    Project Year :

    2001
    -
    2004
     

    SUGITA Mamoru, OMATA Tatsuo, IWASAKI Hideo

     View Summary

    (1) The entire genome of a unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 6301, was sequenced. The genome consisted of a circular chromosome 2,696,255 bp long. A total of 2525 potential protein-encoding genes, two sets of rRNA genes, 45 tRNA genes representing 42 tRNA species and several genes, for small structural RNAs were assigned to the chromosome. Thirty-seven genes for the proteins involved in two-component regulatory system were also annotated. Ten percent of all the protein genes lacked significant similarity to genes for predicted proteins in the public, indicating the genes unique to Synechococcus PCC6301. We constructed high-density DNA microarrays (Affimetrix Gene Chip) of Synechococcus PCC6301 as a tool for comprehensive analysis of transcriptional network in cyanobacteria.
    (2) We identified three genes responsible for the latent transport activity for nitrate: ltnA, which encodes a response regulator with no effector domain; ltnB, which encodes a hybrid histidine kinase with two receiver domains; and ltnT, which encodes a sulfate permease-like protein with a putative cyclic nucleoside monophosphate (cNMP)-binding domain.
    (3) Circadian clock of cyanobacteria was considered to be composed of negative feedback regulation of kaiBC expression. We demonstrated that KaiC phosphorylation state oscillated even without kaiBC messenger RNA accumulation under continuous dark conditions. Moreover, kinetic profiles in the ratio of KaiC autophosphorylation-dephosphorylation were also temperature compensated in vitro. Thus, the cyanobacterial clock can keep time independent of de novo transcription and translation processes. Furthermore, we have reconstituted the self-sustainable oscillation of KaiC phosphorylation in vitro. The period of the in vitro oscillation was stable and the circadian periods observed in vivo in KaiC mutant strains were consistent with those measured in vitro.

  • Kai時計遺伝子の分子遺伝学的解析による概日振動の発生機構の解明

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 特定領域研究

    Project Year :

    2002
    -
    2003
     

    近藤 孝男, 小山 時隆, 岩崎 秀雄, 石浦 正寛

     View Summary

    シアノバクテリアの概日振動は時計蛋白質KaiCによるkaiBCプロモーターのフィードバック制御を骨格として発生していると考えられている(Ishiura et al. 1998)。この様式は真核生物の時計モデルと共通であるが、これまでのところ、真核生物の様に時計遺伝子の上流領域に対するKaiCの特異的な制御は確認されていない。そこで、シアノバクテリアの概日システムの特徴を裏付けている機構を探るべく、解析を行ない、以下の結果を得た。1)KaiCの過剰発現はkaiBCプロモーターのみならずすべてのプロモーターのリズム成分だけを選択的に抑制する。2)kaiBC欠損株において、大腸菌由来のプロモーターによりkaiCBを発現させた場合でも、発現レベルを調整すると、ほぼ完全な概日振動を回復することが出来た。従って、シアノバクテリアではKaiCは遺伝子発現の包括的制御を行っており、細胞の遺伝子発現を包括的に制御するとともに、概日振動の発生を実現していると考えられる。これを裏付けるためシアノバクテリアのKaiC蛋白質の細胞内の時計蛋白質の分布を調べ、KaiC蛋白質は膜画分と核様体に多く存在することを明らかにし,さらにKaiCのDNA結合能についても詳細な生化学データが蓄積しつつある。

  • Phosphorylation in the cyanobacterial circadian clock

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)

    Project Year :

    2002
    -
    2003
     

    IWASAKI Hideo, KONDO Takao

     View Summary

    Circadian rhythms have been observed in many organisms at a variety of physiological processes. Cyanobacteria are the simplest organisms to exhibit circadian rhythms, and provide a well-established molecular genetic and physiological model system. In the current study, we revealed that a master clock element protein, KaiC, exhibits autokinase/autophosphatase activities, which are dramatically modified by associating clock proteins, KaiA and KaiB. Relationship among circadian dynamics of protein-protein interactions among clock proteins, phosphorylation of KaiC and their cellular localization will be a basis for further functional analyses on the mechanism to generate circadian rhythms in the prokaryote.

  • 藍色細菌の生物時計遺伝子群の解析

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 特別研究員奨励費

    Project Year :

    1998
    -
    1999
     

    岩崎 秀雄

  • 概日時計を介する明暗サイクル下でのシアノバクテリアの生存戦略

    科学研究費助成事業(早稲田大学)  科学研究費助成事業(基盤研究(B))

  • Kai時計遺伝子の分子遺伝学的解析による概日振動の発生機構の解明

    科学研究費助成事業(名古屋大学)  科学研究費助成事業(特定領域研究(B))

  • Phosphorylation in the cyanobacterial circadian clock

  • Comprehensive study on transcriptional network system in the photoautotrophic cyanobacteria Synechococcusstrains

  • Temporal integration of cellular system by circadian clock in cyanobacteria

  • Biochemical functions of a cyanobacterial clock protein KaiC

  • 概日振動系のin vitro再構成系の開発に向けた実験・理論的解析

    科学研究費助成事業(名古屋大学)  科学研究費助成事業(特定領域研究)

  • シアノバクテリアの概日振動系の大腸菌での再構成

    科学研究費助成事業(名古屋大学)  科学研究費助成事業(萌芽研究)

  • シアノバクテリアの概日振動発生における転写翻訳制御機能の解析

    科学研究費助成事業(名古屋大学)  科学研究費助成事業(若手研究(A))

  • 構成的アプローチによる概日振動ネットワークの解明

    科学研究費助成事業(九州大学)  科学研究費助成事業(特定領域研究)

  • 一細胞観測系による多細胞性シアノバクテリアの時空間パターン形成の解析

    科学研究費助成事業(早稲田大学)  科学研究費助成事業(萌芽研究)

  • Circadian adaptation dynamics of cyanobacterial genome

  • 時計遺伝子発現を伴わない原核生物の概日転写制御と光周的遺伝子発現

    科学研究費助成事業(早稲田大学)  科学研究費助成事業(挑戦的萌芽研究)

  • Surveillance Study on the Bio-media Art in the Post-genome Age

  • Circadian clock mediated environmental adaptation dynamics in cyanobacteria

  • Mechanism of transcriptional rhythms independent of the kai clock genes in cyanoabcteria.

  • Structure-function of bacterial mitoNEET homologs

  • シアノバクテリアのマクロなコロニーパターンの構築原理

    科学研究費助成事業(早稲田大学)  科学研究費助成事業(挑戦的萌芽研究)

  • 科学技術振興機構・CREST(分担研究者)

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Presentations

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Specific Research

  • シアノバクテリアの生化学振動子による概日転写制御機構の解析

    2021  

     View Summary

    金尚宏博士、深田吉孝教授らとの共同研究により、種を超えた概日システムの共通の制御分子としてCa2+/Na+交換輸送体を見出した。私たちはシアノバクテリアでの解析を担当し、この輸送体遺伝子の欠損株が概日遺伝子発現リズムの周期長や位相を見出し、特に温度補償性を低下させることを見出し、米国オンライン総合科学誌Science Advに掲載された。また、特徴的な概日転写パターンを示す一群の遺伝子に関してそのcis/transエレメントの解析を試みた。

  • 古典的時計遺伝子kaiAを欠く減衰型概日リズムの発振メカニズムと生理的意義

    2018   河本尚大

     View Summary

    シアノバクテリアSynechococcuselongatus PCC7942の概日時計は時計タンパク質KaiA, KaiB, KaiCからなり,これら三つの蛋白質とATPをインキュベートすることでKaiCのリン酸化振動を試験管内で再構成できる。このことから,三種類のKai蛋白質は「生物時計の最小構成単位」として広く認知されている。しかし,私たちは,必須の時計因子と考えられてきたKaiAの機能欠損株においても, kaiBC遺伝子発現(プロモーター活性)に減衰型の振動が再現よく見られることを発見した。2018年度は,この減衰振動の分子メカニズムを検討するうえで,Kai蛋白質の性質を踏まえるべくKaiA存在下および非存在下でのKai蛋白質複合体形成能に関してin vivoとin vitroで解析した。

  • シアノバクテリアの巨大渦状コロニー形成の分子機構と数理的理解

    2017  

     View Summary

    私たちは,糸状性シアノバクテリアGeitlerinemaが,環境に依存してサイズの異なる二種類の巨大な渦状コロニーを自己組織的に形成する現象を発見した。このダイナミクスを解析するため,定量的な細胞・コロニーの時間発展パターンの観察と解析を行って定性的なコロニーパターン発生モデルを提案し,数理モデルと計算機シミュレーションを行った。さらに分子遺伝学的な解析を試みるため,既に形質転換系が確立しているLeptolyngbyaを用いてGeitlerinemaの形態変異の相同原因遺伝子の解析を進めた。

  • シアノバクテリアの概日明暗応答ダイナミクスの統合的解析

    2014  

     View Summary

    シアノバクテリアSynechococcus elongatusPCC 7942を材料に,主として明-&gt;暗切り替えに伴う大規模なゲノムワイドな転写パターンの相転移(ほとんどの遺伝子発現が直ちに停止し,総mRNA量が劇的に低下する)のメカニズムの解析を行った。その結果,当初はこの現象は光合成の停止に伴うATPの枯渇によってもたらされる受動的な影響と考えられていたのに対し,むしろエネルギー消費を積極的に行う能動的プロセスであることを明らかにした。

  • シアノバクテリアの概日システムの統合的解析

    2013  

     View Summary

    研究成果概要 本研究は,単細胞性および多細胞性シアノバクテリアを用いて,概日システムと光同調性,ゲノムワイドな概日発現リズムに関する基本的な性質を解析するものであり,以下に述べる4点に大きな進展を見た。1. 転写翻訳フィードバック様式と光同調に関する解析:単細胞性シアノバクテリアSynechococcus elongatus PCC 7942は,連続明条件下(増殖時)ではゲノムワイドな転写リズムを誘導するが,連続暗条件下では時計遺伝子群kaiABCを含む大部分の転写翻訳が停止する。この条件や,転写・翻訳阻害剤を過剰に投与した条件においても,KaiC蛋白質のリン酸化振動が持続する(Science, 2005a)。さらに,時計蛋白質(KaiA, KaiB, KaiC)をATPとインキュベートするだけで, KaiCのリン酸化振動を試験管内で再構成できる(Science, 2005b)。 いっぽう,kai遺伝子群は連続明条件では顕著な発現振動を呈し,転写翻訳フィードバックが二次的に動作していることが分かっている。もし,中心振動子が翻訳後修飾レベルの事例振動であるとすれば,シアノバクテリアのこの転写翻訳フィードバックは何らかの機能を担っていないのであろうか。概日時計は明暗サイクルに同調するため,一定時間以上の暗期により,位相の調整(同調)が起こらねばならない。私たちは,明期に駆動される時計遺伝子群の周期的な発現変化が,暗パルスに対する時計の同調に時刻依存的な影響を強く及ぼしていることを示し,新たな光同調機構の存在を示した。すなわち,シアノバクテリアの時計の光同調には、翻訳後修飾レベルで生じる生化学的なKaiCリン酸化反応のリズムと,その振動状態を周期的に変化させる転写・翻訳フィードバック・ループの双方が密接に関連していることを初めて明らかにした。この成果をHosokawa et al. (2013)としてPNAS誌に発表した。2. 時計遺伝子kaiAとゲノムワイドな発現調節の関連についての解析:kaiAの過剰発現株では,kaiBC遺伝子を含め,主観的黄昏時にピークを持つ概日発現遺伝子の発現が軒並み活性化されること,逆に主観的明け方にピークを持つ概日発現遺伝子群の発現が著しく低下することをマイクロアレイ解析により明らかにした。つまり,kaiA過剰発現株は,事実上時計が主観的黄昏時で時計が停止した表現型を呈する。この我々の研究と,kaiA過剰発現株における外来遺伝子発現解析の結果を,Xu et al. (2013)としてCurr. Biol.誌に発表した。3.KaiCリン酸化振動を欠く変異株における入出力系の解析:KaiCの二か所のリン酸化部位(Ser431,Thr432)をグルタミン酸に置換したkaiCEE株では,リン酸化リズムは消失するが,約48時間の長大な周期のkaiC転写リズムが駆動されるが,そのメカニズムは明らかではない。そこで,このリン酸化リズム消失変異株の概日振動子と概日入出力特性を解析することで,概日システムにおけるKaiCリン酸化リズムの機能を解析した。まず,マイクロアレイを用いて,kaiCEE株の転写制御解析を試みたところ,意外にも安定かつ顕著な長周期リズムを観察することが出来た。KaiC蛋白質は,従来そのリン酸化状態の変化を,申請者が発見した二成分情報伝達系因子SasA-RpaA(Cell 2000; PNAS 2006)に直接相互作用することを介して,時刻情報をリン酸化リレーとして伝達すると考えられてきた。しかし,上記の結果は,その時刻情報伝達にKaiCのリン酸化サイクルが必ずしも必須でない可能性を示唆する。さらに,kaiCEE株における時刻依存的な位相応答や,暗期中の計時機構に関する解析とともに,その転写振動の安定性を評価するための温度補償性の解析を行った。その結果,野生株に比べて著しい位相応答を示すほか,この株が連続培養条件下で著しく明瞭な転写リズムを示すこと,そして明瞭な温度補償性を示すことを示し,Umetani et al. (2014)としてJ. Bacteriol.誌に発表した。4.多細胞性シアノバクテリアにおける概日システム解析: 従来,概日時計と発生・分化の高次クロストークの研究は高等生物に限定されていたが,窒素欠乏下で窒素固定に特化したヘテロシストを分化する多細胞性シアノバクテリアAnabaena sp. PCC 7120は,両者の関わりを解析するもっとも単純で強力な系となる可能性が高い。そこで解析を行ったところ,単細胞性では最も高い振幅を誇るkaiBC遺伝子発現リズムはAnabaenaでは殆ど観察できなかったが,ゲノムワイドな転写リズムのプロファイル,kai遺伝子欠損株における転写リズムの停止などを確認した。さらに,ヘテロシスト内は,酸化還元状態,酸素分圧など,細胞内環境が光合成細胞と著しく異なるが,窒素欠乏下,ヘテロシストでのみ特異的に高振幅で発現振動する遺伝子群を発見し,ヘテロシスト分化における概日振動の役割を解析する端緒を得た。これらの成果は,Kushige (2013)として,J.Bacteriol.誌に発表した。

  • シアノバクテリアの形態形成原理の解明とバイオメディア芸術への展開

    2011  

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    A. 多細胞性シアノバクテリアの時間パターン(概日システム)の解析: 細胞分化パターニングを示す糸状性シアノバクテリアAnabaena における概日システムの解析を行った。マイクロアレイ解析を複数回行い、単細胞性シアノバクテリアとは,時計遺伝子の発現パターンや概日発現遺伝子群の発現位相分布に大きな違いがみられることを明らかにした。さらに、そこから二つの高振幅概日発現遺伝子群を抽出し、バクテリアルルシフェラーゼ遺伝子を用いた生物発光レポーター株を作製し、リアルタイムモニタリングを行うことで詳細な概日発現リズムの状態を解析することができ、連続明条件下における周期の温度補償性や暗パルスに対する光位相応答を確認した。B. シアノバクテリアの細胞分化パターニングの解析: Anabaena の細胞分化の中枢遺伝子hetR, patS は,確証されたわけではないが,転写因子および,その活性を阻害するオリゴペプチドをコードする。自己活性化ループと自己抑制がカップリングし,抑制因子が拡散性というTuring モデルが当てはまりそうだが,妥当性は検討されていない。そこで,顕微鏡下での連続培養観測系を立ち上げ,バクテリアでは世界初となる細胞分化系譜を構築し,位置情報の決定が初期値依存的ではなく,細胞間相互作用を介して動的に決定されることを明らかにした(PLoSONE,2009)。この成果を踏まえ,マイクロデバイス工学を援用した微小流路を用い,特定の分化制御・パターン制御遺伝子候補を局所的に発現させたり,分化誘導に重要な影響を与える代謝産物などを添加できる系を構築することを目標とし、複数のデザインのデバイスを用いて解析を行った。その結果、細胞フィラメントの流路への導入には成功するが、デバイス内での成長阻害が見られており、まだ詳細な解析には至っていない。今後引き続き検討する必要がある。C. シアノバクテリアのコロニー・パターン形成の解析: 申請者が西早稲田キャンパスの池から単離した、複雑なコロニーパターンを形成する2種(Pseuanabaena, Geitlerinema)を対象とし、これらのパターンがどのようなプロセスと原理で生成するのかを解析した。まず、さまざまな環境条件下での運動パターンの定量的な観測を行い,モルフォロジーダイアグラムの構築を行った。その結果、Geitlerinemaは比較的安定な集団軌道を自律的に形成し、特徴的な渦状コロニーを形成するのに対し、Pseudanabaenaはバンドル状、円盤状、彗星状の三つの形態を動的に遷移しながら複雑かつ流動的に多様なコロニーパターンを形成することを見いだし、それらの動的パターンの定量的な解析を進めた。D. シアノバクテリアを用いたバイオメディア・アートの試み: シアノバクテリアのパターン形成・運動過程を長期間撮影することで得られる映像に加え,細胞を用いた絵画・彫刻表現や,電気回路との接続による新たな形式のメディア芸術の展開を図った。この際,科学者・芸術家の双方にとって新しいこと(サイエンスとアートが未分化であり,双方を相補的に展開できること),ときとしてファインアートにおける造形行為を相対化する側面を持つこと,科学と芸術の境界面を鋭くえぐり出すものであること,新たな規範的な造形美の可能性を追求すること,をコンセプトとし、さまざまな作品を発表することが出来た。2010 年度はオーストリア・リンツにおいて個展およびライトアートビエンナーレへの招待展示、オランダ・ハーグにおけるオランダ国際ビエンナーレにおける招待展示を行った。2011年度はTokyo Designers Weekに多摩美術大学、慶應義塾大学SFCとの共同でバイオアートに関する展示、また岡本太郎生誕100周年記念展(岡本太郎美術館)での大規模な作品の展示を行い、多くの注目を集めた。metaPhorestと呼ばれる、生命論に興味を持つ芸術家たちがアーティスト・イン・レジデンス的に研究室に集うプラットフォームを本格化されることで、国内外でも有数の生命美学の拠点の一つを形成しつつあると考えている。岩崎は、さらに2010年に米国NSF+英国ESPRCの主宰で実現した、合成生物学に関わる芸術・デザインの国際プロジェクトSynthetic Aestheticsのメンバー(約400名の応募中12名)に選ばれ、生命美学に関するオーストラリアのアーティストとの共同プロジェクトを開始した。

  • 一細胞操作系の開発による多細胞性シアノバクテリアのパターン形成原理の解明

    2009  

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    多細胞性シアノバクテリアAnabaena sp. PCC 7120は、窒素欠乏条件下でヘテロシストと呼ばれる細胞を、およそ10細胞に一つの割合で分化する。ヘテロシストは窒素固定に特化した細胞である。光合成によって生じる酸素に対して感受性があり、不可逆的に機能損傷を受ける窒素固定酵素が発現し、光合成系機能が抑制される。このヘテロシスト分化は、多細胞体制に見られる最も単純な秩序だった分化パターン(形態形成)の優れた研究モデルであり、分子遺伝学的解析から分化促進因子HetR、分化抑制因子PatSなど、多くの関連制御因子群が同定されてきた。 私たちは、これらの発生分化パターンの一細胞レベルでの動態を観察するため、蛍光顕微鏡と高感度の冷却CCDカメラを用いて詳細なタイムラプス解析を行い、バクテリアの細胞系譜解析を実現した。また、hetR遺伝子発現動態をリアルタイムで観察し、細胞系譜と合わせて詳細に解析した。その結果、細胞分化パターニングは、pre-deterministicに決っているのではなく、細胞間相互作用を伴って動的に運命決定されていくこと、細胞分裂を阻害しても、等間隔の細胞分化パターンを維持できることなどを見いだした。これは、細胞分裂が分化に決定的な役割を果たすとの先行研究でのモデルを覆す重要な知見である。 また、私たちは単細胞性シアノバクテリアを用いた概日リズムの研究で、さまざまな解析を行ってきた。その経験を踏まえ、Anabaenaにおける概日リズムの解析に着手し、概日リズムの発現に必須なkai遺伝子の相同遺伝子群の欠損株の作成や、ゲノムワイドな概日発現リズムを探索するためのマイクロアレイ解析を行った。マイクロアレイ解析についても今後さらに解析が必要であるが、単細胞性シアノバクテリアで得られた結果とは異なり、kai遺伝子の発現リズムがそれほど明確ではないこと、にもかかわらず一部の遺伝子の発現は高振幅リズムを示すことが分かってきた。また、kai遺伝子破壊株では、一部の概日発現遺伝子の発現リズムの異常が観察されたが、再現性を確認することが必要である。

  • シアノバクテリアを用いた細胞分化の構成的研究

    2005  

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    多細胞性シアノバクテリアのモデル種としてAnabaena PCC 7120の細胞分化の中枢遺伝子の一つhetR,patSは,それぞれ転写因子およびその転写調節因子をコードしている。HetRは自身の転写の促進因子であり,patSの転写も促進する。いっぽう,PatSは拡散性のオリゴペプチドで,HetRの働きを抑制し,ネガティブフィードバックを生み出す。したがって,自己活性化ループと自己抑制ループのカップリングしたネットワークを含む,さらに抑制因子が拡散性であるようなネットワークであり,そのままTuring patternによる固定波形成ネットワーク・モデルに妥当している。当初は,この遺伝子ネットワークを異種生物である大腸菌に組み込み,大腸菌をテストチューブとして遺伝子機能やそのダイナミクスを解析することを目標とした。 そこで,まず大腸菌にhetRオペロンとpatSを遺伝子導入し,転写レベルの発現活性化・抑制を再現出来るかをチェックした。この際,レポーターとしてバクテリアルシフェラーゼを用い,遺伝子発現の経時変化のリアルタイムモニターを行ったが,発光を確認できず,hetRオペレーターは大腸菌では働かないことが明らかになった。 そこで,現実のシアノバクテリアにおけるhetRの遺伝子発現のリアルタイムモニタリング系の構築のほうが重要であると判断し,蛍光顕微鏡観察条件下で連続的にバクテリアを長期培養・遺伝子発現モニタリングできる系の開発に成功した。これにより,バクテリアの発生に関する細胞系譜を初めて取得することに成功した。 これらの成果は,バクテリアを用いた形態形成の研究を飛躍的に向上させるものとして,国際的にも大きなインパクトを与えつつある。

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