Updated on 2022/08/17

写真a

 
HINO, Yasushi
 
Affiliation
Faculty of Letters, Arts and Sciences, School of Humanities and Social Sciences
Job title
Professor

Concurrent Post

  • Faculty of Letters, Arts and Sciences   Graduate School of Letters, Arts and Sciences

Degree

  • The University of Western Ontario (Canada)   Ph.D. in Psychology

Professional Memberships

  •  
     
     

    Japanese Psychological Association

  •  
     
     

    American Psychological Association

  •  
     
     

    Psychonomic Society

 

Research Areas

  • Experimental psychology

Research Interests

  • Cognitive Psychology, Psycholinguistics

Papers

  • Orthographic properties of distractors do influence phonological Stroop effects: Evidence from Japanese Romaji distractors.

    Masahiro Yoshihara, Mariko Nakayama, Rinus G Verdonschot, Yasushi Hino, Stephen J Lupker

    Memory & cognition   49 ( 3 ) 600 - 612  2021.04  [International journal]

     View Summary

    In attempting to understand mental processes, it is important to use a task that appropriately reflects the underlying processes being investigated. Recently, Verdonschot and Kinoshita (Memory & Cognition, 46, 410-425, 2018) proposed that a variant of the Stroop task-the "phonological Stroop task"-might be a suitable tool for investigating speech production. The major advantage of this task is that the task is apparently not affected by the orthographic properties of the stimuli, unlike other, commonly used, tasks (e.g., associative-cuing and word-reading tasks). The viability of this proposal was examined in the present experiments by manipulating the script types of Japanese distractors. For Romaji distractors (e.g., "kushi"), color-naming responses were faster when the initial phoneme was shared between the color name and the distractor than when the initial phonemes were different, thereby showing a phoneme-based phonological Stroop effect (Experiment 1). In contrast, no such effect was observed when the same distractors were presented in Katakana (e.g., "くし"), replicating Verdonschot and Kinoshita's original results (Experiment 2). A phoneme-based effect was again found when the Katakana distractors used in Verdonschot and Kinoshita's original study were transcribed and presented in Romaji (Experiment 3). Because the observation of a phonemic effect directly depended on the orthographic properties of the distractor stimuli, we conclude that the phonological Stroop task is also susceptible to orthographic influences.

    DOI PubMed

  • The origins of backward priming effects in logographic scripts for four-character words

    Huilan Yang, Yasushi Hino, Jingjun Chen, Masahiro Yoshihara, Mariko Nakayama, Junyi Xue, Stephen J. Lupker

    Journal of Memory and Language   113   104107 - 104107  2020.08

    DOI

  • The influence of orthography on speech production: Evidence from masked priming in word-naming and picture-naming tasks.

    Masahiro Yoshihara, Mariko Nakayama, Rinus G Verdonschot, Yasushi Hino

    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition   46 ( 8 ) 1570 - 1589  2020.08  [International journal]

     View Summary

    In a masked priming word-naming task, a facilitation due to the initial-segmental sound overlap for 2-character kanji prime-target pairs was affected by certain orthographic properties (Yoshihara, Nakayama, Verdonschot, & Hino, 2017). That is, the facilitation that was due to the initial mora overlap occurred only when the mora was the whole pronunciation of their initial kanji characters (i.e., match pairs; e.g., /ka-se.ki/- /ka-rjo.ku/). When the shared initial mora was only a part of the kanji characters' readings, however, there was no facilitation (i.e., mismatch pairs; e.g., /ha.tu-a.N/- /ha.ku-bu.tu/). In the present study, we used a masked priming picture-naming task to investigate whether the previous results were relevant only when the orthography of targets is visually presented. In Experiment 1, the main findings of our word-naming task were fully replicated in a picture-naming task. In Experiments 2 and 3, the absence of facilitation for the mismatch pairs were confirmed with a new set of stimuli. On the other hand, a significant facilitation was observed for the match pairs that shared the 2 initial morae (in Experiment 4), which was again consistent with the results of our word-naming study. These results suggest that the orthographic properties constrain the phonological expression of masked priming for kanji words across 2 tasks that are likely to differ in how phonology is retrieved. Specifically, we propose that orthography of a word is activated online and constrains the phonological encoding processes in these tasks. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

    DOI PubMed

  • The Phonological Unit of Japanese Kanji Compounds: A Masked Priming Investigation

    Masahiro Yoshihara, Mariko Nakayama, Rinus G. Verdonschot, Yasushi Hino

    JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-HUMAN PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE   43 ( 7 ) 1303 - 1328  2017.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Using the masked priming paradigm, we examined which phonological unit is used when naming Kanji compounds. Although the phonological unit in the Japanese language has been suggested to be the mora, Experiment 1 found no priming for mora-related Kanji prime-target pairs. In Experiment 2, significant priming was only found when Kanji pairs shared the whole sound of their initial Kanji characters. Nevertheless, when the same Kanji pairs used in Experiment 2 were transcribed into Kana, significant mora priming was observed in Experiment 3. In Experiment 4, matching the syllable structure and pitch-accent of the initial Kanji characters did not lead to mora priming, ruling out potential alternative explanations for the earlier absence of the effect. A significant mora priming effect was observed, however, when the shared initial mora constituted the whole sound of their initial Kanji characters in Experiments 5. Lastly, these results were replicated in Experiment 6. Overall, these results indicate that the phonological unit involved when naming Kanji compounds is not the mora but the whole sound of each Kanji character. We discuss how different phonological units may be involved when processing Kanji and Kana words as well as the implications for theories dealing with language production processes.

    DOI

  • Phonological-Orthographic Consistency for Japanese Words and Its Impact on Visual and Auditory Word Recognition

    Yasushi Hino, Yuu Kusunose, Shinobu Miyamura, Stephen J. Lupker

    JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-HUMAN PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE   43 ( 1 ) 126 - 146  2017.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In most models of word processing, the degrees of consistency in the mappings between orthographic, phonological, and semantic representations are hypothesized to affect reading time. Following Hino, Miyamura, and Lupker's (2011) examination of the orthographic-phonological (O-P) and orthographic-semantic (O-S) consistency for 1,114 Japanese words (339 katakana and 775 kanji words), in the present research, we initially attempted to measure the phonological-orthographic (P-O) consistency for those same words. In contrast to the O-P and O-S consistencies, which were equivalent for kanji and katakana words, the P-O relationships were much more inconsistent for the kanji words than for the katakana words. The impact of kanji words' P-O consistency was then examined in both visual and auditory word recognition tasks. Although there was no effect of P-O consistency in the standard visual lexical-decision task, significant effects were detected in a lexical-decision task with auditory stimuli, in a perceptual identification task using masked visual stimuli, and in a lexical-decision task with degraded visual stimuli. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of the impact of P-O consistency in auditory and visual word recognition.

    DOI

  • Phonological-Orthographic Consistency for Japanese Words and Its Impact on Visual and Auditory Word Recognition

    Yasushi Hino, Yuu Kusunose, Shinobu Miyamura, Stephen J. Lupker

    JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-HUMAN PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE   43 ( 1 ) 126 - 146  2017.01

     View Summary

    In most models of word processing, the degrees of consistency in the mappings between orthographic, phonological, and semantic representations are hypothesized to affect reading time. Following Hino, Miyamura, and Lupker's (2011) examination of the orthographic-phonological (O-P) and orthographic-semantic (O-S) consistency for 1,114 Japanese words (339 katakana and 775 kanji words), in the present research, we initially attempted to measure the phonological-orthographic (P-O) consistency for those same words. In contrast to the O-P and O-S consistencies, which were equivalent for kanji and katakana words, the P-O relationships were much more inconsistent for the kanji words than for the katakana words. The impact of kanji words' P-O consistency was then examined in both visual and auditory word recognition tasks. Although there was no effect of P-O consistency in the standard visual lexical-decision task, significant effects were detected in a lexical-decision task with auditory stimuli, in a perceptual identification task using masked visual stimuli, and in a lexical-decision task with degraded visual stimuli. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of the impact of P-O consistency in auditory and visual word recognition.

    DOI

  • Masked semantic priming effects from the prime's orthographic neighbours

    Yuu Kusunose, Yasushi Hino, Stephen J. Lupker

    JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY   28 ( 3 ) 275 - 296  2016.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The present research involved masked priming lexical decision experiments using, in the crucial condition, masked primes with an orthographic neighbour that was semantically related to the target. Regardless of the lexicality of the prime, a significant priming effect was observed when the relatedness proportion (RP, that is, the proportion of primes and targets that were directly related on the "word" trials) was 2/3 (Experiments 1 and 2). No effect emerged, however, when the RP was 0 (Experiment 3). These results indicate that lexical/semantic activation arises automatically for both the prime and its neighbours. This activated lexical/semantic information appears to be evaluated together with the lexical/semantic information activated by the target, creating a decision bias during the decision-making process, but only when that information often provides a clue as to the nature of the correct decision. Our results, therefore, also provide support for the retrospective account of masked semantic priming.

    DOI

  • 仮名・漢字表記語の性質と読みのプロセス

    日野泰志

    立命館文学 藤健一教授退職記念論集   641   165 - 181  2015.03

  • Cross-script phonological priming with Japanese Kanji primes and English targets

    Eriko Ando, Debra Jared, Mariko Nakayama, Yasushi Hino

    JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY   26 ( 8 ) 853 - 870  2014.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Two experiments investigated whether Japanese-English bilinguals have integrated phonological stores for their two languages using a masked phonological priming task with Japanese Kanji (logographic) primes and English targets. In both experiments, lexical decisions for English target words were facilitated by phonologically similar Kanji primes. Furthermore, the size of the phonological priming effect was uninfluenced by the participants' English proficiency or target word frequency, which suggests that the priming effect arose from feedback from sublexical phonological representations to lexical orthographic representations. Because of the orthographic and phonological differences between Japanese and English, these findings provide particularly strong support for the Bilingual Interactive Activation (BIA+) model's assumption that representations are integrated across languages.

    DOI

  • Do Masked Orthographic Neighbor Primes Facilitate or Inhibit the Processing of Kanji Compound Words?

    Mariko Nakayama, Christopher R. Sears, Yasushi Hino, Stephen J. Lupker

    JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-HUMAN PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE   40 ( 2 ) 813 - 840  2014.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In the masked priming paradigm, when a word target is primed by a higher frequency neighbor (e.g., blue-BLUR), lexical decision latencies are slower than when the same word is primed by an unrelated word of equivalent frequency (e.g., care-BLUR). This inhibitory neighbor priming effect (e.g., Davis & Lupker, 2006; Segui & Grainger, 1990) is taken as evidence for the lexical competition process that is an important component of localist activation-based models of visual word recognition (Davis, 2003; Grainger & Jacobs, 1996; McClelland & Rumelhart, 1981). The present research looked for evidence of an inhibitory neighbor priming effect using words written in Japanese Kanji, a logographic, nonalphabetic script. In 4 experiments (Experiments 1A, 1B, 3A, and 3B), inhibitory neighbor priming effects were observed for low-frequency targets primed by higher frequency Kanji word neighbors In contrast, there was a significant facilitation effect when targets were primed by Kanji nonword neighbors (Experiments 2 and 3). Significant facilitation was also observed when targets were primed by single constituent Kanji characters (Experiment 4). Taken together, these results suggest that lexical competition plays a role in the recognition of Kanji words, just as it does for words in alphabetic languages. However, in Kanji, and likely in other logographic languages, the effect of lexical competition appears to be counteracted by facilitory morphological priming due to the repetition of a morphological unit in the prime and target (i.e., in Kanji, each character represents a morpheme).

    DOI

  • Effects of orthographic-phonological consistency and on/kun-readings in the naming of Japanese kanji words

    IDA Keisuke, YOSHIHARA Masahiro, XUE Junyi, KUSUNOSE Yuu, SATO Hitomi, HINO Yasushi

    NINCHISHINRIGAKUKENKYU   11 ( 2 ) 117 - 126  2014

     View Summary

    In order to examine whether naming performance for Japanese kanji words is determined by the degree of orthographic–phonological consistency at the kanji character level or by the type of readings for the constituent kanji characters (on readings versus kun readings), naming performance was compared for on-reading and kun-reading two-character kanji words with matched orthographic–phonological consistencies in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, naming performance was compared for kun-reading single-character kanji words with higher and lower on-reading ratios. In Experiment 1, naming performance was comparable for the on-reading and kun-reading words. In Experiment 2, naming responses were faster for kanji characters with lower on-reading ratios than for those with higher on-reading ratios. These results clearly suggested that naming performance for kanji words is modulated by the degree of orthographic–phonological consistency but not by the type of readings possessed by the constituent kanji characters.

    CiNii

  • Word length effects for kana and kanji words in lexical decision tasks

    KUSUNOSE Yuu, YOSHIHARA Masahiro, IDA Keisuke, XUE Junyi, IJUIN Mutsuo, HINO Yasushi

    NINCHISHINRIGAKUKENKYU   11 ( 2 ) 105 - 115  2014

     View Summary

    Using the lexical decision task, we compare task performance for three- versus four-character katakana words and two- versus three-character kanji words. While no length effect was observed for katakana words, a significant effect was observed for kanji words, such that lexical decision latencies were longer for three-character kanji words than for two-character kanji words. This effect was observed even when orthographic neighborhood sizes were matched across the two kanji-word groups. Because the kanji words are compound words, but the katakana words are mono-morphemic words, the observation of a length effect only for kanji words may indicate that the effect is due to the difference in the number of morphemes. Assuming morphological decomposition for kanji compound words, the constituent morphemes would have to be recombined to access to whole-word representations. Thus, the length effect could arise within the recombination process because three-character kanji compounds have more complicated morphological structures than two-character kanji compounds. As such, the present results suggest that the nature of reading process is highly dependent on the morphological structure that a word possesses.

    CiNii

  • 語彙判断課題における仮名・漢字表記語の語長効果

    楠瀬悠, 吉原将大, 井田佳祐, 薛俊毅, 伊集院睦雄, 日野泰志

    認知心理学研究   11   105 - 115  2014

  • 漢字語の命名における形態-音韻対応の一貫性及び音・訓読の効果

    井田佳祐, 吉原将大, 薛俊毅, 楠瀬悠, 佐藤ひとみ, 日野泰志

    認知心理学研究   11   117 - 126  2014

  • Masked homophone priming effects for Kanji compound words

    KUSUNOSE Yuu, NAKAYAMA Mariko, HINO Yasushi

    NINCHISHINRIGAKUKENKYU   11 ( 1 ) 11 - 19  2013

     View Summary

    According to the orthographic depth hypothesis, automatic phonological activation is not assumed when reading deep orthographies. However, some previous studies have suggested the possibility of automatic phonological activation even for deep orthographies, such as Chinese and Japanese Kanji words. In order to examine whether automatic phonological activation arises when reading Kanji words, this study attempts to examine whether a priming effect can be observed for homophonic Kanji word pairs using lexical decision task with masked primes. Significant homophone priming effects are observed using two different sets of stimulus pairs. Thus, in contrast to the orthographic depth hypothesis, these results clearly indicate that phonological activation automatically arises when reading Kanji compound words.

    DOI CiNii

  • The processing advantage and disadvantage for homophones in lexical decision tasks

    Yasushi Hino, Yuu Kusunose, Stephen J. Lupker, Debra Jared

    Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition   39 ( 2 ) 529 - 551  2013

     View Summary

    Studies using the lexical decision task with English stimuli have demonstrated that homophones are responded to more slowly than nonhomophonic controls. In contrast, several studies using Chinese stimuli have shown that homophones are responded to more rapidly than nonhomophonic controls. In an attempt to better understand the impact of homophony, we investigated homophone effects for Japanese kanji words in a lexical decision task. The results indicated that, whereas a processing disadvantage emerged for homophones when they have only a single homophonic mate (as in the English experiments), a processing advantage occurred for homophones when they have multiple homophonic mates (as in the Chinese experiments). On the basis of these results, we discuss the nature of the processes that may be responsible for producing the processing advantages and disadvantages for homophones. © 2012 American Psychological Association.

    DOI PubMed

  • 漢字熟語におけるマスク下の同音語プライミング効果

    楠瀬悠, 中山真里子, 日野泰志

    認知心理学研究   11 ( 1 ) 11 - 19  2013

     View Summary

    According to the orthographic depth hypothesis, automatic phonological activation is not assumed when reading deep orthographies. However, some previous studies have suggested the possibility of automatic phonological activation even for deep orthographies, such as Chinese and Japanese Kanji words. In order to examine whether automatic phonological activation arises when reading Kanji words, this study attempts to examine whether a priming effect can be observed for homophonic Kanji word pairs using lexical decision task with masked primes. Significant homophone priming effects are observed using two different sets of stimulus pairs. Thus, in contrast to the orthographic depth hypothesis, these results clearly indicate that phonological activation automatically arises when reading Kanji compound words.

    DOI CiNii

  • Masked translation priming with Japanese-English bilinguals: Interactions between cognate status, target frequency and L2 proficiency

    Mariko Nakayama, Christopher R. Sears, Yasushi Hino, Stephen J. Lupker

    European Journal of Cognitive Psychology   25 ( 8 ) 949 - 981  2013

     View Summary

    Masked translation priming effects were examined for Japanese-English bilinguals using both cognate and noncognate translation equivalents. In Experiment 1, L1 primes and L2 targets were used to examine translation priming effects as a function of target frequency and bilinguals' L2 proficiency. Translation priming effects for cognates were significantly larger than for noncognates, replicating the cognate priming advantage previously reported with different-script bilinguals. In addition, translation priming effects were significantly larger for low- than for high-frequency targets and for less- than for more-proficient bilinguals, whereas the size of the cognate priming advantage was unaffected by either target frequency or L2 proficiency. In Experiment 2, cognate translation priming effects were tested in the L2-L1 direction. There was a significant cognate translation priming effect regardless of L2 proficiency. These results are consistent with the phonological account of the cognate priming advantage, which proposes that cognate translation priming effects are due to the additive effects of phonological and conceptual factors. © 2013 Taylor &amp
    Francis.

    DOI

  • The Role of Orthography in the Semantic Activation of Neighbors

    Yasushi Hino, Stephen J. Lupker, Tamsen E. Taylor

    JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION   38 ( 5 ) 1259 - 1273  2012.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    There is now considerable evidence that a letter string can activate semantic information appropriate to its orthographic neighbors (e.g., Forster & Hector's, 2002, TURPLE effect). This phenomenon is the focus of the present research. Using Japanese words, we examined whether semantic activation of neighbors is driven directly by orthographic similarity alone or whether there is also a role for phonological similarity. In Experiment 1, using a relatedness judgment task in which a Kanji word-Katakana word pair was presented on each trial, an inhibitory effect was observed when the initial Kanji word was related to an orthographic and phonological neighbor of the Katakana word target but not when the initial Kanji word was related to a phonological but not orthographic neighbor of the Katakana word target. This result suggests that phonology plays little, if any, role in the activation of neighbors' semantics when reading familiar words. In Experiment 2, the targets were transcribed into Hiragana, a script they are typically not written in, requiring readers to engage in phonological coding. In that experiment, inhibitory effects were observed in both conditions. This result indicates that phonologically mediated semantic activation of neighbors will emerge when phonological processing is necessary in order to understand a written word (e. g., when that word is transcribed into an unfamiliar script).

    DOI

  • The role of orthography in the semantic activation of neighbors.

    Hino Yasushi, Lupker Stephen J, Taylor Tamsen E

    The role of orthography in the semantic activation of neighbors.   38 ( 5 )  2012

     View Summary

    :There is now considerable evidence that a letter string can activate semantic information appropriate to its orthographic neighbors (e.g., Forster & Hector's, 2002, TURPLE effect). This phenomenon is the focus of the present research. Using Japanese words, we examined whether semantic activation of neighbors is driven directly by orthographic similarity alone or whether there is also a role for phonological similarity. In Experiment 1, using a relatedness judgment task in which a Kanji word-Katakana word pair was presented on each trial, an inhibitory effect was observed when the initial Kanji word was related to an orthographic and phonological neighbor of the Katakana word target but not when the initial Kanji word was related to a phonological but not orthographic neighbor of the Katakana word target. This result suggests that phonology plays little, if any, role in the activation of neighbors' semantics when reading familiar words. In Experiment 2, the targets were transcribed into Hiragana, a script they are typically not written in, requiring readers to engage in phonological coding. In that experiment, inhibitory effects were observed in both conditions. This result indicates that phonologically mediated semantic activation of neighbors will emerge when phonological processing is necessary in order to understand a written word (e.g., when that word is transcribed into an unfamiliar script).

    DOI

  • 語の読みにおける意味符号化

    日野泰志

    川崎惠里子(編著), 認知心理学の新展開:言語と記憶. ナカニシヤ出版:京都     37 - 55  2012

  • カタカナ語の読みにおける形態-音韻間の交互作用

    日野泰志, 楠瀬悠, 中山真里子

    日本語学論説資料第47号(平成22年分)第4分冊. 論説資料保存会: 東京   47 ( 4 ) 210 - 215  2012

  • Cross-script phonological priming for Japanese-English bilinguals: Evidence for integrated phonological representations

    Mariko Nakayama, Christopher R. Sears, Yasushi Hino, Stephen J. Lupker

    LANGUAGE AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES   27 ( 10 ) 1563 - 1583  2012  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Previous masked phonological priming studies with bilinguals whose languages are written in the same script (e.g., Dutch-French bilinguals) strongly suggest that phonological representations for the two languages are integrated, based on the fact that phonological activation created by reading a word in one language facilitates word identification in the other language. The present research examined whether the same is true for different-script bilinguals (Japanese-English bilinguals). In this study, participants made lexical decisions to English targets (e.g., GUIDE) that were primed by three types of masked Japanese primes: cognate translation equivalents (e.g., (sic), /gaido/, guide), phonologically similar but conceptually unrelated words (e.g., (sic), /saido/, side), and phonologically and conceptually unrelated words (e.g., (sic), /koRru/, call). There were significant priming effects for cognate translation primes (94 ms) and phonologically similar primes (30 ms). Whereas the cognate translation priming effect was modulated by target frequency and L2 proficiency, the phonological priming effect was not. Our results suggest that phonological representations for different languages are integrated even if the languages in question use different scripts. The role of phonological activation in bilingual word recognition is discussed.

    DOI

  • The nature of orthographic-phonological and orthographic-semantic relationships for Japanese kana and kanji words

    Yasushi Hino, Shinobu Miyamura, Stephen J. Lupker

    Behavior Research Methods   43 ( 4 ) 1110 - 1151  2011.12

     View Summary

    It is generally assumed that orthographic-phonological (O-P) consistencies are higher for Japanese kana words than for kanji words and that orthographic-semantic (O-S) consistencies are higher for kanji words than for kana words. In order to examine the validity of these assumptions, we attempted to measure the O-P and O-S consistencies for 339 kana words and 775 kanji words. Orthographic neighbors were first generated for each of these words. In order to measure the O-P consistencies of the words, their neighbors were then classified as phonological friends or enemies, based on whether the characters shared with the original word were pronounced the same in the two words. In order to measure the O-S consistencies, the similarity in meaning of each of the neighbors to the original word was rated on a 7-point scale. Based on the ratings, the neighbors were classified as semantic friends or enemies. The results indicated that both the O-P consistencies for kanji words and the O-S consistencies for kana words were greater than previously assumed and that the two scripts were actually quite similar on both types of consistency measures. The implications for the nature of the reading processes for kana and kanji words are discussed. © 2011 Psychonomic Society, Inc.

    DOI PubMed

  • The nature of orthographic-phonological and orthographic-semantic relationships for Japanese kana and kanji words

    Yasushi Hino, Shinobu Miyamura, Stephen J. Lupker

    BEHAVIOR RESEARCH METHODS   43 ( 4 ) 1110 - 1151  2011.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    It is generally assumed that orthographic-phonological (O-P) consistencies are higher for Japanese kana words than for kanji words and that orthographic-semantic (O-S) consistencies are higher for kanji words than for kana words. In order to examine the validity of these assumptions, we attempted to measure the O-P and O-S consistencies for 339 kana words and 775 kanji words. Orthographic neighbors were first generated for each of these words. In order to measure the O-P consistencies of the words, their neighbors were then classified as phonological friends or enemies, based on whether the characters shared with the original word were pronounced the same in the two words. In order to measure the O-S consistencies, the similarity in meaning of each of the neighbors to the original word was rated on a 7-point scale. Based on the ratings, the neighbors were classified as semantic friends or enemies. The results indicated that both the O-P consistencies for kanji words and the O-S consistencies for kana words were greater than previously assumed and that the two scripts were actually quite similar on both types of consistency measures. The implications for the nature of the reading processes for kana and kanji words are discussed.

    DOI

  • Orthographic and phonological neighborhood size effects for Japanese Katakana words in a lexical decision task

    Yasushi Hino, Mariko Nakayama, Shinobu Miyamura, Yuu Kusunose

    Shinrigaku Kenkyu   81 ( 6 ) 569 - 576  2011

     View Summary

    In the present study, we examined the effects of orthographic and phonological neighborhood sizes for Japanese Katakana words using a lexical decision task. Kawakami (2002) reported an inhibitory orthographic neighborhood size effect along with a null phonological neighborhood size effect in his lexical decision tasks. In contrast, Grainger, Muneaux, Farioli, and Ziegler (2005) reported an interaction between orthographic and phonological neighborhood sizes in a lexical decision task. Therefore, we re-examined the effects of orthographic and phonological neighborhood sizes for low-frequency Katakana words in a lexical decision task. Consistent with Grainger et al., we found the interaction between orthographic and phonological neighborhood sizes, indicating that lexical decision performance for Katakana words is modulated by the nature of orthographic-phonological relationships.

    DOI PubMed CiNii

  • The Relatedness-of-Meaning Effect for Ambiguous Words in Lexical-Decision Tasks: When Does Relatedness Matter?

    Yasushi Hino, Yuu Kusunose, Stephen J. Lupker

    CANADIAN JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-REVUE CANADIENNE DE PSYCHOLOGIE EXPERIMENTALE   64 ( 3 ) 180 - 196  2010.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Effects of the number of meanings (NOM) and the relatedness of those meanings (ROM) were examined for Japanese Katakana words using a lexical-decision task In Experiment 1, only a NOM advantage was observed In Experiment 2, the same Katakana words produced a ROM advantage when Kanji words and nonwords were added Because the Kanji nonwords consisted of unrelated characters whereas the Kanji words consisted of related characters, participants may have used the relatedness of activated meanings as a cue in making lexical decisions in this experiment, artificially creating a ROM advantage for Katakana words Consistent with this explanation, no ROM effect for Katakana words was observed in Experiment 3 when the Kanji nonwords consisted of characters with similar (i e. related) meanings These results pose a further challenge to the position that the speed of semantic coding is modulated by ROM for ambiguous words

    DOI

  • The relatedness-of-meaning effect for ambiguous words in lexical-decision tasks: when does relatedness matter?

    Hino Yasushi, Kusunose Yuu, Lupker Stephen J

    The relatedness-of-meaning effect for ambiguous words in lexical-decision tasks: when does relatedness matter?   64 ( 3 )  2010

     View Summary

    :Effects of the number of meanings (NOM) and the relatedness of those meanings (ROM) were examined for Japanese Katakana words using a lexical-decision task. In Experiment 1, only a NOM advantage was observed. In Experiment 2, the same Katakana words produced a ROM advantage when Kanji words and nonwords were added. Because the Kanji nonwords consisted of unrelated characters whereas the Kanji words consisted of related characters, participants may have used the relatedness of activated meanings as a cue in making lexical decisions in this experiment, artificially creating a ROM advantage for Katakana words. Consistent with this explanation, no ROM effect for Katakana words was observed in Experiment 3 when the Kanji nonwords consisted of characters with similar (i.e., related) meanings. These results pose a further challenge to the position that the speed of semantic coding is modulated by ROM for ambiguous words.

    DOI

  • 漢字熟語の音韻符号化

    日野泰志, 楠瀬悠, 中山真里子

    早稲田大学大学院文学研究科紀要   56   19 - 31  2010

  • カタカナ語の読みにおける形態-音韻間の交互作用

    日野泰志, 楠瀬悠, 中山真里子

    早稲田大学大学院文学研究科紀要: 第一分冊   55   5 - 16  2009

  • 言語

    日野泰志

    西本武彦・大藪泰・福沢一吉・越川房子(編著), 現代心理学入門:進化と文化のクロスロード. 川島書店: 東京.     250 - 274  2008

  • Cross-modal repetition priming with homophones provides clues about representation in word recognition system.

    Pexman, P. M, Lupker, S. J, am, Hino, Y

    The Mental Lexicon   2 ( 2 ) 183 - 214  2007

  • Ambiguity and relatedness effects in semantic tasks: Are they due to semantic coding?

    Yasushi Hino, Penny M. Pexman, Stephen J. Lupker

    JOURNAL OF MEMORY AND LANGUAGE   55 ( 2 ) 247 - 273  2006.08  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    According to parallel distributed processing (PDP) models of visual word recognition, the speed of semantic coding is modulated by the nature of the orthographic-to-semantic mappings. Consistent with this idea, an ambiguity disadvantage and a relatedness-of-meaning (ROM) advantage have been reported in some word recognition tasks in which semantic processing is presumed to be required for responding. To further evaluate this idea, we examined ambiguity and ROM effects in lexical decision and semantic categorization tasks. In the lexical decision task, there was an ambiguity advantage but no ROM effect. In the semantic categorization tasks, we used various semantic categories and found a processing time disadvantage for ambiguous words with less related meanings when the decisions were relatively difficult, but observed no effect when the decisions were easier. These results suggest that both the ambiguity disadvantage and the ROM advantage in the semantic categorization tasks are due to decision-making, rather than semantic-coding, processes. The implications of these results for issues concerning the nature of semantic coding and semantic representations are discussed. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Semantic ambiguity and the process of generating meaning from print

    PM Pexman, Y Hino, SJ Lupker

    JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION   30 ( 6 ) 1252 - 1270  2004.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    An ambiguity disadvantage (slower responses for ambiguous words, e.g., bank, than for unambiguous words) has been reported in semantic tasks (L. R. Gottlob, S. D. Goldinger, G. O. Stone, & G. C. Van Orden, 1999; Y. Hino, S. J. Lupker, & P. M. Pexman, 2002; C. D. Piercey & S. Joordens, 2000) and has been attributed to the meaning activation process. The authors tested an alternative explanation: The ambiguity disadvantage arises from the decision-making process in semantic tasks. The authors examined effects of ambiguity on unrelated trials in a relatedness decision task, because these trials are free from response competition created by ambiguous words on related trials. Results showed no ambiguity effect on unrelated trials (Experiments 2, 3c, and 5c) and an ambiguity disadvantage on related trials (Experiments 3a, 3b, 5a, and 5b).

    DOI

  • Masked repetition priming and word frequency effects across different types of Japanese scripts: An examination of the lexical activation account

    Y Hino, SJ Lupker, T Ogawa, CR Sears

    JOURNAL OF MEMORY AND LANGUAGE   48 ( 1 ) 33 - 66  2003.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In these experiments, cross-script masked repetition priming and word frequency effects were examined for Japanese words and nonwords as a function of script familiarity and the nature of the task (lexical decision or naming). In the lexical decision task, masked repetition priming effects were observed only for word targets and those effects were larger for targets presented in an orthographically unfamiliar script than for targets presented in an orthographically familiar script. In contrast, in the naming task, masked repetition priming effects were observed for both word and nonword targets and, for word targets, the repetition priming effects were similar regardless of the orthographic familiarity of the targets. In addition, large word frequency effects were observed when the targets were presented in a familiar script, but the effects were diminished or eliminated when the targets were presented in ail unfamiliar script in both tasks. Implications of these results are discussed in terms of the possible loci of the priming effects in the two tasks. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  • The impact of feedback semantics in visual word recognition: Number-of-features effects in lexical decision and naming tasks

    PM Pexman, SJ Lupker, Y Hino

    PSYCHONOMIC BULLETIN & REVIEW   9 ( 3 ) 542 - 549  2002.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The notion of feedback activation from semantics to both orthography and phonology has recently been used to explain a number of semantic effects in visual word recognition, including polysemy effects (Hino Lupker, 1996; Pexman & Lupker, 1999) and synonym effects (Pecher, 2001). In the present research, we tested an account based on feedback activation by investigating a new semantic variable: number of features (NOF). Words with high NOF (e.g., LION) should activate richer semantic representations than do words with low NOF (e.g., LIME). As a result, the feedback activation from semantics to orthographic and phonological representations should be greater for high-NOF words, which should produce superior lexical decision task (LDT) and naming task performance. The predicted facilitory NOF effects were observed in both LDT and naming.

  • Ambiguity and synonymy effects in lexical decision, naming, and semantic categorization tasks: Interactions between orthography, phonology, and semantics

    Y Hino, SJ Lupker, PM Pexman

    JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION   28 ( 4 ) 686 - 713  2002.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this article, ambiguity and synonymy effects were examined in lexical decision, naming, and semantic categorization tasks. Whereas the typical ambiguity advantage was observed in lexical decision and naming, an ambiguity disadvantage was observed in semantic categorization. In addition, a synonymy effect (slower latencies for words with many synonyms than for words with few synonyms) was observed in lexical decision and naming but not in semantic categorization. These results suggest that (a) an ambiguity disadvantage arises only when a task requires semantic processing, (b) the ambiguity advantage and the synonymy disadvantage in lexical decision and naming are due to semantic feedback, and (c) these effects are determined by the nature of the feedback relationships from semantics to orthography and phonology.

    DOI

  • The impact of feedback semantics in visual word recognition: Number of features effects in lexical decision and naming tasks.

    Pexman, P. M, Lupker, S. J, am, Hino, Y

    Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.     768 - 773  2001

  • Effects of word frequency and spelling-to-sound regularity in naming with and without preceding lexical decision

    Y Hino, SJ Lupker

    JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-HUMAN PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE   26 ( 1 ) 166 - 183  2000.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The effects of word frequency and spelling-to-sound regularity were examined using standard naming, standard lexical-decision, go/no-go naming, and go/no-go lexical-decision tasks. In both the standard and go/no-go naming tasks, tasks requiring phonological coding, a significant Frequency X Regularity interaction was observed. That is, the regularity effect was limited to low-frequency words. In the standard and go/no-go lexical-decision tasks, tasks not requiring phonological coding, no Frequency X Regularity interaction was observed. These results indicate not only that the Frequency X Regularity interaction is a product of phonological coding processes but also that these processes are similar in the standard and go/no-go naming tasks. Results are discussed in terms of the dual-route and the parallel distributed processing frameworks.

  • 漢字と仮名の処理は違うのか:出現頻度効果による検討.

    日野泰志

    失語症研究   20   108 - 114  2000

  • Orthographic neighborhood effects in perceptual identification and semantic categorization tasks: A test of the multiple read-out model

    CR Sears, SJ Lupker, Y Hino

    PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS   61 ( 8 ) 1537 - 1554  1999.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    How should a word's orthographic neighborhood affect perceptual identification and semantic categorization, both of which require a word to be uniquely identified? According to the multiple read-out model (Grainger & Jacobs, 1996), inhibitory neighborhood frequency effects should be observed in these types of tasks, and facilitatory neighborhood size effects should not be. In Experiments 1 and 2 (perceptual identification), these effects were examined as a function of stimulus visibility (i.e., high vs. low visibility) to provide as full a test as possible of the model's predictions. In the high-visibility conditions, words with large neighborhoods were reported less accurately than words with small neighborhoods, but there was no effect of neighborhood frequency (i.e., whether the word had a higher frequency neighbor). In the low-visibility conditions, low-frequency words with large neighborhoods and low-frequency words with higher frequency neighbors showed superior identification performance. In the semantic categorization task (Experiment 3), words with large neighborhoods were responded to more rapidly than words with small neighborhoods, but there was no effect of neighborhood frequency. These results are inconsistent with two of the basic premises of the multiple read-out model-namely, that facilitatory neighborhood size effects are due to a variable response criterion (the Sigma criterion), rather than to lexical selection processes, and that the lexical selection processes themselves produce an inhibitory neighborhood frequency effect (via the M criterion). Instead, the present results, in conjunction with previous findings, suggest that large neighborhoods (and perhaps higher frequency neighbors) do aid lexical selection.

  • Orthographic neighbourhood effects in parallel distributed processing models

    CR Sears, Y Hino, SJ Lupker

    CANADIAN JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-REVUE CANADIENNE DE PSYCHOLOGIE EXPERIMENTALE   53 ( 3 ) 220 - 230  1999.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Recent research in visual word recognition suggests that the speed with which a word is identified is influenced by the reader's knowledge of other, orthographically similar words (Andrews, 1997). In serial-search and activation-based models of word recognition, mental representations of these "orthographic neighbours" of a word are explicitly assumed to play a role in the lexical selection process. Thus, it has been possible to determine the specific predictions that these models make about the effects of orthographic neighbours and to test a number of those predictions empirically. In contrast, the role of orthographic neighbours in parallel distributed processing models (e.g., Plaut, McClelland, Seidenberg, & Patterson, 1996; Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989) is less clear. In this paper, several statistical analyses of error scores from these types of models revealed that low frequency words with large neighbourhoods had lower orthographic, phonological, and cross-entropy error scores than low frequency words with small neighbourhoods; and that low frequency words with higher frequency neighbours had lower error scores than low frequency words without higher frequency neighbours. According to these models then, processing should be more rapid for low frequency words with large neighbourhoods and for low frequency words with higher frequency neighbours.

  • 研究動向紹介:単語認知における語彙情報の検索・変換とPDPネットワーク・モデルの可能性

    日野泰志

    IASAI News, 中京大学人工知能高等研究所   5   7 - 11  1999

  • The effects of word frequency for Japanese kana and Kanji words in naming and lexical decision: Can the dual-route model save the lexical-selection account?

    Y Hino, SJ Lupker

    JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-HUMAN PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE   24 ( 5 ) 1431 - 1453  1998.10  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The effects of word frequency were examined for Japanese Kanji and Katakana words in 6 experiments. The sizes of frequency effects were comparable for Kanji and Katakana words in the standard lexical decision task. In the standard naming task, the frequency effect for Katakana words was significantly smaller than that for Kanji words. These results were consistent with the lexical-selection account of frequency effects offered by dual-route models. Contrary to this account, however, frequency effects were smaller for Katakana words than for Kanji words in go/no-go naming tasks, in which participants were asked to name a stimulus aloud only if it was a word. This Frequency X Script Type interaction was not the result of using a go/no-go task because the interaction disappeared in the go/no-go lexical decision task. These results pose a strong challenge for the lexical-selection account of frequency effects offered by dual-route models.

  • The effects of polysemy for Japanese katakana words

    Y Hino, SJ Lupker, CR Sears, T Ogawa

    READING AND WRITING   10 ( 3-5 ) 395 - 424  1998.10  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In these experiments, the effects of polysemy were examined as a function of word frequency for Japanese katakana words, words which have consistent character-to-sound correspondences. In the lexical decision task, an additive relationship was observed between polysemy and frequency (i.e., polysemy effects were identical for high and low frequency katakana words). In the naming task, although no word frequency effect was observed, there was a significant polysemy effect which, as in the lexical decision task, was identical for high and low frequency words. The implications of these results for conclusions about the loci of polysemy and frequency effects in lexical decision and naming tasks are discussed.

  • The effects of polysemy for Japanese katakana words.

    Hino, Y, Lupker, S. J, Sears, C. R, am, Ogawa, T

    In C. K. Leong & K. Tamaoka (Eds.), Cognitive Processing of the Chinese and the Japanese Languages. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Netherlands.     241 - 270  1998

  • The effects of word association and meaning frequency in a cross-modal lexical decision task: Is the priming due to "semantic" activation?

    Y Hino, SJ Lupker, CR Sears

    CANADIAN JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-REVUE CANADIENNE DE PSYCHOLOGIE EXPERIMENTALE   51 ( 3 ) 195 - 211  1997.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The effects of priming by ambiguous, auditorily presented word primes were examined. In related conditions, primes were followed by either associatively related or semantically related but associatively unrelated targets. When the targets were presented at prime offset (Experiment 1), priming effects were observed only for associatively related targets, independent of meaning frequency (i.e., whether the target was related to the dominant or subordinate meaning of the ambiguous prime). When the targets were presented after a 700 ms delay experiment 2), however, priming effects were observed only for targets related to the prime's dominant meaning, regardless of the nature of the prime-target relation. These results raise the strong possibility that previously reported differences in the nature of priming effects that had been ascribed to meaning frequency might actually be due to differences in associative strength. These results are discussed in terms of Fodor's (1983; 1990) "anti-semantic" modularity view.

  • Effects of polysemy in lexical decision and naming: An alternative to lexical access accounts

    Y Hino, SJ Lupker

    JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-HUMAN PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE   22 ( 6 ) 1331 - 1356  1996.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The effects of polysemy (number of meanings) and word frequency were examined in lexical decision and naming tasks. Polysemy effects were observed in both tasks. In the lexical decision task, high- and low-frequency words produced identical polysemy effects. In the naming task, however, polysemy interacted with frequency, with polysemy effects being limited to low-frequency words. When degraded stimuli were used in both tasks, the interaction appeared not only in naming but also in lexical decision. Because stimulus degradation also produced an effect of spelling-sound regularity in the lexical decision task, the different relationships between polysemy and frequency appear to be due to whether responding was based primarily on orthographic or phonological codes. As such, the effects of polysemy seem to be due to the nature of task-specific processes. An explanation in terms of M. S. Seidenberg and J. L. McClelland's (1989) and D. C. Plaut and J. L. McClelland's (1993) parallel distributed processing models is proposed.

  • NEIGHBORHOOD SIZE AND NEIGHBORHOOD FREQUENCY-EFFECTS IN WORD RECOGNITION

    CR SEARS, Y HINO, SJ LUPKER

    JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-HUMAN PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE   21 ( 4 ) 876 - 900  1995.08  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    What are the effects of a word's orthographic neighborhood on the word recognition process? Andrews (1989) reported that large neighborhoods facilitate lexical access (the neighborhood size effect). Grainger, O'Regan, Jacobs, & Segui (1989) reported that higher frequency neighbors inhibit lexical access (the ''neighborhood frequency effect''). Because neighborhood size and neighborhood frequency typically covary (words with large neighborhoods will usually possess higher frequency neighbors), these findings would seem to contradict one another. In the present study, 6 experiments on the effects of neighborhood size and neighborhood frequency indicated that, at least for low-frequency words, large neighborhoods do facilitate processing. However, the existence of higher frequency neighbors seems to facilitate rather than inhibit processing. The implications of these findings for serial and parallel models of lexical access are discussed.

  • Stimulus quality and strategic change in lexical decision tasks.

    Hino, Y

    中京大学文学部紀要   29   876 - 900  1995

  • 文字の符号化過程における資源依存性について.

    日野泰志, 古賀一男, 間野忠明

    名古屋大学環境医学研究所年報   XL   287 - 290  1989

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Misc

  • Phonological Priming in Japanese-English Bilinguals: Evidence From Lexical Decision and ERP

    Eriko Ando, Debra Jared, Yasushi Hino, Mariko Nakayama, Keisuke Ida

    CANADIAN JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-REVUE CANADIENNE DE PSYCHOLOGIE EXPERIMENTALE   66 ( 4 ) 274 - 274  2012.12

    Research paper, summary (international conference)  

  • When does the cognate advantage arise in masked translation priming?

    Mariko Nakayama, Yasushi Hino, Christopher R. Sears, Stephen J. Lupker

    CANADIAN JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-REVUE CANADIENNE DE PSYCHOLOGIE EXPERIMENTALE   64 ( 4 ) 329 - 329  2010.12

    Research paper, summary (international conference)  

Research Projects

  • 言語障害児・者を対象とした包括的言語検査に基づいた認知神経心理学的評価基準の開発

    Project Year :

    2018.04
    -
    2023.03
     

     View Summary

    刺激素材を作成し、健常児・者を対象とした予備調査を行った。1.発話:まんがの説明 「鶴の恩返し」、「サッカーボール」、「犬の散歩」の3課題の刺激絵の作成し、健常者データの収集を進めている。2.聴覚的理解:単音節・単語 100モーラを録音し標準データを収集している。また、100モーラに雑音をかけて健常者で、異調音でほぼ100%正答する単音節を決定した。単語は4モーラ単語4語1セット、ターゲットは高親密度、高・低心像性を考慮した。語特性として高親密度のみ使用するモーラ数は、4モーラ、各モーラでセットにした。品詞は名詞と動詞で、心像性は高低の両方を考慮した。3.聴覚的理解:文 刺激絵を完成し、刺激音の録音した。Jingyi Zhang先生が作成したサイコパイを使用した。4.発話:名詞呼称 小中学生のデータを取集した。再現性を検討した。5.復唱 ターゲット語は、非語の復唱に合わせて拗音は除外した。非語の復唱課題におけるターゲット語はバイモーラ頻度の低い刺激から選択した。6.音読 ターゲット語は表記妥当性を優先した。基準は、4.3以上。20語作成し、最終的に10語に絞る。漢字単語音読刺激は2種類作成する。一種類は、ひらがな、カタカナの属性に合わせた漢字単語、二種類は、非一貫非典型語(成人用)である。漢字非語音読は一貫性の高いものを選択した。7.発話:名詞呼称、書称 30語程度を選択した。ターゲット語は、名称一致率の高い語を選んだ。刺激絵を作成した。反応時間の基準を2秒、動作説明も2秒を基準とする。小学校1・2年の配当字から選んだ。書称の刺激絵の8つを作成した。呼称の絵も30個作成した。8.書取 漢字単語書取(小学1-2年配当)1・2年配当の漢字から作成した漢字二字熟語のリストから、小学校1・2年の教科書に出てくる語彙を選択した。十分な検討を経て検査項目を確定し、予備調査に入ることができた。 発話:まんが説明では、鶴の恩返し、という誰でも知っている物語とともに、個々のコマを記述することによって談話として成立する課題と最後のコマに至る展開に推論を必要とする課題を開発することができた。また、発話評価として、失語症および言語発達障害の症候に基づく評価項目を作成した。聴覚的理解:単音節・単語・文では、プロのアナウンサーに音響学的に理想的な環境で音源を録音することができた。単音節に関しては標準音源に雑音をかけ健常者で100%正答可能な範囲を特定した。単語はその親密度と心像性の値を明らかにして選択した。単語・文ともテスト実施をプログラム化して、聴覚的理解過程を評価できるようにした。発話:名詞呼称では、広範囲の名詞について小学生、中学生および成人の予備調査データを得ることができ、再現性等に関して十分な統計学的根拠を示すことができる。復唱では、単語・非語ともにバイモーラ頻度を考慮した検査語を選択することができた。音読では、表記妥当性を基準とした基準として目標語を選択した。予備調査結果を解析し、項目案を再検討する。発話:名詞呼称では、失語症データーの収集をはじめる。動作説明の刺激作成を行う。復唱では、失語症者用と小児用に分けるべきか、データに基づいて検討する。音読では、単語および非語について失語症者において特異的な読みの誤りが出現するかどうか検討する。書字では、ターゲット語のカテゴリーについては健常者データ収集後に正答率によって再検討する。予備調査結果に基づいて記録用紙の最終版および検査器具を確定する。そして、最終的なスクリーニング項目を決定する。ヒントの提示法を含む採点法を作成しする。各下位検査の施行法や時間制限についても検討する

  • The impact of orthographic-semantic consistency to morphemic processing for Japanese kanji compounds

    Project Year :

    2018.04
    -
    2023.03
     

  • 漢字熟語の形態素処理と漢字の形態-意味対応の一貫性

    科学研究費助成事業(早稲田大学) 

    Project Year :

    2018.04
    -
    2023.03
     

  • Visual word recognition of Japanese-English bilinguals: Investigation of L2 orthographic processing system and representations

    Project Year :

    2015.04
    -
    2019.03
     

  • The role of phonological information in the reading of Japanese kana and kanji words

    Project Year :

    2012.04
    -
    2017.03
     

     View Summary

    In order to address the issue of whether Japanese kana and kanji words are read differently, I attempted to examine 1) whether automatic phonological activation arises for kana and kanji words, 2) whether different semantic activation routes are used for kana and kanji words, and 3) whether the nature of phonological-orthographic (P-O) relationships is different for kana and kanji words. The results suggested that, for both kana and kanji words, 1) automatic phonological activation arises early in processing and 2) semantic activation arises directly from orthography when the orthographic forms are familiar, whereas semantic activation arises via phonology when the orthographic forms are unfamiliar. When the P-O relationships and the effect of P-O consistency were examined, however, the difference did emerge for kana versus kanji words. These results indicate that P-O consistency must be taken into account when considering the processing difference for kana and kanji words

  • L2 Lexical Representations of Japanese-English bilinguals: a Masked Priming Investigation

    Project Year :

    2012.04
    -
    2015.03
     

     View Summary

    The aim of this research was to investigate bilingual lexicon of different-script bilinguals, focusing on the role of L2 proficiency on the organization of the mental lexicon. The research found that higher L2 proficiency aids the development of automatic connection between L2 orthography to semantics. Higher L2 proficiency also contributed to the development of the phoneme-sized phonological unit in the reading of L2 words. Nevertheless, the acquisition of the phoneme-sized unit was not directly related to higher L2 proficiency per se, but rather, was related to the length of stay in English speaking countries, which is one of the characteristics of high-proficient bilinguals

  • Nature of Semantic and Phonological Coding Processes for Japanese Kana and Kanji Words

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Presentations

  • 仮名・漢字語の聴覚的語彙判断課題における音韻隣接語数の効果

    Presentation date: 2018.10

  • カタカナ語の読みにおける形態素処理プロセス

    Presentation date: 2018.10

  • 日本語を使った意味距離効果の検討

    Presentation date: 2018.09

  • 漢字語とカタカナ語の音韻隣接語数と出現頻度による効果

    楠瀬悠, 日野泰志

    日本心理学会第82回大会  (仙台)  日本心理学会

    Presentation date: 2018.09

  • Processing differences for Japanese kana and kanji words in auditory word recognition

    Hino, Y  [Invited]

    ARWA Annual Conference 2018  (Tsukuba)  Association for Reading and Writing in Asia

    Presentation date: 2018.02

  • The phonological unit of Japanese: Evidence from masked priming using Kanji

    Yoshihara, M, Nakayama, M, Verdonschot, R. G, Hino, Y

    ARWA Annual Conference 2018  (Tsukuba)  Association for Reading and Writing in Asia

    Presentation date: 2018.02

  • Phonological-orthographic consistency effects on orthographic familiarity ratings and lexical decision performance for Japanese kana and kanji words

    Hino, Y, Lupker, S. J, Kusunose, Y

    The 58th Annual Meeting of Psychonomic Society  (Vancouver)  Psychonomic Society

    Presentation date: 2017.11

  • A comparison of Japanese and English feature norms using translation equivalent words

    Matsuki, E, Hino, Y, Matsuki, K, McRae, K

    The 58th Annual Meeting of Psychonomic Society  (Vancouver)  Psychonomic Society

    Presentation date: 2017.11

  • The phonological unit of Japanese kanji words revisited: Evidence from picture naming

    Yoshihara, M, Nakayama, M, Verdonschot, R. G, Hino, Y

    The 58th annual meeting of Psychonomic Society  (Vancouver)  Psychonomic Society

    Presentation date: 2017.11

  • ローマ字表記語の音読におけるMasked Onset Priming Effect

    吉原将大, 日野泰志

    日本心理学会第81回大会  (福岡)  日本心理学会

    Presentation date: 2017.09

  • 再認課題におけるマスク下の反復プライミング効果

    井田佳祐

    日本心理学会第81回大会  (福岡)  日本心理学会

    Presentation date: 2017.09

  • 仮名語と漢字語の処理差 ~音韻-形態対応の一貫性による検討~

    日野泰志  [Invited]

    第20回認知神経心理学研究会  (東京)  認知神経心理学研究会

    Presentation date: 2017.08

  • The phonological unit of Japanese kanji words

    Yoshihara, M, Nakayama, M, Verdonschot, R. G, Hino, Y

    57th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society  (Boston, MA) 

    Presentation date: 2016.11

  • Is there lexical competition in the recognition of L2 words for different-script bilinguals?

    Nakayama, M, Lupker, S. J, Hino, Y

    57th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society  (Boston, MA) 

    Presentation date: 2016.11

  • Effects of semantic activation for orthographic and phonological neighbors in the reading of Japanese kanji words

    Kusunose, Y, Hino, Y, Ida, K, Lupker, S. J

    57th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society  (Boston, MA) 

    Presentation date: 2016.11

  • The semantic activation route when reading Japanese kanji words

    Kusunose, Y, Hino, Y

    第19回認知神経心理学研究会  (Hiroshima) 

    Presentation date: 2016.08

  • The influence of consistency on the masked character-sound priming effects for Japanese kanji compounds

    Yoshihara, M, Hino, Y

    第19回認知神経心理学研究会  (Hiroshima) 

    Presentation date: 2016.08

  • Nature of bilinguals’ word recognition for high- and low-proficient bilinguals

    Ida, K, Nakayama, M, Hino, Y

    第19回認知神経心理学研究会  (Hiroshima) 

    Presentation date: 2016.08

  • Effects of family size and character length for kanji compounds.

    Hino, Y, Mizukoshi, R, Yoshihara, M, Ida, K, Xue, J  [Invited]

    (Hiroshima) 

    Presentation date: 2016.08

  • Masked homophone priming effects for Japanese Kanji words: Evidence from ERPs

    Ida, K, Kida, T, Hino, Y

    Pre-Psychonomics Tucson-in-Chicago Conference 2015  (Chicago) 

    Presentation date: 2015.11

  • Feedback consistency effects for Japanese Kanji words in auditory and visual tasks.

    Hino, Y, Kusunose, Y, Lupker, S. J

    56th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society  (Chicago) 

    Presentation date: 2015.11

  • 漢字熟語の音読における語頭音プライミング効果.

    吉原将大, 中山真里子, 日野泰志

    日本心理学会第79回大会  (名古屋) 

    Presentation date: 2015.09

  • 語彙判断課題における漢字三字熟語のファミリーサイズ効果.

    水越陸太, 吉原将大, 井田佳祐, 薛俊毅, 楠瀬悠, 日野泰志

    日本心理学会第79回大会  (名古屋) 

    Presentation date: 2015.09

  • 日英バイリンガルの英語力上達による語彙表象の変化の検証.

    井田佳祐, 中山真里子, 日野泰志

    日本心理学会第79回大会  (名古屋) 

    Presentation date: 2015.09

  • 隣接語の意味活性化による漢字語の意味検索経路.

    楠瀬悠, 日野泰志

    日本心理学会第79回大会  (名古屋) 

    Presentation date: 2015.09

  • 語彙判断課題における漢字語の音韻-形態対応の一貫性効果.

    日野泰志, 楠瀬悠

    日本心理学会第79回大会  (名古屋) 

    Presentation date: 2015.09

  • 漢字熟語の読みにおいて音韻活性化は生じるか:事象関連電位による検討.

    井田佳祐, 木田哲夫, 日野泰志

    第18回認知神経心理学研究会  (東京) 

    Presentation date: 2015.08

  • 漢字三字熟語の出現頻度に対するファミリーサイズの効果の検討.

    水越陸太, 吉原将大, 薛俊毅, 井田佳祐, 松木祐馬, 瀧川諒子, 日野泰志

    第18回認知神経心理学研究会  (東京) 

    Presentation date: 2015.08

  • 漢字熟語における促音化と音韻表象の性質.

    薛俊毅, 日野泰志

    第18回認知神経心理学研究会  (東京) 

    Presentation date: 2015.08

  • 漢字熟語の音読における処理単位.

    吉原将大, 中山真里子, 日野泰志

    第18回認知神経心理学研究会  (東京) 

    Presentation date: 2015.08

  • How is TURPLE effect modulated by word frequency of orthographic neighbors?

    55th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society 

    Presentation date: 2014.11

  • 漢字熟語の音読における基本単位

    日本心理学会第78回大会 

    Presentation date: 2014.09

  • 漢字表記語の読みにおける音韻活性化

    日本心理学会第78回大会 

    Presentation date: 2014.09

  • 仮名・漢字表記語の音韻−形態間の対応関係の性質

    日本心理学会第78回大会 

    Presentation date: 2014.09

  • The word frequency of orthographic neighbors and the lexicality of targets modulate the turple effect

    2014 East Asia Joint Symposium on Reading and Spelling (EARAS) 

    Presentation date: 2014.02

  • 漢字語命名における形態−音韻対応の一貫性及び音・訓読の効果

    日本心理学会第77回大会 

    Presentation date: 2013.09

  • 語彙判断課題における漢字表記語の語長効果

    日本心理学会第77回大会 

    Presentation date: 2013.09

  • 語彙判断課題における漢字熟語の形態素構造による効果

    日本心理学会第77回大会 

    Presentation date: 2013.09

  • Masked translation priming with Japanese-English Bilinguals: Interactions between cognate status, target frequency and L2 proficiency.

    53rd Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society 

    Presentation date: 2012.11

  • The processing advantage and disadvantage for homophones in lexical decision tasks.

    53rd Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society 

    Presentation date: 2012.11

  • 語彙判断課題における同音語の促進効果と抑制効果

    日本心理学会第76回大会 

    Presentation date: 2012.09

  • カタカナ語音読における一貫性効果の検討

    第15回認知神経心理学研究会, 東京. 

    Presentation date: 2012.08

  • "Turple Effect"は出現頻度に規定されるか〜視覚的単語認知における形態隣接語の意味活性化と出現頻度効果〜

    第15回認知神経心理学研究会, 東京. 

    Presentation date: 2012.08

  • マスク下及び非マスク下の自動的意味的プライミング

    第15回認知神経心理学研究会, 東京. 

    Presentation date: 2012.08

  • 仮名・漢字表記語の形態—音韻対応及び形態—意味対応の性質と読みの処理

    第15回認知神経心理学研究会, 東京. スペシャル・セッションⅠ:漢字仮名問題再考 

    Presentation date: 2012.08

  • Interlingual phonological priming in Japanese-English bilinguals.

    41st Annual Meeting of L.O.V.E. conference. 

    Presentation date: 2012.02

  • Cross-script phonological and cognate translation priming effects for Japanese-English bilinguals.

    The 52nd Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society 

    Presentation date: 2011.11

  • 文字と意味との対応に関する一貫性と意味計算効率

    日本心理学会第75回大会 

    Presentation date: 2011.09

  • 漢字二字熟語を用いた音韻プライミング

    日本心理学会第75回大会 

    Presentation date: 2011.09

  • Word frequency effects in semantic categorization tasks

    Pre-Psychonomics Visual Word Recognition Mini-Conference 

    Presentation date: 2010.11

  • The role of orthography in the semantic activation of neighbors.

    The 51st Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society 

    Presentation date: 2010.11

  • When does the cognate advantage arise in masked translation priming?

    The 20th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Society for Brain Behaviour and Cognitive Science 

    Presentation date: 2010.06

  • Masked priming with Japanese-English bilinguals: Effects of cognatestatus, target frequency, and L2 proficiency.

    The 50th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society 

    Presentation date: 2009.11

  • Nature of orthographic-phonological and orthographic-semantic relationships for Japanese Kana and Kanji words.

    The 50th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society 

    Presentation date: 2009.11

  • 語の形態−意味対応の一貫性と意味符号化速度

    日本心理学会第73回大会 

    Presentation date: 2009.08

  • カテゴリー判断課題における出現頻度効果

    日本心理学会第73回大会 

    Presentation date: 2009.08

  • 語の意味数と意味間の関連性効果.

    第11回認知神経心理学研究会, 東京. スペシャル・セッション「語の意味処理の諸問題」 

    Presentation date: 2008.10

  • 仮名・漢字表記語における形態・音韻・意味間の関連性効果.

    第11回認知神経心理学研究会, 東京. スペシャル・セッション「語の意味処理の諸問題」 

    Presentation date: 2008.10

  • マスク下の意味的プライミング効果における形態隣接語の影響.

    第11回認知神経心理学研究会, 東京. スペシャル・セッション「語の意味処理の諸問題」 

    Presentation date: 2008.10

  • 語彙判断課題における仮名・漢字表記語の語長効果.

    日本心理学会第72回大会, 札幌. 

    Presentation date: 2008.09

  • プライムの隣接語によるマスク下の意味的プライミング.

    日本心理学会第72回大会, 札幌. 

    Presentation date: 2008.09

  • シンポジウム:漢字熟語の認知: 日本語,中国語,韓国語の比較 (Recognition of Kanji Jukugo, Hanja'e and Chinese compounds: A cross-linguistic comparison of Japanese, Chinese and Korean word recognition).

    日本心理学会第72回大会, 札幌. 

    Presentation date: 2008.09

  • The impact of target neighbors in semantic priming.

    The 48th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Long Beach, CA, U. S. A.. 

    Presentation date: 2007.11

  • 形態隣接語の意味活性化と意味的プライミング効果.

    日本心理学会第71回大会, 東京. 

    Presentation date: 2007.09

  • 仮名表記語の読みにおける形態隣接語と音韻隣接語の交互作用.

    日本心理学会第71回大会, 東京. 

    Presentation date: 2007.09

  • マスク下の意味的プライミング効果と隣接語の影響.

    日本心理学会第70回大会, 福岡. 

    Presentation date: 2006.11

  • The role of orthographic neighbors in masked semantic priming effects.

    The 47th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Houston, Texas, U. S. A.. 

    Presentation date: 2006.11

  • 関連性判断課題における形態隣接語効果.

    日本認知心理学会第4回大会, 名古屋. 

    Presentation date: 2006.08

  • 意味活性化プロセスにおける形態隣接語及び文字の効果.

    日本認知心理学会第4回大会, 名古屋. 

    Presentation date: 2006.08

  • Effects of orthographic-semantic consistency for Japanese Kanji words.

    The 46th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 

    Presentation date: 2005.11

  • 漢字単語の形態−意味対応の規則性効果.

    日本心理学会第69回大会, 東京. 

    Presentation date: 2005.09

  • Number-of-Meanings and Relatedness-of-Meanings effects in lexical decision: Does the relatedness of the multiple meanings matter?

    The 44th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society 

    Presentation date: 2003.11

  • Ambiguity effects in semantically-based tasks: Semantic activation or decision-making processes?

    Word Recognition Symposium at the 13th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Society for Brain, Behaviour, and Cognitive Science, Hamilton, Ont., Canada. 

    Presentation date: 2003.06

  • 語の意味検索速度は形態−意味対応に依存するのか?

    日本心理学会第66回大会, 広島. 

    Presentation date: 2002.09

  • 視覚的単語認知における形態−意味対応の効果.

    第5回認知神経心理学研究会, 名古屋. 

    Presentation date: 2002.08

  • 音読課題における同義性効果.

    日本心理学会第65回大会, 筑波. 

    Presentation date: 2001.11

  • Effects of polysemy and relatedness among meanings in lexical decision and semantic categorization tasks.

    The 42nd annual meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Orlando, FL, U. S. A.. 

    Presentation date: 2001.11

  • The impact of feedback semantics in visual word recognition: Number of features effects in lexical decision and naming tasks.

    The 23rd annual meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, U.K. 

    Presentation date: 2001.08

  • 語彙判断課題とカテゴリー判断課題における多義性及び同義性効果.

    日本心理学会第64回大会, 京都. 

    Presentation date: 2000.11

  • 漢字とカナの処理は違うのか:出現頻度効果による検討.

    第23回日本失語症学会総会シンポジウム1:日本語における単語認知研究の最前線, 宇都宮. 

    Presentation date: 1999.11

  • Masked repetition priming and word frequency effects across different types of Japanese scripts.

    Tucson Lexical Processing Workshop 1999, Tucson, Ariz., U. S. A.. 

    Presentation date: 1999.11

  • Polysemy effects in lexical decision and semantic categorization tasks.

    The 40th annual meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Los Angeles, CA, U. S. A.. 

    Presentation date: 1999.11

  • 単語の視覚情報と出現頻度効果:音読課題を使った検討.

    日本心理学会第63回大会, 名古屋. 

    Presentation date: 1999.09

  • Polysemy effects in the naming of Japanese katakana words and their hiragana transcriptions.

    The 39th annual meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Dallas, Tex., U. S. A.. 

    Presentation date: 1998.11

  • カタカナ単語とそのひらがな表記の音読における多義性効果.

    日本心理学会第62回大会, 東京. 

    Presentation date: 1998.10

  • Masked repetition priming and word frequency effects for different Japanese scripts.

    The 38th annual meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Philadelphia, PA, U. S. A.. 

    Presentation date: 1997.11

  • 漢字単語の音読における文字と発音の対応規則性及び単語の出現頻度効果.

    日本心理学会第61回大会, 神戸. 

    Presentation date: 1997.09

  • 語彙判断課題と音読課題におけるカタカナ単語の多義性効果.

    日本認知科学会14回大会, 厚木. 

    Presentation date: 1997.06

  • The effects of word frequency for Japanese kana and kanji in lexical decision and naming.

    The 37th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Chicago, IL, U. S. A.. 

    Presentation date: 1996.11

  • Masked Repetition Priming Paradigmにおける方略的効果.

    日本心理学会第60回大会, 東京. 

    Presentation date: 1996.09

  • 日本語における単語の多義性効果の検討

    日本基礎心理学会第15回大会, 名古屋. 

    Presentation date: 1996.05

  • Orthographic neighborhood effects in perceptual identification.

    The 36th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Los Angeles, CA, U. S. A.. 

    Presentation date: 1995.11

  • 語彙判断と命名課題における漢字・仮名単語の出現頻度効果:表記と発音の対応規則による音韻検索経路は必要か?

    日本心理学会第59回大会, 那覇. 

    Presentation date: 1995.10

  • 様相間プライミングを使った語彙判断課題における単語の連合強度と語意頻度の効果

    日本認知科学会12回大会, 東京. 

    Presentation date: 1995.06

  • Neighborhood size and neighborhood frequency effects in perceptual identification.

    The 5th Annual Meeting of Canadian Society for Brain, Behavior, and Cognitive Science, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. 

    Presentation date: 1995.06

  • 刺激のQUALITYが語彙判断課題の方略に及ぼす効果について

    日本心理学会第58回大会, 東京. 

    Presentation date: 1994.10

  • Polysemy effects : Evidence for dual access routes to word meanings.

    The 3rd Annual Meeting of Behavior, Brain, and Cognitive Science, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 

    Presentation date: 1993.07

  • The effects of polysemy on orthographically-based and phonologically-based processes.

    Invited Lecture at University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. 

    Presentation date: 1993.04

  • Neighborhood size and neighborhood frequency effects in visual word recognition.

    The 33rd Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, St. Louis, MO., U. S. A.. 

    Presentation date: 1992.11

  • 文字マッチング課題における視覚的手掛かり利用の方略について

    日本心理学会第51回大会, 東京. 

    Presentation date: 1987.10

  • 部分報告法課題における先行手掛かり利用の方略について

    日本基礎心理学会第6回大会, 神戸. 

    Presentation date: 1987.05

  • Semantic ambiguity and the process of generating meaning from print.

    The 43rd Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Kansas City, MO, U.S.A.. 

  • Masked homophone priming effects for Japanese kanji words

    54th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society 

▼display all

Specific Research

  • 反復・同音語プライミング効果を用いた漢字熟語を読む際の処理経路の検討

    2021  

     View Summary

    語を読む際には、書字・形態情報から、直接、意味情報が活性化される直接経路と書字・形態情報から、一旦、音韻情報が活性化され、音韻情報を介して意味情報が活性化される音韻媒介経路が仮定されている。本研究では、マスク下のプライムを伴う語彙判断課題遂行中の事象関連電位の測定を通して、私たちが漢字語を読む際に、主に、どちらの経路が機能しているのかという問題の再検討を試みた。刺激提示から 400ミリ秒経過後に観察される事象関連電位、N400の振幅は、語ペアに対して活性化された意味間の不一致性の程度に依存すると解釈されている。従って、語ペアに対して観察されたN400の振幅は、プライムとターゲットによって活性化された意味間の不一致性の程度を反映するものと思われる。実験の結果、同音語ペア(e.g., 講演-公園に対するN400の振幅は、関連なしペア(e.g., 合併-公園)に対する振幅とほぼ等しかった。この結果は、漢字語を読む際に、主に、直接経路を使った意味活性化がなされていたことを反映する可能性が高い。

  • 語の形態-意味間の対応関係における一貫性効果の検討

    2020  

     View Summary

     実験参加者に刺激ペアに対する関連あり・なし判断を求める関連性判断課題を使って、ターゲット語の形態-意味対応の一貫性効果の観察を試みた。語の形態-意味対応の一貫性とは、ある語の形態類似語が類似の意味を共有する程度を反映した変数である。実験では、行動データばかりでなく事象関連電位においても一貫性効果の観察を試みた。その結果、行動データには有意な一貫性効果は観察されなかったものの、事象関連電位のN400の振幅に有意な一貫性効果が観察された。同様の効果は、昨年度実施した語彙判断課題においても観察されたが、課題間で効果の頭皮上分布に差異が認められた。これらの結果から、語の意味活性化プロセスにおいては、形態類似語の意味も活性化し、活性化された意味間の不一致性の評価を介して最終的は語の意味が選択されるという処理が介在すると共に、このプロセス、特に、活性化された意味間の不一致性の評価を介した意味選択のプロセスは、課題遂行のための方略の影響を受ける可能性が高いものと思われる。

  • 語の形態-意味間の対応関係における-一貫性効果の検討

    2019  

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    実験参加者に刺激に対する語-非語判断を求める語彙判断課題を使って、語の形態-意味対応の一貫性効果の観察を試みた。語の形態-意味対応の一貫性とは、ある語の形態類似語が類似の意味を共有する程度を反映した変数である。本研究では、この変数の効果を行動データばかりでなく事象関連電位も含めて検討した。実験の結果、行動データには一貫性効果は観察されなかったものの、事象関連電位のN400の振幅に一貫性効果が認められた。この結果は、語の意味活性化プロセスにおいては、形態類似語の意味も活性化し、意味間の不一致性が評価されて最終的は語の意味が選択されるという処理が介在する可能性を示唆するものと思われる。

  • 漢字熟語の形態素処理と漢字の形態-意味対応の一貫性

    2018  

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     漢字熟語を読む際に、個々の形態素レベルの表象の活性化プロセスと、形態素レベルの表象を語全体レベルの表象に統合するプロセスとが介在するのかという問題を検討するために漢字三字熟語ペアを用いた語彙判断実験を行った。漢字三字熟語を読む際に、個々の漢字に対応する形態素レベルの表象が活性化されるなら、漢字三字熟語ペアが同じ先頭漢字を共有する場合に有意なプライミング効果が期待される。また、形態素レベルの表象を語全体レベルの表象に統合するプロセスが介在するなら、同じ形態素構造を共有する漢字三字熟語ペアには有意な関係プライミング効果が期待される。実験データは、これらの予測に一致するものであった。

  • 語の音韻-形態対応の一貫性と形態親近性評定値との関係の検討

    2017  

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    語を読む作業を求められる語認知課題の成績は,個々の語の親しみの程度を反映する形態親近性評定値に強く依存する(e.g., Gernsbacher, 1984)。しかし,形態親近性評定値がどのような要因の影響を受けるのかという問題は,必ずしも十分に明らかになっているわけではない。そこで,本研究では,まず,天野・近藤(2003)の単語親密度データベースから,形態隣接語と音韻隣接語をそれぞれ1語以上持つ漢字語32,990語と仮名語3,405語を対象に,語の形態親近性評定値と音韻-形態対応の一貫性との間の関係について検討した。その結果,漢字語の形態親近性評定値は,音韻-形態対応の一貫性に依存するが,仮名語の形態親近性評定値は,音韻-形態対応の一貫性には依存しないことが明らかとなった。漢字語を聞き取る際,正しい綴りの情報を検索できるかどうかは,音韻-形態対応の一貫性に依存するため,一貫性が高いほど,語の聞き取り経験が形態親近性に効果を持つことになる。一方,仮名語は,モーラと文字の対応規則に基づいて容易に正しい綴りを検索できるため,仮名語の形態親近性は,音韻-形態対応の一貫性に依存しない可能性が高い。これらの仮説が正しいなら,漢字語を聞き取る際には,音韻隣接語が綴りの検索に貢献し,音韻-形態対応の一貫性が課題成績に効果を持つのに対して,仮名語を聞き取る際には,音韻隣接語が綴りの検索に貢献しないため,音韻-形態対応の一貫性効果も音韻隣接語数の差異による効果も観察されないはずである。そこで,聴覚刺激を使った語彙判断課題において,漢字語と仮名語の音韻-形態対応の一貫性効果の観察を試みたところ,確かに,有意な一貫性効果は漢字語に対してのみ観察された。さらに,仮名語を使って音韻隣接語数による効果の観察を試みたところ,音韻隣接語数による効果は認められなかった。

  • 語の形態-意味対応と音韻-意味対応の一貫性効果

    2017  

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     最近,語の意味類似性の評価にベクトル空間モデル(VSM)が利用されるようになってきた(e.g., Marelli, Amenta & Crepaldi, 2015)。語の意味類似性を評価するVSMでは,文中に出現する語を,その前後に隣接する他の語の統計情報を使って符号化し,語ベクトルを作成する。Harris (1954)のdistributional hypothesis によれば,類似の文脈中に出現する語は,類似の意味を持つ可能性が高いため,前後に隣接する語が類似している語同士は,類似の意味を持つ可能性が高い。この仮説に従えば,上記の方法で作成した語ベクトルの類似度を計算すると,語ペア間の意味類似性を反映した値を得ることができる。また,Buchanan, Westbury & Burgess (2001)及びSiakaluk, Buchanan & Westbury (2003)は,VSMモデルを使って,ある語の語ベクトルから意味空間上で10番目に近い位置にある語ベクトルまでの”意味距離”を計算し,それを実験変数として操作したところ,語彙判断課題やカテゴリー判断課題の成績に有意な”意味距離”効果が観察されたことを報告している。そこで,本研究では,Mikolov, Chen, Corrado & Dean (2013)によって開発された“word2vec”を使って,2017 年 2月 22 日時点の日本語wikipedia全文と現代日本語書き言葉均衡コーパス(Maekawa, Yamazaki, Ogiso, Maruyama, Ogura, Kashino, Yamaguchi, Tanaka & Den, 2014)とを結合して作成したコーパスを学習させることで語ベクトルを作成した。この語ベクトルを使って,Hino, Miyamura & Lupker (2011)が収集した12,378個の語ペアに対する意味類似性評定値と,語ベクトル・データから計算したコサイン類似度とを比較したところ,有意な正の相関が観察された(r = .619, p < .001)。そこで,これらの語ベクトルを使って,語の“意味距離”の操作を試みたところ,語彙判断課題において有意な“意味距離”効果を再現することができた。“意味距離”が近い語に対する反応の方が,“意味距離”が遠い語に対する反応よりも有意に反応時間が短かった。これらの結果は,“word2vec”を使って日本語コーパスを学習させて作成した語ベクトルは,人が持つ語の意味に関する知識をある程度反映していることを示唆するものであった。

  • 漢字語の読みにおける形態素への分解と再統合

    2015  

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    漢字二字熟語に単漢字が付加された構造を持つ二種類の漢字三字熟語(i.e., 1+2構造語(right-branching compounds)と2+1構造語(left-branching compounds))を使った語彙判断課題において,単漢字部分のファミリーサイズを操作した。実験では,二種類の形態素構造を持つ語が混在する刺激リストと形態素構造毎にブロック化した刺激リストを用意し,それぞれにおけるファミリーサイズ効果の観察を試みた。その結果,二種類の形態素構造を持つ語が混在するリストでは,有意なファミリーサイズ効果が観察されたのに対して,形態素構造毎に刺激をブロック化した課題では有意な効果は観察されなかった。この結果は,ターゲット語自体が持つ単漢字部分のファミリーサイズによる効果と先行刺激が形態素構造を共有することによるプライミング効果の両方が,ターゲット語に対する分解された形態素の統合段階において生じることを示唆するものと思われる。

  • 漢字熟語の読みにおけるFamily Size及びFamily Frequencyの効果

    2014  

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     複数の漢字で構成された漢字熟語を読む際には,個々の漢字に対応する形態素レベルの表象への分解と語全体レベルの表象への統合処理が関与すると仮定される(e.g., 楠瀬・吉原・井田・薛・伊集院・日野, 2014; Taft, 2003; Taft, 2004; Taft & Kougious, 2004; Taft, Zhu & Peng, 1999)。さらに,この統合処理の速度は,熟語内構造を示す手がかりの有効性に依存するはずである。漢字三字熟語の多くは,二字熟語に漢字1文字を付加した構造を持つことから,三字熟語の単漢字部分として頻繁に使用される漢字は,熟語内構造を示す有効な手がかりとして機能し,統合処理を促進する可能性がある。そこで,語彙判断課題において,漢字三字熟語の単漢字部分の使用頻度(Family Size及びFamily Frequency)を操作したところ,単漢字部分の使用頻度が高い三字熟語程,語彙判断課題の成績が高かった。この結果は,漢字熟語を読む際に,形態素レベルの表象への分解と語全体レベルの表象への統合処理が関与することを示唆するものであった。

  • 漢字語の読みにおける形態素構造の差異による効果

    2013  

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     語彙判断課題を使ってカタカナ三文字語と四文字語間及び漢字二文字語と三文字語間の課題成績の比較を試みた。カタカナ表記語には語長効果は観察されなかったが,漢字表記語には有意な語長効果が観察された。漢字三文字語に対する反応時間は漢字二文字語に対する反応時間よりも有意に長かった。この効果は,漢字表記語間で形態隣接語数を統制しても観察された。従来,語彙判断課題では,語長効果は観察され難いことが報告されている(e.g., Balota, Cortese, Sergent-Marchall, Spieler & Yap, 2004; Frederiksen & Kroll, 1976; Juphard, Carbonnel & Valdois, 2004; Richardson, 1976)。したがって,漢字表記語のみに観察された語長効果は,単なる文字数の差異による効果ではない可能性が高い。 仮名文字は表音文字であるのに対して漢字は形態素にあたると考えられることから,仮名表記語と漢字表記語との間には形態素構造に違いがあるのもと思われる。カタカナ三・四文字からなるカタカナ表記語は,そのほとんどが単一の形態素からなる単語であるのに対して,漢字二・三文字からなる漢字表記語はいずれも複数の形態素からなる複合語である。したがってカタカナ三文字語と四文字語の間には形態素構造に違いはないのに対して,漢字二文字語と三文字語との間では形態素数が異なり,形態素構造が異なるはずである。語彙判断課題において漢字表記語のみに語長効果が観察されたという事実は,漢字表記語における形態素数及び形態素構造の差異を反映する効果であるものと思われる。 Taft等(Taft, 2003; Taft, 2004; Taft & Kougious, 2004; Taft, Zhu & Peng, 1999)が提案するように漢字表記語の読みの初期段階において形態素への分解と統合を仮定するなら,語全体レベルの表象へのアクセスに先立って,分解された複数の形態素に対する再統合の処理が必要である。また,漢字三文字語の多くは,三字二文字語の先頭あるいは末尾に漢字一文字が付加された構造を持つことから,漢字三文字語の方が,二文字語よりも複雑な形態素構造を持つ。そのため,分解された形態素に対する再統合処理は,二文字語よりも三文字語の方が時間がかかり,語長効果が生じたものと考えられる。このように,本研究の結果は,語の読みの処理の性質が,その語が持つ形態素構造に強く依存することを示唆するものであった。

  • 視覚的単語認知における形態隣接語の意味活性化と意味的プライミング効果

    2007  

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     語を読む時,その語の意味ばかりでなく,その語が持つ形態隣接語(形態類似語)の意味も活性化される可能性が指摘されている。例えば,Bourassa & Besner (1998)は,語彙判断課題を使って,マスク下の非語プライム(e.g., deg)の形態隣接語(e.g., dog)とターゲット(e.g., CAT)との関連性による促進効果を報告している。このように,語を読む時,その語の形態隣接語の意味も活性化されるなら,プライムとターゲットとの間の直接的な関連性ばかりでなく,プライムの形態隣接語とターゲットとの関連性やターゲットの形態隣接語とプライムとの関連性も意味的プライミング効果の大きさを決定する要因である可能性が高い。そこで本研究では,ターゲットの形態隣接語とプライムとの意味的関連性がターゲットに対する語彙判断の成績にどのような効果を生じるのかについて検討した。 実験では,カタカナ語ターゲット(e.g., ポケット)の形態隣接語(e.g., ロケット)がプライムと関連がある条件(e.g., ミサイル-ポケット)と関連がない条件(e.g., スクール-ポケット)との間でターゲットに対する語彙判断の成績を比較した。さらに,プライムに対するマスクの有無と刺激セットに含まれる関連あり試行の比率(関連性比率)も操作した。その結果,プライムがマスクされた場合には,関連性比率が高い条件においてのみターゲットの形態隣接語とプライムとの関連性による抑制効果が観察された。プライムがマスクされない場合には,関連性比率に関わらず何の効果も観察されなかった。 この結果から,Bodner & Masson (2001, 2003)が提案するように,マスク下においてもプライムにより活性化された情報がターゲットに対する判断に有効な手掛かりとなる場合には判断に利用されるようである。一方,プライムがマスクされない場合には,プライムとターゲットとの間の関連性がより大きな効果を持つことになり,ターゲットの形態隣接語による効果は観察できなかった可能性がたかい。この実験結果とBourassa & Besner(1998)の結果から,プライムがマスクされた場合には,プライムの形態隣接語やターゲットの形態隣接語も意味的プライミング効果に影響を及ぼしていることが明らかとなった。

  • 漢字単語と仮名単語の意味検索における形態隣接語の効果

    2006  

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     Finkbeiner, Forster, Nicol & Nakamura (2004)は、意味的に関連のある意味少数プライムと意味多数ターゲットからなる英単語ペアー及び意味多数プライムと意味少数ターゲットからなる英単語ペアーを使って、語彙判断課題におけるマスク下の意味的プライミング効果の大きさを比較した。その結果、有意なプライミング効果は、意味多数プライム-意味少数ターゲット・ペアーのみに観察された。この結果から、Finkbeinerらは、マスク下の意味的プライミング効果の大きさは、プライムにより活性化されるターゲットの意味数に依存すると仮定するセンス・モデルを提案した。しかし、彼らが実験で使用した2種類の単語ペアーを詳しく分析すると、意味数ばかりでなく、ターゲットの出現頻度、語長、形態隣接語数などにも違いが認められた。そのため、彼らのデータのみを根拠に、意味的プライミング効果の大きさがプライムにより活性化されるターゲットの意味数に依存すると結論付けるのは難しいようである。 そこで、Finkbeinerらのモデルの妥当性を再検討するために、漢字表記語と仮名表記語とを使って出現頻度、語長、形態隣接語数を統制し、プライムとターゲットが持つ意味数のみを操作した上で、意味少数プライム-意味多数ターゲット・ペアーと意味多数プライム-意味少数ターゲット・ペアーそれぞれの意味的プライミング効果の大きさを語彙判断課題を使って比較した。 その結果、Finkbeinerらのモデルからの予測に反して、意味少数プライム-意味多数ターゲット・ペアーに観察されたプライミング効果の方が、意味多数プライム-意味少数ターゲット・ペアーに観察された効果よりも大きかった。さらに、このデータを詳細に分析したところ、意味的プライミング効果の大きさは、プライムの形態隣接語とターゲットとの間の関連性の程度に依存して決定されることが明らかとなった。ターゲットの意味数が多いと、どれかの意味がプライムの形態隣接語と関連を持つ確率が高くなる。その結果、意味少数プライム-意味多数ターゲット・ペアーに大きなプライミング効果が観察されたものと考えられる。さらに、本研究で使用した単語ペアーの多くは、漢字表記語をプライムとして使用していた。漢字は形態素であるため、文字の共有は意味の共有を意味する。したがって、形態隣接語同士が意味を共有する確率が高く、プライムの形態隣接語がターゲットと意味的関連性を持つ確率も高くなった可能性がある。これらの結果をもとに、マスク下の意味的プライミング効果の発生メカニズムについて考察した。

  • 多義語の意味表象とその検索過程

    2005  

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     視覚的単語認知における並列分散処理モデルによれば、単語の読みにおける意味符号化速度は単語が持つ形態-意味間の対応関係の性質に依存する。特に、形態-意味間に複雑な対応関係を持つ多義語の意味検索は一義語の意味検索に比べて時間がかかるものと考えられる。実際、反応生成に意味検索が不可欠であると考えられるいくつかの単語認知課題において、多義語の抑制効果や(多義語の)意味間の関連性効果など、この仮説に一致するデータが報告されている。その一方で、この仮説を疑問視する研究者も存在する。 そこで、この仮説の妥当性を再検討するために、語彙判断課題とカテゴリー判断課題を使って一義語、意味間の関連性が高い多義語、意味間の関連性が低い多義語に対する成績の比較を試みた。語彙判断課題では、2種類の多義語に促進効果が観察されたが、多義語の意味間の関連性の程度は効果を持たなかった。複数のカテゴリーを使用してカテゴリー判断課題を実施したところ、カテゴリーの範囲が広く、判断が難しい場合には意味間の関連性が低い多義語のみに抑制効果が観察されたのに対して、カテゴリーの範囲が狭く、判断が容易な場合には、どのような効果も観察されなかった。判断が容易な場合でも単語の出現頻度効果とカテゴリーの典型性効果は観察されたという事実から、判断が難しい場合に限り観察された多義性及び意味間の関連性の効果は、意味符号化処理を含む入力処理において生じているのではなく、その課題に特有な判断生成の処理において生じている効果であると考えられる。これらの結果は、並列分散処理モデルに基づく意味符号化処理に関する仮説の妥当性に疑問を提起するものであった。

  • 単語の形態-意味対応の一貫性と意味検索速度

    2004  

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     我々が単語や文章を読む際には、与えられた視覚情報から対応する意味情報を復元するという作業が含まれる。並列分散処理モデルによれば、単語の視覚情報に基づく意味検索は単語の持つ形態―意味間の対応関係の性質に依存する。 そこで、本研究では、形態類似語間の意味の類似性の程度に注目して、単語の形態―意味対応の一貫性の程度を把握し、この一貫性の程度の違いが意味検索速度に効果を持つかどうかをカテゴリー判断課題を使って検討した。例えば、「彼女」という二文字単語のどちらか一文字を別の文字に置き換えて作成される形態近隣語は語彙数36,780語の辞書を使って検索すると30語存在する。この形態類似語のほとんどは「彼ら」「少女」など、「彼女」と同様に生物カテゴリーに属する単語である。このことから「彼女」という単語の形態―意味間の対応関係は高い一貫性を持つと考えることができる。これに対して「秘書」に対する形態近隣語を検索すると、全部で59語存在するが、そのほとんどは「秘密」「辞書」など、生物カテゴリーには属さない単語である。したがって「秘書」という単語の持つ形態―意味対応の一貫性は低いことになる。 このように二文字単語の形態―意味対応の一貫性の程度を操作し、それぞれの単語に対するカテゴリー判断(生物―無生物判断)課題の反応時間を比較した。カテゴリー判断課題を用いたのは、この課題の遂行に意味検索が不可欠であると考えられるからである。この実験の結果、形態―意味対応の一貫性が高い「彼女」などの単語に対する反応時間の方が「秘書」などの一貫性の低い単語に対する反応時間よりも短かった。この効果は漢字熟語に特有なものなのか、また、別の課題においても同様の効果を観察可能かなど、最終的な結論に至るには、さらなる検討が不可欠であるが、少なくとも現段階においては、漢字熟語に対して形態―意味対応の一貫性の程度の違いが意味検索速度に効果を持つことが示唆された。

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  • 語彙判断課題における語の意味数と意味間の関連性効果

    2009.10
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    2010.09

    カナダ゙   西オンタリオ大学

 

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