Updated on 2024/05/22

写真a

 
KAWAKAMI, Yasuo
 
Affiliation
Faculty of Sport Sciences, School of Sport and Sciences
Job title
Professor
Degree
Ms. Sci. ( The University of Tokyo )
Ph.D. ( The University of Tokyo )
Profile

My expertise is in biodynamics (biomechanics and exercise physiology) with the main research interest in the area of muscle mechanics, particularly on the in vivo skeletal muscle behavior during various human movements. Effects of exercise training, growth, aging, and fatigue on the human musculoskeletal system are also in the scope of my research.

Research Experience

  • 2021.04
    -
    Now

    Waseda University   Vice President

  • 2020.09
    -
    Now

    Waseda University   Comprehensive Research Organization   Director

  • 2019.04
    -
    Now

    Human Performance Laboratory, Comprehensive Research Organization, Waseda University   Director

  • 2005
    -
    Now

    Waseda University, Professor

  • 2017.04
    -
    2019.03

    Organization for University Research Initiatives, Waseda University   Human Performance Laboratory   Director

  • 2003
    -
    2005

    Waseda University, Associate Professor

  • 1999
    -
    2003

    University of Tokyo, Associate Professor

  • 1991
    -
    1999

    University of Tokyo, Research Assistant

▼display all

Education Background

  • 1990.04
    -
    1991.03

    University of Tokyo   Graduate School, Division of Education  

  • 1988.04
    -
    1990.03

    University of Tokyo   Graduate School, Division of Education  

  • 1985.04
    -
    1988.03

    University of Tokyo   Faculty of Education  

  • 1983.04
    -
    1985.03

    The University of Tokyo  

Committee Memberships

  • 2023.08
    -
    Now

    JST Fusion Oriented Research for Disruptive Science and Technology  Advisor

  • 2022.04
    -
    Now

    日本体育学会  『体育の科学』編集委員

  • 2021.04
    -
    Now

    Waseda University  Member of Board of Trustees

  • 2020.09
    -
    Now

    Comprehensive Research Organization, Waseda Universtiy  Director

  • 2017.04
    -
    Now

    Human Peformance Laboratory, Waseda University  Research Director

  • 2014.11
    -
    Now

    Nishitokyo City, Tokyo  Health Support Team

  • 2011.04
    -
    Now

    Japan Society of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences  Council Member

  • 2011
    -
    Now

    Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine  Councilor

  • 2008
    -
    Now

    Japan Society of Golf Sciences  Council Member, Editor, Member of Scientific Studies

  • 2003.12
    -
    Now

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Kakenhi Reviewing Board Member

  • 2001
    -
    Now

    Japanese Society of Biomechanics  Coucil Member

  • 2011
    -
    2024

    Japanese Society of Bone and Muscle Ultrasound  Vice President (2011-2013), Advisory Board Member, Council Member

  • 2012
    -
    2023

    Science Council of Japan  Section II: Life Sciences

  • 2011
    -
    2023

    Science Council in Japan  Cooperative Member

  • 2010.10
    -
    2022.03

    YAMAHA Motor Foundation for Sports  Judging Committee Member

  • 2001
    -
    2019

    Japan Society of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences  District Representative

  • 2000
    -
    2016

    Japanese Society of Training Science for Exercise and Sport  Council Member

  • 2014
    -
    2015

    Japan Institute of Sport Science  Advisory Board Member, Scientific Research Division

  • 2014
    -
    2015

    Panasonic Corporation  Research Advisor

  • 2011
    -
    2015

    Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine  Committee Membe of Future Plans

  • 2011
    -
    2015

    Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine  Editorial Board Member

▼display all

Professional Memberships

  • 2023.03
    -
    Now

    The Japanese Association of Anatomists

  • 2007.07
    -
    Now

    European College of Sport Science

  •  
    -
    Now

    Japan Society of Golf Sciences

  •  
    -
    Now

    Japanese Society of Exercise Physiology

  •  
    -
    Now

    Japan Society of Training Science for Exercise and Sport

  •  
    -
    Now

    Japanese Society of Biomechanics

  •  
    -
    Now

    Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine

  •  
    -
    Now

    Japanese Society of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences

  •  
    -
    Now

    International Society of Biomechanics

  •  
    -
    Now

    Tokyo Society of Physical Education,Health and Sport Science

  •  
    -
    2024.03

    The Japanese Society of Ultrasonic Science on Bone and Muscular Tissue

▼display all

Research Areas

  • Physical education, and physical and health education / Physiology / Anatomy   Musculoskeletal system / Biomaterials / Biomedical engineering / Sports sciences

Research Interests

  • exercise physiology, sport biomechanics, in vivo measurement, muscle mechanics, muscle architecture, muscle-tendon unit, human, growth and aging, health promotion, sport performance

Awards

  • JSB Award (Best Podium Presentation)(共同研究者)

    2023.08  

  • 日本バイオメカニクス学会 奨励賞(共同研究者)

    2022.11   日本バイオメカニクス学会  

  • 日本バイオメカニクス学会 国際セッション奨励賞(共同研究者)

    2020.09   日本バイオメカニクス学会  

  • 日本トレーニング科学会 奨励賞(共同研究者)

    2019.09   日本トレーニング科学会  

  • 日本バイオメカニクス学会 奨励賞(共同研究者)

    2018.09   日本バイオメカニクス学会  

  • 日本バイオメカニクス学会 学会賞(共同研究者)

    2016.09   日本バイオメカニクス学会  

  • バイオメカニクス研究最優秀論文賞(共著者)

    2015.09   日本バイオメカニクス学会  

  • 東京体育学会 奨励賞(共同研究者)

    2013.03   東京体育学会  

  • トレーニング科学研究会 奨励賞(共同研究者)

    2012.12   日本トレーニング科学会  

  • トレーニング科学研究賞 奨励賞(共同研究者)

    2011.11   日本トレーニング科学会  

  • 東京体育学会 奨励賞(共同研究者)

    2010.03   東京体育学会  

  • 日本トレーニング科学会 学会賞

    2007.11   日本トレーニング科学会  

  • 東京体育学賞 (前任校)

    2002.03   東京体育学会  

  • 松井賞(日本バイオメカニクス学会) (前任校)

    1992.10   日本バイオメカニクス学会  

▼display all

Media Coverage

  • Media coverage (newspaper)

    Newspaper, magazine

    Author: Other  

    The Mainichi Newspapers   The Mainichi Shimbun  

    Short sprint for 40s effective for skeletal muscles  

    2024.05

  • テレビ番組出演

    TV or radio program

    NHK   チコちゃんに叱られる  

    2021.11

  • テレビ番組出演

    TV or radio program

    NHK   ヒューマニエンス:40億年のたくらみ「“筋肉” 感応する奇跡のシステム」  

    2021.08

  • テレビ番組

    TV or radio program

    NHK   NHKスペシャル「タモリ×山中伸弥 超人たちの人体」  

    2021.07

  • テレビ番組

    TV or radio program

    NHKBS8K   超人たちの人体「大地を駆ける」  

    2021.02

  • テレビ番組

    TV or radio program

    NHKスペシャル ミラクルボディー  

    2020.10

     View Summary

    NHKスペシャル ミラクルボディー「驚異の人体“超適応”車いすレーサー」取材協力

  • テレビ番組

    TV or radio program

    天才てれびくん  

    2020.09

     View Summary

    天才てれびくん「はやく走る裏ワザ!?ソニアとみやぞん電空SF」取材協力

  • ケーブルテレビ

    TV or radio program

    上田ケーブルビジョン  

    2019.04

     View Summary

    身体教育医学研究所20周年記念イベントにて講演。 「筋肉研究第一人者とトップアスリートによるみんなのための『筋肉』の話」

  • テレビ番組出演

    TV or radio program

    NHK   チコちゃんに叱られる  

    2018.09

     View Summary

    NHK総合テレビ 「チコちゃんに叱られるに出演

  • テレビ番組

    TV or radio program

    NHK   あしたも晴れ!人生レシピ  

    2018.02

     View Summary

    NHK Eテレ 「あしたも晴れ!人生レシピ」 取材協力

  • テレビ番組出演

    TV or radio program

    NHK   偉人たちの健康診断  

    2017.10

     View Summary

    NHK BS プレミアム SIP「時間栄養・運動レシピ開発」プロジェクトの成果の一部を紹介. 偉人たちの健康診断「織田信長の隠れた病」に出演。

  • テレビ番組取材

    TV or radio program

    NHK   団塊スタイル 親の健康  

    2016.10

     View Summary

    NHK Eテレ 団塊スタイル 親の健康 (SIP「時間栄養・運動レシピ開発」プロジェクトの成果の一部を説明し、中高齢者が簡単にできる運動を紹介する)

▼display all

 

Papers

  • Hamstrings load bearing in different contraction types and intensities : A shear-wave and B-mode ultrasonographic study

    Evangelidis, E, P, Shan, X, Otsuka, S, Yang, C, Yamagishi, T, Kawakami, Y

    PLoS One   16 ( 5 ) e0251939  2021  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    The main aim was to examine the load bearing of individual hamstring muscles in different contraction types and intensities, through local stiffness measurement by shear wave elastography (SWE). A secondary aim was to examine the relationship between the SWE stiffness measure and hamstrings morphology. Ten healthy males (age 22.1±4.1 years; height 173.7±5.9 cm; body mass 68.6±12.4 kg; mean ± SD) performed knee flexions on an isokinetic dynamometer at different intensities (20-70%MVC, random order) in three separate, randomized conditions: isometric (ISO), concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC). SWE was used to measure muscle shear wave velocity (SWV) in biceps femoris long head (BFlh), semitendinosus (ST) and semimembranosus (SM) during contraction. Muscle anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) was measured with magnetic resonance imaging and muscle architecture with B-mode ultrasonography. Muscle SWV increased linearly with contraction intensity, but at a varying rate among muscles and contraction types. ST exhibited greater SWV than BFlh and SM in all contraction types, however, there was an upward shift in the SM SWV-torque relationship in ECC compared to ISO and CON. Strong negative correlations were found between peak ISO SWV and ST ACSA (r = -0.81, p = 0.005) and BFlh pennation angle (r = -0.75, p = 0.012). These results suggest that ST has a primary role in hamstrings load bearing in all contraction types, likely due to its morphology; however, there is evidence of increased contribution from SM in eccentric muscle actions.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    11
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Physiological and metabolic responses to low-volume sprint interval exercises: Influence of sprint duration and repetitions

    Takaki Yamagishi, Soya Iwata, Shun Otsuka, Hoshizora Ichinose, Yasuo Kawakami

    Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise    2024.03  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    ABSTRACT

    Purpose

    This study aimed to determine physiological and metabolic responses to two different sprint interval exercises (SIE) matched for total sprint duration and sprint-to-rest ratio.

    Methods

    After having measured peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2peak), fourteen healthy males (27.1 ± 4.8 years, 169.6 ± 6.0 cm, 64.5 ± 8.4 kg, V̇O2peak: 47.2 ± 7.7 ml·kg-1·min-1) performed four 10-s sprints with 80-s recovery (SIE10) and two 20-s sprints with 160-s recovery (SIE20) on different occasions in a counterbalanced crossover manner. Pulmonary V̇O2 and changes in tissue oxygenation index (∆TOI) at vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) were measured during the SIEs. Furthermore, T2-weighted MRI was taken immediately before and after the SIEs to determine the activation levels of VL, RF, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius, adductor magnus, biceps femoris long head, semitendinosus and semimembranosus at 50% of right thigh length.

    Results

    In SIE10, increases in V̇O2 and ∆TOI at VL and RF plateaued after the second sprint, whereas session-averaged ∆TOI was greater in SIE20 than SIE10 in both muscles (VL: 20.9 ± 7.4 vs. 14.2 ± 5.9%, RF: 22.8 ± 9.3 vs. 12.9 ± 6.6%, p = 0.00). While both SIEs significantly increased T2 values in all eight muscles, those magnitudes were similar between the conditions (SIE10 vs. SIE20: 5-16 vs. 8-16%).

    Conclusions

    This study showed blunted responses of whole-body (V̇O2) and peripheral (∆TOI) oxidative responses with successive sprints (sprint 1 < sprint 2-4) in SIE10, suggesting that increasing sprint repetitions does not necessarily induce greater oxidative metabolism or stimulus. Moreover, greater peripheral oxygen extraction (∆TOI) was achieved with SIE20, whereas %changes of T2 indicates that the thigh muscles were similarly activated between the SIE conditions.

    DOI

  • Coronal as well as sagittal fascicle dynamics can bring about a gearing effect in muscle elongation by passive lengthening

    Takahashi, K, Shiotani, H, Evangelidis, P. E, Sado, N, Kawakami, Y

    Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise   55 ( 11 ) 2035 - 2044  2023.06  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    ABSTRACT

    Purpose

    The amount of muscle belly elongation induced by passive lengthening is often assumed to be equal to that of fascicles. But these are different if fascicles shorter than the muscle belly rotate around their attachment sites. Such discrepancy between fascicles and muscle belly length changes can be considered as gearing. As the muscle fascicle arrangement is three-dimensional, the fascicle rotation by passive lengthening may occur in the coronal as well as the sagittal planes. Here we examined the fascicle 3D dynamics and resultant gearing during passive elongation of human medial gastrocnemius in vivo.

    Methods

    For 16 healthy adults, we reconstructed fascicles three-dimensionally using diffusion tensor imaging and evaluated the change in fascicle length and angles in the sagittal and coronal planes during passive ankle dorsiflexion (from 20° plantar flexion to 20° dorsiflexion).

    Results

    Whole muscle belly elongation during passive ankle dorsiflexion was 38% greater than the fascicle elongation. Upon passive lengthening, the fascicle angle in the sagittal plane in all regions (–5.9°) and that in the coronal plane in the middle-medial (–2.7°) and distal-medial (–4.3°) regions decreased significantly. Combining the fascicle coronal and sagittal rotation significantly increased the gearing effects in the middle-medial (+10%) and distal-medial (+23%) regions. The gearing effect by fascicle sagittal and coronal rotations corresponded to 26% of fascicle elongation, accounting for 19% of whole muscle belly elongation.

    Conclusions

    Fascicle rotation in the coronal and sagittal planes is responsible for passive gearing contributing to the whole muscle belly elongation. Passive gearing can be favorable for reducing fascicle elongation for a given muscle belly elongation.

    DOI

    Scopus

    2
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Influence of body mass on running-induced changes in mechanical properties of plantar fascia

    Shiotani, H, Mizokuchi, T, Yamashita, R, Naito, M, Kawakami, Y

    Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research   37 ( 11 ) e588 - e592  2023.04  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

    DOI

  • Fatigue-induced changes in hamstrings’ active muscle stiffness: effect of contraction type and implications for strain injuries

    Evangelidis, PE, Shan, X, Otsuka, S, Yang, C, Yamagishi, T, Kawakami, Y

    Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.   123 ( 4 ) 833 - 846  2023.04  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    Abstract

    Purpose

    Hamstring strain injuries may occur due to differential fatigue and compromised mechanical properties among the hamstring muscles. We examined (1) the effect of fatigue on hamstrings active muscle stiffness, and (2) whether contraction type affects active muscle stiffness changes during a submaximal fatiguing task.

    Methods

    Nine healthy males completed 99 submaximal knee flexions in isometric (ISO), concentric (CON), and eccentric (ECC) conditions. We measured the knee flexor maximal voluntary torque (MVT) (pre/post), shear wave velocity (SWV) during contraction and transverse relaxation times (T2) (pre/post) in biceps femoris long head (BFlh), semitendinosus (ST), and semimembranosus (SM) muscles.

    Results

    MVT decreased substantially after all conditions (− 18.4 to − 33.6%). The average relative torque sustained during the task was lower in CON than ISO and ECC, but absolute torque was similar. SWV interindividual responses were highly variable across muscles and contraction types. On average, BFlh SWV tended to increase in ISO (0.4 m/s, 4.5%, p = 0.064) but decreased in ECC condition (− 0.8 m/s, − 7.7%, p < 0.01). ST SWV decreased in CON (− 1.1 m/s, − 9.0%, p < 0.01), while it remained unchanged in ISO and ECC. SM SWV decreased in CON (− 0.8 m/s, − 8.1%, p < 0.01), but it was unaffected in ISO and variable in ECC.

    Conclusion

    Fatigue has a differential effect on the mechanical properties of the constituent hamstring muscles, as measured with shear wave elastography, depending upon contraction type. We found preliminary evidence that BFlh is more fatigued than ST or SM during eccentric contractions, which may explain its susceptibility to strain injuries.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    2
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Mechanical Linkage between Achilles Tendon and Plantar Fascia Accounts for Range of Motion of Human Ankle-Foot Complex

    Hiroto Shiotani, Katsuki Takahashi, Yuki Honma, Kazuki Tomari, Hidetaka Hayashi, Natsuki Sado, Yasuo Kawakami

    Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise   55 ( 1 ) 66 - 73  2023.01  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    Purpose The human ankle-foot complex possesses a passive range of motion (ROM) through changes in tibiocalcaneal (θcal) and foot arch (θarch) angles. Based on the anatomical linkage between the Achilles tendon (AT) and plantar fascia (PF), we hypothesized that AT and PF with different mechanical properties conjointly modulate the passive ROM of the human ankle-foot complex. We examined the association of AT and PF stiffness with passive ankle-foot ROM and further addressed differences between sexes. Methods A series of sagittal magnetic resonance images of the foot and passive ankle plantar flexion torque were obtained for 20 men and 20 women with their ankle-foot passively rotated from 30° of plantar flexion to 20° of dorsiflexion. Based on the measured changes in AT and PF lengths, θcal, θarch, and passive torque, AT and PF stiffness were determined. Results Upon passive ankle dorsiflexion, AT and PF were lengthened; their length changes were inversely correlated. Men showed a stiffer AT, more compliant PF, less calcaneal rotation, and greater foot arch deformation compared with women. Furthermore, we found inverse correlations between AT stiffness and ROM of θcal, and between PF stiffness and ROM of θarch in men and women. Conclusions Passive AT and PF extensibility counter each other. AT and PF stiffness and passive ROM of ankle-foot components were countered between sexes; however, associations between stiffness and passive ROM of the ankle-foot complex were consistent between sexes. Our findings support the notion that the balanced mechanical interaction between the AT and PF can account for the passive ROM of the human ankle-foot complex in vivo, and the differences between sexes.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    1
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • The lower limbs of sprinters have larger relative mass but not larger normalised moment of inertia than controls

    Sado, N, Ichinose, H, Kawakami, Y

    Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.   In press ( 3 ) 590 - 600  2022.10  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    Purpose Sprinters exhibit inhomogeneous muscularity corresponding to musculoskeletal demand for sprinting execution. An inhomogeneous morphology would affect the mass distribution, which in turn may affect the mechanical difficulty in moving from an inertia perspective; however, the morphological characteristics of sprinters from the inertia perspective have not been examined. Here we show no corresponding differences in the normalized mass and normalized moment of inertia between the sprinters and untrained nonsprinters. Methods We analyzed fat- and water-separated magnetic resonance images from the lower limbs of 11 male sprinters (100 m best time of 10.44-10.83 s) and 12 untrained nonsprinters. We calculated the inertial properties by identifying the tissue of each voxel and combining the literature values for each tissue density. Results The lower-limb relative mass was significantly larger in sprinters (18.7% ± 0.7% body mass) than in nonsprinters (17.6% ± 0.6% body mass), whereas the normalized moment of inertia of the lower limb around the hip in the anatomical position was not significantly different (0.044 ± 0.002 vs 0.042 ± 0.002 [a. u.]). The thigh relative mass in sprinters (12.9% ± 0.4% body mass) was significantly larger than that in nonsprinters (11.9% ± 0.4% body mass), whereas the shank and foot relative masses were not significantly different. Conclusions We revealed that the mechanical difficulty in swinging the lower limb is not relatively larger in sprinters in terms of inertia, even though the lower-limb mass is larger, reflecting their muscularity. We provide practical implications that sprinters can train without paying close attention to the increase in lower-limb mass and moment of inertia.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    2
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Three-dimensional architecture of human medial gastrocnemius fascicles in vivo: Regional variation and its dependence on muscle size

    Takahashi, K, Shiotani, H, Evangelidis, P. E, Sado, N, Kawakami, Y

    J. Anat.   241 ( 6 ) 1324 - 1335  2022.08  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Fascicle architecture (length and pennation angle) can vary regionally within a muscle. The architectural variability in human muscles has been evaluated in vivo, but the interindividual variation and its determinants remain unclear. Considering that within-muscle non-uniform changes in pennation angle are associated with change in muscle size by chronic mechanical loading, we hypothesized that the regional variation in fascicle architecture is dependent on interindividual variation in muscle size. To test this hypothesis, we reconstructed fascicles three-dimensionally along and across the whole medial gastrocnemius in the right lower leg of 15 healthy adults (10 males and 5 females, 23.7 ± 3.3 years, 165.8 ± 8.3 cm, 61.9 ± 11.4 kg, mean ± standard deviation) in neutral ankle joint position with the knee fully extended, using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging and tractography. The 3D-reconstructed fascicles arose from the deep aponeurosis with variable lengths and angles both in sagittal and coronal planes. The fascicle length was significantly longer in the middle (middle-medial: 52.4 ± 6.1 mm, middle-lateral: 52.0 ± 5.1 mm) compared to distal regions (distal-medial: 41.0 ± 5.0 mm, distal-lateral: 38.9 ± 3.6 mm, p < 0.001). The 2D pennation angle (angle relative to muscle surface) was significantly greater in distal than middle regions, and medial than lateral regions (middle-medial: 26.6 ± 3.1°, middle-lateral: 24.1 ± 2.3°, distal-medial: 31.2 ± 3.6°, distal-lateral: 29.2 ± 3.0°, p ≤ 0.017), while only a proximo-distal difference was significant (p < 0.001) for 3D pennation angle (angle relative to line of action of muscle). These results clearly indicate fascicle's architectural variation in 3D. The magnitude of regional variation evaluated as standard deviation across regions differed considerably among individuals (4.0–10.7 mm for fascicle length, 0.9–5.0° for 2D pennation angle, and 3.0–8.8° for 3D pennation angle), which was positively correlated with the muscle volume normalized to body mass (r = 0.659–0.828, p ≤ 0.008). These findings indicate muscle-size dependence of the variability of fascicle architecture.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    9
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Associations between exercise-induced flattening of foot arch and fatigue of extrinsic and intrinsic foot muscles

    Shiotani, H, Takahashi, K, Tomari, K, Honma, Y, Hayashi, H, Sado, N, Kumai, T, Kawakami, Y

    ISBS Proceedings Archive   40 ( 1 ) 155  2022.07  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

  • Effect of shod and barefoot running on muscle mechanical properties

    Junya Saeki, Hiroto Shiotani, Yasuo Kawakami

    Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness   62 ( 7 ) 883 - 889  2022.07  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    BACKGROUND: Barefoot runners have a higher probability of lower leg and foot disorders compared to runners wearing traditional running shoes. However, the site of muscle stress due to barefoot running has not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the effects of shod and barefoot running on muscle mechanical properties. METHODS: Atotal of 18 healthy male subjects were included in this study and were assigned to either the shod running group or the barefoot running group. While the shod group ran on the treadmill at a speed of 75% heart rate reserve for 45 min with shoes, the barefoot group ran without shoes after warm-up session. As an index of muscle stiffness, the shear wave velocity (SWV) of the eleven lower extremity muscles were measured at rest before and after exercise using shear wave elastography. RESULTS: The tibialis posterior SWV was increased after running in the shod (3.67±0.41 m/s to 3.90±0.45 m/s) and barefoot (3.70±0.36 m/s to 4.02±0.54 m/s) groups. In contrast, the vastus lateralis SWV was increased only in the shod group (2.62±0.32 m/s to 2.80±0.34 m/s), while the peroneus muscle SWV increased only in the barefoot group (3.24±0.48 m/s to 3.50±0.55 m/s and 2.92±0.5 m/s to 3.11±0.49 m/s for the superficial and deep layers, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The shod condition selectively influences changes in the stiffness of the vastus lateralis and peroneus muscles during running but has no effect on the tibialis posterior.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

  • Lower limb in sprinters with larger relative mass but not larger normalized moment of inertia

    Natsuki Sado, Hoshizora Ichinose, Yasuo Kawakami

    bioRxiv    2022.03  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

    DOI

  • Determinants of whole-body maximal aerobic performance in young male and female athletes: The roles of lower extremity muscle size, strength and power

    Yamagishi, T, Saito, A, Kawakami, Y

    PLoS One   17 ( 1 ) e0262507  2022.01  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    This study sought to determine whether lower extremity muscle size, power and strength could be a determinant of whole-body maximal aerobic performance in athletes. 20 male and 19 female young athletes (18 ± 4 years) from various sporting disciplines participated in this study. All athletes performed a continuous ramp-incremental cycling to exhaustion for the determination of peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]: the highest [Formula: see text] over a 15-s period) and maximal power output (MPO: power output corresponding to [Formula: see text]). Axial scanning of the right leg was performed with magnetic resonance imaging, and anatomical cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of quadriceps femoris (QF) and hamstring muscles at 50% of thigh length were measured. Moreover, bilateral leg extension power and unilateral isometric knee extension and flexion torque were determined. All variables were normalised to body mass, and six independent variables ([Formula: see text], CSAs of thigh muscles, leg extension power and knee extension and flexion torque) were entered into a forward stepwise multiple regression model with MPO being dependent variable for males and females separately. In the males, [Formula: see text] was chosen as the single predictor of MPO explaining 78% of the variance. In the females, MPO was attributed to, in the order of importance, [Formula: see text] (p < 0.001) and the CSA of QF (p = 0.011) accounting for 84% of the variance. This study suggests that while oxygen transport capacity is the main determinant of MPO regardless of sex, thigh muscle size also has a role in whole-body maximal aerobic performance in female athletes.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    2
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Development of Joint Mechanism that can Achieve Both Active Drive and Variable Joint Quasi-stiffness by Utilizing 4-Bar and 5-Bar Composite Linkage

    Hiroki Mineshita, Takuya Otani, Yuji Kuroiwa, Masanori Sakaguchi, Yasuo Kawakami, Hun ok Lim, Atsuo Takanishi

    CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences, Courses and Lectures   606   231 - 237  2022  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    A large joint output is required for the robot to perform dynamic motions. Most previous robots output power only with actuators, with a lot of energy. On the other hand, humans perform with high efficiency by storing and releasing energy by tendons. When trying to simulate it with robots, the actuator and elastic element are arranged in series. This mechanism becomes complicated, large and heavy. Therefore, we propose a novel joint mechanism reducing the size and weight by designing using a 5-bar linkage. To make it easy to use for the joint mechanism, we propose to combine the 5-bar linkage and the 4-bar linkage. We developed an ankle joint of the robot with this mechanism. While demonstrating the same performance as the previous mechanism, we succeeded in reducing the size by 20% and the weight by 0.7 kg.

    DOI

    Scopus

    1
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Inhomogeneous and anisotropic mechanical properties of the triceps surae aponeuroses in older adults: Relationships with muscle strength and walking performance

    Xiyao Shan, Pavlos Evangelidis, Takaki Yamagishi, Shun Otsuka, Fumiko Tanaka, Shigenobu Shibata, Yasuo Kawakami

    Journal of Aging and Physical Activity   29 ( 4 ) 642 - 650  2021.08  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    This study investigated (a) site- and direction-dependent variations of passive triceps surae aponeurosis stiffness and (b) the relationships between aponeurosis stiffness and muscle strength and walking performance in older individuals. Seventy-nine healthy older adults participated in this study. Shear wave velocities of the triceps surae aponeuroses at different sites and in two orthogonal directions were obtained in a prone position at rest using supersonic shear imaging. The maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque of the plantar flexors and normal (preferred) and fast (fastest possible) walking speeds (5-m distance) were also measured. The shear wave velocities of the adjoining aponeuroses were weakly associated with plantar flexion torque (r =.23-.34), normal (r =.26), and fast walking speed (r =.25). The results show clear spatial variations and anisotropy of the triceps surae aponeuroses stiffness in vivo, and the aponeurosis stiffness was associated with physical ability in older adults.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

  • Changes in morphological and mechanical properties of Achilles tendon after rupture and surgery: A follow-up survey of one patient

    Yasuo Kawakami, Taku Wakahara, Shinichi Kawamoto

    Japanese Journal of Bone and Muscle Ultrasound   20 ( 2 ) 5 - 16  2021.08  [Refereed]  [Domestic journal]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

    J-GLOBAL

  • Track distance runners exhibit bilateral differences in the plantar fascia stiffness

    Hiroto Shiotani, Ryo Yamashita, Tomohiro Mizokuchi, Natsuki Sado, Munekazu Naito, Yasuo Kawakami

    Scientific Reports   11 ( 1 )  2021.04  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    Abstract

    Human steady-state locomotion modes are symmetrical, leading to symmetric mechanical function of human feet in general; however, track distance running in a counterclockwise direction exposes the runner’s feet to asymmetrical stress. This may induce asymmetrical adaptation in the runners’ foot arch functions, but this has not been experimentally tested. Here, we show that the plantar fascia (PF), a primary structure of the foot arch elasticity, is stiffer for the left than the right foot as a characteristic of runners, via a cross-sectional study on 10 track distance runners and 10 untrained individuals. Shear wave velocity (index of tissue stiffness: SWV) and thickness of PF and foot dimensions were compared between sides and groups. Runners showed higher PF SWV in their left (9.4 ± 1.0 m/s) than right (8.9 ± 0.9 m/s) feet, whereas untrained individuals showed no bilateral differences (8.5 ± 1.5 m/s and 8.6 ± 1.7 m/s, respectively). Additionally, runners showed higher left to right (L/R) ratio of PF SWV than untrained men (105.1% and 97.7%, respectively). PF thickness and foot dimensions were not significantly different between sides or groups. These results demonstrate stiffer PF in the left feet of runners, which may reflect adaptation to their running-specific training that involves asymmetrical mechanical loading.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    8
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Characteristics of inhomogeneous lower extremity growth and devolopment in early childhood:a cross-sectional study

    Apibantaweesakul, S, Omura, S, Qi, W, Shiotani H, Evangelidis, P, E, Sado, N, Tanaka, F, Kawakami, Y

    BMC Pediatr.   21 ( 1 ) 552  2021  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    <title>Abstract</title><sec>
    <title>Background</title>
    Early childhood is a transferring stage between the two accelerated growth periods (infant and adolescent). Body dimensions are related to physical growth and development. The purpose of this study was to investigate physical growth in terms of anthropometry, muscle growth of the lower extremity, and functional development over early childhood.


    </sec><sec>
    <title>Methods</title>
    A cross-sectional study was carried out on 29 preschool children (PS: 3–5 years), 21 school children (SC: 6–8 years), and 22 adults (AD: 20–35 years). Lower extremity characteristics (segmental dimensions, muscle and adipose tissue thicknesses of the thigh and lower leg), and voluntary joint torque (knee and ankle) were measured. Correlations between parameters and group comparisons were performed.


    </sec><sec>
    <title>Results</title>
    All the parameters except for body mass index (BMI) and subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness were correlated with age for PS and SC combined (<italic>r</italic> = 0.479–0.920, <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.01). Relative thigh and shank lengths to body height were greatest in AD and smallest in PS (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) but the relative foot dimensions were significantly larger in PS and SC than in AD (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05). Relative subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness was largest in PS and lowest in AD. Muscle thickness and the muscle volume measure (estimated from muscle thickness and limb length) were significantly larger in older age groups (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05). All groups showed comparable muscle thickness when normalized to limb length. Joint torque normalized to estimated muscle volume was greatest for AD, followed by SC and PS (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05).


    </sec><sec>
    <title>Conclusions</title>
    Relative lower extremity lengths increase with age, except for the foot dimensions. Muscle size increases with age in proportion to the limb length, while relative adiposity decreases. Torque-producing capacity is highly variable in children and rapidly develops toward adulthood. This cross-sectional study suggests that children are not a small scale version of adults, neither morphologically nor functionally.


    </sec>

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    2
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Investigation of the association between human fascia lata thickness and its neighboring tissues’ morphology and function using B-mode ultrasonography

    Otsuka, S, Shan, X, Kurumisawa, K, Omura, S, Yamagishi, T, Naito, M, Kawakami, Y

    J. Anat.   239 ( 5 ) 1114 - 1122  2021  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    The fascia lata is a membrane tissue which envelopes all thigh muscles and connects with the subcutaneous adipose tissues through loose connective tissues. It is presumable that the morphology of the fascia lata is strongly affected by the unique properties of underlying thigh muscles and subcutaneous adipose tissues. We aimed to investigate the relationships between characteristics of the fascia lata and adjoining adipose tissues and underlying muscles. Twenty healthy people were recruited (25 ± 3 years, 167.1 ± 8.5 cm, 62.5 ± 13.2 kg). The thickness of the skeletal muscles (rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus), and their overlying fascia lata and subcutaneous adipose tissues were measured by B-mode ultrasonography. Isometric knee extension and flexion torque during maximal voluntary contraction were also tested. The fascia lata thickness demonstrated site-dependent differences (vastus lateralis: 0.91 ± 0.20 mm > rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus: 0.56-0.69 mm, p < 0.01). Furthermore, there were large individual variations in the fascia lata thickness even in the same region of the thigh. The fascia lata showed positive simple correlations with height (rectus femoris: r = 0.39 p = 0.01, semitendinosus: r = 0.37 p < 0.05), body mass (rectus femoris: r = 0.59, p < 0.01, vastus lateralis: r = 0.47, p < 0.01, semitendinosus: r = 0.55, p < 0.01), corresponding muscle thickness (rectus femoris: r = 0.39, p < 0.05, semitendinosus: r = 0.74, p < 0.01) and knee extension (rectus femoris: r = 0.52, p < 0.01, vastus lateralis: r = 0.40, p < 0.01) and flexion (semitendinosus: r = 0.41, p < 0.01) torques. After adjusting for the influence of height and/or body mass, the fascia lata thickness showed a partial correlation only with the skeletal muscle thickness at the semitendinosus (r = 0.61, p < 0.01). The present study revealed that the fascia lata has site-specific differences of the thickness, which positively correlates with the underlying muscle thickness and corresponding joint torque. Furthermore, the fascia lata over the semitendinosus is associated with the underlying muscle characteristics independent of the physical constitution. It is assumed that the fascia lata has the plasticity and changes its thickness, which likely corresponds to the morphology of the neighboring tissues and underlying muscle function.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    1
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Inhomogeneous and anisotropic mechanical properties of the triceps surae muscles and aponeuroses in vivo during submaximal muscle contraction

    Shan, X, Otsuka, S, Li, L, Kawakami, Y

    J. Biomech.   121   110396 - 110396  2021  [Refereed]  [International journal]  [International coauthorship]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    This study aimed to identify characteristics of the triceps surae muscles and aponeuroses stiffness in vivo, during graded isometric submaximal plantarflexion efforts. A total of twelve healthy male subjects (age: 27 ± 4 years) participated and were required to stay at rest (0% MVC) and perform isometric submaximal plantar flexion contractions (20%, 40%, 60% of MVC) on a dynamometer. Young's modulus of triceps surae muscles and the adjoining aponeuroses between gastrocnemii and soleus at the proximal and distal sites were obtained in the longitudinal direction (along muscle's line of action) during at rest and submaximal plantar flexions. Additionally, Young's modulus of adjoining aponeuroses in the transverse direction at the distal sites was also calculated. Young's modulus of LG (lateral gastrocnemius), SOL-lat (lateral part of soleus) and LPS (superficial aponeurosis of LG) at the proximal site showed significant (p < 0.001) graded increase response to the submaximal contraction levels. Besides, in the lateral side, significant differences in the Young's modulus of aponeuroses were observed between longitudinal and transverse directions at rest and during contractions (p < 0.002). Changes of aponeuroses length were significantly correlated with Young's modulus changes of the proximal gastrocnemii muscle bellies (r = 0.43-0.45, p = 0.006-0.008) and superficial aponeuroses (r = 0.49-0.60, p < 0.002). The results further indicate that the triceps surae muscles and aponeuroses showed inhomogeneous and anisotropic mechanical properties during submaximal muscle contractions, and the stiffening effect of muscle belly possibly make influence on the mechanical properties of aponeuroses during muscle contractions, especially for the lateral gastrocnemius.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    9
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • An acute eccentric exercise increases circulating myomesin 4 fragments

    Lee, M, Shin, J, Kato,T, Kanda, K, Oikawa, S, Sakuma, J, Sugama, Y, Kawakami, Y, Suzuki, K, Akimoto, T

    J. Physiol. Sci.   71 ( 1 ) 1 - 6  2021  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    <title>Abstract</title>Discovery of blood biomarkers to evaluate exercise-induced muscle damage have attracted many researchers and coaches. This study aimed to determine changes in circulating myomesin 3 fragments as a novel biomarker for exercise-induced muscle damage. Nine healthy males performed 10 sets of 40 repetitions of one-leg calf-raise exercise by the load corresponding to the half of their body weight. Muscle symptoms were evaluated by a visual analog scale (VAS). Blood samples were collected before and 2, 4, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post-exercise. Plasma myomesin 3 fragments levels were significantly increased at 96 h after the eccentric exercise. The myomesin 3 fragments levels were correlated with other biomarkers of muscle damage and the muscle symptoms. These results suggest that the circulating myomesin 3 fragments levels are potential biomarkers reflecting eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    2
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Positional difference of malleoli-midpoint from three-dimensional geometric centre of rotation of ankle and its effect on ankle joint kinetics

    Sado, N, Shiotani, H, Saeki, J, Kawakami, Y

    Gait Posture   83   223 - 229  2021  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    Backgrounds: Joint kinetic calculations are sensitive to joint centre locations. Although geometric hip and knee joint centre/axis are generally developed, the ankle joint centre (AJC) is conventionally defined as the midpoint between the malleolus lateralis and medialis (AJCMID) in most gait analyses. Research question: We examined the positional difference of the AJCMID from the geometric centre of rotation (AJCFUN) and its effect on the ankle joint kinetics in representative human gaits. Methods: In the first experiment, we calculated the AJCFUN and indicated its location on the ankle MRI in 14 (seven male and seven female) participants. In the second experiment, we compared ankle kinematics/kinetics based on AJCFUN and AJCMID during walking and hopping at 2.6 Hz in 17 (nine male and eight female) participants. Results: In both experiments, AJCFUN was located at positions significantly medial (-9.2 ± 5.4 mm and -10.1 ± 4.4 mm) and anterior (17.0 ± 7.4 mm and 15.3 ± 5.2 mm) from the AJCMID. Furthermore, the AJCMID underestimated peak dorsiflexion (AJCMID/AJCFUN: 52.6 ± 17.1%) and inversion (AJCMID/AJCFUN: 62.2 ± 11.5%) torques and their durations in walking. Additionally, AJCMID overestimated the plantar flexion torque in both gait modes [AJCMID/AJCFUN: 111.3 ± 4.8% (walking) and 112.7 ± 6.3% (hopping)]. Significance: We therefore concluded that the positional difference between the geometric and landmark-based AJC definitions significantly affected ankle kinetics, thereby indicating that the functional method should be used for defining AJC for gait analysis.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    6
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Human plantar fascial dimensions and shear wave velocity change in vivo as a function of ankle and metatarsophalangeal joint positions

    Hiroto Shiotani, Nana Maruyama, Keisuke Kurumisawa, Takaki Yamagishi, Yasuo Kawakami

    Journal of Applied Physiology   130 ( 2 ) 390 - 399  2021  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Joint angle dependence and site specificity of the plantar fascial dimensions and SWV were examined by combining sagittal magnetic resonance and supersonic shear imaging techniques. We revealed that the site-specific changes in PF SWV were related to joint angle positions, i.e., PF slackness and elasticity changed in varying combinations of ankle and MTP angle. Our findings suggest that PF can elastically support the foot arch throughout the stance phase of human bipedal locomotion.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    7
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Jumping motion generation for humanoid robot using arm swing effectively and changing in foot contact status

    H. Mineshita, T. Otani, M. Sakaguchi, Y. Kawakami, H. O. Lim, A. Takanishi

    IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems     3823 - 3828  2020.10  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Human jumping involves not only lower limbs but also whole-body coordination. During jumping, the effect of sinking the center of mass for recoil and arm swing are significant, and they can cause changes in the jump height. However, upper body movements during jumping movements of humanoid robots have not been studied adequately. When jumping involves only the lower limbs, the burden on the lower limbs increases and it is difficult to jump as high as humans do. Also, if the sole is in contact with the ground during jumping movements, we cannot make good use of the ankle joint. Humans raise their heels during jumping movements, but there are few cases where humanoid robots achieve these movements. Therefore, we thought that jumping with recoil motion by the sinking, arm swing, and changing in foot contact status could result in a higher jump height higher than that possible with only lower limb movements. Hence, in this study, we generated jumping motion using sinking, arm swing and changing foot posture. First, a center of mass trajectory was generated by planning the entire jumping motion, and at the same time, the angular momentum was determined for stability. Next, the joint trajectory was calculated using these two parameters. At that time, arm trajectory and foot posture were specified in the null space. This generated a jumping motion considering arm swing. During simulations, this method provided a jump height almost four times the jump height that obtained without arm swing.

    DOI

    Scopus

    6
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Minute oscillation stretching: A novel modality for reducing musculo‐tendinous stiffness and maintaining muscle strength

    Naoki Ikeda, Takahisa Yonezu, Yasuo Kawakami

    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine &amp; Science in Sports   31 ( 1 ) 104 - 114  2020.10  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    3
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Development of a Trapezoidal Leaf Spring for a Small and Light Variable Joint Stiffness Mechanism

    Hiroki Mineshita, Takuya Otani, Kenji Hashimoto, Masanori Sakaguchi, Yasuo Kawakami, Hun-ok Lim, Atsuo Takanishi

    ROMANSY 23 - Robot Design, Dynamics and Control     355 - 363  2020.09  [Refereed]

    DOI

    Scopus

    1
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Acute effects of long‐distance running on mechanical and morphological properties of the human plantar fascia

    Shiotani, H, Mizokuchi, T, Yamashita, R, Naito, M, Kawakami, Y

    Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports   30 ( 8 ) 1360 - 1368  2020.08  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Long-distance running (LDR) can induce transient lowering of the foot arch, which may be associated with mechanical fatigue of the plantar fascia (PF). However, this has not been experimentally tested in vivo. The purpose of this study was to test our hypothesis that LDR induces transient and site-specific changes in PF stiffness and morphology and that those changes are related to the lowering of the foot arch. Ten male recreational long-distance runners and 10 untrained men were requested to run overground for 10 km. Before and after running, shear wave velocity (SWV: an index of soft tissue stiffness) and thickness of PF at three different sites from its proximal to distal end were measured using supersonic shear imaging and B-mode ultrasonography. Foot dimensions including the navicular height were measured using a three-dimensional foot scanner. SWV at the proximal site of PF and navicular height was significantly decreased in both groups after running, with a higher degree in untrained men (−21.9% and −14.1%, respectively) than in runners (−4.0% and −6.3%, respectively). The relative change (%Δ) in SWV was positively correlated with %Δnavicular height in both groups (r =.69 and r =.65, respectively). Multiple regression analysis revealed that %ΔSWV at the proximal site solely explained 72.7% of the total variance in %Δnavicular height. It is concluded that LDR induces transient and site-specific decreases in PF stiffness. These results suggest that the majority of running-induced lowering of the foot arch is attributable to the reduction of PF stiffness at the proximal site.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    13
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • 人間の特徴に着目した投球ヒューマノイドロボットの開発(第1報:弾性力と慣性力を利用した投球が可能な投球腕部機構の開発)

    渡部竜也, 峯下弘毅, 大谷拓也, 川上泰雄, 林憲玉, 林憲玉, 高西淳夫, 高西淳夫

    日本ロボット学会学術講演会予稿集(CD-ROM)   38th  2020  [Refereed]

    J-GLOBAL

  • Investigation of parallel connection circuit by hydraulic direct-drive system for biped humanoid robot focusing on human running motion

    Mineshita, H, Otani, T, Hashimoto, K, Sakaguchi, M, Kawakami, Y, Lim, H, Takanishi, A

    23rd CISM IFToMM Symposium on Robot Design, Dynamics and Control   23   34 - 42  2020  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We are developing the biped humanoid robot WATHLETE-1 (Waseda ATHLETE humanoid No.1) that has the same mass arrangement, link ratio, and output characteristics as humans. It is not possible to mount high-power electromagnetic motors and mechanical transmissions that satisfy the hip joint output at running because its weight makes it impossible to realize human body characteristics. To realize the characteristics of the human body, we adopted a hydraulic drive system that has a more advanced design than a mechanical transmission mechanism, that concentrates on the joints, and that can distribute output by splitting and merging oil. We propose a hydraulic circuit that improves the output of the actuator by connecting two hydraulic direct drive systems (HDDs) in parallel, independently mounted on the ankle and the hip joints using proportional valves. As a result, it has been confirmed that hip joint speed was improved by 200% compared to a single HDDs and with the potential of simulating the hip joint output required for a human running at 2.0 m/s.

    DOI

    Scopus

    1
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Effects of the time-of-day (morning vs. afternoon) of implementing a combined physical and cognitive exercise program on cognitive functions and mood of older adults: A randomized controlled study

    Takahashi, T, Haitani, T, Tanaka, F, Yamagishi, T, Kawakami, Y, Shibata, S, Kumano, H

    Adv. Geront.   33 ( 3 ) 595 - 599  2020  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This study examined the effects of the time of conducting a combined physical and cognitive exercise program on cognitive functions and the mood of older adults. We randomly assigned 17 participants (8 men, 9 women, age 73,24±3,75) to the morning group (AM Group), 18 (8 men, 10 women, age 73,11±4,84) to the afternoon group (PM Group), and they completed a 12-week, dual-task exercise program in the morning or the afternoon, respectively. Moreover, the waiting-list control group consisted of 12 participants (6 men, 6 women, age 73,25±5,93). The cognitive functions and the mood of the participants were assessed before and after the program by using the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination, and the short version of the Profile of Mood States, respectively. As a result, the exercise program conducted in the afternoon had broader effects on cognitive functions (increased Repetition and Memory) than in the morning (increased Repetition), or the waiting-list control group (increased Judgment). Moreover, the program in the afternoon tended to reduce Anger-Hostility, and Fatigue. In conclusion, conducting the exercise program in the afternoon might be more effective for improving cognitive functions and the mood of older adults than in the morning. However, there was heterogeneity between the groups despite the randomization. Therefore, we suggest conducting a more rigorously controlled study using a larger sample to validate these findings.

    DOI PubMed

  • エコーによるFasciaの弾性評価

    川上泰雄

    臨床スポーツ医学   37 ( 2 ) 184 - 190  2020  [Refereed]  [Invited]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

    J-GLOBAL

  • Improving road bike leaning skills on downhill corners (developing a system for detecting curvature change points and the angle of a road bike while riding)

    Sakai, D, Uchida, N, Enomoto, S, Iwata, S, Kawakami, Y, Wesugi, S

    Proceedings 2020   49   153 - 153  2020  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • アキレス腱のバイオメカニクス

    川上泰雄

    臨床スポーツ医学   37 ( 7 ) 750 - 759  2020  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

    J-GLOBAL

  • Site dependent elastic property of human iliotibial band and the effect of hip and knee joint angle configuration

    Otsuka, S, Shan, X, Yoshida, K, Yakura, T, Naito, M, Kawakami, Y

    J. Biomech.   109   109919  2020  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    © 2020 The iliotibial band (ITB) is the lateral thickening of the fascia lata. The ITB has been extensively studied for its relevance to injury, but not much is known about its elastic properties. We aimed to investigate the site- and joint angle-dependence of ITB elasticity. We tested twelve healthy males (22–30 years; in vivo) and twelve male cadavers (69–93 years; cadaver). The Young's modulus of the ITB was measured in the longitudinal direction at five sites (over the proximal, middle, and distal bellies of the vastus lateralis (VL), superior border of the patella, and between femur and tibia) of the right limb, by ultrasound shear wave elastography (in vivo) and the tensile test (cadaver). Joint angle-dependence was also studied for nine different positions (knee angles at 0, 25, 90˚ x hip angles at 0, 40, 90˚) (in vivo). Over VL, the ITB was more compliant at the distal (17.6–190.1 kPa; in vivo, 219.4 ± 68.8 MPa; cadaver, mean ± SD) than other sites (24.2–221.4 kPa, 337.9–362.7 MPa). The ITB at the superior border of the patella and between femur and tibia was stiffer in vivo (31.8–271.8 and 50.9–208.8 kPa), while it was more compliant in cadavers (113.4 ± 63.7 and 130.4 ± 73.7 MPa), compared to other sites. The ITB became stiffer associated with increasing hip extension angle and knee flexion angle, and the hip remarkably affecting the values regardless of site (in vivo). Our findings have clinical significance with respect to the site- and joint angle-dependence of ITB-related overuse injury.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    11
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Robotic Ankle Mechanism Capable of Kicking while Jumping and Running and Adaptable to Change in Running Speed

    H. Mineshita, T. Otani, K. Hashimoto, M. Sakaguchi, Y. Kawakami, H. O. Lim, A. Takanishi

    IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots   2019-October   505 - 510  2019.10  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    When humanoid robots perform dynamic operations such as jumping and running, large outputs are required at each joint. It is known that humans save energy by using muscles and tendons effectively during dynamic motion. Therefore, we consider that energy saving and dynamic motion can be realized in robots by adding elements that replace such muscles and tendons. Based on this, we previously developed a robot with elasticity in the leg joints. However, its ankle joint mechanism did not have sufficient power to kick like a human while running. In addition, although the joint quasi-stiffness of the human leg changed according to the running speed, it could not handle high speeds nor simulate the required stiffness at low speeds. Therefore, we developed an ankle mechanism that is capable of kicking while jumping and running and adaptable to changes in running speed. By placing leaf springs in series, the mechanism achieved a joint stiffness of 250 to 350 Nm/rad, which is the ankle joint quasi-stiffness required for running at speeds of 2.0 to 5.0 m/s. By using a double motor, moreover, the mechanism succeeded at active kicking with a load torque of 110 Nm, equivalent to the value of active kicking while jumping.

    DOI

    Scopus

    3
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Design and Evaluation of a Training system to Increase Knee Extension Load During Walking

    Zixi Gu, Mazoon Salim Al Maamari, Di Zhang, Yasuo Kawakami, Sarah Cosentino, Atsuo Takanishi

    2019 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation (ICMA)    2019.08  [Refereed]

    DOI

    Scopus

    2
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Site- and sex-differences in morphological and mechanical properties of the plantar fascia: A supersonic shear imaging study

    Shiotani, H, Yamashita, R, Mizokuchi, T, Naito, M, Kawakami,Y

    J. Biomech.   85   198 - 203  2019.03  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the site- and sex-differences in the morphological and mechanical properties of the plantar fascia (PF) in humans. The thickness and shear wave velocity (SWV) of PF at five different sites between the medial calcaneal tubercle and the second toe were measured for 40 healthy young participants (20 males and 20 females) using supersonic shear imaging (SSI). The thickness and SWV measurements were highly repeatable (ICC ≥ 0.93). The proximal sites of PF around the calcaneal attachment were significantly thicker and stiffer (higher SWV values) than the middle and distal sites (p < 0.05). In addition, females had significantly thinner PF in proximal and middle sites than males, while being significantly stiffer in regardless of the sites, compared with males (p < 0.05). The results of the present study partly support previous findings on the site- and sex-differences in PF morphology, and further reveal inhomogeneity and sex-specificity of PF stiffness. The present study widely opens the possibility of evaluating PF functions in vivo.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    25
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Stretching combined with repetitive small length changes of the plantar flexors enhances their passive extensibility while not compromising strength

    Naoki Ikeda, Takayuki Inami, Yasuo Kawakami

    Journal of Sports Science and Medicine   18 ( 1 ) 58 - 64  2019.03  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Static stretching increases flexibility but can decrease muscle strength; therefore, a method that would avoid the latter has been longed for. In this study, a novel stretching modality was developed that provides repetitive small length changes to the plantar flexor muscles undergoing passive static stretching (minute oscillation stretching). We investigated the effects of minute oscillation stretching on muscle strength and flexibility and its continuance. Isometric plantar flexion strength and maximal ankle joint dorsiflexion angle (dorsiflexion range of motion) were measured in 10 healthy young men (22 ± 2 years) before (pre) and immediately after (post) 3 types of stretching: static stretching, minute oscillation stretching at 15 Hz, and no intervention (control). The dorsiflexion range of motion was also measured at 15, 30, and 60 min post-stretching. Elongation of the medial gastrocnemius and Achilles tendon was determined by ultrasonography. Plantar flexion strength significantly decreased by 4.3 ± 3.5% in static stretching but not in minute oscillation stretching. The dorsiflexion range of motion significantly increased both in static stretching (7.2 ± 8.1%) and minute oscillation stretching (11.2 ± 14.6%), which was accompanied by a significantly larger muscle elongation but not tendon elongation. Elevated dorsiflexion range of motion was maintained until 30 min after minute oscillation stretching, while levels returned to baseline (pre-intervention) 15 min after static stretching. All variables remained unchanged in the control condition. In conclusion, minute oscillation stretching improves extensibility of the muscle belly without decreasing strength. Furthermore, the augmented flexibility to a similar extent to static stretching is retained for 30 min in minute oscillation stretching and within 15 min in static stretching.

    PubMed

  • 深筋膜の厚さと筋厚および筋力との関連性(The relationships between deep fascia thickness and muscle thickness and strength)

    Otsuka, S, Shan, X, Kurumisawa, K, Omura, S, Kawakami, Y

    J. Phys. Fitness Sports Med.   8 ( 6 ) 320 - 320  2019

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

  • 骨盤運動に着目した2足走行ロボットの開発(第23報:高出力,剛性変化可能で人間と同等の質量特性を有する下腿機構)

    黒岩祐志, 大谷拓也, 峯下弘毅, 阪口正律, 川上泰雄, 林憲玉, 林憲玉, 高西淳夫, 高西淳夫

    日本ロボット学会学術講演会予稿集(CD-ROM)   37th  2019  [Refereed]

    J-GLOBAL

  • 骨盤運動に着目した2足走行ロボットの開発(第24報:2足走行ロボットへの搭載に向けた油圧駆動股関節機構)

    水上英紀, 大谷拓也, 橋本健二, 橋本健二, 清水自由理, 清水自由理, 峯下弘毅, 川上泰雄, 阪口正律, 林憲玉, 林憲玉, 高西淳夫, 高西淳夫

    日本ロボット学会学術講演会予稿集(CD-ROM)   37th  2019  [Refereed]

    J-GLOBAL

  • Improvement of Hip Joint Output of Biped Humanoid Robot by Parallel Connection of Hydraulic Direct-Drive System Inspired by Human Running Motion

    水上英紀, 大谷拓也, 清水自由理, 清水自由理, 橋本健二, 阪口正律, 川上泰雄, LIM Hun-ok, LIM Hun-ok, 高西淳夫

    フルードパワーシステム講演会講演論文集   2019  2019  [Refereed]

    J-GLOBAL

  • スポーツ選手を対象とした骨格筋量の計測をどう捉えるか

    江間 諒一, 若原 卓, 川上 泰雄

    バイオメカニクス研究   23 ( 1 ) 52 - 59  2019  [Invited]  [Domestic journal]

    Authorship:Last author

    J-GLOBAL

  • Morphological and mechanical properties of the human triceps surae aponeuroses taken from elderly cadavers: Implications for muscle-tendon interactions

    Shan, X, Otsuka, S, Yakura, T, Naito, M, Nakano, T, Kawakami,Y

    PLoS ONE   14 ( 2 ) e0211485  2019  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    The human triceps surae (two gastrocnemii and soleus) has aponeuroses in the proximal and distal aspects, the latter of which insert into the calcaneus by sharing the common Achilles tendon. These tendinous tissues are known to have elasticity and upon muscle contraction the aponeurosis is stretched both longitudinally (along the muscle's line of action) and transversely. Higher aponeurosis transverse deformability has been documented, but there is a paucity of information on the morphology and mechanical properties of human aponeurosis. This study aimed to identify morphological and mechanical characteristics of the human triceps surae aponeuroses. Twenty-five triceps surae muscle-tendon units were procured from 13 human donors (formalin fixed, 6 males, 7 females) aged 67-91 years. Specimens of aponeuroses were excised from the eight regions (posterior and anterior regions of the gastrocnemius medialis and lateralis, medial and lateral parts of soleus; proximal, middle, and distal sites each, 2-4 cm × 2-4 cm). Aponeurosis thickness was measured using a digital caliper. Uniaxial tensile tests were implemented to determine the mechanical properties of specimens loaded longitudinally (along the muscle's line of action) and transversely. The aponeurosis thickness showed significant differences between muscles and sites, while Young's modulus showed direction-dependent (longitudinal vs. transverse) differences within sites. Results show different morphology and mechanical properties of aponeuroses between synergist muscles. The reason for site-dependent differences in stiffness is due to a reduced aponeurosis thickness rather than a reduction in the material property. The anisotropic elastic feature (differences between longitudinal and transverse directions) of the aponeuroses was more pronounced than previous in vivo findings, suggesting inherent material design of the aponeurosis that matches three-dimensional contractile behavior of muscle fibers.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    15
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Dependence of muscle and deep fascia stiffness on the contraction levels of the quadriceps: an in vivo supersonic shear-imaging study

    Otsuka, S, Shan, X, Kawakami, Y

    J. Electromyogr. Kinesiol.   45   33 - 40  2019  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    In the present study we investigated muscle contraction-driven changes in deep fascia mechanical property, to reveal mechanical interactions between them. Fourteen males (22-37 yr) performed isometric knee extension at 20, 40, 60% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). During each contraction and at rest, shear wave velocities (SWV) of the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) and fascia lata were measured in both longitudinal and transverse ultrasound transducer directions relative to the thigh. Surface electromyogram was recorded from RF and VL and root mean square (RMS) values were determined. The slopes of the linear correlations between normalized SWV (%SWV: relative to rest) and RMS (%RMSEMG: relative to MVC) were calculated for different sites and directions. Both muscles and fascia lata became stiffer as the muscle activation level increased to comparable degrees, with the slopes of those changes being 4-9 times higher in the longitudinal than transverse direction. The fascia lata showed lower slopes than those of muscles in the longitudinal direction while in the transverse direction neither parts showed significant differences. These results suggest that the force produced by the muscles partly transmitted to the fascia lata in the longitudinal and transverse directions, causing anisotropic changes in musculofascial entity.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    33
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Walking and finger tapping can be done with independent rhythms

    Qi, W, Nakajima, T, Sakamoto, M, Kato, K, Kawakami, Y, Kanosue, K

    Sci. Rep.   9 ( 1 ) 7620  2019  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Rhythmic movements occur in many aspects of daily life. Examples include clapping the hands and walking. The production of two independent rhythms with multiple limbs is considered to be extremely difficult. In the present study we evaluated whether two different, independent rhythms that involved finger tapping and walking could be produced. In Experiment I, twenty subjects that had no experience of musical instrument training performed rhythmic finger tapping with the right index finger and one of four different lower limb movements; (1) self-paced walking, (2) given-paced walking, (3) alternative bilateral heel tapping from a sitting position, and (4) unilateral heel tapping with the leg ipsilateral to the tapping finger from a sitting position. The target intervals of finger tapping and heel strikes for walking step/heel tapping were set at 375 ms and 600 ms, respectively. The even distribution of relative phases between instantaneous finger tapping and heel strike was taken as the criteria of independency for the two rhythms. In the self-paced walking and given-paced walking tasks, 16 out of 20 subjects successfully performed finger tapping and walking with independent rhythms without any special practice. On the other hand, in the bipedal heels striking and unipedal heel striking tasks 19 subjects failed to perform the two movements independently, falling into interrelated rhythms with the ratio mostly being 2:1. In Experiment II, a similar independency of finger tapping and walking at a given pace was observed for heel strike intervals of 400, 600, and 800 ms, as well as at the constant 375 ms for finger tapping. These results suggest that finger tapping and walking are controlled by separate neural control mechanisms, presumably with a supra-spinal locus for finger tapping, and a spinal location for walking.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    9
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Effects of instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization on musculoskeletal properties

    Ikeda, N, Otsuka, S, Kawanishi, Y, Kawakami, Y

    Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.   51 ( 10 ) 2166 - 2172  2019  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    PURPOSE: Instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization (IASTM) has been reported to improve joint range of motion (flexibility). However, it is not clear whether this change in the joint range of motion is accompanied by any alterations in the mechanical and/or neural properties. This study aimed to investigate the effects of IASTM in plantarflexors and Achilles tendon on the mechanical and neural properties of them. METHODS: This randomized, controlled, crossover study included 14 healthy volunteers (11 men and 3 women, 21-32 yr). IASTM was performed on the skin over the posterior part of the lower leg for 5 min and targeted the soft tissues (gastrocnemii, soleus, and tibialis posterior muscles; overlying deep fascia; and Achilles tendon). As a control condition, the same participants rested for 5 min between pre- and postmeasurements without IASTM on a separate day. The maximal ankle joint dorsiflexion angle (dorsiflexion range of motion), the peak passive torque (stretch tolerance), and the ankle joint stiffness (slope of the relationship between passive torque and ankle joint angle) during the measurement of the dorsiflexion range of motion and muscle stiffness of the triceps surae (using shear wave elastography) were measured before and immediately after the interventions. RESULTS: After IASTM, the dorsiflexion range of motion significantly increased by 10.7% ± 10.8% and ankle joint stiffness significantly decreased by -6.2% ± 10.1%. However, peak passive torque and muscle stiffness did not change. All variables remained unchanged in the repeated measurements of controls. CONCLUSION: IASTM can improve joint range of motion, without affecting the mechanical and neural properties of the treated muscles.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    36
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Intracellular-to-total water ratio explains the variability of muscle strength dependence on the size of the lower leg in the elderly

    Yoshida, T, Yamada, Y, Tanaka, T, Yamagishi, T, Shibata, S, Kawakami, Y

    Exp. Gerontol.   113   120 - 127  2018.11  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) can assess intracellular water (ICW) and total water (TW) in limbs. This study aimed to examine whether BIS can explain a part of the inter-individual variation of the muscle size-strength relationship in older adults. We analyzed the data of 79 participants aged 64-86 years. The maximal voluntary isometric torques of dorsiflexion and plantar flexion on the right side were measured. The anterior and posterior muscle thickness (MT) in the right lower leg was assessed using ultrasonography. The length of the right lower leg (L) was measured, and the ICW-to-TW ratio (ICW/TW) in the right lower leg was obtained using BIS. The MT was multiplied by L to represent an index of muscle volume (MV). Correlation and stepwise regression analyses were performed. The anterior and posterior MT × L significantly and positively correlated with the muscle torque of dorsiflexion and plantar flexion (r = 0.710 and 0.649, respectively, P < 0.001). In the stepwise regression analyses, ICW/TW was selected as a significant predictor of muscle torque independent of MT × L (P < 0.05) for both dorsiflexion and plantar flexion. Electrical parameters of BIS (membrane capacitance, characteristics frequency, and phase angle) in the lower leg also significantly correlated with muscle torques. In addition, the skeletal muscle mass index (appendicular lean mass/height2) was also associated with ICW/TW (P < 0.001). The present results suggest that ICW/TW explains the interindividual variations of the muscle size-strength relationship.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    20
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Single-joint eccentric knee extension training preferentially trains the rectus femoris within the quadriceps muscles

    Sumiaki Maeo, Xiyao Shan, Shun Otsuka, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Yasuo Kawakami

    Translational Sports Medicine   1 ( 5 ) 212 - 220  2018.09  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    Eccentric contraction-induced quadriceps strains, particularly in the rectus femoris (RF), frequently occur in sports. By using MRI-based transverse relaxation time (T-2) as an index of exercise-induced muscle edema, previous studies found pronounced damage in RF after an acute single-joint eccentric knee extension exercise. This study examined whether single-joint eccentric knee extension training would preferentially train RF, resulting in greater hypertrophy of RF than the other quadriceps muscles. Twelve males conducted work-matched single-joint isokinetic (180 degrees /s) maximal eccentric contractions of the knee extensors in one leg (ECC-leg) and concentric in the other (CON-leg), six sets/session (3-5 sets in the initial 1-3 sessions), two sessions/wk for 10 weeks. Muscle volume of each quadriceps was measured pre- and post-training. T-2 of each muscle was assessed weekly throughout the training period and pre- and post-training. Muscle volume significantly increased in all muscles in ECC-leg only, with a greater degree for RF (+7.3%) than the vasti (2.9%-3.7%). T-2 did not change in all muscles throughout. These results suggest that RF can be preferentially trained by single-joint eccentric knee extension training. Cooperatively with the potential repeated bout effect (ie, protective effect) in eccentric exercise, this training modality would have positive implications for strain injury prevention of RF.

    DOI

    Scopus

    4
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Site specificity of mechanical and structural properties of human fascia lata and their gender differences: A cadaveric study

    Otsuka, S, Yakura, T, Ohmichi, Y, Ohmichi, M, Naito, M, Nakano, T, Kawakami, Y

    J. Biomech.   77   69 - 75  2018.08  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    The whole thigh muscles are covered with the fascia lata, which could have morphological and mechanical features that match the underlying muscles' functions. In this study, we investigated the morphological and elastic properties of the human fascia lata taken from four (anterior, medial, lateral, and posterior) sites on the thigh of 17 legs of 12 cadavers (6 males and 6 females, 75-92 years). The thickness of the fascia lata was determined with a caliper. The interwoven collagen fiber's directions were measured and classified into longitudinal, transverse, and diagonal in two opposing directions, relative to the thigh. Tensile strength test along the longitudinal and transverse directions was performed, and the stiffness, Young's modulus, and hysteresis were determined. Fascia lata at the lateral site (0.8 ± 0.2 mm) was significantly thicker compared to other sites (0.2-0.3 mm). Fiber's directions showed substantial variability among sites, and longitudinally directed fibers were higher in proportion (28-32%) than those in other directions (20-27%) at all sites except for the posterior site. The stiffness and Young's modulus in the longitudinal direction (20-283 N/mm; 71.6-275.9 MPa, highest at the lateral site) were significantly higher than in the transverse direction (3-16 N/mm; 3.2-41.9 MPa, lowest at the lateral site). At the medial site, the proportion of the transversely directed fibers was higher in females than males, with higher stiffness and Young's modulus thereof. The present study shows that the fascia lata possesses site- and gender-dependence of the morphological characteristics and elastic properties.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    35
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Knee extensor muscular activity estimation during different walking patterns: flat normal and brisk walking, stair climbing

    S. Cosentino, R. Kasai, Z. Gu, S. Sessa, Y. Kawakami, A. Takanishi

    2018 40th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)    2018.07  [Refereed]

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    1
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Single-joint Eccentric Knee Extension Training Induces Selective Hypertrophy: A Potential Preventive Measure Against Strain Injuries

    Sumiaki Maeo, Xiyao Shan, Shun Otsuka, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Yasuo Kawakami

    MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE   50 ( 5 ) 783 - 783  2018.05

    Authorship:Last author

  • Unstable rocker shoes promote recovery from marathon-induced muscle damage in novice runners

    Nakagawa, K, Inami, T, Yonezu, T, Kenmotsu, Y, Narita, T, Kawakami, Y, Kanosue, K

    Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports   28 ( 2 ) 621 - 629  2018.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We recently reported that wearing unstable rocker shoes (Masai Barefoot Technology: MBT) may enhance recovery from marathon race-induced fatigue. However, this earlier study only utilized a questionnaire. In this study, we evaluated MBT utilizing objective physiological measures of recovery from marathon-induced muscle damages. Twenty-five university student novice runners were divided into two groups. After running a full marathon, one group wore MBT shoes (MBT group), and the control group (CON) wore ordinary shoes daily for 1 week following the race. We measured maximal isometric joint torque, muscle hardness (real time tissue elastography of the strain ratio) in the lower limb muscles before, immediately after, and 1, 3, and 8 days following the marathon. We calculated the magnitude of recovery by observing the difference in each value between the first measurement and the latter measurements. Results showed that isometric torques in knee flexion recovered at the first day after the race in the MBT group while it did not recover even at the eighth day in the CON group. Muscle hardness in the gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis showed enhanced recovery in the MBT group in comparison with the CON group. Also for muscle hardness in the tibialis anterior and biceps femoris, the timing of recovery was delayed in the CON group. In conclusion, wearing MBT shoes enhanced recovery in lower leg and thigh muscles from muscle damage induced by marathon running.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    11
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Upper-body control and mechanism of humanoids to compensate for angular momentum in the yaw direction based on human running

    Otani, T, Hashimoto, K, Miyamae, S, Ueta, H, Natsuhara, A, Sakaguchi, M, Kawakami, Y, Lim, H, Takanishi, A

    App. Sci.   8 ( 1 ) 44 - 44  2018.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Many extant studies proposed various stabilizing control methods for humanoids during the stance phase while hopping and running. Although these methods contribute to stability during hopping and running, humanoid robots do not swing their legs rapidly during the flight phase to prevent rotation in the yaw direction. Humans utilize their torsos and arms when running to compensate for the angular momentum in the yaw direction generated by leg movement during the flight phase. In this study, we developed an angular momentum control method based on human motion for a humanoid upper body. The method involves calculation of the angular momentum generated by the movement of the humanoid legs and calculation of the torso and arm motions required to compensate for the angular momentum of the legs in the yaw direction. We also developed a humanoid upper-body mechanism having human link length and mass properties, using carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic and a symmetric structure for generating large angular momentum. The humanoid robot developed in this study could generate almost the same angular momentum as that of a human. Furthermore, when suspended in midair, the humanoid robot achieved angular momentum compensation in the yaw direction.

    DOI

    Scopus

    14
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • 骨盤運動に着目した2足走行ロボットの開発(第22報:能動駆動と弾性発揮を活用する跳躍運動の実現)

    大谷拓也, 植田大貴, 橋本健二, 橋本健二, 阪口正律, 川上泰雄, 林憲玉, 林憲玉, 高西淳夫, 高西淳夫

    日本ロボット学会学術講演会予稿集(CD-ROM)   36th  2018  [Refereed]

    J-GLOBAL

  • 骨盤運動に着目した2足走行ロボットの開発(第21報:跳躍・走行時の能動蹴り出しや走行速度の変化に対応した足関節機構)

    峯下弘毅, 大谷拓也, 橋本健二, 橋本健二, 張春宇, 尾原睦月, 阪口正律, 川上泰雄, 林憲玉, 林憲玉, 高西淳夫, 高西淳夫

    日本ロボット学会学術講演会予稿集(CD-ROM)   36th  2018  [Refereed]

    J-GLOBAL

  • A cross-sectional study on the mechanical properties of the Achilles tendon with growth

    Mogi, Y, Torii, S, Kawakami, Y, Yanai, T

    Eur. Appl. Physiol.   118 ( 1 ) 185 - 194  2018.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Purpose: This study aimed to elucidate growth pattern of mechanical properties of the Achilles tendon and to examine if imbalance between growth of bone and muscle–tendon unit occurs during adolescence. Methods: Fourteen elementary school boys, 30 junior high school boys, 20 high school boys and 15 male adults participated in this study. Based on estimated age at peak height velocity (PHV), junior high school boys were separated into two groups (before or after PHV). An ultrasonography technique was used to determine the length, cross-sectional area, stiffness and Young’s modulus of Achilles tendon. In addition, the maximum strain in “toe region” (strainTP) was determined to describe the balance between growth of bone and muscle–tendon unit. Results: No group difference was observed in length, cross-sectional area and strainTP among the groups. However, stiffness and Young’s modulus in after PHV groups were significantly higher than those of elementary school boys and before PHV groups (p ≤ 0.05). Conclusions: These results indicate that mechanical properties of Achilles tendon change dramatically at and/or around PHV to increased stiffness. The widely believed assumption that muscle–tendon unit is passively stretched due to rapid bone growth in adolescence is not supported.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    15
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Neuromuscular adaptations to work-matched maximal eccentric vs. concentric training

    Maeo, S, Shan, X, Otsuka, S, Kanehisa, H, Kawakami, Y

    Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.   50 ( 8 ) 1629 - 1640  2018  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    It is unclear whether the superiority of eccentric over concentric training on neuromuscular improvements is due to higher torque (mechanical loading) achievable during eccentric contractions or due to resulting greater total work. PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine neuromuscular adaptations after maximal eccentric versus concentric training matched for total work. METHODS: Twelve males conducted single-joint isokinetic (180°·s) maximal eccentric contractions of the knee extensors in one leg (ECC-leg) and concentric in the other (CON-leg), 6 sets per session (3-5 sets in the initial 1-3 sessions), 2 sessions per week for 10 wk. The preceding leg performed 10 repetitions per set. The following leg conducted the equivalent volume of work. In addition to peak torque during training, agonist EMG and MRI-based anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) and transverse relaxation time (T2) at midthigh as reflective of neural drive, hypertrophy, and edema, respectively, were assessed weekly throughout the training period and pre- and posttraining. Whole muscle volume was also measured pre- and posttraining. RESULTS: Torque and EMG (in trained contraction conditions) significantly increased in both legs after week 1 (W1) and week 4 (W4), respectively, with a greater degree for ECC-leg (torque +76%, EMG +73%: posttraining) than CON-leg (+28%, +20%). ACSA significantly increased after W4 in ECC-leg only (+4%: posttraining), without T2 changes throughout. Muscle volume also increased in ECC-leg only (+4%). Multiple regression analysis revealed that changes (%Δ) in EMG solely explained 53%-80% and 30%-56% of the total variance in %Δtorque through training in ECC-leg and CON-leg, respectively, with small contributions (+13%-18%) of %ΔACSA for both legs. CONCLUSION: Eccentric training induces greater neuromuscular changes than concentric training even when matched for total work, whereas most of the strength gains during 10-wk training are attributable to the increased neural drive.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    28
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Localization of muscle damage within the quadriceps femoris induced by different types of eccentric exercises

    Maeo, S, Saito, A, Otsuka, S, Shan, X, Kanehisa, H, Kawakami, Y

    Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports   28 ( 1 ) 95 - 106  2018.01  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    This study examined localization of muscle damage within the quadriceps femoris induced by different types of eccentric exercises by using transverse relaxation time (T2)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thirty-three young males performed either of the following three exercises: single-joint eccentric contraction of the knee extensors (KE), eccentric squat (S), or downhill walking (DW) (n=11/exercise). KE and S consisted of 5-set×10-lowering of 90% one-repetition maximum load. DW was performed for 60 minutes with −10% slope, 6 km/h velocity, and 20% body mass load carried. At pre- and 24-, 48-, and 72-hours post-exercise, T2-MRI was scanned and T2 values for the rectus femoris (RF), vastus intermedius (VI), vastus lateralis (VL), and vastus medialis (VM) at proximal, middle, and distal sites were calculated. Additionally, soreness felt when static pressure was applied to these sites and maximal isometric knee extension torque were measured. Maximal torque significantly (P&lt
    .05) decreased (7%-15%) at 24-48 hours after all exercises. T2 significantly increased (3%-9%) at 24-72 hours after all exercises, with heterogeneities within the muscles found in each exercise. Effect size and peak change of T2, as well as soreness, overall indicated that the proximal RF after KE and middle VM after S and DW were most affected by these exercises. The VL did not show any significant T2 increase after all exercises. These results suggest that muscle damage specifically localizes at the proximal RF by KE and at the middle VM by S and DW, while the VL is least damaged regardless of the exercises.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    35
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Ankle and foot mechanism mimicking joint stiffness and following motion based on human. Ankle and Foot Mechanism Joint Stiffness

    Otani, T, Hashimoto, K, Natsuhara, A, Sakaguchi, M, Kawakami, Y, Lim, H.-O, Takanishi, A

    ROMANSY22-Robot Design, Dynamics and Control   584   86 - 93  2018  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    While running, humans use the stiffness of the knee and ankle joint of the leg. Mimicking this motion can improve the output power and performance of humanoid robots. It also offers the possibility of clarifying running in humans, from an engineering perspective, by mimicking other characteristics of an ankle joint. In this paper, we design an ankle and foot mechanism that mimics human’s characteristics, such as joint stiffness in the direction of pitch, and following the floor surface in the direction of roll upon landing for stabilization. To mimic these characteristics, our ankle joint mechanism consisted of CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic)-laminated leaf springs implemented on the foot of the robot for a deflection in direction of pitch and a twist in the direction of the roll. We ensured that the ankle joint can follow the ground in the direction of roll at landing in a hopping experiment.

    DOI

    Scopus

    1
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Thigh and psoas major muscularity and its relation to running mechanics in sprinters

    Ema, R, Sakaguchi, M, Kawakami, Y

    Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.   50 ( 10 ) 2085 - 2091  2018  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    Purpose We aimed to examine the morphological characteristics of the thigh and psoas major muscles in sprinters as well as interrelations among their muscularity, hip joint mechanics, and running speed during maximal running. Methods T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of the thigh and trunk were obtained from 15 male sprinters (best 100-m sprint times, 10.63-11.57 s) and 12 untrained men. From the magnetic resonance images, the volumes of each of the quadriceps femoris and hamstrings, total adductors, sartorius, tensor fasciae latae, gracilis, and psoas major were determined. For sprinters, the kinetic and kinematic data were measured using a three-dimensional motion capture system and force plates during maximal running. The data for one step from the foot strike of the stance leg to that of the swing leg were analyzed. The center of gravity (CG) velocity and hip joint kinetics were quantified. Results Compared with untrained men, sprinters had significantly greater thigh muscle volumes of the hip flexors and extensors, total adductors, gracilis, and psoas major, whereas the monoarticular knee extensor and flexor thigh muscle volumes were similar between the two groups. The CG velocity was positively correlated with the hip flexion angular impulse. Only the rectus femoris volume was significantly correlated with the CG velocity and peak hip flexion moment for the swing leg (r = 0.66-0.69). Conclusions The sprinters in this study presented greater muscularity of the thigh and psoas major but not the monoarticular knee extensor or flexor muscles. The rectus femoris, in particular, may play an important role during the swing phase of sprinting.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    36
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Jumping motion generation of a humanoid robot utilizing human-like joint elasiticy

    Otani, T, Hahimoto, K, Ueta, H, Sakaguchi, M, Kawakami, Y, Lim, H.-O, Takanishi, A

    2018 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)     8707 - 8714  2018  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    To improve the movement ability of humanoid robots, instead of traditional methods dependent on only power of actuators, there is possibility that utilizing elasticity inspired from collaboration of muscle and tendon of human is effective to achieve high-power movement. In this study, we aimed to realize a jumping motion that accumulates energy more appropriately in spring by combining active joint driving with spring behavior like human tendons and muscles. We proposed a countermovement jump method using the resonance with the leg's active pushing-off movement and leg stiffness. To achieve active pushing-off and joint stiffness, we developed a new joint mechanism using leaf springs and an actuator unit with a worm gear. We then performed experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed mechanism and methods. Finally, the robot achieved a countermovement jump using active kicking and leg's elasticity.

    DOI

    Scopus

    6
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Riding posture affects quadriceps femoris oxygenation during an incremental cycle exercise in cycle-based athletes

    Saito, A, Goda, M, Yamagishi, T, Kawakami, Y

    Physiol. Rep.   6 ( 16 ) e13832 - e13832  2018  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    Although oxygenation levels and muscle recruitment patterns of the quadriceps femoris during an incremental cycling exercise has been reported, oxygenation and activation profiles of the quadriceps femoris in racing posture in cycle-based athletes remain unknown. This study aimed to examine the effects of riding posture on oxygenation and neuromuscular activation of quadriceps femoris during an incremental cycling exercise in cycle-based athletes. Nine cycle-based athletes and nine nonathletic subjects performed an incremental cycling exercise at a constant cadence of 90 rpm. Riding postures were the racing posture using an aero-handle bar (aero posture) and the usual upright racing posture as the control (upright posture). Near-infrared spectroscopy and surface electromyography were recorded from vastus lateralis and rectus femoris. Changes in the tissue oxygenation index of the near-infrared spectroscopy from baseline were calculated, and the amplitudes of electromyographic signals were normalized to the initial values of the exercise in each muscle. In cycle-based athletes, changes in the tissue oxygenation index of vastus lateralis and rectus femoris in the aero posture were significantly lower than those obtained in the upright posture throughout the exercise, whereas no significant differences between the postures were observed in the normalized electromyographic amplitudes of vastus lateralis and rectus femoris. A significant difference between the postures was only occurred in changes of the tissue oxygenation index of rectus femoris in the final phase of exercise in nonathletic subjects. It appears that riding posture affects the oxygenation pattern of quadriceps femoris during incremental cycling exercise in cycle-based athletes. The main results of this study suggest that aero posture during incremental cycle exercise enhanced the muscular oxygen consumption of the quadriceps femoris in the trained cyclists.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    5
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Trunk motion control during the flight phase while hopping considering angular momentum of a humanoid

    Otani ,T, Hashimoto, K, Isomichi, T, Natsuhara, A, Sakaguchi, M, Kawakami, Y, Lim. H-O, Takanishi, A

    Advanced Robotics   32 ( 22 ) 1197 - 1206  2018  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In previous studies, various stabilizing control methods for humanoids during the stance phase while hopping and running were proposed. Although these methods contribute to stability while hopping and running, it is possibility that the control during the flight phase could also affect the stability. In this study, we investigated whether the control during the flight phase can affect the stability of a humanoid while running. To achieve stable hopping, we developed a control system that accounts for the angular momentum of the whole body during the flight phase. In this system, the angular momentum generated by the motion of the lower body in each time interval is calculated during the flight phase, and the trunk joints are controlled to generate the angular momentum necessary to compensate for the deviation of the waist posture, which is used as the reference point for the motion coordinate system of the robot. Once the proposed control system was developed and simulated, we found that the hopping duration in the unconstrained state was extended.

    DOI

    Scopus

    3
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Effect of hip joint angle on concentric knee extension torque

    Ema, R, Wakahara, T, Kawakami, Y

    J. Electromyogr. Kinesiol.   37   141 - 146  2017.12  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    This study tested the hypothesis that the effect of hip joint angle on concentric knee extension torque depends on knee joint angle during a single knee extension task. Twelve men performed concentric knee extensions in fully extended and 80 degrees flexed hip positions with maximal effort. The angular velocities were set at 30 degrees s(-1) and 180 degrees s(-1). The peak torque and torques attained at 30 degrees, 50 degrees, 70 degrees and 90 degrees (anatomical position= 0 degrees) of the knee joint were compared between the two hip positions. Muscle activations of the vastus lateralis, medialis, rectus femoris and biceps femoris were determined using surface electromyography. The peak torque was significantly greater in the flexed than in the extended hip position irrespective of angular velocity. The torques at 70 degrees and 90 degrees of the knee joint at both angular velocities and at 50 degrees at 180 degrees s(-1) were significantly greater in the flexed than in the extended hip position, whereas corresponding differences were not found at 30 degrees (at either angular velocity) and 50 degrees (at 30 degrees s(-1)) of the knee joint. No effect of hip position on muscle activation was observed in any muscle. These results supported our hypothesis and may be related to the force-length and force-velocity characteristics of the rectus femoris.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    19
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Reliability of stride length estimation in self-pace and brisk walking with an inertial measurement unit on shank

    R. Kasai, T. Kodama, Z. Gu, D. Zhang, W. Kong, S. Cosentino, S. Sessa, Y. Kawakami, A. Takanishi

    2017 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation, ICMA 2017     671 - 676  2017.08  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The use of Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) for gait analysis is gaining popularity because of its advantages of low cost and non-limited workspace. In this context, researchers are focusing on methods for automated data analysis. For example, many algorithms for stride length estimation have been developed. These algorithms rely on event detection to compute gait parameters during walking and on orientation estimation for a more precise double integration of acceleration. However, at the present, there is not comparison between existing algorithms, and the applicability of each algorithm for different walking patterns is not clear. In this paper, we studied the effect on the stride length estimation using three different techniques of event detection and two techniques of orientation estimation, by using an IMU on the lateral side of shank above the ankle. In total 6 patterns of stride estimation algorithms were compared on different walking patterns of normal and brisk walking. We evaluated the techniques in terms of precision, accuracy, and shape of the histogram of the stride estimation error.

    DOI

    Scopus

  • Effect of knee alignment on the quadriceps femoris muscularity: Cross-sectional comparison of trained versus untrained individuals in both sexes

    Ema, R, Wakahara, T, Hirayama, K, Kawakami, Y

    PLoS One   12 ( 8 ) e0183148  2017.08  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Knee alignment is suggested to be a factor affecting each quadriceps femoris muscle size, and knee alignment such as Q-angle differs between men and women. Also, training can induce inhomogeneous hypertrophy among the quadriceps femoris, thereby leading to different component characteristics of the muscles. If Q-angle is a major determinant of the quadriceps femoris muscularity, it is hypothesized that the sex-related difference in the quadriceps femoris muscularity, if any, is further highlighted in trained individuals, being associated with Q-angle. We tested this hypothesis. Magnetic resonance images of the right thigh were obtained from 26 varsity rowers as trained subjects (13 for each sex) and 34 untrained individuals as controls (17 for each sex). From the images, muscle volume of each constituent of the quadriceps femoris (vastus lateralis, VL; medialis, VM; intermedius; rectus femoris) was determined. The Q-angle was measured during quiet bilateral standing with hand support as needed. Percent volume of VM to the total quadriceps femoris was greater in female rowers than male rowers and female controls, and that of VL was greater in male rowers than male controls. There were no correlations between Q-angle and percent muscle volume in any muscles regardless of rowing experience or sex. The current study revealed that well-trained rowers have sex-related quadriceps femoris muscularity but no significant correlations between percent muscle volume in any muscles and Q-angle. Our findings suggest that Q-angle is not a major determinant of the quadriceps femoris muscularity in either well-trained or untrained individuals.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    10
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Angular momentum compensation in yaw direction using upper body based on human running

    Otani, T, Hashimoto, K, Miyamae, S, Ueta, H, Sakaguchi, M, Kawakami, Y, Lim, H. O, Takanishi, A

    Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation     4768 - 4775  2017.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    © 2017 IEEE. Humans utilize their torsos and arms while running to compensate for the angular momentum generated by the lower-body movement during the flight phase. To enable this capability in a humanoid robot, the robot should have human-like mass, a center of mass position, and inertial moment of each link. To mimic this characteristic, we developed an angular momentum control method using a humanoid upper body based on human motion. In this method, the angular momentum generated by the movement of the humanoid lower body is calculated, and the torso and arm motions are calculated to compensate for the angular momentum of the lower body. We additionally developed the humanoid upper-body mechanism that mimics the human link length and mass property by using carbon fiber reinforced plastic and a symmetric structure. As a result, the developed humanoid robot could generate almost the same angular momentum as that of human through human-like running motion. Furthermore, when suspended in midair, the humanoid robot produced the angular momentum compensation in the yaw direction.

    DOI

    Scopus

    5
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Inter- and intramuscular differences in training-induced hypertrophy of the quadriceps femoris: association with muscle activation during the first training session

    Taku Wakahara, Ryoichi Ema, Naokazu Miyamoto, Yasuo Kawakami

    Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging   37 ( 4 ) 405 - 412  2017.07  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether inter- and intramuscular differences in hypertrophy induced by resistance training correspond to differences in muscle activation during the first training session. Eleven young men completed 12 weeks of training intervention for knee extension. Before and after the intervention, T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images were recorded to determine the volume and anatomical cross-sectional area (CSA) along the length of the individual muscles of the quadriceps femoris. The T2-weighted MR images were also acquired before and immediately after the first training session. The T2 was calculated for each pixel within the quadriceps femoris, from which the muscle activation was evaluated as %activated volume and area. The results showed that the %activated volume after the first training session was significantly higher in the vastus intermedius than the vastus medialis. However, the relative change in muscle volume after the training intervention was significantly greater in the rectus femoris than the vasti muscles (vastus lateralis, intermedius and medialis). Within the rectus femoris, both the %activated area and relative increase in CSA were significantly greater in the distal region than the proximal region. In contrast, the %activated area and relative increase in CSA of the vasti were nearly uniform along each muscle. These results suggest that the muscle activation during the first training session is associated with the intramuscular difference in hypertrophy induced by training intervention, but not with the intermuscular difference.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    27
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Tissue elasticity of in vivo skeletal muscles measured in the transverse and longitudinal planes using shear wave elastography

    Chino, K, Kawakami, Y, Takahashi, H

    Clin. Physiol. Funct. Imaging   37 ( 4 ) 394 - 399  2017.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The aim of the present study was to measure in vivo skeletal muscle elasticity in the transverse and longitudinal planes using shear wave elastography and then to compare the image stability, measurement values and measurement repeatability between these imaging planes. Thirty-one healthy males participated in this study. Tissue elasticity (shear wave velocity) of the medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris, biceps brachii and rectus abdominis was measured in both the transverse and longitudinal planes using shear wave elastography. Image stability was evaluated by the standard deviation of the colour distribution in the shear wave elastography image. Measurement repeatability was assessed by the coefficient of variance obtained from three measurement values. Image stability of all tested muscles was significantly higher in the longitudinal plane (P&lt;0.001), but measurement repeatability did not differ significantly between the imaging planes (P&gt;0.05), except in the biceps brachii (P = 0.001). Measurement values of the medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris and biceps brachii were significantly different between the imaging planes (P&lt;0.001). Image stability and measurement values of shear wave elastography images varied with imaging plane, which indicates that imaging plane should be considered when measuring skeletal muscle tissue elasticity by shear wave elastography.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    38
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Localization of damage in the human leg muscles induced by downhill running

    Maeo, S, Ando, Y, Kanehisa, H, Kawakami, Y

    Sci. Rep.   7 ( 1 ) 5769  2017.07  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    We investigated localization of damage within the knee extensors (KEs) and plantar flexors (PFs) induced by downhill running (DR) by using transverse relaxation time (T-2)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fourteen young adults performed 45-min DR (-15% slope) at their maximal tolerable velocity. At pre- and 24, 48, and 72 h post-exercise, T-2-MRI was scanned and T2 values for each muscle composing KEs and PFs at proximal, middle, and distal sites were calculated. Maximal isometric torque and rate of torque development (RTD: 0-30, 0-50, 0-100, 0-200 ms) were also measured. Maximal torque significantly decreased in KEs (14-17%) and PFs (6-8%) at 24-48 h post-exercise, with greater reductions for KEs. RTD in all phases, except for 0-200 ms in PFs, significantly decreased in KEs (11-42%) and PFs (13-23%) at least at one time point post-exercise. T2 significantly increased at several sites (3-5%) in both muscle groups at 24 and/or 48 h post-exercise. Among the T-2-increased sites, the peak effect size (Cohen's d) regarding T-2 change was pronounced at proximal (1.05) and middle (1.64) vastus intermedius compared to the other sites (0.72-0.77). These results suggest that DR induces damage in both KEs and PFs, and especially affects proximal-middle sites of the vastus intermedius.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    26
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Detection of titin fragments in urine in response to exercise-induced muscle damage

    Kanda, K, Sakuma, J, Akimoto, T, Kawakami, Y, Suzuki, K

    PLoS One   12 ( 7 ) e0181623  2017.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Many studies have attempted to determine the associations between blood biomarkers and exercise-induced muscle damage. However, poor correlations between the changes in biomarker levels and the magnitude of muscle symptoms have been reported. Recent advances in proteomic tools offer a strategy for the comprehensive analysis of protein expression, which can be used to identify biomarkers. Here, we used a proteomic analysis to identify urinary proteins that appear in response to a calf-raise exercise, including repetitive eccentric muscle contractions, and found that a titin (also known as connectin) N-terminal fragment molecule appears in the urine after eccentric exercise. We measured the titin fragment in urine samples from nine individuals before and after eccentric exercise using a newly-established enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and found that the titin fragment excretion rate increased 96 h after the exercise (5.1 to 77.6 pg/min, p &lt; 0.01). The changes in the titin fragment excretion rate were correlated strongly with blood markers of muscle damage and with muscle symptoms. These findings suggest that the urinary titin fragment is potentially a noninvasive biomarker of muscle damage.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    31
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Body mass-to-waist ratio strongly correlates with skeletal muscle volume in children

    Ohta, M, Midorikawa, T, Hikihara, Y, Sakamoto, S, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T, Kanehisa, H

    PLoS One   12 ( 5 ) e0177155  2017.05  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Purpose
    We hypothesized that body mass-to-waist ratio is strongly associated with the total-body skeletal muscle volume (SMV) in children. The purpose of the present study was to examine this hypothesis.
    Methods
    By using magnetic resonance imaging, total-body SMV (SMVMRI) was determined in 70 boys and 53 girls aged 6 to 12 years. Waist was measured at each of the level of umbilicus (Wumb) and the minimum circumference (Wmin), and the ratio of body mass to each of the two measured values was calculated (BM/Wumb and BM/Wmin, respectively). A single regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between SMVMRI and either BM/Wumb or BM/Wmin. On the basis of the obtained regression equations, SMVMRI was estimated and referred to as SMVBM/Wumb or SMVBM/Wmin.
    Results
    In both boys and girls, SMVMRI was highly correlated to BM/Wumb (r = 0.937 for boys and r = 0.939 for girls, P &lt; 0.0001) and BM/Wmin (r = 0.915 and 0.942, P &lt; 0.0001). R-2 and the standard error of estimate for SMVBM/Wumb were 0.878 and 706.2 cm(3), respectively, in boys and 0.882 and 825.3 cm(3), respectively, in girls, and those for SMVBM/Wmin were 0.837 and 814.0 cm(3), respectively, in boys and 0.888 and 804.1 cm(3), respectively, in girls. In both boys and girls, there were no significant differences between SMVMRI and either SMVBM/Wumb or SMVBM/Wmin, without systematic errors in Band-Altman plots. There was no significant effect of model on the absolute values of the residuals in both boys and girls.
    Conclusion
    The current results indicate that body mass-to-waist ratio can be a convenient outcome measure for assessing the total-body skeletal muscle volume in children.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    8
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • 大腿四頭筋の伸張性運動で生じる筋損傷の好発部位とその課題依存性

    前大純朗, 齋藤輝, 大塚俊, 単西瑶, 金久博昭, 川上泰雄

    J. Train. Sci. Exerc. Sport.   28 ( 3 ) 80 - 80  2017.04  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

    J-GLOBAL

  • Validity of segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis for estimating fat-free mass in children including overweight individuals

    Ohta, M, Midorikawa, T, Hikihara, Y, Masuo, Y, Sakamoto, S, Torii, S, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T, Kanehisa, H

    Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metabol.   42 ( 2 ) 157 - 165  2017.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This study examined the validity of segmental bioelectrical impedance (BI) analysis for predicting the fat-free masses (FFMs) of whole-body and body segments in children including overweight individuals. The FFM and impedance (Z) values of arms, trunk, legs, and whole body were determined using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and segmental BI analyses, respectively, in 149 boys and girls aged 6 to 12 years, who were divided into model-development (n = 74), cross-validation (n = 35), and overweight (n = 40) groups. Simple regression analysis was applied to (length)(2)/Z (BI index) for each of the whole-body and 3 segments to develop the prediction equations of the measured FFM of the related body part. In the model-development group, the BI index of each of the 3 segments and whole body was significantly correlated to the measured FFM (R-2 = 0.867-0.932, standard error of estimation = 0.18-1.44 kg (5.9%-8.7%)). There was no significant difference between the measured and predicted FFM values without systematic error. The application of each equation derived in the model-development group to the crossvalidation and overweight groups did not produce significant differences between the measured and predicted FFM values and systematic errors, with an exception that the arm FFM in the overweight group was overestimated. Segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis is useful for predicting the FFM of each of whole-body and body segments in children including overweight individuals, although the application for estimating arm FFM in overweight individuals requires a certain modification.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    6
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Technical principles of atemi-waza in the first technique of the itsutsu-no-kata in judo: From a viewpoint of jujutsu like atemi-waza. a broad perspective of application in honoured self-defence training

    Fumiaki Shishida, Masanori Sakaguchi, Tadayuki Satoh, Yasuo Kawakami

    Archives of Budo   13   255 - 269  2017  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    Background and Study Aim: Conventionally martial arts renaissance can be combined with the creation of jūdō by Jigoro Kano. A symbolic date may be the establishment of a Kōdōkan (1882). Further expansion not only of Japanese martial arts is the result of the intellectual effort and physical training of many generations of experts around the world. The purpose of this study is to verify the hypothesis that the true is the opinion of Kenji Tomiki that “atemi-waza (striking technique) is, in principle, an extension of nage-waza (throwing technique)”. Material and Methods: Verification of the hypothesis was based on three issues: (1) to make a technical analysis of Kotani & Otaki’s study, chosen among the seven previous studies, which describe the teaching of the first technique of the itsutsu-no-kata, advocated by Jigoro Kano; (2) to demonstrate the first technique of the itsutsu-no-kata, based on the interpretation by Kenji Tomiki, who referred to the unique relationship between the first technique of the itsutsu-no-kata and the atemi-waza, and to analyze its video image in terms of technique and biomechanics; (3) to clarify the technical principles of the atemi-waza in jujusu by synthesizing both of the above mentioned. Results: The previous study reports that the technical principles in which tori (a person who executes a technique), who touches uke (a person to whom a technique is executed) softly with his palm, and walks, defeats uke, who has turned into a solid matter, reveal the concept of “softness controls hardness,” to which Kano attached great importance. The interpretation in terms of biomechanics suggested, in a scene where tori makes ceaseless pushing with his palm, followed by consecutive walking. This is the reason of uke’s retreat becoming difficult gradually, and thus uke is made to walk with much shorter steps, is because tori has delicate controls over the powers on the thumb or little finger. By so doing, uke’s rotation movement on the chest is hindered, and because uke is unable to reflect on inborn movement or walking. In a scene where jizo-tashi occurs, uke is forced to lose his balance backwards, to a great extent, and as the ground reaction force gradually shifts forward. The backward moment around the uke’s centre of gravity applied by tori ’s palm, uke is unable to cancel out the reverse moment from the ground reaction force, and thus we finally observed that uke fell off, his centre of gravity being rotated, and moving backwards. This movement is considered to be jizo-taoshi. Conclusions: Kano argues that uke will surely fall down if tori pushes ceaselessly in an effective direction, whereas Tomiki analyses this movement precisely, focusing on the palm’s force, changing its direction (angle), working on in one-point-one direction, just like the atemi-waza. The essence of Tomiki’s discovery is in the fact that the unique character of atemi-waza in judo lies in the movement where uke is made to fall down by tori’s movement of soft-touched palm and his manipulation and ceaseless movement of the body. This is interpreted as a sequence of “touch & push, push & fall down, and touch & fall down.” This leads to the feasibility of realising randori (free practice) with atemi-waza, which has been an ideal task sought by Kano. Atemi-waza fills the honoured self-defence algorithm when the soft means of counteracting are ineffective.

  • 骨盤運動に着目した2足走行ロボットの開発(第16報:広範囲剛性関節機構のための台形CFRP重ね板ばね)

    赤堀孝太, 大谷拓也, 橋本健二, 橋本健二, 礒道貴矢, 夏原彬, 植田大貴, 尾原睦月, 阪口正律, 川上泰雄, 林憲玉, 林憲玉, 高西淳夫, 高西淳夫

    日本ロボット学会学術講演会予稿集(CD-ROM)   35th  2017  [Refereed]

    J-GLOBAL

  • 骨盤運動に着目した2足走行ロボットの開発(第17報:低速走行から高速走行への遷移に対応した広範囲剛性可変機構)

    尾原睦月, 大谷拓也, 橋本健二, 橋本健二, 礒道貴矢, 夏原彬, 植田大貴, 赤堀孝太, 阪口正律, 川上泰雄, 林憲玉, 林憲玉, 高西淳夫, 高西淳夫

    日本ロボット学会学術講演会予稿集(CD-ROM)   35th  2017  [Refereed]

    J-GLOBAL

  • 骨盤運動に着目した2足走行ロボットの開発(第19報:CFRP重ね板ばねによる弾性関節機構の小型化)

    夏原彬, ZHANG Chunyu, 大谷拓也, 橋本健二, 阪口正律, 川上泰雄, LIM Hun-ok, 高西淳夫

    計測自動制御学会システムインテグレーション部門講演会(CD-ROM)   18th  2017  [Refereed]

    J-GLOBAL

  • 04生−10−口−15 器具を用いた軟組織モビライゼーションが足関節柔軟性および筋スティフネスに与える影響

    池田尚樹, 大塚俊, 川西陽三, 川上泰雄

    日本体育学会大会予稿集   68 ( 0 ) 132_3 - 132_3  2017

    Authorship:Corresponding author

     View Summary

    <p>【目的】下腿後面への器具を用いた軟組織モビライゼーション(IASTM)が足関節柔軟性および筋スティフネスに与える影響を検証した。【方法】健常な成人14名(男性11名・女性3名、24.3±3.5歳)にIASTM条件と安静(CON)条件をそれぞれ別日に実施した。IASTMは下腿後面の軟部組織(腓腹筋内側頭・外側頭、ヒラメ筋、後脛骨筋などの骨格筋、筋膜、アキレス腱などの腱組織の皮膚上からの機械的刺激)を対象に5分間実施した。IASTMとCONの前後で、足関節受動背屈可動域、足関節スティフネス、腓腹筋内側頭およびヒラメ筋の筋腹部分のスティフネス(超音波エラストグラフィ)を測定した。【結果】足関節受動背屈可動域はIASTM後に有意に増加(p<0.05)、足関節スティフネスはIASTM後に有意に低下した(p<0.05)。腓腹筋内側頭およびヒラメ筋の筋スティフネスは変化しなかった。CON後ではすべての測定項目が変化しなかった。【結論】IASTMは下腿三頭筋の筋腹以外の軟組織のスティフネス低下を通じて足関節可動性を向上させる。IASTMは足部柔軟性確保のコンディショニング手法として有効である。</p>

    DOI CiNii J-GLOBAL

  • 事前の股関節屈曲筋力発揮が低強度・長時間の等尺性膝関節伸展時の大腿四頭筋の活動交替様相に与える影響

    齋藤輝, 飯泉拳, 川上泰雄

    トレーニング科学   28 ( 4 ) 205 - 213  2017  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

    J-GLOBAL

  • Plyometric training favors optimizing muscle-tendon behavior during depth jumping

    Hirayama, K, Iwanuma, S, Ikeda, N, Yoshikawa, A, Ema, R, Kawakami, Y

    Front. Physiol.   8 ( JAN ) 16  2017.01  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    The purpose of the present study was to elucidate how plyometric training improves stretchshortening cycle (SSC) exercise performance in terms of muscle strength, tendon stiffness, and muscletendon behavior during SSC exercise. Eleven men were assigned to a training group and ten to a control group. Subjects in the training group performed depth jumps (DJ) using only the ankle joint for 12 weeks. Before and after the period, we observed reaction forces at foot, muscletendon behavior of the gastrocnemius, and electromyographic activities of the triceps surae and tibialis anterior during DJ. Maximal static plantar flexion strength and Achilles tendon stiffness were also determined. In the training group, maximal strength remained unchanged while tendon stiffness increased. The force impulse of DJ increased, with a shorter contact time and larger reaction force over the latter half of braking and initial half of propulsion phases. In the latter half of braking phase, the average electromyographic activity (mEMG) increased in the triceps surae and decreased in tibialis anterior, while fascicle behavior of the gastrocnemius remained unchanged. In the initial half of propulsion, mEMG of triceps surae and shortening velocity of gastrocnemius fascicle decreased, while shortening velocity of the tendon increased. These results suggest that the following mechanisms play an important role in improving SSC exercise performance through plyometric training: (1) optimization of muscletendon behavior of the agonists, associated with alteration in the neuromuscular activity during SSC exercise and increase in tendon stiffness and (2) decrease in the neuromuscular activity of antagonists during a counter movement.

    DOI

    Scopus

    51
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Validity of muscle thickness-based prediction equation for quadriceps femoris volume in middle-aged and older men and women

    Miyuki Nakatani, Yohei Takai, Ryota Akagi, Taku Wakahara, Norihide Sugisaki, Megumi Ohta, Yasuo Kawakami, Tetsuo Fukunaga, Hiroaki Kanehisa

    European Journal of Applied Physiology   116 ( 11-12 ) 2125 - 2133  2016.12  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    BACKGROUND: This study examined the validity of muscle thickness (MT)-based prediction equation for the muscle volume of the quadriceps femoris (QFMV) by evaluating the applicability of a prediction equation previously derived from young men and by developing a new prediction equation in middle-aged and older individuals. METHODS: The MT at the midpoint of the thigh anterior and QFMV were determined using ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in 30 men and 30 women aged 51 to 77 years. First, we examined the validity of the MT-based prediction equation previously developed for young men to estimate the QFMV of middle-aged and older individuals. Second, we allocated the subjects to validation or cross-validation group and developed a prediction equation for estimating the QFMV using a stepwise multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: The published equation generated a small but a significant difference between the measured and estimated QFMV, with a systematic error depending on the size of QFMV. A multiple regression analysis for the validation group produced the following equation: QFMV (cm3) = (sex × 267.7) + (MT × 249.3) + (thigh length × 41.1) - 1663.7 (sex: man = 1, woman = 0). R 2 and SEE of the regression equation were 0.888 and 124.4 cm3 (12.0 %), respectively. The developed equation was validated and cross-validated. CONCLUSION: For middle-aged and older individuals, the prediction equation previously derived from young men is not applicable, and the newly developed prediction equation with sex, MT, and thigh length as independent variables is applicable for estimating QFMV.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    16
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Unique muscularity in cyclists' thigh and trunk: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study

    Ema, R, Wakahara, T, Yanaka, T, Kanehisa, H, Kawakami, Y

    Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports   26 ( 7 ) 782 - 793  2016.07  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    This study examined the influence of regular training in competitive cycling on individual muscle volume of the thigh and psoas major cross-sectionally and longitudinally. T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images of the trunk and right thigh were obtained from eight experienced varsity male cyclists (experience: &gt;4 years) and 10 untrained men (experiment 1), and from 12 (10 males, two females) varsity cyclists before and after competitive cycling training for 6 months (experiment 2). From the MR images, the volumes of each of the quadriceps femoris and hamstrings, total adductors, gracilis, sartorius, and psoas major were determined. The volumes of the monoarticular thigh muscles, semitendinosus, and psoas major muscles were significantly greater in the experienced cyclists than in the untrained men (experiment 1), and increased significantly after the competitive training for 6 months (experiment 2). In contrast, the volumes of the other biarticular thigh muscles were similar among the experienced cyclists and untrained men (experiment 1), and did not change by competitive cycling training (experiment 2). The results indicate that competitive cycling training induces muscle-specific hypertrophy of the synergistic muscles, especially between the monoarticular and biarticular muscles, leading to quantitative profiles of the musculature in experienced cyclists.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    26
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Possible Factors Related to Lack of Hypertrophy of the Biarticular Muscles Induced by Multi-joint Training: Its Relation to Changes in Muscle Activation During the Training

    江間諒一, 稲見崇孝, 川上泰雄

    デサントスポーツ科学   37   138 - 146  2016.06

    Authorship:Last author

    J-GLOBAL

  • Anatomical cross-sectional area of the quadriceps femoris and sit-to-stand test score in middle-aged and elderly population: development of a predictive equation

    Saito, A, Ema, R, Inami, T, Maeo, S, Otsuka, S, Higuchi, M, Shibata, S, Kawakami, Y

    J. Physiol. Anthropol.   36 ( 3 )  2016.06  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    Background: Although the sit-to-stand (STS) test score has been shown to relate to the strength and size of the quadriceps femoris (QF) for elderly population, it is unknown whether this relationship is influenced by a posture (i.e., the trunk being allowed to stoop or not) during the STS test. The present study investigated the relationship between STS test score and QF anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) in the middle-aged and elderly population with regard to the difference in the posture during STS test, and aimed to develop an accurate predicting equation of the QF ACSA from the STS test score.
    Methods: 105 males (40-81 years) and 113 females (41-79 years) participated in the present study, then the subjects were divided at random as validation and cross-validation groups. Mid-thigh QF ACSA was determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects performed a 10-repeated STS as fast as possible in two conditions: (1) with the trunk being allowed to stoop during the sitting phases, and (2) kept upright throughout the test. A power index of the STS test score was calculated based on an equation obtained in a previous study using the time taken for each test condition, the thigh and shank lengths, and body mass. In the validation group (n = 109), a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed to create a predictive model of the ACSA with sex, age, the STS time, and power for both conditions as independent variables. The formulated predictive equation was examined in the cross-validation group (n = 109).
    Results: In the validation group, a stepwise regression analysis revealed that STS power with upright trunk condition, sex, and age but not with the stooping condition, were selected as variables to predict QF ACSA (R-2 = 0.64, P &lt; 0.001). There was no systematic error for the relationship between predicted and measured values in the cross-validation group.
    Conclusions: These results indicate that STS test score with upright trunk condition is one of the indices of QF muscle size of the middle-aged and elderly population. The estimated predicting equation should be useful in clinical and practical settings for the health promotion.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    8
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Unique activation of the quadriceps femoris during single- and multi-joint exercises

    Ema, R, Sakaguchi, M, Akagi, R, Kawakami, Y

    Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.   116 ( 5 ) 1031 - 1041  2016.05  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    This study aimed to examine whether muscle activation of the quadriceps femoris differs between single- and multi-joint exercises, and to explore the factors resulting in muscle and exercise specificity in activation.
    Eleven adults developed isometric hip extension torque gradually while maintaining submaximal isometric knee extension torque (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, 15 men performed knee extension and leg press separately at intensities of 20, 40, 60 and 80 % of their one repetition maximum (1RM) load, and 14 men conducted leg press at intensities of 40 and 80 % of 1RM until exhaustion (Experiment 3). Muscle activation during exercises was measured using surface electromyography from the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis and medialis.
    The addition of isometric hip extension torque significantly decreased rectus femoris activation (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, the rectus femoris activation was significantly higher during knee extension than during leg press, whereas no differences were observed in the vasti. The rectus femoris activation was not significantly different between leg press at 80 % and knee extension at 20 % of 1RM. The results of Experiment 3 showed significant increases in vasti activation at both intensities, whereas rectus femoris activation did not change at 80 % of 1RM.
    The results revealed that even at high intensity, the rectus femoris activation during multi-joint exercise is low and does not increase with fatigue, unlike the vasti, and that the inter-muscle and inter-exercise differences in activation depend on whether hip extension torque is exerted in the exercise.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    41
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Morphological Profiles of the Quadriceps Femoris of Varsity Athletes

    EMA RYOICHI, KAWAKAMI YASUO

    Juntendo Medical Journal   62 ( 1 ) 167 - 167  2016

     View Summary

    <p>Introduction: Sport athletes often show event-related muscular profiles that are possibly associated with their competitive and training activities. Thus, investigation of the muscular profiles in athletes can enlighten the association between muscle-specific hypertrophy and sport-specific movement performance. With respect to the movement of the lower extremities, rowing and pedaling mainly consist of repetitive multi-joint leg extensions (simultaneous extensions of knee and hip joints), which are largely contributed by the quadriceps femoris. On the other hand, several types of joint motions are involved in field sports. It is hypothesized that the quantitative profiles of the quadriceps femoris are similar for the athletes who routinely repeat leg extensions (oarsmen and cyclists) but not for the athletes not regularly performing leg extensions (field sport athletes; such as lacrosse players). This study tested the hypothesis.</p><p>Methods: T1-weighted MR images of the whole right thigh were obtained from 14 varsity oarsmen, 8 male cyclists, 13 male lacrosse players and 10 untrained men. The anatomical cross-sectional areas (ACSAs) from the origin to insertion of each muscle of the quadriceps femoris (vastuslateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius, and rectus femoris) were measured. The muscle volume of each muscle was determined by summing in-series ACSAs which were multiplied by the slice thickness (1 cm), and the relative muscle volume to body mass (normalized volume) was calculated.</p><p>Results and Discussion: The normalized total volumes of the quadriceps femoris were significantly greater in the oarsmen and cyclists than in the untrained men, and that of the cyclists was significantly greater than that of the lacrosse players. Likewise, the normalized vastus lateralis volumes of the oarsmen and cyclists were significantly greater than those of the lacrosse players and untrained men, and the normalized volumes of the vastus medialis and vastus intermedius were significantly greater in the oarsmen and cyclists than in the untrained men. In contrast, the normalized rectus femoris volume of the lacrosse players was greatest of the four groups, while no statistical differences were shown among the other three groups. It was made clear that the varsity oarsmen and cyclists had hypertrophied monoarticular vasti (lateralis, medialis, and intermedius), whereas the lacrosse players had hypertrophied biarticular rectus femoris. These results strongly suggest that the varsity athletes demonstrate muscle-specific hypertrophy among the synergistic muscles comprising a muscle group, depending on the sport-specific motions involved during competitive and training activities.</p>

    DOI CiNii

  • Joint Mechanism Coping with Both of Active Pushing-off and Joint Stiffness Based on Human

    Otani, T, Hashimoto, K, Isomichi, T, Miyamae, S, Sakaguchi, M, Kawakami, Y, Lim, H, O, Takanishi, A

    CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences, Courses and Lectures   569   243 - 250  2016  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Human steady running is modeled using a spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP). However, human pushes off the ground actively when starting to run. In this study, we describe a knee joint mechanism for coping with both of an active pushing-off and joint stiffness needed to continue running. To achieve this, knee is equipped with a mechanism comprising a worm gear that improves torque transmission efficiency in order to achieve active movement and two laminated leaf springs for mimicking joint stiffness. We evaluated the performance of the laminated leaf spring and performed an experiment in which the developed running robot started to run. Using the proposed mechanisms, this robot could accomplish hopping with an active pushing-off motion and continued to run using its joint elasticity.

    DOI

    Scopus

    1
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • 骨盤運動に着目した2足走行ロボットの開発(第14報:弾性要素を有し能動動作と路面への倣い動作が可能な足関節・足部機構)

    夏原彬, 大谷拓也, 橋本健二, 橋本健二, 宮前俊介, 礒道貴矢, 植田大貴, 赤堀孝太, 尾原睦月, 阪口正律, 川上泰雄, 林憲玉, 林憲玉, 高西淳夫, 高西淳夫

    日本ロボット学会学術講演会予稿集(CD-ROM)   34th  2016  [Refereed]

    J-GLOBAL

  • 骨盤運動に着目した2足走行ロボットの開発(第13報:人間と同等の角運動量が発生可能で人間の質量特性を模擬した上半身機構)

    植田大貴, 大谷拓也, 橋本健二, 橋本健二, 宮前俊介, 礒道貴矢, 夏原彬, 阪口正律, 川上泰雄, 林憲玉, 林憲玉, 高西淳夫, 高西淳夫

    日本ロボット学会学術講演会予稿集(CD-ROM)   34th  2016  [Refereed]

    J-GLOBAL

  • ヒューマノイドロボットによる人間の走行模擬のための足関節に着目した人体運動解析

    大谷拓也, 夏原彬, 橋本健二, 橋本健二, 阪口正律, 川上泰雄, 林憲玉, 林憲玉, 高西淳夫, 高西淳夫

    日本ロボット学会学術講演会予稿集(CD-ROM)   34th  2016  [Refereed]

    J-GLOBAL

  • ヒト走行時の骨盤運動解析に基づくヒューマノイドによる跳躍運動

    大谷拓也, 橋本健二, 阪口正律, 川上泰雄, LIM Hun-ok, 高西淳夫

    LIFE講演概要集(CD-ROM)   2016  2016

    J-GLOBAL

  • ひずみエラストグラフィによる筋硬度と筋損傷指標との関係

    米津貴久, 小野高志, 稲見崇孝, 川上泰雄, 広瀬統一, 福林徹

    トレーニング科学   27 ( 4 ) 101 - 109  2016  [Refereed]

    J-GLOBAL

  • 静的ストレッチングとランニングを組み合わせたウォームアップが跳躍能力に及ぼす影響

    池田尚樹, 稲見崇孝, 川上泰雄

    トレーニング科学   27 ( 4 ) 123 - 132  2016  [Refereed]

    J-GLOBAL

  • Joint mechanism that mimics elastic characteristics in human running

    Otani, T, Hashimoto, K, Isomichi, T, Sakaguchi, M, Kawakami, Y, Lim., H-O, Takanishi, A

    Machines   4 ( 1 ) 5  2016  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Analysis of human running has revealed that the motion of the human leg can be modeled by a compression spring because the joints of the leg behave like a torsion spring in the stance phase. In this paper, we describe the development of a joint mechanism that mimics the elastic characteristics of the joints of the stance leg. The knee was equipped with a mechanism comprising two laminated leaf springs made of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic for adjusting the joint stiffness and a worm gear in order to achieve active movement. Using this mechanism, we were able to achieve joint stiffness mimicking that of a human knee joint that can be adjusted by varying the effective length of one of the laminated leaf springs. The equation proposed for calculating the joint stiffness considers the difference between the position of the fixed point of the leaf spring and the position of the rotational center of the joint. We evaluated the performance of the laminated leaf spring and the effectiveness of the proposed equation for joint stiffness. We were able to make a bipedal robot run with one leg using pelvic oscillation for storing energy produced by the resonance related to leg elasticity.

    DOI

    Scopus

    13
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Assessment of individual muscle hardness and stiffness using ultrasound elastography

    Inami, T, Kawakami, Y

    J. Phys. Fit. Sports Med.   5   313 - 317  2016  [Refereed]

  • Training-induced changes in architecture of human skeletal muscles: current evidence and unresolved issues

    Ema, R, Akagi, R, Wakahara, T, Kawakami, Y

    J. Phys. Fit. Sports Med.   5 ( 1 ) 37 - 46  2016  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The present review summarizes current evidence and unresolved issues regarding training-induced changes in the architecture of human skeletal muscles. As architectural parameters, we focused on the fascicle length and pennation angle, which are related to force-generating capability of pennate muscles. Cross-sectional studies in sport athletes suggested changes in both the parameters following chronic sport-specific activities. Longitudinal training intervention experiments indicated direct evidence of the plasticity of the two parameters induced by resistance training, but no consensus has been reached regarding the factors influencing those changes. Considering the importance of fascicle arrangement on muscle function, future studies are required to explain the underpinning mechanisms of the adaptation.

    DOI CiNii

  • Knee joint mechanism that mimics elastic characteristics and bending in human running

    T. Otani, K. Hashimoto, S. Hamamoto, S. Miyamae, M. Sakaguchi, Y. Kawakami, H. O. Lim, A. Takanishi

    IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems   2015-December   5156 - 5161  2015.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Analysis of human running has revealed that the motion of the human leg can be modeled by a compression spring because the leg's joints behave like a torsion spring in the stance phase. Moreover, the knee bends rapidly to avoid contact of the foot with the ground in the swing phase. In this paper, we describe the development of a knee joint mechanism that mimics the elastic characteristics of the stance leg and rapid bending knee of the idling leg of a running human. The knee was equipped with a mechanism comprising two leaf springs and a worm gear for adjusting the joint stiffness and high-speed bending knee. Using this mechanism, we were able to achieve joint stiffness within the range of human knee joints that could be adjusted by varying the effective length of one of the leaf springs. In addition, the mechanism was able to bend rapidly by changing the angle between the two leaf springs. The equation proposed for calculating the joint stiffness considers the difference between the position of the fixed point of the leaf spring and the position of the rotational center of the joint. We evaluated the performance of the adjustable joint stiffness and the effectiveness of the proposed equation for joint stiffness and high-speed knee bending. We were able to make a bipedal robot hop using pelvic oscillation for storing energy produced by the resonance to leg elasticity and confirmed the mechanism could produce large torque 210 Nm.

    DOI

    Scopus

    9
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Running with lower-body robot that mimics joint stiffness of humans

    T. Otani, K. Hashimoto, M. Yahara, S. Miyamae, T. Isomichi, M. Sakaguchi, Y. Kawakami, H. O. Lim, A. Takanishi

    IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems   2015-December   3969 - 3974  2015.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Human running motion can be modeled using a spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP), where the linear-spring-like motion of the standing leg is produced by the joint stiffness of the knee and ankle. To use running speed control in the SLIP model, we should only decide the landing placement of the leg. However, for using running speed control with a multi-joint leg, we should also decide the joint angle and joint stiffness of the standing leg because these affect the direction of the ground reaction force. In this study, we develop a running control method for a human-like multi-joint leg. To achieve a running motion, we developed a running control method including pelvis oscillation control for attaining jumping power with the joint stiffness of the leg and running speed control by changing the landing placement of the leg. For using running speed control, we estimated the ground reaction force using the equation of motion and detected the joint angles of the leg for directing the ground reaction force toward the center of mass. To evaluate the proposed control methods, we compared the estimated ground reaction force with the force measured by the real robot. Moreover, we performed a running experiment with the developed running robot. By using ground reaction force estimation, this robot could accomplish the running motion with pelvic oscillation for attaining jumping power and running speed control.

    DOI

    Scopus

    6
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • 不安定性を有するシューズの着用がフルマラソン後の下肢筋形態および機能に及ぼす影響

    中川 剣人, 稲見 崇孝, 釼持 優太, 米津 貴久, 成田 崇矢, 川上 泰雄, 彼末 一之

    体力科学   64 ( 6 ) 680 - 680  2015.12  [Refereed]

  • Applicability of anthropometric measures for estimating whole-body skeletal muscle volume in prepubertal children

    Megumi Ohta, Taishi Midorikawa, Yuki Hikihara, Shizuo Sakamotro, Yasuo Kawakami, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Tetsuo Fukunaga

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION   69   S23 - S24  2015.12  [Refereed]

  • Utilization of human-like pelvic rotation for running robot

    Otani, T, Hashimoto, K, Yahara, M, Miyamae, S, Isomichi, T, Hanawa, S, Sakaguchi, M, Kawakami, Y, Lim, H, Takanishi, A

    Front. Robot. AI   2 ( 17 )  2015.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The spring loaded inverted pendulum is used to model human running. It is based on a characteristic feature of human running, in which the linear-spring-like motion of the standing leg is produced by the joint stiffness of the knee and ankle. Although this model is widely used in robotics, it does not include human-like pelvic motion. In this study, we show that the pelvis actually contributes to the increase in jumping force and absorption of landing impact. On the basis of this finding, we propose a new model, spring loaded inverted pendulum with pelvis, to improve running in humanoid robots. The model is composed of a body mass, a pelvis, and leg springs, and, it can control its springs while running by use of pelvic movement in the frontal plane. To achieve running motions, we developed a running control system that includes a pelvic oscillation controller to attain control over jumping power and a landing placement controller to adjust the running speed. We also developed a new running robot by using the SLIP 2 model and performed hopping and running experiments to evaluate the model. The developed robot could accomplish hopping motions only by pelvic movement. The results also established that the difference between the pelvic rotational phase and the oscillation phase of the vertical mass displacement affects the jumping force. In addition, the robot demonstrated the ability to run with a foot placement controller depending on the reference running speed.

    DOI

    Scopus

    14
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Effect of exercise-induced muscle damage on muscle hardness evaluated by ultrasound real-time tissue elastography

    Yanagisawa, O, Sakuma, J, Kawakami, Y, Suzuki, K, Fukubayashi, T

    SpringerPlus   4 ( 1 ) 308  2015.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Purpose: To assess the effect of exercise-induced muscle damage on muscle hardness and evaluate the relationship between muscle hardness and muscle damage indicators.
    Methods: Seven men (mean 25.3 years; 172.7 cm; 66.8 kg) performed the single-leg ankle plantar flexion exercise involving both concentric and eccentric contractions (10 sets of 40 repetitions). The hardness of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) was evaluated using ultrasound real-time tissue elastography before, from day 1 to 4, and day 7 after exercise. The strain ratio between the MG and a reference material was calculated. Simultaneously, we evaluated the magnetic resonance T2 value (an index of edema) of the triceps surae, the ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM), and calf muscle soreness. Serum creatine kinase activity was assessed before, 2 and 4 h, and from day 1 to 4 after exercise.
    Results: The MG showed lower strain ratio, indicating increased muscle hardness, on day 4 post-exercise (P &lt; 0.01) and higher T2 values on days 1-7 post-exercise (P &lt; 0.01) relative to each pre-exercise value. The ankle dorsiflexion ROM was lower on days 2-4 post-exercise (P &lt; 0.01). The serum creatine kinase markedly increased on days 3 and 4 post-exercise (not significant). The degree of muscle soreness among the post-exercise time points was similar. The decreased strain ratio did not correlate with the increased T2, the decreased joint ROM or muscle soreness.
    Conclusion: Muscle hardness increased after strenuous resistance exercise, but the change was not related with muscle edema, decreased joint ROM, or muscle soreness resulting from muscle damage.

    DOI

    Scopus

    38
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Determination of contraction-induced changes in elbow flexor cross-sectional area for evaluating muscle size-strength relationship during contraction

    Ryota Akagi, Soichiro Iwanuma, Satoru Hashizume, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Tetsuo Fukunaga, Yasuo Kawakami

    Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research   29 ( 6 ) 1741 - 1747  2015.06  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    The aims of this study were to determine contraction-induced changes in the elbow flexor cross-sectional area (CSA) and to examine whether the maximal CSA during a high-intensity contraction is more closely related to the strength than that at rest in the elbow flexors. Fourteen young male subjects participated in this study. The elbow flexor CSAs were measured at sites from 1 cm proximal to 6 cm distal to the reference site (60% of the upper arm length from the acromial process of the scapula to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus) (every 1 cm; 8 sampling sites) using magnetic resonance imaging, at rest and during 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of isometric elbow flexion. The elbow flexor CSA changed greatly during low-intensity contractions, and this contraction-induced change was small over 60% MVC. Compared with at rest, greater CSA around the muscle belly and smaller CSA in the distal portion of the elbow flexors were found in contracted conditions. The MVC strength was significantly correlated with the maximal CSAs at rest and each contraction level, but stepwise multiple regression analysis selected only that during 80% MVC as a significant contributor for estimating the MVC strength. These results suggest that, in the elbow flexors, the contraction-induced change in the CSA reaches its peak under high contractile level and that the maximal CSA during 80% MVC is more closely related to the MVC strength than that at rest.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    6
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • 筋の硬さとストレッチング (特集 ストレッチングの効果を考える)

    稲見 崇孝, 川上 泰雄

    体育の科学   65 ( 6 ) 407 - 412  2015.06  [Invited]

    Authorship:Last author

    CiNii J-GLOBAL

  • Influence of muscle hypertrophy on the moment arm of the triceps brachii muscle.

    Sugisaki, N, Wakahara, T, Murata, K, Miyamoto, N, Kawakami, Y, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T

    J. Appl. Biomech.   31 ( 2 ) 111 - 116  2015.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Although the moment arm of the triceps brachii muscle has been shown to be associated with the muscle's anatomical cross-sectional area, whether training-induced muscle hypertrophy alters the moment arm of the muscle remains unexplored. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine this. Eleven men underwent a 12-week resistance training program for the triceps brachii muscle. The maximum muscle anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA(max)), the moment arm of the triceps brachii muscle, and the anterior-posterior dimension of the olecranon were measured using a magnetic resonance imaging system before and after intervention. The ACSA(max) (33.6 +/- 11.9%, P &lt; .001) and moment arm (5.5 +/- 4.0%, P = .001) significantly increased after training, whereas the anterior-posterior dimension of the olecranon did not change (P&gt;.05). The change in moment arm was smaller than that expected from the relationship between the ACSAmax and the moment arm before the intervention. The present results indicate that training-induced triceps brachii muscle hypertrophy could increase the muscle moment arm, but its impact can be small or negligible.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    11
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Kinematic differences between faster and slower sprinters during the acceleration phase of sprint running

    K. Kobayashi, H. Tsuchie, H. Kanehisa, T. Yanai, Y. Kawakami

    Gazzetta Medica Italiana Archivio per le Scienze Mediche   174 ( 4 ) 163 - 172  2015.04  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine kinematic differences between faster and slower sprinters during the acceleration phase of sprint running. Methods: Nineteen collegiate sprinters were divided into FAST (N.=9) and SLOW (N.=10) groups, based on their best 100 m race times. A two-dimensional videographic technique was used to record the side views of 40 m sprint performances using four high-speed digital camcorders. Using the recorded images, kinematic variables such as contact time, flight time, horizontal velocity, and horizontal acceleration were determined from the 1 step to the 19 step. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA (two groups of 10 steps each) with a Tukey post-hoc test was used to analyze the obtained data. Results: From the 7 step to the 19 step, the horizontal velocity was significantly higher for the FAST group as compared with that for the SLOW group. The horizontal acceleration from the 1 step to the 19 step and the horizontal velocity from the 7 step to the 19 step were significantly greater for the FAST group as compared with those for the SLOW group. In addition, the ground contact time was significantly lower for the FAST group as compared with that for the SLOW group. Conclusion: The results indicate that faster sprinters can achieve greater horizontal acceleration with shorter ground contact during the initial as well as the latter stage of the acceleration phase, during which they are already running faster. st th th th st th th th

  • No graduated pressure profile in compression stockings still reduces muscle fatigue

    Miyamoto, N, Kawakami, Y

    Int. J. Sports Med.   36 ( 3 ) 220 - 225  2015.03  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    Most sporting compression stockings possess a graduated pressure profile. However, it remains unclear whether the graduated pressure profile is an essential feature for reducing the development of muscle fatigue. This study sought to examine the effect of the pressure profile of compression stockings on the degree of muscle fatigue of lower leg muscles induced by submaximal running exercise. 15 male subjects performed 30-min treadmill running in 1 control and 4 compression stocking conditions with the following profiles; 1) graduated low pressure, 2) graduated high pressure, 3) uniform pressure distribution, and 4) localized pressure just over the gastrocnemius muscle belly. Before and immediately after the exercise, T2-weighted magnetic resonance images of the right lower leg were obtained without testing garments. T2 values of the triceps surae and tibialis anterior were calculated from the images. T2 was significantly increased after the running in all conditions. The magnitude of T2 increase was significantly greater in the control than in other 3 conditions except for the one with graduated low pressure, whereas there were no significant differences among the latter 3 conditions. The findings suggest that a graduated pressure profile is not an essential feature of compression stockings for reducing the development of muscle fatigue during submaximal running exercise.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    15
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Leg with rotational joint that mimics elastic characteristics of human leg in running stance phase

    T. Otani, T. George, K. Uryu, M. Yahara, A. Iizuka, S. Hamamoto, S. Miyamae, K. Hashimoto, M. Destephe, M. Sakaguchi, Y. Kawakami, H. O. Lim, A. Takanishi

    IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots   2015-February   481 - 486  2015.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this paper, we describe the development of a leg with a rotational joint that mimics the elastic characteristics of the leg of a running human. The purpose of this development was to realize the dynamics of human running, the analysis of which has revealed that the motion of the leg can be modeled by a compression spring and that of the leg joint by a torsion spring. We, therefore, assumed that these elastic characteristics could be used to develop robots capable of human-like running, which requires higher output power than that of existing humanoid robots. Hence, we developed a model of a leg with a rotational joint and fabricated the leg by incorporating a mechanism comprising of two leaf springs for adjusting the joint stiffness. By this means, we were able to achieve human-like joint stiffness, which could be adjusted by varying the effective length of one of the leaf springs. We evaluated the performance of the adjustable stiffness of the joints, and were also able to achieve hopping by resonance of the rotational leg joint.

    DOI

    Scopus

    4
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Hip rotation angle is associated with frontal plane knee joint mechanics during running

    Sakaguchi, M, Shimizu, N, Yanai, T, Stefanyshyn, D, J, Kawakami, Y

    Gait & Posture   41 ( 2 ) 557 - 561  2015.02  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Inability to control lower extremity segments in the frontal and transverse planes resulting in large knee abduction angle and increased internal knee abduction impulse has been associated with patellofemoral pain (PFP). However, the influence of hip rotation angles on frontal plane knee joint kinematics and kinetics remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore how hip rotation angles are related to frontal plane knee joint kinematics and kinetics during running. Seventy runners participated in this study. Three-dimensional marker positions and ground reaction forces were recorded with an 8-camera motion analysis system and a force plate while subjects ran along a 25-m runway at a speed of 4 m/s. Knee abduction, hip rotation and toe-out angles, frontal plane lever arm at the knee, internal knee abduction moment and impulse, ground reaction forces and the medio-lateral distance from the ankle joint center to the center of pressure (AJC-CoP) were quantified. The findings of this study indicate that greater hip external rotation angles were associated with greater toe-out angles, longer AJC-CoP distances, smaller internal knee abduction impulses with shorter frontal plane lever arms and greater knee abduction angles. Thus, there appears to exist a conflict between kinematic and kinetic risk factors of PFP, and hip external rotation angle may be a key factor to control frontal plane knee joint kinematics and kinetics. These results may help provide an appropriate manipulation and/or intervention on running style to reduce the risk of PFP. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    11
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Can a high-intensity contraction be enhanced by a conditioning contraction? insight from the relationship between shortening velocity of muscle fibers and postactivation potentiation

    Atsuki Fukutani, Yasuo Kawakami

    Sports Performance     199 - 211  2015.01

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    The magnitude of twitch torque increases after a high-intensity contraction of the same muscle (conditioning contraction). This phenomenon is called postactivationpotentiation (PAP). Recently, it has been shown that the maximal voluntary concentric torque or power attained during the maximal voluntary concentric contraction can be increased by a conditioning contraction, suggesting that conditioning contractions are effective on not only twitch but also on maximal voluntary contractions. In contrast, some studies have reported that a conditioning contraction had no potentiation effect on subsequent electrically-evoked maximal isometric force. This discrepancy among previous studies may be attributable to differences in the mode of contraction (i.e., isometric, concentric or eccentric), which can affect the extent of PAP. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to examine the influence of these aforementioned factors on the extent of PAP, and to discuss the applications of a conditioning contraction to high-intensity contractions.

    DOI

    Scopus

  • 骨盤運動に着目した2足走行ロボットの開発(第10報:弾性要素と能動的な蹴り出しから跳躍力を獲得できる膝関節機構)

    礒道貴矢, 大谷拓也, 橋本健二, 橋本健二, 八原昌亨, 宮前俊介, 阪口正律, 川上泰雄, 林憲玉, 林憲玉, 高西淳夫, 高西淳夫

    日本ロボット学会学術講演会予稿集(CD-ROM)   33rd  2015  [Refereed]

    J-GLOBAL

  • Quantitative profiles of the quadriceps femoris in sport athletes

    Ema, R, Kawakami, Y

    Sports Perf.     175 - 185  2015.01  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Corresponding author

     View Summary

    This brief review summarizes available evidence on the quantitative profiles of the quadriceps femoris in sports athletes. It is generally believed that sports athletes show event-related morphological profiles in muscle size that are specific to their competitive and training activities. Many previous analyses of cross-sectional data have indicated that athletes have greater size of the quadriceps femoris as comparedto untrained controls. However, little is known about which events have athletes with the greatest degree of quadriceps femoris. In addition, longitudinal studies on the adaptation of the quadriceps are few, and there is a paucity of quantitative evidence onadaptations of the quadriceps femoris induced by regular training for competitive activities. Only a limited number of studies have been carried out to examine the association between quadriceps femoris size and sport performance, e.g., sprinters, weightlifters and cyclists, with the conclusions controversial and inconsistent across studies. Furthermore, little is known regarding inter-muscle and/or intra-muscle differences inthe hypertrophic response, either in cross-sectional or longitudinal studies. There ishowever strong evidence that resistance training-induced changes in muscle size do notoccur evenly among the four muscles of the quadriceps femoris, nor along or across thesame muscle. Further studies will be needed if we are to develop an understanding of the mechanisms leading to the many differences seen in the quadriceps femoris, both within and across athletes.

    DOI

    Scopus

    2
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • 個人のアキレス腱形状と筋力データを用いた有限要素シミュレーションによる運動時のアキレス腱局所変形の推定

    久野峻幸, 楠本一樹, 栗原俊之, 石川昌紀, 川上泰雄, 小田俊明

    バイオメカニクス研究   19 ( 1 ) 2 - 10  2015  [Refereed]

    J-GLOBAL

  • 地域性を考慮した体操の実施が中高齢女性の筋量および身体機能に及ぼす効果

    江間諒一, 加藤えみか, 川上泰雄

    トレーニング科学   26 ( 4 ) 197 - 209  2015  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

    CiNii

  • Technical principles of Atemi-waza in the first technique of the Itsutsu-no-kata in Judo: from a viewpoint of Jujitsu-like Atemi-waza

    Shishida, F, Sakaguchi, M, Sato, T, Kawakami, Y

    Sport Sci. Res.   12   121 - 136  2015  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

    CiNii

  • 中高齢者における大腿部中央の筋厚および筋断面積に基づく膝関節伸展筋群の筋体積推定

    中谷深友紀, 高井洋平, 赤木亮太, 若原卓, 杉崎範英, 太田めぐみ, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫, 金久博昭

    日本トレーニング科学会大会プログラム・抄録集   27th   50  2014.11

    J-GLOBAL

  • Effect of pressure intensity of compression short-tight on fatigue of thigh muscles

    Miyamoto, N, Kawakami, Y

    Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.   46 ( 11 ) 2168 - 2174  2014.11  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    Purpose: Existing studies have failed to provide evidence of a positive effect on exercise performance by wearing compression short tights covering only both thighs. This could be due to an inadequate pressure intensity that otherwise has a significant effect if applied on the crucial point in the thigh. This study aimed to examine the effect of pressure intensity of elastic compression short-tights on the metabolic state of thigh muscles during submaximal running. Methods: Two groups of 11 male subjects performed treadmill running at 12 km.h(-1) in three conditions in each of experiment 1 (short-tights with a compression intensity at the thigh of 8 mm Hg (LOW) and 15 mm Hg (MID) and noncompression shorts as control (CON1)) and experiment 2 (short-tights with 20 mm Hg (MID-HIGH) and 25 mm Hg (HIGH) and CON2). Before and immediately after the running exercises, T2-weighted magnetic resonance images of the right thigh were obtained without testing garments. From the images, skeletal muscle proton transverse relaxation time (T2) of each muscle in the thigh was calculated. Results: T2 was significantly increased after the treadmill running in all conditions in the hamstring and adductor muscles. In experiment 1, after the running, T2 elevation was significantly smaller in MID than that in CON1 for the biceps femoris, semimembranosus, adductor longus, and adductor magnus muscles. In experiment 2, after the running, T2 elevation was significantly lower in MID-HIGH than that in CON2 and HIGH for the biceps femoris, semimembranosus, and adductor longus. Conclusions: The findings suggest that wearing compression short tights with a pressure intensity of 15-20 mm Hg at the thigh can reduce development of fatigue of exercising muscles during submaximal running exercise in healthy adult males.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    26
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Running model and hopping robot using pelvic movement and leg elasticity

    T. Otani, M. Yahara, K. Uryu, A. Iizuka, K. Hashimoto, T. Kishi, N. Endo, M. Sakaguchi, Y. Kawakami, S. H. Hyon, H. O. Lim, A. Takanishi

    Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation     2313 - 2318  2014.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Human running motion can be modeled by a spring loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP). However, this model, despite being widely used in robotics, does not include human-like pelvic motion. In this study, we show that the pelvis actually contributes to the increase in jumping force and absorption of landing impact, both of which findings can be used to improve running robots. On the basis of the analysis of human running motion, we propose a new model named SLIP 2 (spring loaded inverted pendulum using pelvis). This model is composed of a body mass, a pelvis, and leg springs; the model can control its springs during running by use of pelvic movement in the frontal plane. To achieve hopping and running motions, we developed pelvis oscillation control, running velocity control, and stabilization control using an upper body, as control methods. We also developed a new hopping robot using the SLIP 2 model. To evaluate the proposed model and control methods, we performed hopping and running simulations. The simulation results showed that the SLIP 2 model successfully achieves hopping and running motions. The hopping robot was also able to accomplish hopping motion. The simulation results also showed that the difference between the pelvic rotational phase and the phase of oscillation of the mass vertical displacement affects the jumping force. In particular, the results revealed that the human-like pelvic rotation contributes to the absorption of landing impact and to the increase in takeoff forces, which validates our observations in human motion analysis.

    DOI

    Scopus

    4
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • The contraction-induced increase in Achilles tendon moment arm: A three-dimensional study

    Hashizume, S, Iwanuma, S, Akagi, R, Kanehisa, H, Kawakami, Y, Yanai, T

    J. Biomech.   47 ( 12 ) 3226 - 3231  2014.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The present study aimed to re-examine the influence of the isometric plantarflexors contraction on the Achilles tendon moment arm (ATMA) and the factors influencing the ATMA in three-dimensions. A series of coronal magnetic resonance images of the right ankle were recorded at foot positions of 10 degrees of dorsiflexion, neutral position, and 10 degrees of plantarflexion for the rest condition and the plantarflexors contraction condition at 30% maximal voluntary effort The shortest distance between the talocrural joint axis and the line of action of the Achilles tendon force projected to the orthogonal plane of the talocrural joint axis was determined as the ATMA. The ATMA determined in the contraction condition was significantly greater by 8 mm than that determined in the rest condition. The talocrural joint axis was displaced anteriorly by 3 mm and distally by 2 mm due to the muscle contraction. As the same time, the line of action of the Achilles tendon force was displaced posteriorly by 5 mm and medially by 2 mm. These linear displacements of the talocrural joint axis and the line of action of the Achilles tendon force accounted for the difference in the ATMAs between the two conditions by 35.9 and 62.4%, respectively. These angular displacements accounted for the total of 0.4% increase in the ATMA. These results confirm the previous findings reported in two-dimensional studies and found that the linear displacement of the line of action of the Achilles tendon force is the primary source of the contraction-induced increase in the ATIVIA. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    10
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Influence of the intensity of squat exercises on the subsequent jump performance

    Fukutani, A, Takei, S, Hirata, K, Miyamoto, N, Kanehisa, H, Kawakami, Y

    J. Strength Cond. Res.   28 ( 8 ) 2236 - 2243  2014.08  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Jump performance can be enhanced after performing squat exercises, and this is thought to be because of the phenomenon of postactivation potentiation (PAP). However, the influence of the intensity of squat exercises on jump performance enhancement and its association to PAP have not been elucidated. Thus, we examined the influence of the intensity of squat exercises on the subsequent jump performance and the magnitude of PAP. Eight weightlifters (age, 19.8 +/- 1.3 years; height, 1.67 +/- 0.07 m; body mass, 77.1 +/- 14.8 kg) were recruited as subjects. The intensity of squat exercises was set in 2 conditions: heavy condition (HC) (45% 1 repetition maximum [1RM] x 5 repetitions [reps], 60% 1RM x 5 reps, 75% 1RM x 3 reps, and 90% 1RM x 3 reps) and moderate condition (MC) (45% 1RM x 5 reps, 60% 1RM x 5 reps, and 75% 1RM x 3 reps). Before and after the squat exercises, the subjects performed countermovement jumps 3 times. In addition, a twitch contraction was concurrently elicited before and after the squat exercises. In both conditions, twitch torque and jump height recorded after the squat exercises increased significantly compared with those recorded beforehand. The extents of increase in both twitch torque and jump height were significantly larger in HC than in MC. We conclude therefore that a high-intensity squat exercise is better than a moderate-intensity squat exercise as a warm-up modality for enhancing subsequent jump performance.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    46
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Effect of Compression of Muscle and Its Intensity on Force-generating Capacity of the Muscle

    宮本直和, 川上泰雄

    デサントスポーツ科学   35   31 - 36  2014.06

    Authorship:Last author

    CiNii J-GLOBAL

  • Applicability of ultrasound muscle thickness measurements for predicting fat-free mass in elderly population

    Takai, Y, Ohta, M, Akagi, R, Kato, E, Wakahara, T, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T, Kanehisa, H

    J. Nutr. Health Aging.   18 ( 6 ) 579 - 585  2014.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Objective: This study aimed to examine the applicability of ultrasound muscle thickness (MT) measurements for predicting whole body fat-free mass (FFM) in elderly individuals. Design and setting: Crosssectional study of 77 healthy elderly individuals. Methods: MTs at nine sites of the body and FFM were determined using B-mode ultrasound and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), respectively, in 44 women and 33 men aged 52 to 78 yrs. Stepwise multiple regression analysis produced two equations for predicting DXA-based FFM with sex (dummy: woman = 0 and man = 1) and either MTs at the anterior and posterior of thigh and lower leg (Eq1) or the product of MT and limb length (MTxLL) at thigh anterior and posterior, lower leg posterior, and upper arm anterior (Eq2) as independent variables. Results: The R2 and SEE for each of the two equations were 0.929 and 2.5 kg for Eq1 and 0.955 and 2.0 kg for Eq2. The estimated FFM from each of Eq1 (44.4 +/- 8.9 kg) and Eq2 (44.4 +/- 9.0 kg) did not significantly differ from that of the DXA-based FFM (44.4 +/- 9.2 kg), without systematic error. However, the absolute value of the difference between the DXA-based and estimated FFM was significantly greater with Eq1 (2.0 +/- 1.5 kg) than with Eq2 (1.5 +/- 1.3 kg). Conclusion: The current results indicate that ultrasound MT measurement is useful to predict FFM in the elderly, and its accuracy is improved by using the product of MT and limb length as an independent variable.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    64
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Inferior muscularity of the rectus femoris to vasti in varsity oarsmen

    Ema, R, Wakahara, T, Kanehisa, H, Kawakami, Y

    Int. J. Sports Med.   35 ( 4 ) 293 - 297  2014.04  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study was to examine the morphological profiles of 4 constituents (vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius and rectus femoris) of the quadriceps femoris in oarsmen through comparison with non-athletes. T1-weigheted magnetic resonance (MR) images of the thigh were obtained from 14 oarsmen and 19 non-athlete men. From the MR images, serial anatomical cross-sectional areas (ACSAs) and muscle volume of each muscle were determined. The muscle volume of the total quadriceps femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and vastus intermedius were significantly larger in the oarsmen than in the non-athlete men, whereas that of the rectus femoris was comparable for the 2 groups. The portion of the rectus femoris as a percentage of total quadriceps femoris volume was significantly higher in the non-athlete men than in the oarsmen, and vice versa for the vastus lateralis. The proximal-to-distal and middle-to-distal ACSA ratios in each muscle did not differ between the 2 groups. The present results indicate inferior muscular hypertrophy of the rectus femoris compared to the vasti in oarsmen, and that the vasti are equally hypertrophied along their lengths. This may be due to muscle-specific adaptation to the rowing exercise.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    17
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Effect of conditioning contraction intensity on postactivation potentiation is muscle dependent

    Fukutani, A, Hirata, K, Miyamoto, N, Kanehisa, H, Yanai, T, Kawakami, Y

    J. Electromyogr. Kinesiol.   24 ( 2 ) 240 - 245  2014.04  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    We aimed to examine whether the influence of conditioning contraction intensity on the extent of post-activation potentiation (PAP) is muscle dependent. Eleven healthy males performed both thumb adduction and plantar flexion as a conditioning contraction. The conditioning contraction intensities were set at 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, or 100% of the maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC).
    Before and after the conditioning contraction, twitch torque was measured for the respective joint to calculate the extent of PAP. In plantar flexion, the extent of PAP became significantly larger as the conditioning contraction intensity increased up to 80% MVC (p &lt; 0.05). In contrast, the extent of PAP in thumb adduction increased significantly only up to 60% MVC (p &lt; 0.05), but not at higher intensities.
    These results indicate that the influence of the conditioning contraction intensity on the extent of PAP is muscle dependent. Our results suggest that a conditioning contraction with submaximal intensity can sufficiently evoke sizable PAP in the muscle where most of muscle fibers are recruited at submaximal intensities, thereby attenuating muscle fatigue induced by the conditioning contraction. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    22
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Regular training of competitive cycling induces muscle-specific adaptation of synergistic muscles

    Ema Ryoichi, Wakahara Taku, Kawakami Yasuo

      11   71 - 71  2014

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

    CiNii

  • 骨盤運動に着目した2足走行ロボットの開発(第8報:膝関節に能動屈伸機構と弾性要素を有する2足走行ロボット脚部)

    濱元伸也, 大谷拓也, 飯塚晃弘, 宮前俊介, 瓜生和寛, 八原昌亨, 橋本健二, 阪口正律, 川上泰雄, 林憲玉, 林憲玉, 高西淳夫, 高西淳夫

    日本ロボット学会学術講演会予稿集(CD-ROM)   32nd  2014  [Refereed]

    J-GLOBAL

  • 骨盤運動に着目した2足走行ロボットの開発(第6報:走行運動を目指した腰部関節の強度強化)

    宮前俊介, 大谷拓也, 飯塚晃弘, 濱元伸也, 八原昌亨, 橋本健二, 阪口正律, 川上泰雄, 林憲玉, 林憲玉, 高西淳夫, 高西淳夫

    日本ロボット学会学術講演会予稿集(CD-ROM)   32nd  2014  [Refereed]

    J-GLOBAL

  • Gender differences in hip and ankle joint kinematics on knee abduction during running

    Sakaguchi, M, Ogawa, H, Shimizu, N, Kanehisa, H, Yanai, T, Kawakami, Y

    Eur. J. Sport Sci.   14 ( SUPPL.1 ) S302 - S309  2014.01  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    The knee is the most common site of running injuries, particularly prevalent in females. The purpose of this study was to clarify gender differences in the lower extremity kinematics during running, with a specific emphasis on the relationships between the distal and proximal factors and the knee joint kinematics. Eleven female and 11 male runners participated in this study. Three-dimensional marker positions were recorded with a motion analysis system while the subjects ran along a 25 m runway at a speed of 3.5 m/s. Kinematic variables were analyzed for the stance phase of the right leg. Female runners demonstrated significantly greater peak knee abduction (P&lt;0.05), hip adduction (P&lt;0.01) and internal rotation (P&lt;0.05), whereas male runners demonstrated significantly greater peak rearfoot eversion (P&lt;0.01). The knee abduction angles were positively correlated with hip adduction angles (r=0.49, P&lt;0.05) and negatively correlated with rearfoot eversion (r= -0.69, P&lt;0.001). There was no significant difference in normalised step width between genders (P&gt;0.05). Smaller rearfoot eversion and greater hip adduction related closely to the greater knee abduction as the distal and proximal factors, respectively. These relationships are thought to be the compensatory joint motions in the frontal plane, because there was no significant difference in the normalised step width between females and males. The current results suggest that if the step width is identical, the subjects with greater knee abduction had smaller rearfoot eversion to compensate for greater hip adduction, which were more apparent in females. This explains greater knee abduction found in female runners, which can be linked to a high risk of knee injury.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    45
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Association between contraction-induced increases in elbow flexor muscle thickness and distal biceps brachii tendon moment arm depends on the muscle thickness measurement site

    Akagi, R, Iwanuma, S, Hashizume, S, Kanehisa, H, Yanai, T, Kawakami, Y

    J. Appl. Biomech.   30 ( 1 ) 134 - 139  2014  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how the contraction-induced increase in distal biceps brachii tendon moment arm is related to that in elbow flexor muscle thickness, with a specific emphasis on the influence of the site-related differences in muscle thickness. The moment arm and muscle thickness were determined from sagittal and cross-sectional images, respectively, of the right arm obtained by magnetic resonance imaging of nine young men. The muscle thickness was measured at levels from the reference site (60% of the upper arm length from the acromial process of the scapula to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus) to 60 mm distal to it (every 10 mm; 7 measurement sites). At 80° of elbow flexion, the moment arm and muscle thickness were determined at rest and during 60% of maximal voluntary contraction (60%MVC) of isometric elbow flexion. Only the relative change from rest to 60%MVC in muscle thickness at the level 60 mm distal to the reference site correlated significantly with that of the moment arm. This result indicates that the contraction-induced increase in distal biceps brachii tendon moment arm is related to that in elbow flexor muscle thickness near the corresponding muscle-tendon junction. © 2014 Human Kinetics, Inc.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    5
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Evaluation of serum leaking enzymes and investigation into new biomarkers for exerciseinduced muscle damage

    Kazue Kanda, Kaoru Sugama, Jun Sakuma, Yasuo Kawakami, Katsuhiko Suzuki

    Exercise Immunology Review   20   39 - 54  2014  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This investigation determined whether existing muscle damage markers and organ damage markers respond to an acute eccentric exercise protocol and are associated with affected muscle symptoms. Nine healthy-young men completed one-leg calf-raise exercise with their right leg on a force plate. They performed 10 sets of 40 repetitions of exercise at 0.5 Hz with a load corresponding to half of their body weight, with 3 mm rest between sets. The tenderness of medial gastrocnemius, lateral gastrocnemius and soleus, and the ankle active range of motion (ROM) were assessed before, immediately after, 24 h and 48 h, 72 h, 96 h and 168 h after exercise. Blood and urine were collected pre-exercise and 2 h, 4 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h post-exercise. Serum was analyzed for creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aldolase (ALD) activities. We also determined hearttype fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP), intestinal-type fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) and liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-23, nerve growth factor (NGF), soluble-Endothelial (sE)-selectin, s-Leukocyte (L)-selectin, 5Platelets (P)-selectin, and 8-isoprostane in plasma and urine. The tenderness of proximal and middle gastrocnemius increased significantly 72 h (p&lt;0.05, p&lt;0.01) after exercise. Ankle active ROM in dorsal flexion decreased significantly 48 h (p&lt; 0.05) and 72 h (p&lt;0.01) after exercise. CK and ALD activities significantly increased at 72 h (p&lt;0.05) and remained elevated at 96 h (p&lt; 0.01) postexercise compared to pre-exercise values. Also, ALD which showed relatively lower interindividual variability was significantly correlated with tenderness of middle gastrocnemius at 72 h. LDH activity significantly increased 96 h postexercise (p&lt; 0.01), whereas the increase in AST and ALT activities 96 h post-exercise was not significantly different from pre-exercise values. There were no significant changes in FABPs, NGAL, IL-17A, IL-23, NGF, selectins and 8-isoprostanes in plasma and urine. In conclusion, calf-raise exercise induced severe local muscle damage symptoms which were accompanied by increases in both serum CK and ALD activities, but we could not detect any changes in examined markers of organ damage, inflammation and oxidative stress. Further research is needed to determine other more sensitive biomarkers and the underlying mechanisms of exercise-induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

  • Increase in vastus lateralis aponeurosis width induced by resistance training: implications for a hypertrophic model of pennate muscle

    Wakahara, T, Ema, R, Miyamoto, N, Kawakami, Y

    Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.   115 ( 2 ) 309 - 316  2014  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    Purpose: This study aimed to ascertain whether training-induced muscle hypertrophy is accompanied by an increase in the aponeurosis width, and to infer its impact on the training-induced increase in the pennation angle.
    Methods: Eleven young men completed a resistance training program of unilateral knee extensions for 12 weeks. Before and after training, anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) of the vastus lateralis and its distal aponeurosis width in the transverse plane were measured with magnetic resonance imaging. The pennation angle and fascicle length were also determined with ultrasonography at the midbelly of the muscle. The effect of change in aponeurosis width on the magnitude of training-induced increase in pennation angle was estimated by using a parallelepipedon model.
    Results: After the training, there were significant increases in ACSA (10.7 ± 7.6 %), pennation angle (10.8 ± 7.3 %) and aponeurosis width (1.9 ± 3.1 %), whereas no significant change was found in the fascicle length. The model simulation shows that the increase in aponeurosis width by 1.9 % reduces the magnitude of increase in pennation angle by only 0.4°.
    Conclusions: These results indicate that (1) the aponeurosis width of the vastus lateralis increases after 12 weeks of resistance training and (2) the increase in the aponeurosis width accompanying muscle hypertrophy by the amount of ~10 % does not substantially affect the increase in pennation angle.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    23
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Hopping robot using pelvic movement and leg elasticity

    Otani, T, Uryu, K, Yahara, M, Iizuka, A, Hamamoto, S, Miyamae, S, Hashimoto, K, Destephe, M, Sakaguchi, M, Kawakami, Y, Lim, H, O, Takanishi, A

    Mechanisms and Machine Science   22   235 - 243  2014  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Analysis of human running has revealed that the motion of the human leg can be modeled by a compression spring because leg’s joints behave like a torsion spring. In addition, the pelvic movement in the frontal plane contributes to the increase in jumping force. We therefore assumed that human-like running, which requires higher output power than that of existing humanoid robots, could be realized based on these characteristics. Hence, we developed a model composed of a body mass, a pelvis and a rotational joint leg, and fabricated the leg by incorporating a stiffness adjustment mechanism that uses two leaf springs. In this way, we were able to achieve a human-like joint stiffness, which could be adjusted by varying the effective length of one of the leaf springs. We achieved hopping by resonance of the pelvic movement and joints’ elasticity.

    DOI

    Scopus

    1
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • 骨格筋のバイオメカニクス

    川上泰雄

    月刊健康づくり     12 - 15  2014  [Invited]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

  • 子どもの動きと筋力

    川上泰雄

    体育の科学   64 ( 11 ) 770 - 775  2014  [Invited]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

    J-GLOBAL

  • ヒト生体腱における力学的特性の計測:つま先領域と線形領域の識別方法の提案

    茂木康嘉, 川上泰雄, 矢内利政

    バイオメカニクス研究   18 ( 2 ) 63 - 71  2014  [Refereed]

    J-GLOBAL

  • 柔道の「五の形」一本目における当身技の術理:柔道的当身技の視点から

    志々田文明, 阪口正律, 佐藤忠之, 川上泰雄

    スポーツ科学研究   11   212 - 224  2014  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

  • Nonuniform muscle hypertrophy: its relation to muscle activation in training session

    Wakahara, T, Fukutani, A, Kawakami, Y, Yanai, T

    Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.   45 ( 11 ) 2158 - 2165  2013.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Purpose: Muscle hypertrophy in response to resistance training has been reported to occur nonuniformly along the length of the muscle. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the regional difference in muscle hypertrophy induced by a training intervention corresponds to the regional difference in muscle activation in the training session. Methods: Twelve young men participated in a training intervention program for the elbow extensors with a multijoint resistance exercise for 12 wk (3 d.wk(-1)). Before and after the intervention, cross-sectional areas of the triceps brachii along its length were measured with magnetic resonance images. A series of transverse relaxation time (T2)-weighted magnetic resonance images was recorded before and immediately after the first session of training intervention. The T2 was calculated for each pixel within the triceps brachii. In the images recorded after the session, the number of pixels with a T2 greater than the threshold (mean + 1 SD of T2 before the session) was expressed as the ratio to the whole number of pixels within the muscle and used as an index of muscle activation (percent activated area). Results: The percent activated area of the triceps brachii in the first session was significantly higher in the middle regions than that in the most proximal region. Similarly, the relative change in cross-sectional area induced by the training intervention was also significantly greater in the middle regions than the most proximal region. Conclusion: The results suggest that nonuniform muscle hypertrophy after training intervention is due to the region-specific muscle activation during the training session.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    107
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Inhomogeneous architectural changes of the quadriceps femoris induced by resistance training

    Ema, R, Wakahara, T, Miyamoto, N, Kanehisa, H, Kawakami, Y

    Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.   113 ( 11 ) 2691 - 2703  2013.11  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Purpose: This study aimed to clarify whether resistance training-induced changes in muscle architecture are homogeneous among the quadriceps and over different regions within each muscle. Methods: Eleven recreationally active men (27 ± 2 years) completed a 12-week resistance training program for knee extensors. Before and after the intervention, muscle thicknesses, fascicle lengths, and pennation angles of the four muscles (vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius, rectus femoris) in several regions (2-4 regions per each muscle) were measured using ultrasonography. Anatomical cross-sectional areas (ACSAs) at the same positions as the ultrasound measurements were determined from magnetic resonance images. Results: Relative increases in the ACSA, muscle thickness, and pennation angle of the rectus femoris were significantly greater than those of the vasti. Relative increases in the ACSAs of the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were significantly greater in the distal than in the proximal region, and those in the muscle thickness and pennation angle of the vastus intermedius were significantly greater in the medial than in the lateral region. Fascicle lengths did not change in any muscles. The interrelations between muscle thickness and pennation angle remained unchanged after the intervention, with a significant association between the relative changes of the two variables. Conclusion: The current results indicate that (1) hypertrophy of the quadriceps femoris is associated with a proportional increase in pennation angle but not necessarily in fascicle length, and (2) training-induced changes in muscle size and pennation do not evenly occur among the quadriceps, along or across a muscle. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    118
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Validity of ultrasound muscle thickness measurements for predicting leg skeletal muscle mass in healthy Japanese middle-aged and older individuals

    Takai, Y, Ohta, M, Akagi, R, Kato, E, Wakahara, T, Kawakami, Y, Fukuunaga, T, Kanehisa, H

    J. Physiol. Anthropol.   32 ( 1 ) 12 - 12  2013.09  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    BACKGROUND: The skeletal muscle mass of the lower limb plays a role in its mobility during daily life. From the perspective of physical resources, leg muscle mass dominantly decreases after the end of the fifth decade. Therefore, an accurate estimate of the muscle mass is important for the middle-aged and older population. The present study aimed to clarify the validity of ultrasound muscle thickness (MT) measurements for predicting leg skeletal muscle mass (SM) in the healthy Japanese middle-aged and older population. FINDINGS: MTs at four sites of the lower limb and the bone-free lean tissue mass (LTM) of the right leg were determined using brightness-mode ultrasonography and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), respectively, in 44 women and 33 men, 52- to 78-years old. LTM was used as a representative variable of leg skeletal muscle mass. In the model-development group (30 women and 22 men), regression analysis produced an equation with R2 and standard error of the estimate (SEE) of 0.958 and 0.3 kg, respectively: LTM (kg) = 0.01464 × (MTSUM×L) (cm2) - 2.767, where MTSUM is the sum of the product of MTs at four sites, and L is length of segment where MT is determined. The estimated LTM (7.0 ± 1.7 kg) did not significantly differ from the measured LTM (7.0 ± 1.7 kg), without a significant systematic error on a Bland-Altman plot. The application of this equation for the cross-validation group (14 women and 11 men) did not yield a significant difference between the measured (7.2 ± 1.6 kg) or estimated (7.2 ± 1.6 kg) LTM and systematic error. CONCLUSION: The developed prediction equation may be useful for estimating the lean tissue mass of the lower extremity for the healthy Japanese middle-aged and older population.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    39
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Relationship between muscle architecture and joint performance during concentric contractions in humans

    Wakahara, T, Kanehisa, H, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T, Yanai, T

    J. Appl. Biomech.   29 ( 4 ) 405 - 412  2013.08  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between muscle architecture of the triceps brachii (TB) and joint performance during concentric elbow extensions. Twenty-two men performed maximal isometric and concentric elbow extensions against various loads. Joint torque and angular velocity during concentric contractions were measured, and joint power was calculated. Muscle length, cross-sectional areas, and volume of TB were measured from magnetic resonance images. Pennation angle (PA) of TB at rest was determined by ultrasonography. The PA was significantly correlated with the maximal isometric torque (r = .471), but not to the torque normalized by muscle volume (r = .312). A significant correlation was found between PA and the angular velocity at 0 kg load (r = .563), even when the angular velocity was normalized by the muscle length (r = .536). The PA was significantly correlated with the maximal joint power (r = .519), but not with the power normalized by muscle volume (r = .393). These results suggest that PA has a positive influence on the muscle shortening velocity during an unloaded movement, but does not have a significant influence on the maximum power generation in untrained men.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    19
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • In vivo measurement of human rectus femoris architecture by ultrasonography: validity and applicability

    Ema, R, Wakahara, T, Mogi, Y, Miyamoto, N, Komatsu, T, Kanehisa, H, Kawakami, Y

    Clin. Physiol. Funct. Imaging   33 ( 4 ) 267 - 273  2013.07  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    The architectural feature of the rectus femoris (RF) has been scarcely investigated despite its substantial contribution to knee extension torque and large plasticity in the muscularity. This study aimed to examine the reproducibility and validity of ultrasound measurements of RF architecture and interrelationships among the architectural parameters. After confirming the measurement accuracy of an examiner (measurement errors &lt;1%), in vivo and cadaveric measurements of fascicle lengths and pennation angles of RF were performed. Day-to-day reproducibility of measurements was investigated in vivo including muscle thickness measurement. Validity of measurements was investigated by comparing the values between direct and ultrasound measurements for the cadaver. The intraclass correlation coefficients were 0 center dot 984, 0 center dot 960 and 0 center dot 932, and root mean square difference between measured values on 2days was 0 center dot 8mm, 3 center dot 1mm and 1 center dot 4 degrees for muscle thickness, fascicle length and pennation angle, respectively. The validity of measurements was similar or better than those of previous reports on other muscles. We also confirmed a positive correlation between the muscle thickness and the pennation angle as has been shown in other muscles. The current results warrant the use of B-mode ultrasonography for examining the architectural characteristics of RF in vivo.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    45
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Further potentiation of dynamic muscle strength after resistance training

    Miyamoto, N, Wakahara, T, Ema, R, Kawakami, Y

    Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.   45 ( 7 ) 1323 - 1330  2013.07  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    Purpose: One bout of 5-6 s of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) is known to enhance subsequent dynamic joint performance such as dynamic joint torque and power with maximal voluntary effort. On the other hand, such a muscle contraction can also induce muscle fatigue. It is then possible that individual differences in fatigue resistance is a factor that affects the balance between potentiation and fatigue. Here, we examined the effect of chronic heavy-resistance training on the extent and time course of the potentiation of maximal voluntary dynamic torque. Methods: Before and after a 12-wk intervention, maximal voluntary concentric knee extension torque at 210 degrees.s(-1) was measured in the following sequence: before and immediately after a 5-s MVC of knee extension and 1, 3, and 5 min thereafter. The training group performed heavy-resistance training exercise of knee extension consisting of five sets of eight repetitions with 80% of one-repetition maximum, three sessions a week during the intervention period. Results: Before the resistance training intervention, maximal voluntary concentric torque was significantly enhanced only at 1 and 3 min post-MVC. After the 12-wk resistance training, the maximal voluntary concentric torque was potentiated also immediately after the conditioning MVC and was further increased at 1-min point. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the contraction-induced potentiation of maximal voluntary dynamic torque is pronounced in strength-trained individuals.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    13
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • 1A2-A11 Effects on Lift Force of Feathering Motions of a Flapping Robot(Bio-Mimetics and Bio-Mechatronics (2))

    IDESAWA Yoshihito, KUWABARA Takeru, ANSAI Kenichiro, ITABASHI Kanto, SAWANE Satoru, TOMINAGA Shunpei, SAKAGUCHI Masanori, MATSUMOTO Nana, KAWAKAMI Yasuo, WATANABE Takanobu

      2013   "1A2 - A11(1)"-"1A2-A11(3)"  2013.05

     View Summary

    We have developed a flapping robot with active feathering wings by using a "scissors swing motor (SSM)". In the present study, we investigate how the feathering motion, which changes the angle of attack of the wing, affects the lift by means of motion capture experiment. Infrared reflective makers were placed on the wing frames, and their 3D-coordinates were tracked. The weight change of the robot was monitored simultaneously with a load cell, and we measured the lift force produced by flapping motion. The results show that deformation of wing surface during the flapping motion deteriorates the lift, and the feathering motion effectively suppresses the deformation of the wing.

    CiNii J-GLOBAL

  • 国際誌に掲載されるための主要ポイントーアクセプトを目指して

    川上 泰雄

    体力科學   62 ( 1 ) 11 - 11  2013.02  [Invited]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

    DOI CiNii

  • 04生-29-口-08 女子ボート選手における大腿四頭筋の量的特徴(04 運動生理学,一般研究発表抄録)

    江間 諒一, 若原 卓, 平山 邦明, 金久 博昭, 川上 泰雄

    日本体育学会大会予稿集   64   162 - 163  2013

    DOI CiNii J-GLOBAL

  • 04生-30-ポ-69 筋疲労軽減を目的とした弾性圧迫ストッキングに段階的着圧設計は有効か?(04 運動生理学,一般研究発表抄録)

    宮本 直和, 川上 泰雄

    日本体育学会大会予稿集   64   186 - 187  2013

    DOI CiNii J-GLOBAL

  • 骨盤運動に着目した2足走行ロボットの開発(第3報:板ばねを用いた弾性可変機構を持つ回転関節脚)

    瓜生和寛, 大谷拓也, 八原昌亨, 飯塚晃弘, 濱元伸也, デステフ マチュー, 橋本健二, 橋本健二, 保原浩明, 阪口正律, 川上泰雄, 林憲玉, 林憲玉, 高西淳夫, 高西淳夫

    日本ロボット学会学術講演会予稿集(CD-ROM)   31st  2013  [Refereed]

    J-GLOBAL

  • 骨盤運動に着目した2足走行ロボットの開発(第1報:骨盤運動と脚弾性を活用した走行モデルの考案)

    大谷拓也, 八原昌亨, 瓜生和寛, 橋本健二, 阪口正律, 川上泰雄, LIM Hun-ok, 高西淳夫

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2013  2013  [Refereed]

    J-GLOBAL

  • Morphological and mechanical properties of the Achilles tendon in adolescent boys

    Mogi, Y, Torii, S, Kawakami, Y, Yanai, T

    Japanese J. Phys. Fit. Sports Med.   62 ( 4 ) 303 - 313  2013  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The present study aimed to investigate how the morphological and mechanical properties of Achilles tendon change in adolescent boys. Twenty-nine adolescent boys and 12 male adults participated. Ultrasonography was used to measure Achilles tendon elongation. The transition point, that is, the intersection point of the "Toeδ and "Linearδ regions was determined from tendon elongation-tendon force relationship, and the stiffness and Young's modulus of the Achilles tendon were calculated from linear region. The hysteresis was calculated as the ratio of the area within the tendon elongation-tendon force loop to the area beneath the load portion of the curve. The stiffness, Young's modulus and stress at transition point were greater in adults (544 ± 231 N/mm, 1.6 ± 0.7 GPa, 23 ± 6 MPa) than in adolescents (374 ± 177 N/mm, 1.1 ± 0.7 GPa, 19 ± 10 MPa). However, no differences were observed in the tendon length and the tendon cross-sectional area and stress at transition point between adolescents (174 ± 23 mm, 60 ± 11 mm , 6.1 ± 2.0 %) and adults (180 ± 30 mm, 63 ± 7 mm , 5.5 ± 2.2 %). The hysteresis in adolescents (20 ± 18 %) was greater than that of adults (12 ± 10 %). These results suggest that the morphological properties of Achilles tendon are similar between adolescents and adults, but that mechanical properties are altered with growth to become a stiffer and more spring-like structure. 2 2

    DOI J-GLOBAL

    Scopus

    3
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Non-uniform muscle oxygenation despite uniform neuromuscular activity within the vastus lateralis during fatiguing heavy resistance exercise

    Naokazu Miyamoto, Taku Wakahara, Ryoichi Ema, Yasuo Kawakami

    Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging   33 ( 6 ) 463 - 469  2013  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    Previous studies have reported for the vastus lateralis (VL) that the extent of muscle hypertrophy in response to resistance training is greater in the distal than in the middle region, despite uniform muscle fibre composition within VL along its length. In the present study, to investigate mechanism(s) for such non-uniform muscle hypertrophy, we simultaneously measured neuromuscular activity and muscle oxygenation state at the middle and distal regions of VL during fatiguing heavy resistance exercise. Twelve males performed unilateral knee extension exercise which consisted of 4 sets of 8 repetitions at intensity of 80% of the individual one repetition maximum. During the resistance exercise, neuromuscular activities and muscle oxygenation status at the middle and distal regions (50% and 70% of the thigh length, respectively) of VL were measured by using electromyography and near-infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Neuromuscular activities were similar between the distal and middle regions of VL, whereas muscle tissue oxygenation saturation was significantly lower at the distal than at the middle region of VL. These results suggest a possibility that the regional difference in muscle oxygenation but not in neuromuscular activity during fatiguing heavy resistance exercise is responsible for the regional difference in hypertrophy within a muscle. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    24
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Eccentric exercise-induced delayed-onset muscle soreness and changes in markers of muscle damage and inflammation

    Kazue Kanda, Kaoru Sugama, Harumi Hayashida, Jun Sakuma, Yasuo Kawakami, Shigeki Miura, Hiroshi Yoshioka, Yuichi Mori, Katsuhiko Suzuki

    Exercise Immunology Review   19   72 - 85  2013  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), muscle damage and inflammatory responses to eccentric exercise and investigate the underlying mechanisms. Nine healthy males performed one-leg calf-raise exercise with their right leg on a force plate. They performed 10 sets of 40 repetitions of exercise at 0.5 Hz by the load corresponding to the half of their body weight, with a rest for 3 min between sets. DOMS was evaluated by a visual analogue scale (VAS). Blood and urine samples were collected before and 2, 4, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h post-exercise. Blood samples were analyzed for leucocyte differential counts and neutrophil functions (migratory activity and oxidative burst activity). We also determined a serum marker of muscle damage, myoglobin (Mb), and plasma and urinary prostaglandin E2 as an algesic substance. As for the inflammatory mediators, plasma and urine were analyzed for cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor), leucocyte activation markers (calprotectin and myeloperoxidase), and neutrophil chemotactic factor complement 5a. All subjects reported muscle soreness on subsequent days and VAS peaked at 72 h after exercise. Serum Mb concentration significantly increased (p < 0.05) at 72 h after exercise as compared with the pre-exercise values which was correlated with the increases in VAS at 72 h (r = 0.73, p < 0.05). Circulating neutrophil count and migratory activity increased significantly (p < 0.01, and p < 0.05, respectively) at 4 h after exercise, whereas there were no significant changes in the other plasma and urinary inflammatory mediators. These results suggest that neutrophils can be mobilized into the circulation and migrate to the muscle tissue several hours after the eccentric exercise. There were also positive correlations between the exercise-induced increases in neutrophil migratory activity at 4 h and the increases in Mb at 48 h (r = 0.67, p < 0.05). These findings suggest that neutrophil mobilization and migration after exercise may be involved in the muscle damage and inflammatory processes.

    PubMed

  • The activation time-course of contractile elements estimated from in vivo fascicle behaviours during twitch contractions

    Oda, T, Himeno, R, Hay, D, C, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    J. Sports Sci.   31 ( 11 ) 1233 - 1241  2013  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    To better understand the cascade from neural activation up to force production within in vivo contracting muscle-tendon units, we estimated activation of contractile elements from experimentally measured human fascicle length change and force using a Hill-type muscle model. The experiment was conducted with respect to twitch contractions of the tibialis anterior muscle at three joint angles. As muscle contractile element force is a function of its length and velocity, the activation of contractile elements was calculated using a Hill-type muscle model and measured data. The results were able to reproduce the continuous rising activation of contractile elements after termination of electromyographic activity, the earlier shift of peak activation in time compared to twitch force, and the differences in time-course activation at three different joint angles. These findings are consistent with the predicted change in the activation of contractile elements from previous reports. Also, the results suggest that the time-course of the activation of contractile elements was greatly influenced by the change in force generating capacities related to both length and velocity, even in fixed end contractions, which could result from muscle-tendon interaction. © 2013 Taylor &amp
    Francis.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    1
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Validity of three-dimensional photonic scanning technique for estimating percent body fat

    Shitara, K, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T, Yanai, T, Kawakami, Y

    J. Frailty Aging   2   192 - 197  2013  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

  • Potentiation of isokinetic torque is velocity-dependent following an isometric conditioning contraction

    Fukutani, A, Miyamoto, N, Kanehisa, H, Yanai, T, Kawakami, Y

    SpringerPlus   2 ( 1 ) 1 - 10  2013  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Not only twitch torque but also the maximal voluntary concentric torque increases after a high-intensity contraction (conditioning contraction). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the increase in the maximal voluntary concentric torque induced by a conditioning contraction is prominent when tested at fast angular velocities conditions. Twelve healthy male participants performed the maximal voluntary isometric plantar flexion for six seconds as a conditioning contraction. Before and after the conditioning contraction, peak torques during the maximal voluntary concentric plantar flexions were measured at 30°/s (slow) and 180°/s (fast), each of which was carried out in a separate condition. Isometric twitch torque was also recorded before and after the conditioning contraction in each of the two velocity conditions to confirm the extent of the positive effect of the conditioning contraction. The extent of increase in isometric twitch torque was similar between the two velocity conditions, whereas the maximal voluntary concentric torque increased significantly only in the fast velocity condition (p = 0.003). These results support the hypothesis and indicate that the maximal voluntary concentric torque can be potentiated by the conditioning contraction if the joint angular velocity during the maximal voluntary concentric contraction is sufficiently high. © 2013 Fukutani et al.

    DOI

    Scopus

    12
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Combined effects of stretching and resistance training on ankle joint flexibility

    Kato, E, Kurihara, T, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    Physiol. J.     1 - 8  2013  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

    DOI

  • 大腿部への圧迫が電気刺激による誘発膝関節伸展トルクに及ぼす影響

    松本奈々, 宮本直和, 浦中宏典, 丸茂智彦, 谷口耕一, 川上泰雄

    トレーニング科学   25 ( 1 ) 55 - 60  2013  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

    J-GLOBAL

  • Potentiation of maximal voluntary concentric torque in human quadriceps femoris

    Miyamoto, N, Kanehisa, H, Kawakami, Y

    Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.   44 ( 9 ) 1738 - 1746  2012.09  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    MIYAMOTO, N., H. KANEHISA, and Y. KAWAKAMI. Potentiation of Maximal Voluntary Concentric Torque in Human Quadriceps Femoris. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 44, No. 9, pp. 1738-1746, 2012. Purpose: Previous studies have shown that one bout of 6-s maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) can enhance subsequent dynamic joint performance with maximal voluntary effort. However, the conditioning contraction also induces central fatigue, which attenuates the enhancement of the subsequent voluntary joint performance. Here, as a modality for minimizing the fatigue while enhancing joint performance, we examined the effects of one bout of a short-duration isometric MVC and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). Methods: In the first experiment, the optimal duration of NMES for inducing twitch potentiation of the quadriceps femoris muscle was determined, which was found to be 5 s. Then in the second experiment, 13 subjects performed maximal voluntary isokinetic concentric knee extensions at 210 degrees s(-1) in the following sequence: before and immediately after each of the 3-, 5-, and 10-s MVCs and 5-s NMES of knee extension and 1, 3, and 5 min thereafter. Results: When the isometric MVC was used as a conditioning contraction, the maximal voluntary concentric torque was significantly enhanced at 1 and 3 mm after MVC only in the 5-s MVC trial (106.6% +/- 2.3% and 107.2% +/- 2.6% of the initial value, respectively) but not in the 3- and 10-s MVC trials. In the 5-s NMES trial, the voluntary concentric torque was significantly increased immediately after the conditioning contraction (105.1% +/- 2.2%) as well as 1 and 3 min thereafter (107.5% +/- 3.3% and 107.8% +/- 2.7%, respectively). Conclusions: These results suggest that conditioning contraction of around 5 s, performed with isometric MVC or NMES, can be a modality to enhance dynamic voluntary joint performance, with the latter having a more immediate effect.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    16
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Neural modulation of muscle-tendon control strategy after a single practice session

    Hirayama, K, Yanai, T, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.   44 ( 8 ) 1512 - 1518  2012.08  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to examine a hypothesis that the musculotendinous behavior during a propelling action with a countermovement can be altered by a single practice session through modulation of neuromuscular activities. Methods: Eight males performed unilateral maximal plantarflexion with (CMJ) and without (noCMJ) countermovement before and after a practice consisting of six sets of three repetitions of unilateral CMJ exercises. Measurements included EMG activities of the triceps surae and tibialis anterior muscles and the fascicle behavior of the gastrocnemius by ultrasonography, and impulse was calculated from the force-time data. The change in tendon length was also estimated. Results: The impulse in CMJ increased after the practice, but that in noCMJ did not. After the practice, the magnitude of fascicle lengthening and shortening in CMJ decreased, which was accompanied by an increase in tendon shortening without change in the ankle joint range of motion. The time lag from the onset of reaction force to that of EMG activities of the triceps surae muscles was shortened after the practice. Conclusions: The results support the hypothesis and indicate that, as a neural modulation through a single practice, the muscle-tendon unit behavior during CMJ can be optimized to improve the performance. © 2012 by the American College of Sports Medicine.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    15
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Influence of the intensity of a conditioning contraction on the subsequent twitch torque and maximal voluntary concentric torque

    Fukutani, A, Miyamoto, N, Kanehisa, H, Yanai, T, Kawakami, Y

    J.Electromyogr. Kinesiol.   22 ( 4 ) 560 - 565  2012.08  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    This study aimed to clarify the influence of the intensity of a conditioning contraction on subsequent isometric twitch and maximal voluntary concentric torques. Subjects (n = 12 men) performed voluntary isometric plantar flexion for six seconds as a conditioning contraction, at intensities of 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Before and immediately after the conditioning contraction, isometric twitch and maximal voluntary concentric (180 degrees/s) plantar flexion torques were determined. Surface electromyograms were recorded from the triceps surae muscles and M-wave amplitudes and root-mean-square values of the electromyographic signals (RMSEMG) were calculated. The isometric twitch torque increased significantly after conditioning contraction at all intensities (P &lt; 0.05), whereas maximal voluntary concentric torque increased significantly only at 80% and 100% MVIC conditions (P &lt; 0.05). It is concluded that during a six second conditioning contraction, the effect of the intensity of a conditioning contraction on subsequent torque development is different between an isometric twitch and maximal voluntary concentric contractions, with the latter being less affected. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    12
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Estimation of local strain and stress in human Achilles tendon tissue during jumping

    小田俊明, 川上泰雄, 片岡弘之, 横田秀夫, 姫野龍太郎

    バイオメカニクス研究   16 ( 2 ) 54 - 63  2012.07

    CiNii J-GLOBAL

  • Comparison of skeletal muscle mass to fat-free mass ratios among different ethnic groups

    Abe, T, Bemben, M, G, Kondo, M, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    J. Nutrition Health Aging   16 ( 6 ) 534 - 538  2012.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Asians seem to have less skeletal muscle mass (SMM) than other ethnic groups, but it is not clear whether relative SMM, i.e., SMM / height square or SMM to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio, differs among different ethnic groups at the same level of body mass index (BMI).
    To compare the SMM to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio as well as anthropometric variables and body composition among 3 ethnic groups.
    Three hundred thirty-nine Japanese, 343 Brazilian, and 183 German men and women were recruited for this cross-sectional study.
    Muscle thickness (MTH) and subcutaneous fat thickness (FTH) were measured by ultrasound at nine sites on the anterior and posterior aspects of the body. FTH was used to estimate the body density, from which fat mass and fat-free mass (FFM) was calculated by using Brozek equation. Total SMM was estimated from ultrasound-derived prediction equations.
    Percentage body fat was similar among the ethnic groups in men, while Brazilians were higher than Japanese in women. In German men and women, absolute SMM and FFM were higher than in their Japanese and Brazilians counterparts. SMM index and SMM:FFM ratios were similar among the ethnic groups in women, excluding SMM:FFM ratio in Brazilian. In men, however, these relative values (SMM index and SMM:FFM ratio) were still higher in Germans. After adjusting for age and BMI, the SMM index and SMM:FFM ratios were lower in Brazilian men and women compared with the other two ethnic groups, while the SMM index and SMM:FFM ratios were similar in Japanese and German men and women, excluding SMM:FFM ratio in women.
    Our results suggest that relative SMM is not lower in Asian populations compared with European populations after adjusted by age and BMI.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    20
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Association between regional differences in muscle activation in one session of resistance exercise and in muscle hypertrophy after resistance training

    Taku Wakahara, Naokazu Miyamoto, Norihide Sugisaki, Koichiro Murata, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Yasuo Kawakami, Tetsuo Fukunaga, Toshimasa Yanai

    European Journal of Applied Physiology   112 ( 4 ) 1569 - 1576  2012.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study was to examine if the regional differences in muscle hypertrophy after chronic resistance training is associated with muscle activation after one session of resistance exercise. Twelve men performed one session of resistance exercise of elbow extensors. Before and immediately after the exercise, transverse relaxation time (T2)-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images of upper arm were recorded to evaluate the muscle activation along its length. In the MR images, T2 for the pixels within the triceps brachii muscle was quantiWed. The number of pixels with T2 greater than the threshold (mean + 1SD of T2 before the exercise) was expressed as the ratio to the number of pixels occupied by the muscle (%activated area). Another 12 subjects completed 12 weeks of training intervention (3 days per week), which consisted of the same program variables as used in the experiment for the T2 measurement. The cross-sectional areas of the triceps brachii before and after the training intervention were measured from MR images of upper arm. The %activated area of the triceps brachii induced by one session of the exercise was found to be signiWcantly lower in the distal region than the middle and proximal regions. Similarly, the relative increase in muscle cross-sectional area after the 12 weeks of training intervention was signiWcantly less in the distal region than the middle and proximal regions. The results suggest that the regional difference in muscle hypertrophy after chronic resistance training is attributable to the regional differences in muscle activation during the exercise. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    82
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Fascicle-tendon behavior of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles during ankle bending exercise at different movement frequencies

    Sakuma, J, Kanehisa, H, Yanai, T, Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.   112 ( 3 ) 887 - 898  2012.03  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    The present study investigated the effect of movement frequencies on the behavior of fascicles and tendons of synergistic muscles. Seven male subjects performed ankle bending (calf-raise) exercises at four movement frequencies (1.33, 1.67, 1.84, and 2.00 Hz), performed with an identical range of ankle joint motion. The fascicle and tendon behavior of medial gastrocnemius (MG) and soleus (SOL) was measured by ultrasonography while kinematic and kinetic parameters of the ankle were recorded. The torque of ankle joint was larger at higher exercise frequencies. The length change of muscle decreased and that of tendon increased at higher frequencies both for MG and for SOL, with no significant inter-muscle differences in the relative changes of muscle or tendon lengths to that of MTU. Changes of pennation angles and electromyographic activities as a function of movement frequency were also comparable for MG and SOL. These results suggest that under a stretch-shortening cycle action, the muscle-tendon interaction is altered by the movement frequency toward greater use of tendon elastic energy to provide greater MTU power at a higher frequency. Results also suggest that the movement frequency dependence of fascicle and tendon behavior is comparable between MG and SOL.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    15
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Task-dependent inhomogeneous muscle activities within the bi-articular human rectus femoris muscle

    Miyamoto, N, Wakahara, T, Kawakami, Y

    PLoS One   7 ( 3 ) e34269  2012.03  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    The motor nerve of the bi-articular rectus femoris muscle is generally split from the femoral nerve trunk into two sub-branches just before it reaches the distal and proximal regions of the muscle. In this study, we examined whether the regional difference in muscle activities exists within the human rectus femoris muscle during maximal voluntary isometric contractions of knee extension and hip flexion. Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from the distal, middle, and proximal regions. In addition, twitch responses were evoked by stimulating the femoral nerve with supramaximal intensity. The root mean square value of electromyographic amplitude during each voluntary task was normalized to the maximal compound muscle action potential amplitude (M-wave) for each region. The electromyographic amplitudes were significantly smaller during hip flexion than during knee extension task for all regions. There was no significant difference in the normalized electromyographic amplitude during knee extension among regions within the rectus femoris muscle, whereas those were significantly smaller in the distal than in the middle and proximal regions during hip flexion task. These results indicate that the bi-articular rectus femoris muscle is differentially controlled along the longitudinal direction and that in particular the distal region of the muscle cannot be fully activated during hip flexion.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    31
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • In vivo measurement of moment arm lengths of three elbow flexors at rest and during isometric contractions

    Akagi, R, Iwanuma, S, Hashizume, S, Kanehisa, H, Yanai, T, Kawakami, Y

    J. Appl. Biomech.   28 ( 1 ) 63 - 69  2012.02  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study was to determine in vivo moment arm lengths (MAs) of three elbow flexors at rest and during low- and relatively high-intensity contractions, and to examine the contraction intensity dependence of MAs at different joint positions. At 50 degrees,80 degrees and 110 degrees of elbow flexion, MAs of the biceps brachii, brachialis and brachioradialis were measured in 10 young men using sagittal images of the right arm obtained by magnetic resonance imaging, at rest and during 20% and 60% of isometric maximal voluntary elbow flexion. In most conditions, MAs increased with isometric contractions, which is presumably due to the contraction-induced thickening of the muscles. This phenomenon was especially evident in the flexed elbow positions. The influence of the contraction intensities on the increases in MAs varied across the muscles. These results suggest that in vivo measurements of each elbow flexor MA during contractions are essential to properly examine the effects on the interrelationships between elbow flexion torque and individual muscle forces.

    DOI

    Scopus

    10
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • In vivo determination of the Achilles tendon moment arm in three-dimensions

    Satoru Hashizume, Soichiro Iwanuma, Ryota Akagi, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Yasuo Kawakami, Toshimasa Yanai

    Journal of Biomechanics   45 ( 2 ) 409 - 413  2012.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Two-dimensional methods have been applied to determine the Achilles tendon moment arm in previous studies, although the talocrural joint rotates in three-dimension. The purpose of this study was to develop a method for determining the Achilles tendon moment arm in three-dimensions (3DMA). A series of sagittal ankle images were obtained at ankle positions of -20°, -10° (dorsiflexed position), 0° (neutral position), +10°, +20°, and +30° (plantarflexed position). The talocrural joint axis was determined as the finite helical axis of the ankle joint over 20° of displacement, and the 3DMA was determined as the shortest distance from the talocrural joint axis to the line of action of the Achilles tendon force. The corresponding 2DMA was determined with the center of rotation method using the images captured on the sagittal plane passing through the mid-point of the medio-lateral width of the tibia. The 3DMA ranged from 35 to 41. mm across various ankle positions and was, on average, 11. mm smaller than 2DMA. The difference between the two measures was attributable primarily to the deviations of the talocrural joint axis from the anatomical medio-lateral direction. The deviations on the coronal plane (21.4±20.7°) and on the transverse planes (14.8±22.6°) accounted for the errors of 1.3. mm and 3.0. mm, respectively. In addition, selecting either a medially or laterally misaligned sagittal-plane image for determining the 2DMA gave rise to error by 3.5. mm. The remaining difference was accounted for by the random measurement error. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    35
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Twitch potentiation after voluntary contraction and neuromuscular electrical stimulation at various frequencies in human quadriceps femoris

    Miyamoto, N, Fukutani, A, Yanai, T, Kawakami, Y

    Muscle Nerve   45 ( 1 ) 110 - 115  2012.01  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    Introduction: In this study we aimed to compare the extent of twitch potentiation (TP) after voluntary contraction and percutaneous electrical stimulation of muscles (neuromuscular electrical stimulation: NMES) with various stimulation frequencies at equivalent target levels. Methods: Isometric knee extensions of 10 s were performed at a 40% maximal voluntary contraction level by voluntary or NMES conditioning contractions at 20, 40, and 80 HZ of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Twitch responses were elicited by stimulating the femoral nerve transcutaneously at supramaximal intensity. Results: NMES at 80 HZ induced significantly less TP (128.7 +/- 17.1%) than voluntary contraction (156.2 +/- 23.1%), whereas no statistical difference was found in TP among voluntary and 20- and 40-HZ NMES conditioning contractions (170.8 +/- 21.1% and 162.7 +/- 16.9% for 20- and 40-HZ NMES, respectively). Conclusion: Stimulation frequency of NMES determines whether NMES can induce TP comparable to that after voluntary contraction. Muscle Nerve 45: 110115, 2012

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    13
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • 骨盤の傾斜角度が最大随意膝関節伸展トルクに及ぼす影響

    江間諒一, 平田浩祐, 若原卓, 金久博昭, 川上泰雄

    バイオメカニクス研究   16 ( 2 ) 74 - 81  2012  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

    CiNii

  • Morphological and functional characteristics of the muscle-tendon unit

    Kawakami, Y

    J. Phys. Fit. Sports Med.   1 ( 2 ) 287 - 296  2012  [Refereed]  [Invited]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

  • Comparison of skeletal muscle mass to fat-free mass ratio between Japanese-Brazilians and Japanese

    Abe, T, Kawakami, Y, Bass, M, Kondo, M, Fukunaga, T

    J. Aging Res. Clin. Pract.    2012  [Refereed]

  • ボート競技の効率測定

    川上泰雄

    体育の科学   62 ( 10 ) 767 - 770  2012  [Invited]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

    J-GLOBAL

  • Comparison of age-related, site-specific muscle loss between young and old active and inactive Japanese women

    Takashi Abe, Yasuo Kawakami, Michael G. Bemben, Tetsuo Fukunaga

    Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy   34 ( 4 ) 168 - 173  2011.10  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Purpose: To compare the effect of habitual recreational sports and exercise activity on age-related, site-specific muscle loss in young and old women in Japan.
    Methods: Participants included 152 young (aged 20-35 years) and 157 old (aged 60-85 years) women who were classified into 4 subgroups on the basis of their habitual (more than once a week) sports and exercise activity: young active (n = 86), young inactive (n = 66), old active (n = 43), and old inactive (n = 114). Muscle thickness (MTH) and fat thickness (FTH) were measured by ultrasonography at 8 sites, with MTH expressed in terms relative to limb length (MTH/L) or height (MTH/Ht). Percent fat was estimated from FTH, and fat-free mass was calculated.
    Results: Fat-free mass was similar between younger and older women and between active and inactive women. MTH/L in the quadriceps (P &lt; .001), abdomen (P &lt; .001), and triceps surae (P &lt; .05) was lower in the older women than in the younger women. In contrast, MTH/L in the hamstrings, subscapula, and biceps was higher (P &lt; .01) in the older women than in the younger women. Compared with the MTH of the young inactive women, the MTH of the young active women was greater (P &lt; .05) in 5 sites. Similarly, MTH/L in the quadriceps and triceps was higher (P &lt; .05) in the old active women than in the old inactive women. However, quadriceps MTH/L and abdomen MTH/Ht were still lower (P &lt; .001) in the old active women than in the young inactive women.
    Conclusion: Age-related muscle loss remains site-specific in both active and inactive young and old women, even when habitual physical activity has an effect on muscle size.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    19
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Ultrasound method for estimating the cross-sectional area of the psoas major muscle

    Takai, Y, Katsumata, Y, Kawakami, Y, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T

    Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.   43 ( 10 ) 2000 - 4  2011.10  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    PURPOSE: The present study aimed to develop an ultrasonographic method for estimating the cross-sectional area of the psoas major muscle. METHODS: The muscle cross-sectional area (CSA(MRI)) and thickness (MT(MRI)) of the psoas major muscle at L4-L5 on the right and left sides of the body were measured using magnetic resonance imaging in 11 healthy sedentary men age 21 to 25 yr. Ultrasonographic images were obtained at the corresponding sites where CSA(MRI) and MT(MRI) measurements were performed. From the ultrasonographic images, the thickness of the psoas major muscle (MT(US)) was analyzed on both sides of the body. RESULTS: The interclass correlation coefficient of MT(US) measurements performed on two separated days was 0.951 for the right side and 0.971 for the left side. CSA(MRI) was significantly correlated to MT(MRI) (r = 0.934 for the right side and r = 0.910 for the left side). There was no significant difference between MT(MRI) (4.68 ± 0.39 cm for the right side and 4.73 ± 0.39 cm for the left side) and MT(US) (4.67 ± 0.40 cm for the right side and 4.72 ± 0.43 cm for the left side). The MT(US) was significantly correlated to MT(MRI) (r = 0.979 for the right side and r = 0.980 for the left side) and CSA(MRI) (r = 0.947 for the right side and r = 0.916 for the left side). CONCLUSION: The current results indicate that the psoas major muscle thickness determined by the ultrasonographic method is useful for estimating the cross-sectional area of the psoas major muscle.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    24
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Triceps surae muscle-tendon unit length changes as a function of ankle joint angles and contraction levels: The effect of foot arch deformation

    Soichiro Iwanuma, Ryota Akagi, Satoru Hashizume, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Toshimasa Yanai, Yasuo Kawakami

    Journal of Biomechanics   44 ( 14 ) 2579 - 2583  2011.09  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study was to clarify how foot deformation affects the relationship between triceps surae muscle-tendon unit (MTU) length and ankle joint angle. For six women and six men a series of sagittal magnetic resonance (MR) images of the right foot were taken, and changes in MTU length (the displacement of the calcaneal tuberosity), foot arch angle, and ankle joint angle were measured. In the passive session, each subject's ankle joint was secured at 10° dorsiflexed position, neutral position (NP), and 10° and 20° plantar flexed positions while MR images were acquired. In the active session, each subject was requested to perform submaximal isometric plantar flexions (30%, 60%, and 80% of voluntary maximum) at NP. The changes in MTU length in each trial were estimated by two different formulae reported previously. The changes of the measured MTU length as a function of ankle joint angles observed in all trials of the active session were significantly (p<0.05) larger than corresponding values in the passive session and by the estimation formulae. In the passive session, MTU length changes were significantly smaller than the estimated values when the ankle was plantar flexed. The foot arch angle increased as the contraction level increased from rest (117±4°) to 80% (125±3°), and decreased as the ankle was positioned further into plantar flexion in the passive session (115±3°). These results indicate that foot deformation profoundly affects the triceps surae MTU length-ankle joint angle relationship during plantar flexion. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    28
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Development of equations for predicting body surface area in children by the use of three-dimensional photonic image scanning

    Kayo Shitara, Taishi Midorikawa, Megumi Ohta, Toshimasa Yanai, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Tetsuo Fukunaga, Yasuo Kawakami

    Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine   60 ( 4 ) 453 - 462  2011.09

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    In this study, we examined applicability of existing equations to predicting the body surface area (BSA) of children, and newly developed prediction equations for the BSA of children. BSA of 87 children of both genders (7 ∼ 12 yr) was determined by the three-dimensional photonic image scanning (3DPS), which was used as reference. BSA predicted using existing equations yielded overestimation or underestimation and/or a systematic error with respect to the reference. BSA prediction equations for boys and girls were developed using height and body mass as independent variables for the validation group and cross-validated for another group. The standard errors of estimation of the prediction equations were 105 cm 2 (0.9 %) for boys and 158 cm 2 (1.4 %) for girls. In the cross-validation group, there was no significant difference between the predicted and measured values without systematic errors. These findings indicate that existing equations cannot accurately predict BSA of children, and that the newly developed prediction equations are capable of predicting BSA of children with adequate accuracy.

    DOI

    Scopus

  • Unique spatial distribution of in vivo human muscle activation

    Kinugasa, R, Kawakami, Y, Sinha, S, Fukunaga, T

    Exp. Physiol.   96 ( 9 ) 938 - 948  2011.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The present study examined spatial changes in the muscle activation pattern with different contraction intensity using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Transverse relaxation time (T2)-weighted MRI was used to acquire 22 axial slices, which covered the entire medial gastrocnemius muscle, before and immediately after seven sets of 10 plantarflexions with loads that were approximately 20 and 60% of their one-repetition maximum, respectively. Reconstructions of the activated regions from MR images revealed the following: (1) the muscle activation determined by MRI correlated significantly (P &lt; 0.05) with the results of electromyography; (2) the activated area distribution increased with increasing force levels; and (3) differential activation between 20 and 60% load was distributed in a spatially non-uniform manner within the muscle, and some regions indicated reduced activity. These results indicate that at submaximal contraction intensity, activation does not necessarily increase in the whole muscle with increase in contraction intensity.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    26
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Comparison of ultrasound-measured age-related, site-specific muscle loss between healthy Japanese and German men

    Abe, T, Kawakami, Y, Kondo, M, Fukunaga, T

    Clin. Physiol. Funct. Imaging   31 ( 4 ) 320 - 325  2011.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study was to compare the age-related muscle loss in both the appendicular and trunk regions in 207 Japanese and 111 German men aged 20-62 years. Ultrasound-measured muscle thickness (MTH) was taken at eight sites from the anterior and posterior aspects of the body, and the MTH was expressed in terms relative to limb length (MTH/L) or standing height (MTH/Ht). In both the Japanese and Germans, age was correlated with quadriceps MTH (Japanese, r = -0.347; Germans, r = -0.292; both P&lt;0.01) and abdomen MTH (Japanese, r = -0.300, P&lt;0.01; Germans, r = -0.232; P&lt;0.05). On the other hand, hamstring MTH was correlated with age in the Japanese (r = -0.188, P&lt;0.01), but not in the Germans (r = 0.100). There were no significant correlations between age and other limb (i.e. triceps surae MTH/L, Japanese, r = 0.04; Germans, r = 0.05) and trunk sites (subscapula MTH/Ht, Japanese, r = -0.09; Germans, r = -0.02). In conclusion, age-related skeletal muscle loss was strongly observed in the quadriceps and abdominal sites in both the Japanese and German men, although the rate of regular physical activity was different between the two groups.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    40
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Effect of muscle contraction levels on the force-length relationship of the human Achilles tendon during lengthening of the triceps surae muscle-tendon unit

    Sugisaki, N, Kawakami, Y, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T

    J. Biomech.   44 ( 11 ) 2168 - 2171  2011.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Findings from animal experiments are sometimes contradictory to the idea that the tendon structure is a simple elastic spring in series with muscle fibers, and suggest influence of muscle contraction on the tendon mechanical properties. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of muscle contraction levels on the force-length relationship of the human Achilles tendon during lengthening of the triceps surae muscle-tendon unit. For seven subjects, ankle dorsiflexion was performed without (passive condition) and with contraction of plantar flexor muscles (eccentric conditions, at 3 contraction levels) on an isokinetic dynamometer. Deformation of the Achilles tendon during each trial was measured using ultrasonography. The Achilles tendon force corresponding to the tendon elongation of 10 mm in the passive condition was significantly smaller than those in the eccentric conditions (p &lt; 0.05 or p &lt; 0.01). Within the eccentric conditions, the Achilles tendon force corresponding to the tendon elongation of 10 mm was significantly greater in the maximal contraction level than those in submaximal eccentric conditions (p &lt; 0.05 or p &lt; 0.01). In addition, the tendon stiffness was greater in higher contraction levels (p &lt; 0.05 or p &lt; 0.01). Present results suggest that the human tendon structure is not a simple elastic spring in series with muscle fibers. (c) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    10
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Methodological issues related to thickness-based muscle size evaluation

    Akagi, R, Iwanuma, S, Fukuoka, M, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    J. Physiol. Anthropol.   30 ( 4 ) 169 - 174  2011.07  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study was to highlight the issues related to thickness-based muscle size evaluation that is commonly done in :field studies. The cross-sectional area, thickness (the vertical distance from the upper end of the elbow flexors to that of the humerus) and width (the horizontal distance from the left to the right end of the elbow flexors) of the elbow flexors at levels from the reference site (60% of the upper arm length from the acromial process of the scapula to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus) to 5 cm distal to it were determined in 11 young men using magnetic resonance imaging, both at rest and during isometric elbow flexion at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction. During 30% of maximal voluntary contraction, the thickness increased but the width decreased at each measurement site compared with those at rest. This was possibly due to difference in muscle slackness between both conditions. The correlation coefficients between the thickness and cross-sectional area for the elbow flexors were significantly lower at rest (r=0.551-0.856) than during 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (r=0.711-0.922). The present findings indicate that the thickness-based muscle size measurement at rest includes errors owing to the slackness of the resting muscles. J Physiol Anthropol 30(4): 169-174, 2011 http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/browse/jpa2 [DOI: 10.2114/jpa2.30.169]

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    6
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Longitudinal and transverse deformation of human Achilles tendon induced by isometric plantar flexion at different intensities

    Soichiro Iwanuma, Ryota Akagi, Toshiyuki Kurihara, Shigeki Ikegawa, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Tetsuo Fukunaga, Yasuo Kawakami

    Journal of Applied Physiology   110 ( 6 ) 1615 - 1621  2011.06  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    The present study determined in vivo deformation of the entire Achilles tendon in the longitudinal and transverse directions during isometric plantar flexions. Twelve young women and men performed isometric plantar flexions at 0% (rest), 30%, and 60% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) while a series of oblique longitudinal and cross-sectional magnetic resonance (MR) images of the Achilles tendon were taken. At the distal end of the soleus muscle belly, the Achilles tendon was divided into the aponeurotic (ATapo) and the tendinous (ATten) components. The length of each component was measured in the MR images. The widths of the Achilles tendon were determined at 10 regions along ATapo and at four regions along ATten. Longitudinal and transverse strains were calculated as changes in relative length and width compared with those at rest. The ATapo deformed in both longitudinal and transverse directions at 30%MVC and 60%MVC. There was no difference between the strains of the ATapo at 30%MVC and 60%MVC either in the longitudinal (1.1 and 1.6%) or transverse (5.0∼11.4 and 5.0∼13.9%) direction. The ATten was elongated longitudinally β.3%) to a greater amount than ATapo, while narrowing transversely in the most distal region (-4.6%). The current results show that the magnitude and the direction of contraction-induced deformation of Achilles tendon are different for the proximal and distal components. This may be related to the different functions of Achilles tendon, i.e., force transmission or elastic energy storage during muscle contractions. Copyright © 2011 the American Physiological Society.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    42
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Effect of pressure intensity of graduated elastic compression stocking on muscle fatigue following calf-raise exercise

    Miyamoto, N, Hirata, K, Mitsukawa, N, Yanai, T, Kawakami, Y

    J. Electrtomyogr. Kinesiol.   21 ( 2 ) 249 - 254  2011.04  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of wearing a graduated elastic compression (EC) stocking, with different pressure profiles during a fatiguing calf-raise exercise session, on the torque generating capacity after exercise. Fourteen subjects performed 15 sets of 10 repetitions of calf-raise exercise, wearing one of three stockings of different compression pressure profiles: two kinds of EC stockings (one (EC30) with 30 mm Hg at the ankle, 21-25 mm Hg at the calf, and 10 mm Hg below the knee, and the other (EC18) with 18, 12-14, and 7 mm Hg at the same regions, respectively) and a non-EC sport stocking as a control (CON). Before and after the exercise, torque and electromyographic (EMG) signals of medial gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were recorded during an evoked triplet contraction and the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). All stockings had no effect on the decline of the MVC torque whereas the reduction of the evoke triplet torque in EC30 stocking condition was significantly smaller compared with that in CON (-6.4 +/- 8.5% for EC30 and -16.5 +/- 9.0% for CON, P &lt; 0.05). The reduction of the mean power frequency of EMG during MVC in the EC30 condition was significantly smaller than that in CON (-4.4 +/- 10.9 Hz for EC30 and -18.7 +/- 7.9 Hz for CON, P &lt; 0.05). These results suggest that the EC stocking with adequate pressure at the calf region relieves muscle fatigue of the triceps surae induced by calf-raise exercise. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    55
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Twitch potentiation induced by stimulated and voluntary isometric contractions at various torque levels in human knee extensor muscles

    Miyamoto, N, Yanai, T, Kawakami, Y

    Muscle Nerve   43 ( 3 ) 360 - 366  2011.03  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study was to compare the extent of twitch potentiation (TP) after stimulated or voluntary contractions at identical intensities for the human knee extensor muscles. Isometric knee extensions of 10 s. were performed at 20%, 40%, and 60% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque level, through percutaneous electrical stimulation of the quadriceps at 80 Hz or voluntary contraction. Twitch responses were evoked by stimulating the femoral nerve percutaneously with supramaximal intensity. The extent of TP after the stimulated contraction was greater than that after the voluntary contraction at the 20% MVC torque level, whereas a stimulated contraction induced a smaller extent of TP than did a voluntary contraction at contraction intensities higher than 40% MVC. We suggest that this contraction intensity dependence of differences in TP after stimulated and voluntary isometric conditioning contractions is responsible for differences in the recruitment pattern of motor units during the conditioning contractions. Muscle Nerve 43: 360-366, 2011

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    12
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Age-related, site-specific muscle loss in 1507 Japanese men and women aged 20 to 95 years

    Abe, T, Sakamaki, M, Yasuda, T, Bemben, M, G, Kondo, M, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    J. Sports Sci. Med.   10 ( 1 ) 145 - 150  2011.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We investigated the relationship between age and muscle size in both the appendicular and trunk regions of 1507 Japanese men and women aged 20 to 95 years. Seven hundred twenty-two men (young [aged 20-39 years], n = 211; middle-aged [aged 40-59 years], n = 347; and old [aged 6095 years], n = 164) and 785 women (young, n = 207; middle-aged, n = 341; and old, n = 237) were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Muscle thickness (MTH) and subcutaneous fat thickness (FTH) were measured by ultrasound at 8 sites on the anterior and posterior aspects of the body. MTH was expressed in terms relative to limb length (MTH/L) or height (MTH/Ht). Percent body fat was estimated from FTH, and fat-free mass (FFM) was calculated. In men, a graded decrease in FFM was found in all age groups. In women, FFM was similar in the young and middle-aged groups, but was lower in the oldest group. Age was significantly and inversely correlated with FFM in men (r = -0.358, p &lt; 0.01), but not in women (r = -0.08). On the other hand, age was strongly and inversely correlated with quadriceps MTH/L (men, r = -0.529; women, r = -0.489; both p &lt; 0.001) and abdomen MTH/Ht (men, r = -0.464; women, r = -0.446; both p &lt; 0.001) in both men and women, while there were only weak correlations between age and other lower limb and trunk sites. Our results indicated that sarcopenia is observed as a site-specific loss of skeletal muscle mass, especially for the quadriceps and abdominal muscles, in Japanese men and women aged 20 to 95 years.

  • 04生-25-口-07 筋の力発揮能力を一時的に高める方法としての筋電気刺激法の効果(04.運動生理学,一般研究発表抄録)

    宮本 直和, 福谷 充輝, 矢内 利政, 川上 泰雄

    日本体育学会大会予稿集   62   121 - 121  2011

    DOI CiNii J-GLOBAL

  • 04生-25-口-08 1回のトレーニングセッションにおける筋活動の部位差と長期トレーニングによる筋肥大の部位差の関係(04.運動生理学,一般研究発表抄録)

    若原 卓, 福谷 充輝, 川上 泰雄, 矢内 利政

    日本体育学会大会予稿集   62   121 - 121  2011

    DOI CiNii J-GLOBAL

  • 04生-25-口-04 膝関節角度が最大随意収縮中の腓腹筋内側頭の筋活動レベルに及ぼす影響 : Postactivation potentiationを利用しての検証(04.運動生理学,一般研究発表抄録)

    福谷 充輝, 江間 諒一, 宮本 直和, 金久 博昭, 矢内 利政, 川上 泰雄

    日本体育学会大会予稿集   62   120 - 120  2011

    DOI CiNii J-GLOBAL

  • 04生-25-口-06 反動動作を伴う跳躍中の神経筋活動および筋腱動態に1セッションの練習が及ぼす影響(04.運動生理学,一般研究発表抄録)

    平山 邦明, 矢内 利政, 金久 博昭, 福永 哲夫, 川上 泰雄

    日本体育学会大会予稿集   62   120 - 120  2011

    DOI CiNii J-GLOBAL

  • 05バ-25-ポ-01 中学生期における足関節 : 『てこ』としての特徴(05.バイオメカニクス,一般研究発表抄録)

    橋詰 賢, 岩沼 聡一朗, 川上 泰雄, 矢内 利政

    日本体育学会大会予稿集   62   137 - 137  2011

    DOI CiNii J-GLOBAL

  • 05バ-26-ポ-36 プロ野球投手におけるInternal Impingementのリスク(05.バイオメカニクス,一般研究発表抄録)

    矢内 利政, 近田 彰治, 川上 泰雄, 福永 哲夫

    日本体育学会大会予稿集   62   148 - 148  2011

    DOI CiNii J-GLOBAL

  • Size-strength relationships of the elbow flexors and extensors are not affected by age or gender

    Akagi, R, Takai, Y, Ohta, M, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    Eur. J. Sport Sci.   11 ( 4 ) 277 - 282  2011  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    In the present study, we examined the relationships between muscle volume and joint torque for the elbow flexors and extensors in young and elderly individuals, with the aim of evaluating age effects on these relationships. The participants were 45 young (27 men and 18 women aged 20-37 years) and 51 elderly (19 men and 32 women aged 60-77 years) individuals. The joint torques developed during isometric maximal voluntary elbow flexion and extension were measured using a torque meter. The muscle volumes of the elbow flexors and extensors were determined by magnetic resonance imaging. For the elbow flexors, joint torque was significantly correlated with muscle volume in both young and elderly individuals (r=0.564-0.872). There were also significant correlations between muscle volume and joint torque for the elbow extensors in elderly men and women as well as in young men and women (r=0.715-0.826). None of the y-intercepts of the regression lines between muscle volume and joint torque were significantly different from zero. Furthermore, no significant age or gender effects on the joint torque per muscle volume of the elbow flexors and extensors were observed. The present results suggest that muscle volume is a main determinant of joint torque regardless of age and gender, for both muscle groups.

    DOI

    Scopus

    6
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Effect of postactivation potentiation on the maximal voluntary isokinetic concentric torque in humans

    Miyamoto, N, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    J. Strength Cond. Res.   25 ( 1 ) 186 - 192  2011.01  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    Miyamoto, N, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T, and Kawakami, Y. Effect of postactivation potentiation on the maximal voluntary isokinetic concentric torque in humans. J Strength Cond Res 25(1): 186-192, 2011-The purpose of this study was to examine whether postactivation potentiation (PAP) influences dynamic torque development in humans. Nine recreationally active men performed sets of 3 maximal isokinetic concentric plantar flexions at 180 degrees/second in the following sequence: before and immediately (5 seconds) after a 10-second maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and then every 1 minute until the 5-minute point, followed by 1 more stimulation at the 10-minute point. Twitch responses were recorded before every set of 3 concentric contractions to examine whether the PAP exists. The twitch and concentric torques were potentiated at 0 through 5 minutes and 1 through 3 minutes post-MVC, respectively (p &lt; 0.05), whereas there was no significant difference in concentric torque in the control (without MVC) condition (p &gt; 0.05). For electromyographic signals during concentric contractions, muscle activity of the medial gastrocnemius was significantly depressed only immediately after the conditioning MVC (p &lt; 0.05). These results indicate that a brief maximal voluntary isometric contraction enhances voluntary dynamic performance through PAP, within proper recovery interval. From a practical point of view, in sports activities we suggest undertaking PAP through high-intensity contractions 1 to 3 minutes before voluntary ballistic or plyometric actions for improved performance.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    36
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • カーフレイズ運動中の腓腹筋およびヒラメ筋の筋腱動態の動作負荷依存性

    佐久間淳, 栗原俊之, 矢内利政, 金久博昭, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    東京体育学研究   2   5 - 12  2011  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

    J-GLOBAL

  • 活動後増強を生じさせるためのコンディショニング収縮の時間が最大随意短縮性足関節底屈トルクに与える影響

    福谷充輝, 宮本直和, 金久博昭, 川上泰雄, 矢内利政

    トレーニング科学   23 ( 1 ) 31 - 38  2011  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The present study examined the influence of the duration of a conditioning contraction inducing postactivation potentiation on the extent of increase in subsequent maximal voluntary concentric torque. Nine male subjects performed a 6 s or 14 s maximal voluntary isometric plantar flexion as the preceding conditioning contraction. Before and immediately after the conditioning contraction, the twitch torque and maximal voluntary concentric torque were recorded. The twitch torque significantly increased in the 6 s and 14 s conditions. The twitch torque after the 14 s conditioning contraction was significantly larger than that after the 6 s conditioning contraction (p < 0.05). Electromyogram recodings indicated that central fatigue was larger in the 14 s condition. These results suggest a tradeoff of the negative (fatigue) and positive (potentiation) effects that can mask the resultant increase in voluntary torque, when the conditioning contraction is performed beyond a certain duration.

    DOI CiNii

  • Ball arrival position in basketball free throw from performance level

    元安陽一, 栗原俊之, 勝亦陽一, 金久博昭, 倉石平, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫, 矢内利政

    スポーツ科学研究   8 ( 8 ) 155 - 165  2011  [Refereed]

    CiNii

  • 座面に可動性のあるオフィスチェアでのデスクワーク時の骨盤の動きと体幹筋群の筋活動

    江間諒一, 川上泰雄

    スポーツ科学研究   8   320 - 330  2011  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

    J-GLOBAL

  • 運動機能の加齢変化

    川上泰雄

    内科   108 ( 6 ) 948 - 951  2011  [Invited]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

    J-GLOBAL

  • 光学3次元人体形状計測法を用いた内臓脂肪断面積の評価

    設楽佳世, 矢内利政, 川上泰雄

    体力科学   59 ( 6 ) 706 - 706  2010.12

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

  • 安静立位時における骨盤傾斜角の3次元計測の試み

    石川早帆, 設楽佳世, 矢内利政, 川上泰雄

    体力科学   59 ( 6 ) 710 - 710  2010.12

    J-GLOBAL

  • 身体長軸方向の負荷に対する体幹筋の筋活動に関する研究

    丸山祐丞, 川上泰雄, 矢内利政

    体力科学   59 ( 6 ) 906 - 906  2010.12

    J-GLOBAL

  • Effect of countermovement on elbow joint extension power-load characteristics

    Naokazu Miyamoto, Taku Wakahara, Norihide Sugisaki, Koichiro Murata, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Tetsuo Fukunaga, Yasuo Kawakami

    Journal of Sports Sciences   28 ( 14 ) 1535 - 1542  2010.12  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    The aim of the present study was to examine elbow joint extension power-load characteristics with and without a countermovement. Eight male participants performed maximal elbow extensions with and without a countermovement against different loads (0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, and 15.0 kg). Electromyographic activity of the lateral and long heads of the triceps brachii and the biceps brachii muscles was recorded. The average joint power in the concentric phase was significantly enhanced in the countermovement condition at all loads except for 0 kg. The optimal load for the maximal joint power was greater in the countermovement (7.5 kg) than in the no countermovement condition (5.0 kg). Electromyographic activity was unchanged over the intensities and conditions. Our results suggest that the optimal load for the maximal joint power depends on the type of action (i.e. with or without a counter-movement), and that the enhanced joint power in the countermovement condition is due primarily to the storage and utilization of elastic energy. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    5
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Influence of muscle anatomical cross-sectional area on the moment arm length of the triceps brachii muscle at the elbow joint

    Sugisaki, N, Wakahara, T, Miyamoto, N, Murata, K, Kanehisa, H, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    J. Biomech.   43 ( 14 ) 2844 - 2847  2010.10  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the musculotendon moment arm length is affected by the muscle anatomical cross-sectional area. The moment arm length of the triceps brachii (TB) muscle at 30 degrees, 50 degrees, 70,degrees 90 degrees, 110 degrees elbow flexion positions was measured in sagittal magnetic resonance images (MRI) of 18 subjects as the perpendicular distance between the center of the pulley of the humerus to the line through the center of the TB tendon. The moment arm increased as the elbow flexion angle decreased, from 1.74 +/- 0.13 cm at 110 degrees to 2.39 +/- 0.14 cm at 30 degrees. The maximal anatomical cross-sectional area of the TB muscle was significantly correlated with the moment arms at all joint positions (r=0.545-0.803, p &lt; 0.05). Furthermore, the circumference of the upper arm was also significantly correlated with the moment arms at all joint positions, except for 70 (r=0.504-0.702, p &lt; 0.05). These results indicate that the moment arm length of the TB muscle is affected by the muscle anatomical cross-sectional area. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    16
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Shift in optimal joint angle of the ankle dorsiflexors following eccentric exercise

    Lee, H, -D, Kim, S, -J, Lee, D, -Y, Kurihara, T, Lee, Y, -S, Kawakami, Y

    Exp. Mechanics   50 ( 5 ) 661 - 666  2010.06  [Refereed]  [International journal]  [International coauthorship]

     View Summary

    Exposure to unaccustomed eccentric exercise causes muscle damage. Popping sarcomere theory [1] has been proposed and assumed that eccentric contraction-induced muscle damage predominantly occurs at muscle length on the descending limb of the force-length relationship. This study investigated changes in the mechanical properties following maximum effort eccentric exercise at systematically different muscle lengths for the human ankle dorsiflexors. The results of this study showed that the eccentric exercise of the ankle dorsiflexors decreased the peak torque, shifted the optimal joint angle towards longer muscle length without changes in the level of muscle activation. However, no difference in the shift of the optimal ankle joint angle was observed between the groups that performed eccentric exercise at long muscle length (ECC_L) and at short muscle length (ECC_S). In conclusion, the muscle length at which the eccentric exercise was performed did not produce differential effects on the neuro-mechanical properties of in-vivo human ankle dorsiflexors, and thus the popping sarcomere theory might not be the sole mechanism to account for the eccentric contraction-induced optimal muscle length change.

    DOI

    Scopus

    2
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Fatigue-induced changes in synergistic muscle force do not match tendon elongation

    Naotoshi Mitsukawa, Norihide Sugisaki, Naokazu Miyamoto, Toshimasa Yanai, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Tetsuo Fukunaga, Yasuo Kawakami

    Journal of Biomechanics   43 ( 8 ) 1632 - 1634  2010.05  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    This study aimed to investigate whether fatigue-induced changes in synergistic muscle forces match their tendon elongation. The medial gastrocnemius muscle (MG) was fatigued by repeated electrical stimulation (1. min×5 times: interval 30. s, intensity: 20-30% of maximal voluntary plantar flexion torque) applied at the muscle belly under a partial occlusion of blood vessels. Before and after the MG fatigue task, ramp isometric contractions were performed voluntarily, during which tendon elongations were determined by ultrasonography, along with recordings of the surface EMG activities of MG, the soleus (SOL) and the lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscles. The tendon elongation of MG and SOL in post-fatigue ramp was similar, although evoked MG forces dropped nearly to zero. In addition, for a given torque output, the tendon elongation of SOL significantly decreased while that of LG did not, although the activation levels of both muscles had increased. Results suggest that the fatigue-induced changes in force of the triceps surae muscles do not match their tendon elongation. These results imply that the tendons of the triceps surae muscles are mechanically coupled even after selective fatigue of a single muscle. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

  • Joint angle dependence of intermuscle difference in postactivation potentiation

    Naokazu Miyamoto, Naotoshi Mitsukawa, Norihide Sugisaki, Tetsuo Fukunaga, Yasuo Kawakami

    Muscle and Nerve   41 ( 4 ) 519 - 523  2010.04  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of ankle joint angle on the intermuscle difference in post-activation potentiation (PAP) between the medial gastrocnemius (MG) and soleus (SOL) muscles. At the neutral position of joint angle, dorsiflexion of 20°, and plantarflexion of 20°, twitch responses were evoked by stimulating the posterior tibial nerve with supramaximal intensity before and after a 10-s maximal voluntary plantarflexion at each joint angle. Mechanical properties of the MG and SOL muscles were assessed simultaneously and separately by using mechanomyography (MMG), and the extent of potentiation of each muscle was evaluated by peak-to-peak amplitude of the MMG signal. The MG showed greater potentiation than the soleus after the conditioning MVC in the neutral and dorsiflexion position, while in the plantarflexion position no significant difference was found in PAP between MG and SOL. These results suggest that the difference in the magnitude of PAP between synergistic muscles is determined by a combination of the joint angle- and fiber composition-dependence of PAP. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    DOI PubMed CiNii

    Scopus

    17
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Development of an equation to predict muscle volume of elbow flexors for men and women with a wide range of age

    Akagi, R, Takai, Y, Kato, E, Wakahara, T, Ohta, M, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.   108 ( 4 ) 689 - 94  2010.03  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    The present study examined the age-related changes in muscle thickness (MT) and volume (MV) of elbow flexors and developed a prediction equation of the MV based on the MT applicable to men and women with a wide range of age. The MT and MV were determined from a single ultrasonographic image and multiple magnetic resonance imaging scans, respectively, in 72 men and 75 women aged 19-77 year. As a result of examining the age-MT and age-MV relationships by calculation of partial correlation coefficients with the control variable of gender, MV was decreased with aging whereas the corresponding decline in MT was not significant. The subjects were randomly separated into either a validation (38 men and 42 women) or a cross-validation (34 men and 33 women) group, and a multiple regression equation to estimate MV using not only MT but also upper arm length (L), age and gender as independent variables [MV (cm(3)) = 60.8 x MT (cm) + 6.48 x L (cm) - 0.709 x age (year) + 51.4 x gender (0 women, 1 men) - 187.4] was validated and cross-validated. Thus, the prediction equation for MV of elbow flexors newly developed was shown to be applicable to men and women with a wide range of age.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    20
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Shift in optimal joint angle of the ankle dorsiflexors following eccentric exercise

    H. D. Lee, S. J. Kim, D. Y. Lee, T. Kurihara, Y. S. Lee, Y. Kawakami

    Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc.   67   661 - 666  2010  [International coauthorship]

     View Summary

    Exposure to unaccustomed eccentric exercise causes muscle damage. Popping sarcomere theory [1] has been proposed and assumed that eccentric contraction-induced muscle damage predominantly occurs at muscle length on the descending limb of the force-length relationship. This study investigated changes in the mechanical properties following maximum effort eccentric exercise at systematically different muscle lengths for the human ankle dorsiflexors. The results of this study showed that the eccentric exercise of the ankle dorsiflexors decreased the peak torque, shifted the optimal joint angle towards longer muscle length without changes in the level of muscle activation. However, no difference in the shift of the optimal ankle joint angle was observed between the groups that performed eccentric exercise at long muscle length (ECCL) and at short muscle length (ECCS). In conclusion, the muscle length at which the eccentric exercise was performed did not produce differential effects on the neuromechanical properties of in-vivo human ankle dorsiflexors, and thus the popping sarcomere theory might not be the sole mechanism to account for the eccentric contraction-induced optimal muscle length change. © Society for Experimental Mechanics 2009.

  • 04生-3P-P19 日常生活動作時の筋活動水準と随意最大筋力との関係(04.運動生理学,一般研究発表抄録)

    高井洋平, 澤井史穂, 金久博昭, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    日本体育学会大会予稿集   61 ( 0 ) 143 - 143  2010  [Refereed]

    DOI CiNii J-GLOBAL

  • 生体力学シミュレーション研究 骨格筋の有限要素シミュレーション

    小田俊明, 衣笠竜太, 川上泰雄, 片岡弘之, 山村直人, ALVES Luis, TEODOSIU Cristian, RAJENDRA Mayoran, 山本晃生, 横田秀夫, 高木周, 姫野龍太郎

    生体力学シミュレーション研究 理研シンポジウム 平成22年     51 - 60  2010

    J-GLOBAL

  • Variability of limb muscle size in young men

    Wakahara, T, Takeshita, K, Kato, E, Miyatani, M, Tanaka, N, I, Kanehisa, H, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    Am. J. Human Biol.   22 ( 1 ) 55 - 59  2010  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study was to determine the interindividual variability of the upper and lower limb muscle size in young men. Subjects were 655 Japanese men aged 18-39 years. They were sedentary and mildly to highly active individuals, including college athletes of various sports. Muscle thicknesses at each of the anterior and posterior portions of the upper arm, thigh, and lower leg were measured using B-mode ultrasonography. Interindividual variability of muscle thickness was evaluated by coefficients of variation (CVs). The CVs of muscle thicknesses were found to be in the order of upper arm posterior (17.7%), thigh anterior (14.8%), thigh posterior (12.6%), upper arm anterior (12.2%), lower leg anterior (9.8%), and lower leg posterior (9.4%). The CVs were significantly different between each pair of measurement sites except for those of upper arm anterior-thigh posterior and lower leg anterior-posterior. These differences remain significant even when the muscle thicknesses were normalized to the segment length. The observed differences in the size variability can be interpreted as muscle-related differences in hypertrophic responsiveness to resistance training. The muscle-dependent size variability may be related to the differences in the fiber-type composition and/or muscle usage in daily life among examined muscle groups. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    21
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Changes in ankle joint stiffness due to stretching: The role of tendon elongation of the gastrocnemius muscle

    Kato, E, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    Eur. J. Sport Sci.   10 ( 2 ) 111 - 119  2010  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in ankle joint stiffness and the associated changes in the gastrocnemius muscle and tendon due to static stretching. Seven healthy male participants lay supine with the hip and knee joints fully extended. The right ankle joint was rotated into dorsiflexion from a 30 degrees plantar flexed position and the torque measured by a dynamometer. The ankle joint was maintained in a dorsiflexed position for 20 min (static stretching of the calf muscles). We performed surface electromyography of the medial and lateral gastrocnemii, the soleus, and the tibialis anterior of the right leg to confirm no muscle activity throughout static stretching and the passive test (passive dorsiflexion). During static stretching, the ankle joint angle and elongation of the gastrocnemius were recorded by goniometry and ultrasonography, respectively. Tendon elongation of the gastrocnemius was calculated based on the changes in the ankle joint angle and muscle elongation. In addition, the relationships between passive torques and ankle joint angles, and elongation of muscle and tendon, were examined before and after static stretching. The ankle dorsiflexion angle and tendon elongation increased significantly by 10 min after the onset of static stretching, while there was no further increase in muscle length. In addition, ankle dorsiflexion angle and tendon elongation at an identical passive torque (30 N center dot m) increased significantly (from 24 +/- 7 degrees to 33 +/- 5 degrees and from 17 +/- 2 mm to 22 +/- 1 mm, respectively) after static stretching. However, muscle elongation was unchanged. In conclusion, the current results suggest that an increase in the ankle joint dorsiflexion angle due to static stretching is attributable to a change in tendon not muscle stiffness.

    DOI

    Scopus

    50
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • 肘関節屈曲筋群および伸展筋群の直列サルコメア数の推定

    赤木亮太, 杉崎範英, 矢内利政, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    東京体育学研究   1   33 - 36  2010  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

    J-GLOBAL

  • ストレッチングが足関節背屈可動域に与える一過性の効果と長期的な効果の比較

    加藤えみか, 金久博昭, 福永哲夫, 矢内利政, 川上泰雄

    東京体育学研究   1   37 - 43  2010  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

    J-GLOBAL

  • 等尺性足関節底屈トルク発揮に伴う足アーチの開裂および踵骨隆起の変位

    岩沼聡一朗, 赤木亮太, 栗原俊之, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    東京体育学研究   1   59 - 63  2010  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

    J-GLOBAL

  • 女性ダンサーの大腿部筋形態:大腿部筋横断面積に着目して

    石川早帆, 岩沼聡一朗, 川上泰雄

    東京体育学研究   1   83 - 86  2010  [Refereed]

    J-GLOBAL

  • 陸上競技選手の100-mスプリントタイムと外側広筋腱の力学的特性との関係

    小林海, 光川眞壽, 矢内利政, 福永哲夫, 金久博昭, 川上泰雄

    東京体育学研究   1   87 - 91  2010  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

    J-GLOBAL

  • 腱スティフネス,筋力および筋活動が反動動作による機械的仕事量増強の個人差に与える影響

    平山邦明, 杉崎範英, 加藤えみか, 金久博昭, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    体育学研究   55 ( 1 ) 33 - 43  2010  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

    CiNii

  • 肘関節屈筋群の新たな筋横断面積指標の確立

    赤木亮太, 矢内利政, 金久博昭, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    バイオメカニズム学会誌   20  2010  [Refereed]

    J-GLOBAL

  • 股関節および膝関節角度が等尺性膝関節伸展トルクと大腿四頭筋の電気的活動に与える影響

    江間諒一, 若原卓, 金久博昭, 矢内利政, 川上泰雄

    スポーツ科学研究   7   109 - 118  2010  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Corresponding author

    J-GLOBAL

  • 高齢者の骨格筋の形態と機能

    川上泰雄

    Geriatric Medicine(老年医学)   48 ( 2 ) 227 - 230  2010  [Invited]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

    J-GLOBAL

  • Effects of knee joint angle on the fascicle behavior of the gastrocnemius muscle during eccentric plantar flexions

    Taku Wakahara, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Yasuo Kawakami, Tetsuo Fukunaga

    Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology   19 ( 5 ) 980 - 987  2009.10  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The present study aimed to clarify the effects of knee joint angle on the behavior of the medial gastrocnemius muscle (MG) fascicles during eccentric plantar flexions. Eight male subjects performed maximal eccentric plantar flexions at two knee positions [fully extended (K0) and 90° flexed (K90)]. The eccentric actions were preceded by static plantar flexion at a 30° plantar flexed position and then the ankle joint was forcibly dorsiflexed to 15° of dorsiflexion with an isokinetic dynamometer at 30°/s and 150°/s. Tendon force was calculated by dividing the plantar flexion torque by the estimated moment arm of the Achilles tendon. The MG fascicle length was determined with ultrasonography. The tendon forces during eccentric plantar flexions were influenced by the knee joint angle, but not by the angular velocity. The MG fascicle lengths were elongated as the ankle was dorsiflexed in K0, but in K90 they were almost constant despite the identical range of ankle joint motion. These results suggested that MG fascicle behavior during eccentric actions was markedly affected by the knee joint angle. The difference in the fascicle behavior between K0 and K90 could be attributed to the non-linear force-length relations and/or to the slackness of tendinous tissues. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    23
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Muscle volume compared to cross-sectional area is more appropriate for evaluating muscle strength in young and elderly individuals.

    Akagi, R. Takai, Y, Ohta, M, Kanehisa, H, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    Age Aging   38 ( 5 ) 564 - 9  2009.09  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    OBJECTIVE: the present study examined which of muscle volume (MV) and cross-sectional area (CSA) is appropriate for evaluating the relation with elbow flexor muscle strength in young and elderly individuals. METHODS: the subjects were 52 young (20-34 year; 30 men and 22 women) and 51 elderly individuals (60-77 year, 19 men and 32 women). The MV and maximal anatomical CSA (ACSA) of elbow flexors were determined by magnetic resonance imaging. The torque developed during maximal voluntary contraction of isometric elbow joint flexion was converted to force by dividing it by the forearm length of each subject. RESULTS: torque was significantly correlated with MV in young and elderly individuals (r = 0.564-0.926). Similarly, force was also significantly correlated with ACSA in each of them (r = 0.637-0.906). However, the y-intercepts of the regression lines for the ACSA-force relationship in young men and women were significantly higher than zero. There was no age effect on torque per MV, whereas force per ACSA was significantly higher in young adults than in elderly individuals. CONCLUSION: for elbow flexors, MV compared to ACSA is appropriate for evaluating the size-strength relationship and the existence of age-related difference in muscle strength per size.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    121
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Fatigue-related changes in fascicle-tendon geometry over repeated contractions: Difference between synergist muscles

    Naotoshi Mitsukawa, Norihide Sugisaki, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Tetsuo Fukunaga, Yasuo Kawakami

    Muscle and Nerve   40 ( 3 ) 395 - 401  2009.09  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Fatigue-induced changes in force production of synergist muscles were evaluated through observation of fascicle-tendon geometry and electromyography (EMG). Seven subjects performed 60 maximal isometric plantar flexions intermittently. No statistically significant intermuscle difference was observed in the decrease of mean EMG amplitudes or mean power frequency for the medial gastrocnemius (MG) and soleus (SOL) muscles. The tendon elongation of MG significantly decreased after the 19th contraction, and MG fascicle length increased after the 29th contraction, while SOL fascicle and tendon length did not change except for the last contraction. The declines in torques were highly correlated with the increase of MG fascicle length and decrease in tendon elongation in each subject, while no consistent relationship was found for SOL. These results suggest that changes in force-production of MG and SOL over repeated contractions differ, which is reflected in fascicle-tendon geometry. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    DOI PubMed CiNii

    Scopus

    17
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Development of an equation for predicting body surface area based on three-dimensional photonic image scanning

    Kayo Shitara, Yohei Takai, Megumi Ohta, Taku Wakahara, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Tetsuo Fukunaga, Yasuo Kawakami

    Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine   58 ( 4 ) 463 - 474  2009.08  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    This study was conducted to examine the reliability of three-dimensional photonic image scanning (3DPS) for measuring body surface area (BSA), and formulate equations for predicting BSA based on 3DPS. The surface area (SA) of a cylinder with known SA and BSA of 7 males were repeatedly measured by 3DPS. BSA was determined by 3DPS for 122 subjects (25 similar to 76 yrs). BSA prediction equations for both genders were developed for the validation group (16 males and 45 females) using body height and mass as independent variables, and were cross-validated for the cross-validation group (16 males and 45 females). The standard error of measurement was 2.2cm(2) (0.16%). The coefficients of variation (CV) for repeated measurements of SA were less than 0.2%. The BSA of subjects did not differ significantly on any given day nor between days, with a CV of less than 1%. The coefficient of determination and standard error of estimation of the prediction equations were 0.98 and 183cm(2) (1.1%), respectively, for males and 0.98 and 204cm(2) (1.3%), respectively, for females. There was no significant difference between the predicted and measured values. In the cross-validation group, there was no significant difference between the predicted and measured values without systematic errors. These findings indicate that 3DPS is reliable for measuring BSA, and the formulated equations are valid and applicable to individuals within a wide age-range. (Jpn. J. Phys. Fitness Sports Med. 2009, 58 : 463 similar to 474)

    DOI J-GLOBAL

    Scopus

    3
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Relationships between muscle strength and indices of muscle cross-sectional area determined during maximal voluntary contraction in middle-aged and elderly individuals.

    Akagi, R, Takai, Y, Kato, E, Fukuda, M, Wakahara, T, Ohta, M, Kanehisa, H, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    J. Strength Cond. Res.   23 ( 4 ) 1258 - 62  2009.07  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    The present study examined how muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) indices determined at rest and during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) are related to muscle strength in middle-aged and elderly individuals (22 men and 36 women, 51-77 years). The muscle thickness (MT) of elbow flexors and circumference (C) at the level 60% distal to the upper arm was measured by ultrasonography and a measuring tape, respectively, both at rest and during isometric MVC of elbow flexion. The muscle strength (F) of elbow flexors was calculated by dividing the torque developed during MVC by the forearm length of each subject. The product of MT and C (MTxC) and the square of MT (MT) were defined as the muscle CSA indices. The F was significantly correlated with MTxC during MVC (r = 0.905, p < or = 0.001) and at rest (r = 0.778, p < or = 0.001), with the former relationship significantly stronger than the latter (p < or = 0.001). Similarly, F was significantly correlated with MT both during MVC (r = 0.896, p < or = 0.001) and at rest (r = 0.780, p < or = 0.001), and there was also a significant difference between the correlation coefficients (p < or = 0.01). These findings show that, in middle-aged and elderly individuals, muscle strength is more closely related to muscle CSA indices during MVC than at rest. It is concluded that the present muscle CSA indices taken during MVC enable easy and practical evaluation of the muscle strength per size of elbow flexors in middle-aged and elderly individuals.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    23
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • The influence of fascicle behavior on the lack of velocity dependence in eccentric joint torque in humans: in Vivo observation

    Kentaro Chino, Naotoshi Mitsukawa, Kai Kobayashi, Yusuke Miyoshi, Toshiaki Oda, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Tetsuo Fukunaga, Senshi Fukashiro, Yasuo Kawakami

    Journal of Applied Biomechanics   25 ( 2 ) 111 - 118  2009.05  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    To investigate the relationship between fascicle behavior and joint torque, the fascicle behavior of the triceps surae during isometric and eccentric (30 and 60 deg/s) plantar flexion by maximal voluntary and submaximal electrical activation (MVA and SEA) was measured by real-time ultrasonography. Eccentric torque at 30 and 60 deg/s was significantly higher than isometric torque under SEA, but not under MVA. However, fascicle length did not significantly differ between isometric and eccentric trials under either condition. Therefore, the difference in developed torque by MVA and SEA cannot be explained by fascicle behavior. Under both MVA and SEA conditions, eccentric torque at 30 and 60 deg/s was equivalent. Similarly, fascicle lengthening velocities at 30 and 60deg/s did not show any significant difference. Such fascicle behavior can be attributed to the influence of tendinous tissue and pennation angle, and lead to a lack of increase in eccentric torque with increasing angular velocity.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    9
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Evidence for intermuscle difference in postactivation potentiation in the human triceps surae: a mechanomyographic study

    Miyamoto, N, Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    Muscle Nerve   39 ( 5 ) 703 - 706  2009.05  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    This study compared the postactivation potentiation of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) and soleus muscles by using mechanomyography (MMG). Twitch responses were evoked by stimulating the posterior tibial nerve with supramaximal intensity before and after a 10-s maximal voluntary plantar flexion, and potentiation of each muscle was evaluated by peak-to-peak amplitude of the MMG signal. The MG showed greater potentiation than the soleus, reflecting the reported fiber type composition of these muscles. This result points to the possibility that one can delineate contrasting responses of synergist muscles to postactivation potentiation by this method.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    11
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Stroke power consistency and 2000 m rowing performance in varsity rowers

    M. Shimoda, T. Fukunaga, M. Higuchi, Y. Kawakami

    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports   19 ( 1 ) 83 - 86  2009.02  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    We studied the relationship between stroke power consistency and 2000 m rowing time besides determining maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and leg extension power. The subjects (n=16, male varsity rowers) carried out an incremental test to volitional exhaustion on a rowing ergometer, and the VO 2 at each stage was determined. The stroke power consistency was assessed by the coefficient of variation of power (CVPhigh) at the highest workload at which each subject could maintain power. Besides the incremental test, 2000 m all-out rowing was performed on the ergometer and leg extension power was measured. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that the 2000 m rowing time could be predicted by VO2max, leg extension power and CVPhigh in order of strength of standardized partial correlation coefficients as explanatory variables. The CVP high correlated with the residual of the regression between 2000 m rowing time and VO2max. The findings suggest that the stroke power consistency contributes to maintenance of the power during ergometer rowing. Copyright © 2009 The Authors.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    18
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • 遅発性筋肉痛と運動形態の関連性

    栗原俊之, 川上泰雄, 宮本直和, 佐久間淳

    デサントスポーツ科学   30   52-61  2009

    J-GLOBAL

  • 視覚フィードバックを伴う最大随意収縮が筋活動および筋横断面積あたりの筋力に及ぼす影響

    福田誠, 赤木亮太, 金久博昭, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    スポーツ科学研究   6   17 - 29  2009  [Refereed]

    J-GLOBAL

  • Sit-to-stand test to evaluate knee extensor muscle size and strength in the elderly: A novel approach

    Yohei Takai, Megumi Ohta, Ryota Akagi, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Yasuo Kawakami, Tetsuo Fukunaga

    Journal of Physiological Anthropology   28 ( 3 ) 123 - 128  2009  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The present study examined whether a sit-to-stand score can be related to the force-generating capacity of knee extensor muscles. Fifty-seven subjects (28 men, 63.0 ± 7.8 yrs, and 29 women, 64.2 ± 7.5 yrs, means ± SDs) performed a 10- repeated sit-to-stand test as fast as possible, on a steel molded chair. The time taken (Tsit-stand) was measured with a manual stopwatch. The leg length (L), defined as the distance from the great trochanter of the femur to the malleolus lateralis, was measured using a tape. A power index of the test (Psit-stand) was calculated by using the following equation: Psit-stand=(L-0.4)×body mass×g×10/Tsit-stand. The cross-sectional area of the quadriceps femoris muscle (CSAKE) and the maximal voluntary isometric knee extension force (FKE) were measured using MRI and a static myometer, respectively. There was no significant correlation between Tsit-stand and each of CSAKE and FKE. On the other hand, the Psit-stand was highly correlated with CSAKE and FKE, even after the influence of body mass and L was statistically eliminated. These results indicate that Psit-stand, derived from three variables of body mass, leg length, and time taken for a sit-to-stand test, can be a useful index to assess the force-generating capacity of the knee extensor muscles of elderly individuals.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    109
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • 段階的弾性圧迫ストッキングの着用が歩行中の足関節底屈筋群の血液量・筋活動および主観的運動強度に与える影響

    光川眞壽, 宮本直和, 平田浩祐, 利光徹哉, 川村明, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    スポーツ科学研究   6   88 - 96  2009  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

    J-GLOBAL

  • 筋疲労を伴う動的足関節底屈運動中の下腿三頭筋の筋腱動態の変化

    佐久間淳, 栗原俊之, 矢内利政, 金久博昭, 川上泰雄

    スポーツ科学研究   6   97 - 110  2009  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

    J-GLOBAL

  • スプリント走の加速局面における一流短距離選手のキネティクスに関する研究

    小林海, 土江寛裕, 松尾彰文, 彼末一之, 礒繁雄, 矢内利政, 金久博昭, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    スポーツ科学研究   6   119 - 130  2009  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

    J-GLOBAL

  • The relationship between the functions of knee extensor muscles and scores on the sit-to-stand in middle-aged and older individuals

    Yohei Takai, Megumi Ohta, Ryota Akagi, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Yasuo Kawakami, Tetsuo Fukunaga

    JOURNAL OF AGING AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY   16   S202 - S203  2008.07

  • Effect of tendon mechanical properties on strain of triceps surae muscle-tendon unit under eccentric contraction

    Oda, T, Kato, E, Chino, K, Himeno, R, Kanehisa, H, Kawakami, Y

    Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.   40 ( 5 ) S296  2008.05  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Last author

    DOI

  • The relationship between passive ankle plantar flexion joint torque and gastrocnemius muscle and Achilles tendon stiffness: Implications for flexibility

    Kawakami, Y, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T

    J. Orthop. Sports Phys. Ther.   38 ( 5 ) 269 - 276  2008.05  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    STUDY DESIGN: Experimental laboratory study.
    OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that the muscle fibers and the connective tendinous structures, combined in series, provide the resistance to passive joint movement at the ankle. We also determined the relative association between passive joint torque and each of these 2 elements.
    BACKGROUND: The reason for individual variation in joint flexibility or tightness is not clearly understood, but the influence of musculotendinous stiffness has been inferred.
    METHODS AND MEASURES: Each of the subjects (6 women and 6 men) was seated with the right knee extended and right ankle positioned at a 30 degrees, 20 degrees, 10 degrees, 0 degrees, -10 degrees, -20 degrees, and -30 degrees (0, neutral position, positive values reflecting plantar flexion) angle while passive plantar flexion torque was measured. The distal muscle-tendon junction of the medial gastrocnemius was visualized by ultrasonography, and its positional change was defined as muscle belly length change, The whole muscle-tendon unit length change was estimated from joint angle changes, from which Achilles tendon length change was estimated.
    RESULTS: Both the muscle belly and tendon were significantly elongated as the ankle was dorsiflexed (at 0 degrees the mean +/- SD muscle belly elongation was 10.3% +/- 1.8%, and the tendon elongation was 2.8% +/- 1.2%, of the initial length of their respective structures measured at 30 degrees of ankle plantar flexion), from which stiffness indices were determined both for muscle belly and tendon. The passive torque at 0 degrees, -10 degrees, -20 degrees, and -30 degrees was significantly correlated with the stiffness indices of the Achilles tendon (at 0 degrees, r(2) = 0.70 and 0.62 for overall and specific stiffness, respectively; P&lt;.05). A tendon stiffness index, separately obtained from tendon lengthening during maximal isometric contraction, was also correlated with passive ankle plantar flexion torque at 0 degrees, -10 degrees -20 degrees, and -30 degrees (at 0 degrees, r(2) = 0.76, P&lt;.05), The specific stiffness index of the muscle belly was correlated (r(2) = 0.47, P&lt;.05) with the passive ankle plantar flexion torque at 0 degrees, but its overall stiffness index was not (r(2) = 0.32, P&gt;.05).
    CONCLUSION: Results suggest that extensibility of the muscle-tendon unit of the Achilles tendon for the most part is related to passive ankle plantar flexion joint torque.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    59
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Strain distribution within human triceps surae muscles during isometric contraction: in vivo study by Tagging MRI

    Toshiaki Oda, Ryuta Kinugasa, Mayoran Rajendra, Ryutaro Himeno, Hiroyuki Kataoka, Hideo Yokota, Akio Yamamoto, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Tetsuo Fukunaga, Yasuo Kawakami

    FASEB JOURNAL   22  2008.04

  • In vivo fascicle behavior of synergistic muscles in concentric and eccentric plantar flexions in humans

    Chino, K, Oda, T, Kurihara, T, Nagayoshi, T, Yoshikawa, K, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T, Fukashiro, S, Kawakami, Y

    J. Electromyogr. Kinesiol.   18 ( 1 ) 79 - 88  2008.02  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Ultrasonography was used to directly measure in vivo fascicle behavior of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) and soleus (SOL) muscles while the subjects (n = 6 men) performed maximal voluntary concentric and eccentric plantar flexions at 60, 120, 180 and 240 deg/s. Fascicle shortening and lengthening velocities of MG, obtained from fascicle length changes over time, were significantly higher than those of SOL at +/- 120, +/- 180 and +240 deg/s, possibly reflecting physiological and mechanical differences between these muscles. On the other hand, the effective fascicle shortening and lengthening velocities, defined as the velocities in the longitudinal direction of muscle belly, were not significantly different between MG and SOL. This could be due to difference in fascicle architecture and/or the existence of mechanical linkages between these muscles. Moreover, when the contribution of tendinous tissues to muscle-tendon complex length change was determined from fascicle length, pennation angle, moment arm and joint angle, it accounted for approximately 50% in both concentric and eccentric trials, but showed considerable intra-subject variations. This result quantifiably demonstrates the importance of tendinous tissues in isokinetically controlled joint movements. (C) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    38
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • 生体電気インピーダンス法を用いたセグメント別骨格筋量推定の可能性(運動生理学1,04.運動生理学,一般研究発表抄録)

    太田めぐみ, 緑川泰史, 高井洋平, 増尾善久, 坂本静男, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    日本体育学会大会予稿集   59 ( 0 ) 128 - 128  2008  [Refereed]

    DOI CiNii J-GLOBAL

  • A30 Influence of different shock-absorbing capacities of running shoes on body kinetics and kinematics during running

    HIGURASHI Nao, SAKAGUCHI Masanori, KOBAYASHI Kai, MOTOYASU Yoichi, MARUYAMA Takeo, KAWAKAMI Yasuo

    The Proceedings of Joint Symposium: Symposium on Sports Engineering, Symposium on Human Dynamics   2008 ( 0 ) 152 - 156  2008

     View Summary

    The impact force which runners receive passively during running reaches approximately 1.5〜5.0 times the body weight. The joint movements of lower extremity have strategy which absorbs the impact force. In addition, shoes have an important role of absorbing the impact force. This study investigated the relationship between the impact force and joint movements wearing different shoes. Eight subjects ran at 3.5m/s wearing 3-types of shoes with different shock-absorbing capacities. Shoes with thicker outer-sole were defined as shoes with higher shock-absorbing. GRF, joint angle, joint angular velocity, sole angle which is angle between foot and ground at touch down, and time of maximum joint angular velocity were sampled and computed. Time of GRF first peak and loading rate were longer and smaller significantly and knee joint angle at touchdown tended to be smaller when runners wore shoes with higher shock-absorbing. It was suggested that shoes with higher shock-absorbing attenuated the impact to the body and influenced running motion.

    DOI CiNii J-GLOBAL

  • Elastic properties of human in vivo triceps brachii tendon

    Murata, K, Sugisaki, N, Miyamoto, N, Wakahara, T, Kanehisa, H, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    Int. J. Sport Health Sci.   6   162 - 168  2008  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • Effects of Muscle-Tendon Interaction on Force Development in Human Skeletal Muscle in Vivo

    Toshiaki ODA, Ryutaro HIMENO, Hiroaki KANEHISA, Tetsuo FUKUNAGA, Yasuo KAWAKAMI

    Biomechanisms   19   11 - 22  2008  [Refereed]  [Domestic journal]

    Authorship:Last author

    DOI J-GLOBAL

  • Muscle force per cross-sectional area is inversely related with pennation angle in strength trained athletes

    Shigeki Ikegawa, Kazuo Funato, Naoya Tsunoda, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Tetsuo Fukunaga, Yasuo Kawakami

    Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research   22 ( 1 ) 128 - 131  2008.01  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of pennation angle on the force per cross-sectional area for elbow extensor muscles in strength-trained athletes. A total of 52 male bodybuilders (n = 32) and Olympic weightlifters (n = 20) did maximal isometric elbow extension on an isokinetic dynamometer. Muscle crosssectional area (CSA) and muscle-fiber pennation angle (PA) of the triceps brachii muscles were measured by ultrasonography. Bodybuilders had significantly greater isometric elbow extension force (F), CSA and PA than weightlifters. The ratio of force to CSA (F/CSA) of bodybuilders was significantly lower than that of weightlifters. A significant positive correlation was observed between CSA and PA in both groups (r = 0.832, P < 0.001, and r = 0.682, P < 0.001, for bodybuilders and weightlifters, respectively). The F/CSA was negatively correlated to PA both for bodybuilders (r = -0.408, P, 0.05) and weightlifters (r = -0.465, P < 0.05). Thus present study indicates that the larger pennation angle is associated with the lower force relative to muscle CSA in strength-trained athletes. © 2008, National Strength and Conditioning Association.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    49
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • 間欠的足関節底屈運動中の筋疲労に収縮間インターバルが及ぼす影響

    下田学, 福永哲夫, 金久博昭, 川上泰雄

    体育学研究   53 ( 1 ) 87 - 97  2008  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of varying inter-contraction intervals on central and peripheral muscle fatigue during intermittent contractions. Six healthy men carried out maximal unilateral isometric plantar flexions 50 times, separated with an interval of 2, 4,10, or 30 s. Supramaximal electrical stimuli (twitches) were imposed percutaneously on the tibial nerve during and after every 10th contraction to assess the level of voluntary activation. The surface electromyogram (EMG) was recorded from the medial and lateral gastrocnemius (MG and LG) and soleus (Sol) muscles. Plantar flexion torque and other parameters were maintained over contractions with 30-s intervals, while the torque as well as EMG activity of the MG, LG and Sol and the level of voluntary activation decreased significantly under conditions using 2-, 4-, and 10-s intervals. The amount of decrease in the parameters was greater for shorter intervals. With 2-s intervals, the twitch torque decreased significantly, the half-relaxation time of the twitch torque increased significantly, and the EMG mean power frequency of the MG and LG shifted significantly toward lower frequencies, whereas no significant changes were found under other conditions. These results indicate that there are differences in the contributions of central and peripheral fatigue, both of which are a function of inter-contraction interval.

    CiNii

  • 骨格筋の力学的特性

    川上泰雄

    整形外科リハビリテーション    2008  [Invited]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

  • Establishing a new index of muscle cross-sectional area and its relationship with isometric muscle strength

    Ryota Akagi, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Yasuo Kawakami, Tetsuo Fukunaga

    Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research   22 ( 1 ) 82 - 87  2008.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The present study aimed i) to establish an index of muscle crosssectional area (CSA) based on muscle thickness and circumference through a comparison with muscle CSA determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ii) to examine the relationships between muscle strength and the index determined at rest and during the maximal isometric contraction. The muscle CSA of elbow flexors at 60% of the upper arm length (CSA60) and the maximal CSA of elbow flexors (CSAmax) were measured using MRI in 26 men and 8 women. The muscle thickness (MT) of elbow flexors and the circumference (C) of upper arm at 60% of the upper arm length were measured using ultrasonography and anthropometry, respectively, in 29 men and 9 women. The measurements of MT and C were performed in the resting (MTr and Cr) and contracted condition (MTm and Cm), where the subjects performed maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of isometric elbow joint flexion. The torque developed during MVC was converted into the muscle force (F) of elbow flexors. The MTr × Cr was significantly correlated both with CSA60 and CSAmax (P < 0.001). The F was significantly correlated with MTm × Cm (r = 0.847, P < 0.001) and MTr 3 Cr (r = 0.839, P < 0.001). However, stepwise multiple regression analysis selected only MTm × Cm as a significant contributor for estimating F. The present study indicates that MT × C reflects muscle CSA, and can be an index for assessing muscle CSA. In addition, the findings obtained here showed a possibility that MT × C during MVC is more closely related to F than that at rest. © 2008, National Strength and Conditioning Association.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    69
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • 定期的な体操教室の実施が高齢者の身体諸機能に及ぼす影響

    加藤えみか, 奥原直樹, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    スポーツ科学研究   5   10 - 18  2008  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

    J-GLOBAL

  • 野球選手における投球スピードと年齢との関係

    勝亦陽一, 金久博昭, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    スポーツ科学研究   5   224 - 234  2008  [Refereed]

    J-GLOBAL

  • Assessment of sprint running abilities using a resisted self-driven treadmill

    Tsuchie, H, Kobayashi, K, Kanehisa, H, Kawakami, Y, Iso, S, Fukunaga, T

    Int. J Sport Health Sci.   6   85 - 90  2008  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In the present study, an ergometer (SErg) was developed to determine the force-velocity-power relationship in sprint running and to examine its applicability for assessing sprinting ability on the ground. The SErg consisted of a low friction belt, a rotary encoder, a force transducer attached to the runner's waist, and an electrical brake on the belt. The subjects (nine healthy and active men, including two sprinters: age, 22.6±2.1yrs; body height, 175.3±4.1cm; body weight, 74.1±9.3 kg) sprinted with maximal effort at five loads that were generated by the braking force. The mean velocity (V) and force (F) were calculated where the mean belt velocity in six steps was maximal. In addition to the treadmill running, the subjects performed a 60m maximal sprint on the ground. From the F-V relationship, the value of the intercept on the V axis was regarded as estimated maximal velocity (eVmax). The maximal power (ePmax) was also calculated from V-P regression. The test-retest reliability of the eVmax and ePmax was high (ICC>0.79). The eVmax (8.25+/-0.89m/s) and ePmax (856.5+/-135.0W) were highly correlated to the maximal velocity (8.91+/-0.75m/s, r =0.91) and acceleration (3.55+/-0.24m/s2, r =0.91), respectively, in the 60 m sprint on the ground. The present results indicate that the SErg can be applicable to determine the F-V-P relationship during sprint running and to estimate maximum velocity and acceleration in maximal ground sprinting.

    DOI CiNii

  • Age and sex differences in the levels of muscular activities during daily physical actions

    Takai, Y, Sawai, S, Kanehisa, H, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    Int. J. Sport Health Sci.   6   169 - 181  2008  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The present study aimed to clarify age and gender differences in the electromyographic (EMG) activity levels of lower limb muscles during daily physical actions. Forty young and 22 elderly individuals performed five physical actions, i.e. normal walking, ascending and descending stairs, standing up from and sitting onto a chair, and a calf raise exercise. The surface electromyograms (EMGs) during these actions were recorded from the vastus medialis, rectus femoris, vastus latelalis, lateral gastrocnemius, medial gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles using a portable EMG recording apparatus. For the prescribed actions, the mean activity levels of the quadriceps femoris (QF%EMG) and triceps surae (TS%EMG) muscles were quantified and expressed as the relative values (%EMG) to that during the maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC). The %EMG values of QF and TS significantly differed among actions, with significant influences of age and gender. The %EMG of each of QF and TS was negatively correlated to MVC torque relative to body weight, developed in knee extension and ankle plantar flexion, suggesting that the observed age and gender differences in %EMG could be partially attributed to those in torque generation capabilities. Thus, the present findings indicate that the individuals with lower maximal isometric joint torque per body weight demonstrate higher muscular activity levels during daily physical actions. For these populations, the daily physical actions examined here may be resistance exercises for improving the torque generation capability of lower limb muscles.

    DOI CiNii

  • Elastic behavior of human in vivo triceps brachii tendon

    Murata, K, Sugisaki, N, Miyamoto, N, Wakahara, T, Kanehisa, H, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    Int. J. Sport Health Sci.   6   182 - 187  2008  [Refereed]

  • 発育に伴う柔軟性の変化

    川上泰雄

    子どもと発育発達   6 ( 2 ) 115 - 117  2008  [Invited]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

    J-GLOBAL

  • 受動伸長時における下腿三頭筋の局所ひずみの大きさ・分布に腱膜が与える影響.

    小田俊明, 姫野龍太郎, 金久博昭, 加藤えみか, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    東京体育学研究   2007   19 - 27  2007.11  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

    J-GLOBAL

  • Estimation of strain and stress in human Achilles tendon tissue during jumping.

    小田俊明, 川上泰雄, 片岡弘之, 横田秀夫, 姫野龍太郎

    日本機械学会スポーツ工学シンポジウム・シンポジウムヒューマン・ダイナミクス講演論文集   2007   209 - 213  2007.11

    J-GLOBAL

  • In vivo behavior of muscle fascicles and tendinous tissues of human gastrocnemius and soleus muscles during twitch contraction

    Oda, T, Kanehisa, H, Chino, K, Kurihara, T, Nagayoshi, T, Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    J. Electromyogr. Kinesiol.   17 ( 5 ) 587 - 595  2007.10  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    The present study investigated the differences between the human medial gastrocnemius (MG) and soleus (SOL) muscles in length changes of muscle fascicles and tendinous tissues during twitch contraction induced by an electrical nerve stimulus. Also, the time-course characteristics of twitch torque were related with changes in the length of muscle fascicles and tendinous tissues. No significant difference was observed between MG and SOL in contraction and half relaxation times of the changes in lengths and velocities of both muscle fascicles and tendinous tissues. The time-course of changes in twitch torque was nearly identical to that of the length of muscle fascicles and tendinous tissues. It was suggested that the behavior of MG and SOL during twitch contraction is practically similar in spite of their known physiological and architectural differences, and that the time-course of twitch torque is greatly influenced by the changes in the length of muscle fascicles and tendinous tissues. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    36
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • 受動伸長時における下腿三頭筋の局所ひずみの大きさ・分布に腱膜が与える影響

    小田俊明, 姫野龍太郎, 金久博昭, 加藤えみか, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    東京体育学研究   2006   83  2007.02  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

    J-GLOBAL

  • ジャンプ時におけるアキレス腱組織のひずみと応力の推定.

    小田俊明, 川上泰雄, 片岡弘之, 横田秀夫, 姫野龍太郎

    ジョイントシンポジウム2007 スポーツ工学シンポジウム/シンポジウム:ヒューマン・ダイナミクス講演論文集,   2007   213 - 217  2007  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The amplitude and distribution of both strain and stress in human Achilles tendon during jumping were calculated by non-linear finite element analysis with a Mooney-Rivlin model. The first principal strain over 0.2 was seen in the part with small cross sectional area and in the upper part of the calcaneus, and the maximal first principal strain exceeded 0.33. The first principal stress exceeding 100MPa was observed in the similar parts (maximum 293MPa). These parts are approximately where Achilles tendon's rupture and/or inflammation frequently occur For sub-maximal increasing load level, these parts showed larger strain and stress earlier than other part, which could be related with the non-linear material property of Achilles tendon tissue.

    DOI CiNii

  • Fascicle behavior of medial gastrocnemius muscle in extended and flexed knee positions

    Wakahara, T, Kanehisa, H, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    J. Biomech.   40 ( 10 ) 2291 - 2298  2007  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The present study tested the hypotheses that Achilles tendon forces during fast concentric actions do not differ between extended and flexed knee positions, and this phenomenon is attributable to the force-length characteristics and electromyograms (EMGs) of gastrocnemius muscle. Seven healthy men performed static and concentric plantarflexions at fully extended (K0) and 0.785 rad (45 degrees) Flexed (K45) knee positions with the maximal effort. In concentric actions, the angular velocities were set at 0.524 (slow) and 6.109 rad s(-1) (fast). Fascicle length of medial gastrocnemius (MG) was determined with ultrasonography. Surface EMGs of the MG were recorded luring each action. Achilles tendon force was calculated from the torque and moment arm of the tendon. Peak tendon forces in fast concentric actions were similar in KO and in K45, but those in static and slow concentric actions significantly (P &lt; 0.05) differed between :he two positions. When the tendon force peaked, the fascicle lengths in each action and fascicle velocities in both concentric actions were significantly (P&lt;0.05) greater in KO than in K45. The EMGs were significantly (P&lt;0.05) higher in KO than K45 during each action. The results suggest that (1) the difference in the tendon forces between the two positions can be explained by the force-length and -velocity Characteristics and the EMGs of the MG, and (2) the contribution of the MG to the tendon force in flexed knee positions is greater in concentric actions than expected from the results in static actions. (C) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    25
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • 運動間のアイシングが骨格筋の循環動態および筋力に与える影響

    光川眞壽, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    トレーニング科学   19 ( 1 ) 34 - 42  2007  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

    J-GLOBAL

  • In vivo behavior of muscle fascicles and tendinous tissues in human tibialis anterior muscle during twitch contraction

    Oda, T, Himeno, R, Hay, D. C, Chino, K, Kurihara, T, Nagayoshi T, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    J. Biomech.   40 ( 14 ) 3114 - 3120  2007  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    In this study we investigated the time course of length and velocity of muscle fascicles and tendinous tissues (TT) during isometric twitch contraction, and examined how their interaction relates to the time course of external torque and muscle fascicle force generation. From seven males, supra-maximal twitch contractions (singlet) of the tibialis anterior muscle were induced at 30 degrees, 10 degrees and -10 degrees plantar flexed positions. The length and velocity of fascicles and TT were determined from a series of their transverse ultrasound images. The maximal external torque appeared when the shortening velocity of fascicles was zero. The fascicle and TT length, and external torque showed a 10-30 ins delay of each onset, with a significant difference in half relaxation times at -10 degrees. The time course of TT elongation, and fascicle and tendinous velocities did not differ between joint angles. Curvilinear length-force properties, whose slope of quasi-linear part was ranged from -15.0 to -5.9N/mm for fascicles and 5.4 to 14.3N/mm for TT, and a loop-like pattern of velocity-force properties, in which the mean power was ranged from 0.14 to 0.80W for fascicles, and 0.14 to 0.81 W for TT were also observed. These results were attributed to the muscle-tendon interaction, depending on the slack and non-linearity of length-force relationship of compliant TT. We conclude that the mechanical interaction between fascicles and TT, are significant determinants of twitch force and time characteristics. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    22
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • 年齢および野球経験の有無が投球速度と筋力との関係に及ぼす影響

    勝亦陽一, 金久博昭, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    トレーニング科学   19 ( 2 ) 149 - 154  2007  [Refereed]

    CiNii

  • 短距離トップランナーの400m走中脚筋電図の記録

    五味宏生, 土江寛裕, 木村孝三, 小林海, 保原浩明, 村岡哲郎, 礒繁雄, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫, 彼末一之

    スポーツ科学研究   4   10 - 17  2007  [Refereed]

    J-GLOBAL

  • ローイングのバイオメカニクス−艇速に影響を及ぼす力学的要因−

    下田学, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    バイオメカニクス研究   11 ( 2 ) 102 - 112  2007  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

    J-GLOBAL

  • 大学野球選手にみられる筋量および筋量分布の特徴が投球スピードに与える影響

    勝亦陽一, 高井洋平, 太田めぐみ, 佐久間淳, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    スポーツ科学研究   4   10 - 17  2007  [Refereed]

    J-GLOBAL

  • Mapping activation levels of skeletal muscle in healthy volunteers: An MRI study

    Kinugasa, R, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    J. Magn. Reson. Imaging   24 ( 6 ) 1420 - 1425  2006.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Purpose: To use muscle functional MRI (mfMRI) to compare activation levels within and among triceps surae (TS) muscles.
    Materials and Methods: Seven healthy males performed five sets of 10 repetitions of a unilateral heel-raise exercise. T2-weighted images were obtained before and immediately after the exercise. Pixels that showed T2 greater than the mean + 1 SD of the region of interest (ROI) in pre-exercise images and lower than the mean + 1 SD of the ROI in post-exercise images were identified. The remaining T2 values in the post-exercise images were assigned to five categories indicated by color: red (highest level of activation), yellow, green, sky blue, and blue (lowest level of activation). The images were then used to construct three-dimensional (3D) images from which the volumes at each level of activation were determined.
    Results: Within each of the TS muscles the % activated volumes with low and moderate levels of activation were larger than those with a high level of activation (P &lt; 0.05). The % activated volumes with a high level of activation were larger in the medial gastrocnemius than the soleus (Sol; P &lt; 0.05). The Sol had a larger % activated volume with a low level of activation than the lateral gastrocnemius (P &lt; 0.05). Each activation level was nonuniformly distributed along the length within each TS muscle.
    Conclusion: There is substantial variation in the level of activation within and among the TS muscles; however. the activation level is mainly in the moderate to low range in all three muscles.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    16
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Human skeletal muscle size and architecture: Variability and interdependence

    Kawakami, Y, Abe, T, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T

    Am. J. Human Biol.   18 ( 6 ) 845 - 848  2006.11  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Seven hundred and eleven women and men (aged 3-94 years, including normal individuals and highly trained bodybuilders) were tested for the thickness and pennation angles of their triceps brachii (TB), vastus lateralis (VL), and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscles. The variations of muscle thickness and pennation angles were largest in TB (6-66 mm and 5-55 degrees), followed by VL (8-45 mm and 7-33 degrees) and GM (11-36mm and 12-33 degrees), and women showed smaller variations than men. These results suggest the existence of muscle- and gender-specificity in the variability of muscle dimensions. Significant positive correlations were observed between muscle thickness and pennation angles (r = 0.81, 0.61, and 0.56, for TB, VL, and GM, respectively), indicating that the size-dependence of the pennation angle is a general feature of pennate muscles.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    59
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Quantitative assessment of skeletal muscle activation using muscle functional MRI

    Kinugasa, R, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    Magn. Reson. Imaging   24 ( 5 ) 639 - 644  2006.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The purpose of the present study is to determine whether muscle functional MRI (mfMRI) can be used to obtain three-dimensional (3-D) images useful for evaluating muscle activity, and if so, to measure the distribution of muscle activity within a medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle. Seven men performed 5 sets of 10 repetitions of a calf-raise exercise with additional 15% of body-weight load. Magnetic resonance images were obtained before and immediately after the exercise. To threshold images, only those pixels showing transverse relaxation time (T2) greater than the mean+1 S.D. of the entire regions of interest (ROIs) in the preexercise image and T2 lower than the mean+1 S.D. of the entire ROIs in the postexercise image were identified. The survived pixels showing T2 are defined as active muscle. Those thresholded images were 3-D reconstructed, and this was used to determine area of active muscle along transverse, longitudinal and vertical axes. At the exercise level used in the present study, the percentage volume of activated muscle in the MG was 62.8 +/- 4.5%. There was a significant correlation between percentage volume of activated muscle and integrated electromyography (r=.78, P&lt;.05). Percentage areas of activated muscle were significantly larger in the medial than in the lateral region, in the anterior than in the posterior region and in the distal than in the proximal region (P&lt;.05). These results suggest that mfMRI can be used to evaluate the muscle activity and to determine intramuscular variations of activity within skeletal muscle. (C) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    27
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • New insights into In vivo human skeletal muscle function

    Yasuo Kawakami, Tetsuo Fukunaga

    Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews   34 ( 1 ) 16 - 21  2006.01  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Approaches to understanding human muscle function through measuring in vivo muscle fiber behavior in humans are described briefly. Experimental results show the discrepancy between joint actions and muscle fiber behavior in many occasions, which complicates prediction of muscle mechanics from sole observations of joint actions. This is the result of muscle-tendon interaction during contraction, which is efficiently used during human movements.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    50
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • ゴルフスイング中の筋活動およびキネティクス:プロゴルファーの事例研究

    川上泰雄, 井出敦夫, 野澤むつこ, 永吉俊彦, 小林海, 小田俊明, 千野謙太郎, 栗原俊之, 加藤えみか, 福永哲夫

    スポーツ科学研究   3   18 - 29  2006  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

    J-GLOBAL

  • 投球速度と筋力および筋量の関係

    勝亦陽一, 長谷川伸, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    スポーツ科学研究   3   1 - 7  2006  [Refereed]

    J-GLOBAL

  • ウォーキングにおけるバネの役割

    川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    バイオメカニクス研究   10 ( 1 ) 52 - 57  2006  [Invited]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

    J-GLOBAL

  • 科学の目でスポーツを楽しむ

    川上泰雄

    ワセダ・コム    2006  [Invited]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

  • 筋活動における筋腱複合体のふるまい

    川上泰雄

    学術の動向   11 ( 10 ) 28 - 31  2006  [Invited]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

    DOI CiNii

  • 早稲田大学スポーツ科学部授業報告ー演習「身体運動のメカニズム」

    川上泰雄, 阪口正律, 清水美奈

    スポーツ科学研究   3   30 - 47  2006  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

    J-GLOBAL

  • 合気道競技の投技における「崩し」の方法: 隅落と引落を中心に

    佐藤忠之, 川上泰雄, 志々田文明

    スポーツ科学研究   3   69 - 77  2006  [Refereed]

  • Muscle activation and its distribution within human triceps surae muscles

    Kinugasa, R, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    J. Appl. Physiol.   99 ( 3 ) 1149 - 1156  2005.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The purposes of this study were 1) to quantify the volume of activated parts within a whole muscle and 2) to examine activated area distributions along the length of muscle. Seven male subjects performed five sets of 10 repetitions of a single-leg calf-raise exercise with the knee fully extended. Transverse relaxation time (T2)-weighted spin echo images were acquired before and immediately after the exercise. A range of pixels with a T2 greater than the mean + 1 SD of the region of interest (ROI) from the preexercise image and pixels with a T2 lower than the mean + SD of the ROI from the postexercise image were defined as "active" muscle. The active muscle images were three dimensionally reconstructed, from which the volume of the activated muscle was determined for individual triceps surae (TS) muscles. Our data indicate that similar to 46% of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle was activated during the exercise, with activation of the lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and soleus (Sol) muscles being similar to 35%. In the MG, distal portions had a greater percentage area of activated muscle than the proximal portions (P &lt; 0.05), which was consistent with the results regarding electromyogram, activity. In contrast, regional activation differences were not observed in the LG and Sol. These findings suggest that the amounts of activated muscle and its distribution would be different among TS muscles.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    62
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Modeling and simulating the deformation of human skeletal muscle based on anatomy and physiology

    Lemos, R. R, Rokne, J, Baranoski, V. G, Kawakami, Y, Kurihara, T

    Comp. Anim. Virtual Worlds   16 ( 3-4 ) 319 - 330  2005.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper describes the modeling and simulation of the deformation of human skeletal muscle at different structural levels based on sound scientific principles, experimental evidence, and state-of-art muscle anatomy and physiology. The equations of a continuum model of a muscle with realistic architecture, including internal arrangement Of muscle fibers and passive structures, and deformation, including activation relations, was developed and solved with the finite element method. The continuum model is used as the basis of a strategy for controlling muscle deformation using activation relations. In order to demonstrate the functionality of the model, it was used to investigate force production and structural changes during contraction of the human tibialis anterior for maximally and submaximally activated muscle behavior. From a comparison with experimental data obtained from ultrasound imaging, we concluded that the modeling and simulation of the continuum based on physiologically meaningful parameters as described in the paper is both an excellent predictor of force production observations and of changes in internal geometry under various test conditions. It is therefore a valuable tool for controlling muscle deformation during movement. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    DOI

    Scopus

    19
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Muscle and tendon interaction during human movements

    Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    4th International Scientific Conference on Kinesiology, Proceedings Book     67 - 69  2005  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Real-time ultrasonography enabled in vivo MTC scanning and promised a realistic determination of the interactions between muscle and tendon during human movements. The tendinous tissues were quite compliant, and the elastic property was different among muscles. Internal shortening of fascicle was caused by the tendon elasticity. During human movements such as jumping, walking and ankle extension-flexion exercise the muscle fiber contracted with nearly constant length, while the tendon performed stretch-shortening cycle. It is suggested that human MTC are designed to match muscle force generation and tendon elasticity for efficient movement performance.

  • 垂直跳びにおいて重りを持つことが跳躍動作に及ぼす影響

    金子 潤, 竹下香寿美, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    スポーツ科学研究   2   63 - 71  2005  [Refereed]

    J-GLOBAL

  • Study on the Application of the Bio-Electrical Impedance Method for the Estimation of Tendon Elongation

    Ohta Megumi, Masuo Yoshihisa, Kanehisa Hiroaki, Kawakami Yasuo, Fukunaga Tetsuo

    Int. J. Sport Health Sci.   3 ( Special Issue ) 296 - 303  2005  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This study aimed to investigate the applicability of the bio-electrical impedance (BI) method for the estimation of tendon elongation due to muscle contraction. We applied the BI method with a cylindrical model to the muscle-tendon complex (MTC). While subjects performed ramp isometric elbow flexion up to 80% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), BI was measured using a bio-electrical impedance muscle analyzer. Simultaneously, tendon elongation was also determined directly by ultrasonography. The amount of tendon elongation (ΔLt) and relative BI values (%BI) changed curvilinearly with increasing torque development. There was a significant negative correlation between ΔLt and %BI in each subject (r = 0.924 ∼ 0.994, p<0.01). Thus, the present results indicate the effectiveness of the BI method for the estimation of tendon elongation during muscle contractions in vivo in human.

    DOI CiNii

  • 第18回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会傍聴記

    千野謙太郎, 小田俊明, 永吉俊彦, 川上泰雄

    体育の科学   55 ( 2 ) 145 - 149  2005  [Invited]

    Authorship:Last author

    CiNii

  • 筋厚と形態計測値の組み合わせによる筋形状指標の有効性

    赤木亮太, 東香寿美, 太田めぐみ, 高田佑輔, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    スポーツ科学研究   2   1 - 8  2005  [Refereed]

    J-GLOBAL

  • Levels of muscle activities in unloaded sit-up and squat movements

    高井洋平, 杉崎範英, 竹下香寿美, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    スポーツ科学研究   2 ( 2 ) 9 - 19  2005  [Refereed]

    CiNii J-GLOBAL

  • シングルスカルの艇速にストロークレートと漕手の発揮する力とパワーが及ぼす影響

    下田学, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    スポーツ科学研究   2   97 - 106  2005  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

    CiNii

  • Surface mechanomyogram reflects length changes in fascicles of human skeletal muscles

    Yoshitake, Y, Kawakami, Y, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T

    Int. J. Sport Health Sci.   3 ( 2005 ) 280 - 285  2005  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    To examine the origin of mechanomyogram (MMG), we compared the responses of surface MMG with the changes in the fascicle length determined by ultrasonography during electrically induced contractions of human skeletal muscles. The posterior tibial nerve of subjects (n=5) was stimulated with a stimulus pattern in which the frequency rose up from 1Hz to 20Hz linearly. The MMG amplitude decreased with increasing stimulation frequency. Reduction of MMG amplitude was in parallel with the decrease in fluctuation of the changes in fascicle length, and these values had a significant positive correlation (r=0.94, P<0.001). The observed direct relation between MMG and architectural change of muscle indicates that surface MMG is generated by the pressure wave produced by the expansion of a number of muscle fibers during contractions.

    DOI CiNii

  • Effects of age and gender on the power generation capabilities of lower limb muscles in the elderly

    Yanagiya, Y, Kanehisa, H, Tachi., M, Takeshita, K, Sugisaki, N, Wakahara, T, Murata, K, Takata, Y, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T, Kuno, S

    Int. J. Sport Health Sci.    2005  [Refereed]

  • Effects of passive ankle and knee joint motions on the length of fascicle and tendon of the medial gastrocnemius muscle

    Wakahara, T, Ushiyama, J, Kanehisa, H, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    Int. J. Sport Health Sci.   3   75 - 82  2005  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of passive ankle and knee joint motions on the length of fascicle and tendon of the gastrocnemius muscle. The ankle joint was passively moved from maximal dorsiflexed position to maximal plantar flexed position, while the knee joint was fixed at 0° (fully extended position). Also, the knee joint was passively extended from 90° to 0°, while the ankle joint was fixed at 0° (neutral position). In each test condition, lengths of fascicle and external tendon of the medial gastrocnemius were measured by ultrasonography. The length of external tendon was significantly changed by the ankle joint motion, but not by the knee joint motion. This demonstrates that the length of the external tendon distal to the muscle belly is influenced only by the angle changes of the joint distal to the gastrocnemius muscle. The change in fascicle length during the knee joint motion was significantly larger than during the ankle joint motion in spite of a similar length change of total muscle-tendon complex between the two motions. This demonstrates that fascicles located proximally to the external tendon are more influenced by the angle changes of the joint proximal to the gastrocnemius muscle. These results reveal that angle changes of each joint located in the proximal and distal parts of a biarticular muscle have different effects on the length of fascicle and external tendon.

    DOI CiNii

  • Effects of gender on age-related changes in muscle thickness in the elderly

    Takeshita, K, Kanehisa, H, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    Int. J. Sport Health Sci.    2005  [Refereed]

  • Behavior of fascicle and tendinous tissue of medial gastrocnemius muscle during rebound exercise of ankle joint

    Sugisaki, N, Kanehisa, H, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    Int. J. Sport Health Sci.   3   100 - 109  2005  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms of mechanical work and power enhancement of muscle-tendon complex (MTC) in rebound exercise by quantifying in vivo behavior of fascicle and tendinous tissue of human medial gastrocnemius muscle (MG). Subjects jumped on a sledge apparatus using only ankle joint with the following two conditions: plantar flexion without counter movement (PFJ) and rebound jumping from a height of 26 cm (RJ). The behavior of fascicle and tendinous tissue of MG in vivo was determined using ultrasonography. The relative contribution of tendinous tissue to the mechanical work of MTC during plantar flexion phase (PF phase) was 85% in RJ. The maximal mechanical power of tendinous tissue during the PF phase in RJ was about three times greater compared to that in PFJ. There was no significant difference in the mechanical power of fascicle during PF phase between the two conditions, while the mechanical work of fascicle in PFJ was less than that in the PF phase of RJ. In RJ, fascicle was stretched during the dorsiflexion phase. These findings indicated that, in rebound exercise using ankle joint, (1) the enhancement of mechanical work and power of MTC was due to the reuse of elastic energy stored in tendinous tissue during dorsiflexion phase, and (2) fascicles were stretched during dorsiflexion phase.

    DOI CiNii

  • Behavior of aponeurosis and external tendon of the gastrocnemius muscle during dynamic plantar flexion exercise

    Sugisaki, N, Kanehisa, H, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    Int. J. Sport Health Sci.   3 ( 2005 ) 235 - 244  2005  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This study aimed to investigate the behavior of the aponeurosis and external tendon of the medial gastrocnemius muscle (MG) in dynamic actions. Seven males performed maximal and submaximal concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) plantar flexion exercises preceded by an isometric action (Pre-iso) on an isokinetic dynamometer at a pre-set velocity of 5°/s. In addition, the subjects performed static ramp actions with the ankle positioned at dorsi-and plantar flexed positions. During the exercises, the length changes of the aponeurosis and external tendon of MG were determined using ultrasound apparatuses. In CON, the length of external tendon significantly shortened from the level of Pre-iso in all test conditions. However, the change of aponeurosis was significant only in the maximal exercises. In ECC, the external tendon was elongated in all test conditions, while the aponeurosis was not elongated even in the maximal effort. In static action, the lengths of both aponerurosis and external tendon increased with increasing force levels. The present results indicate that the behavior of aponeurosis of MG depends on the type of action and that the aponeurosis of MG plays a simple role of muscle force transmission in eccentric actions, while external tendon functions to store elastic energy.

    DOI CiNii

  • Critical power determination with ergometry rowing: relation to rowing performance

    Shimoda, M, Kawakami, Y

    Int. J. Sport Health Sci.   3   21 - 26  2005  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    The relationships between critical power (CP) and anaerobic work capacity (AWC), and the rowing performance in a 2000 m ergometry rowing effort were assessed. Nine male university rowers performed three tests: 1) critical power determination, 2) 2000 m simulated rowing and 3) VO2max test. The CP and AWC were determined from the regression between work and time to exhaustion, derived from three exhaustive trials at 70, 60, and 50% of the maximal power. The 2000 m simulated rowing performance was higher for subjects with higher CP independent of AWC. The mean power throughout the 2000 m simulated rowing correlated significantly with CP (r = 0.87) and the absolute VO2max (r = 0.71), but not with AWC. CP also influenced the pattern of changes in power over the 2000 m simulated rowing. We conclude that the CP is a useful indicator of rowing performance and may be efficacious for monitoring the training effects in rowing.

    DOI CiNii

  • In vivo length-force relationships of muscle fiber and muscle tendon complex in the tibialis anterior muscle

    Oda, T, Kanehisa, H, Chino, K, Kurihara, T, Nagayoshi T, Kato, E, Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    Int. J. Sport Health Sci.   3 ( 2005 ) 245 - 252  2005  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    The present study aimed to determine the differences in the length-force relationship between muscle fiber and muscle tendon complex (MTC) and to relate the shape of the length-force relationship to the architectural changes in MTC (the elongation of tendon structures and pennation angle changes). In six male subjects, tetanic contractions (2s at 50Hz) of the tibialis anterior muscle were induced electrically. At a steady state of tetanic contraction, the muscle fiber length and pennation angle were measured from ultrasonic images, and the muscle fiber force, tendon force, MTC length and elongation of tendon structures were calculated. The measured and normalized length-force relationships were clearly different between muscle fiber and MTC, especially on the length axis. The differences could be attributed to the existence of compliant tendon structures and increment of pennation angles related to elongation of tendon structures, suggesting that compliant tendon structures in human muscles influence the length-dependent force generation in both muscle fiber and MTC.

    DOI CiNii

  • Use of three-dimensional ultrasonography for the analysis of the fascile length of human gastrocnemius muscle during contractions

    Kurihara, T, Oda, T, Chino, K, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    Int. J. Sport Health Sci.   3 ( 2005 ) 226 - 234  2005  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    The fascicle lengths of the human gastrocnemius muscle during isometric plantar flexions were analyzed using a three-dimensional ultrasound system (3D-US). Prior to measurements in vivo, the accuracy and reproducibility of the 3D-US were examined by taking images of a phantom. The horizontal errors were 0.3-1.0%, and the vertical errors were 1.2-1.6%. In addition, the coefficients of variance for the repeated measurements were 3.3% and 1.7% for horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. Second, both at rest and each of five intensities {20, 40, 60, 80, 100% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)}, at a fixed ankle joint angle of 90deg, the 3D-US images of gastrocnemius muscles were obtained and used to determine fascicle length. The fascicle length was also measured using two-dimensional ultrasound system (2D-US), and the values obtained by 2D-US were used to make comparisons with those by 3D-US. From rest to MVC, the fascicle length decreased as a function of relative torque levels from 6.0 (± 0.5) cm to 3.1 (± 0.4) cm with 3D-US, and, in a similar manner, from 5.6 (± 0.5) cm to 3.0 (± 0.4) cm with 2D-US. Thus the present study indicated the accuracy and reproducibility of the 3D-US measurements and its usefulness for determining the fascicle lengths of human muscles in three-dimensional space. The fascicle length measurements determined by 3D-US were, however, significantly longer than those of 2D-US.

    DOI CiNii

  • The effects of strength training on muscle architecture in humans

    Kawakami, Y

    Int. J. Sport Health Sci.   3 ( 2005 ) 208 - 217  2005  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    The present paper reviews previous studies on changes in muscle architecture in humans as a result of strength training. Muscle architecture here refers to 1) muscle size, 2) pennation angle, and 3) muscle fiber length. Training-induced changes are summarized respectively. A typical outcome of strength training is muscle hypertrophy, which is manifested as an increase in muscle size evaluated by cross-sectional area and muscle volume. However, changes also occur in pennation angles and, possibly, in muscle fiber lengths. Increased pennation angles after training have the detrimental effect of producing a reduced force transmission from muscle fibers to tendon, which might lead to a decrease in specific tension or muscle force per physiological cross-sectional area. Recent in vivo studies on human muscles have revealed that changes in pennation angles resulting from training and contraction are much greater than previously thought.

    DOI CiNii

  • Musculotendious Factors influencing difference in ankle joint flexibility between women and men

    Kato, E, Oda, T, Chino, K, Kurihara, T, Nagayoshi, T. Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    Int. J. Sport Health Sci.   3 ( 2005 ) 218 - 225  2005  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Flexibility is often evaluated from the joint range of motion (ROM), but the mechanisms underlying gender differences in joint ROM have not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing the difference in ankle joint ROM between men and women with respect to the extensibility of muscle-tendon complex. Eighteen men (21-26 yr, 66.4±6.0kg, 173.7±7.4cm mean±SD) and 12 women (19-27yr, 52.9±4.8kg, 163.4±4.3cm) participated in this study. Each subject was seated with the knee extended, and the ankle joint was attached to a foot plate, by which the ankle joint was passively dorsiflexed with torque gradually increasing from zero to a value at which the passive loading to the ankle joint was just tolerable for each subject. During the passive loading, real-time ultrasonogram was taken to track the movement of MTJ (muscle-tendon junction of the gastrocnemius medialis and Achilles tendon) as the elongation of muscle belly (dMus). The change of MTC (muscle-tendon complex) length (dMTC) during the passive dorsiflexion was estimated from changes in ankle joint angle. Tendon elongation (dTen) was calculated by subtracting dMus from dMTC. There was no significant difference in normalized passive torque during passive dorsiflexion between men and women. Women were more flexible, i.e., they demonstrated greater dMTC, which was accompanied by greater dTen at lower torque levels. However, dMus was not different between men and women. It was concluded that gender difference in the joint ROM at the ankle reflects more compliant Achilles tendon in women than in men.

    DOI CiNii

  • 高齢者にみられる足関節可動域の性差(04.運動生理学,一般研究発表)

    川上泰雄, 小田俊明, 永吉俊彦, 久野譜也, 金久博昭, 福永哲夫

    Proceedings of the Congress of the Japanese Society of Physical Education   0 ( 55 ) 270 - 270  2004.09

    Authorship:Lead author

    CiNii

  • The accuracy of volume estimates using ultrasound muscle thickness measurements in different muscle groups

    Miyatani, M, Kanehisa, H, Ito, M, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.   91 ( 2-3 ) 264 - 272  2004.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This study aimed to investigate the accuracy of estimating the volume of limb muscles (MV) using ultrasonographic muscle thickness (MT) measurements. The MT and MV of each of elbow flexors and extensors, knee extensors and ankle plantar flexors were determined from a single ultrasonographic image and multiple magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, respectively, in 27 healthy men (23-40 years of age) who were allocated to validation (n=14) and cross-validation groups (n=13). In the validation group, simple and multiple regression equations using MT and a set of MT and limb length, respectively, as independent variables were derived to estimate the MV measured by MRI. However, only the multiple regression equations were cross-validated, and so the prediction equations with r(2) of 0.787-0.884 and the standard error of estimate of 22.1 cm(3) (7.3%) for the elbow flexors to 198.5 cm(3) (11.1%) for the knee extensors were developed using the pooled data. This approach did not induce significant systematic error in any muscle group, with no significant difference in the accuracy of estimating MV between muscle groups. In the multiple regression equations, the relative contribution of MT for predicting MV varied from 41.9% for the knee extensors to 70.4% for the elbow flexors. Thus, ultrasonographic MT measurement was a good predictor of MV when combined with limb length. For predicting MV, however, the unsuitability of a simple equation using MT only and the difference between muscle groups in the relative contribution of MT in multiple regression equations indicated a need for further research on the limb site selected and muscle analyzed for MT measurement.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    255
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • 筋肉と筋収縮のバイオメカニクス

    川上泰雄

    パリティ   19 ( 8 ) 6 - 10  2004  [Invited]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

    J-GLOBAL

  • 中高齢者の筋特性

    川上泰雄, 金久博昭, 福永哲夫

    体育の科学   54 ( 3 ) 197 - 202  2004  [Invited]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

    J-GLOBAL

  • 刺激から関節トルク発揮に至るまでの人体筋の収縮様相

    小田俊明, 千野謙太郎, 栗原俊之, 金久博昭, 永吉俊彦, 加藤えみか, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    東京体育学研究   2004   57 - 60  2004  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

    J-GLOBAL

  • ローイングパワーの安定性がボートの艇速に及ぼす効果−大学ボート選手を対象として−

    下田学, 川上泰雄

    トレーニング科学   16 ( 1 ) 33 - 40  2004  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

    CiNii

  • Effect of gender on mechanical power output during repeated bouts of maximal running in trained teenagers

    Yanagiya, T, Kanehisa, H, Kouzaki, M, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    Int. J. Sports Med.   24 ( 4 ) 304 - 310  2003.05  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Seven high school boys (16.4 +/- 0.5y, mean +/- SD) and 7 girls (16.4 +/- 0.5y), who specialized in track and field events, performed ten 5-s maximal sprint runs with an interval of 10s between each sprint on a non-motorized running ergometer. In each sprint, the mean mechanical power (MP) from the start until the belt velocity of the ergometer (i.e., running velocity) peaked was calculated. The boys showed significantly higher MP than the girls in all sprints. However, when MP was expressed as the ratio to the total volume of muscles located in the right lower limb (MP x MV-1), estimated using a bioelectrical impedance analysis, significant gender effect was limited to the values at the 1(st) and 2(nd) sprints. The decline of MP over the ten sprints, expressed as a relative value to that at the 1(st) sprint, was greater in boys (46.2 +/- 7.6%) than in girls (33.9 +/- 8.6%), and significantly correlated with MP x MV-1 at the 1(st) sprint (r = 0.568, p &lt; 0.05). However, no significant difference between the boys and girls Was found in the relative difference between NIP values at the 3(rd) and 10(th) sprints, where the gender difference in MP x MV-1 at every sprint was insignificant. The findings here indicate that, for trained teenage boys and girls, 1) significant gender difference in mechanical power developed during repeated bouts of maximal running exists only in the initial phase of the task, when the difference in the volume of the lower limb muscles is normalized, and 2) it may be a reason for a greater decline of mechanical power developed during the bout in boys compared to girls.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    25
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Resistance training during unweighting maintains muscle size and function in human calf

    Akima, H, Ushiyama, J, Kubo, J, Tonosaki, S, Itoh, M, Kawakami, Y, Fukuoka, H, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T

    Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.   35 ( 4 ) 655 - 662  2003.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Purpose: A 20-d 6degrees head-down tilt bed rest project was conducted to evaluate the effect of dynamic leg press and plantar flexion resistance training on muscle size and function in human plantar flexors (PF) throughout the prolonged bed rest. Methods: Twelve healthy men participated in this study and were divided two groups: resistance training (BR-Tr group: N=6, age: 23+/-2 yr, height: 170+/-3 cm, weight: 66+/-7 kg) and nontraining (BR-Cont group: N=6, age: 23+/-1 yr, height: 170+/-3 cm, weight: 67+/-6 kg) during the bed rest. Physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and peak torque of the PF muscle group was determined. Spin-spin relaxation times (T2) of the medial (MG) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and soleus (Sol) muscle was measured at rest and immediately after unilateral calf-raising exercise (5 sets of 10 reps). Results: PCSA of the PF muscle group did not show any significant change in BR-Tr group; however, for the BR-Cont group, PCSA decreased by 13% after bed rest (P&lt;0.05). There was no significant change in exercise-induced T2 change of the MG, LG, or Sol muscles between before and after the bed rest in BR-Tr group; however, in the BR-Cont group, significant increases in T2 were found in these three muscles after the bed rest (P&lt;0.05 to 0.01). Conclusion: We conclude that dynamic leg press and plantar flexion resistance training during bed rest maintains muscle size and function (torque and T2), and that this training could be useful for prevention of progressive muscle deconditioning during spaceflight.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    67
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Fascicle arrangements of vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius muscles in highly trained soccer players and swimmers of both genders

    Kanehisa, H, Muraoka, Y, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    Int. J. Sports Med.   24 ( 2 ) 90 - 95  2003.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The thickness, fascicle angles of pennation, and fascicle length of the vastus lateralis (VL) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles in highly trained soccer players and swimmers of both genders were determined from ulrasonograms to investigate whether the fascicle arrangements of the lower limb muscles in the athletes could be related to the requirements of the events, i.e., intensive muscular activities in the water versus on the ground. In comparisons between the two events, the soccer players tended to show shorter fascicles and greater fascicle angles, and the swimmers thicker muscles and longer fascicles, especially in VL. In both events, the males showed thicker muscles and greater fascicle angles than the females. In both VL and MG, the thickness, fascicle length and fascicle angle were related to each other in a right-angled triangle model, and so, most of the event-and/or gender-related differences observed in the fascicle angle depended on the difference in muscle thickness relative to fascicle length. The present data cannot answer the question of whether the athletes had muscles suited to their respective sports prior to beginning their sports or whether the muscles adapted specifically to the competitive and/or training styles. However, it might be assumed that the lower limb muscles for swimmers are suitable to perform rapid, powerful kick movements during competitive swims by having greater thickness and longer fascicle, i.e., priorities in both force production and shortening velocity, but those for soccer players do not show architectural profiles which can be related to intensive activity on the ground, except that the thickness values exceed the normal range.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    27
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • 英文論文はこう書く−その2

    川上泰雄

    体育の科学   53 ( 5 ) 377 - 380  2003  [Invited]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

    CiNii

  • 英文論文はこう書く−その1

    川上泰雄

    体育の科学   53 ( 4 ) 285 - 290  2003  [Invited]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

    CiNii

  • 運動中の筋線維収縮動態

    川上泰雄

    バイオメカニズム学会誌   27 ( 2 ) 67 - 71  2003  [Invited]

    Authorship:Lead author

    DOI J-GLOBAL

  • 中高年齢者における足関節可動域の規定因子

    川上泰雄, 小田俊明, 栗原俊之, 千野謙太郎, 永吉俊彦, 金久博昭, 福永哲夫, 久野譜也

    体力科学   52   149 - 156  2003  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    The factors influencing ankle range of motion were investigated for 185 middle-aged and elderly subjects (116 women and 69 men, aged 48-86 years) . Each subject was seated with the right knee extended, and the ankle joint was passively dorsiflexed by a dynamometer with torque just tolerable for each subject, to measure the maximal dorsiflexion angle. During passive loading, elongation of muscle fibers in the gastrocnemius and Achilles tendon was determined in vivo by ultrasonography. There was a difference between women and men for the passive dorsiflexion angle (men smaller than women), which negatively correlated with muscle thickness of the posterior portion of the leg determined by ultrasonography. Both in women and men, the passive dorsiflexion angle negatively correlated with age, even after normalizing for maximal voluntary plantar flexion torque. Both elongation of muscle fibers and tendon was related to the passive dorsiflexion angle, and the ratio of tendon elongation to muscle fiber elongation positively correlated with the passive dorsiflexion angle. The active dorsiflexion angle, measured separately with the subject maximally dorsiflexing the ankle with no load, correlated with the passive dorsiflexion angle but not with age, and there was no gender difference. From the results it was suggested 1) that the mobility of the ankle joint is affected by elongation of both muscle fibers and tendon, but with the effect of the tendon being greater than that of muscle fibers, and 2) that muscle mass negatively affects passively-induced joint range of motion. Actively performed joint range of motion would be affected by elongation of the muscle-tendon corn plex and force-generating capability of the ankle. Gender difference in joint range of motion and the aging effect are related to these factors.

    DOI CiNii

  • 下腿三頭筋の短縮性,伸張性運動中の筋線維動態

    千野謙太郎, 小田俊明, 栗原俊之, 永吉俊彦, 金久博昭, 深代千之, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    バイオメカニクス研究   7 ( 3 ) 206 - 213  2003  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

    J-GLOBAL

  • The relationships between ankle dorsiflexion torque and muscle size indices

    Nagayoshi, T, Kawakami, Y, Maeda, M, Maeda, Y, Hidaka, S, Ikeda, K, Maruyama, A

    Int. J. Sport Health Sci.   1 ( 2 ) 216 - 221  2003  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the best predictor for estimating the joint torque capacity of dorsiflexors muscles. Nineteen male college students (19.9±1.2 yrs) participated in this study. The anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle was estimated by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) every 0.5cm from the proximal end of the tibia to the lateral malleolus. B-mode ultrasonic images of the TA were obtained by using a 7.5MHz probe, and the fascicle angle between superficial aponeurosis and central aponeurosis of the TA was measured as the pennation angle at proximal 30%, 40% and 50% positions of the leg as well as at the maximal ACSA (ACSAmax) position. The physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) of the TA was determined by dividing muscle volume (MV) by fascicle length, multiplied by the cosine of the angle of fiber pennation. Maximal isometric dorsiflexion torque (TQ) was measured by using an isokinetic dynamometer. ACSAmax was found at the 33.8% position on average, and ACSAmax was significantly correlated with TQ (P<0.05). At the 30% and ACSAmax positions, there were significant correlations between pennation angle and muscle thickness (P<0.01, respectively), and between pennation angle and muscle strength of ankle dorsiflexion (P<0.05, respectively). The correlation with TQ was slightly higher for PCSA (r=0.743) and MV (r=0.625) than for ACSAmax (r=0.542), but there were no significant differences. The results suggested that ACSAmax has adequate precision for estimating torque-producing capacity of dorsiflexors muscles.

    DOI CiNii

  • Non-invasive estimation of the joint torque of the vastus lateralis during pedaling based on tendon elongation

    Muraoka, T, Muramatsu, T, Tachi, M, Kawakami, Y, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T

    Jpn. J. Biomech. Sports Exerc.   7 ( 3 ) 214 - 221  2003  [Refereed]

    CiNii

  • Effects of Achilles tendon path change on the myotendinous junction movement of the gastrocnemius muscle

    Muramatsu, T, Muraoka, T, Kawakami, Y, Fukashiro, S, Fukunaga, T

    Int. J. Sport Health Sci.   1 ( 1 ) 19 - 23  2003  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The effects of the Achilles tendon path change due to muscle contraction on the displacement of the myotendinous junction were determined in the human in vivo. Seven male subjects, whose knees were extended and ankles flexed at a right angle, performed isometric plantar flexion while the Achilles tendon length within the predetermined area (from the point of the myotendinous junction at rest to the calcaneus) was estimated using a high-speed camera and ultrasound apparatus. The Achilles tendon length within the predetermined area decreased by ∼1% at maximal voluntary contraction compared to the relaxed condition, which suggests that the Achilles tendon path change due to isometric contractions moves the myotendinous junction proximally by ∼1%, at the most, of the Achilles tendon length. If we simply calculate the Achilles tendon strain based on the displacement of the myotendinous junction as in previous studies, we would therefore overestimate the strain by ∼1%. This suggests that the tendon path change should be taken into account when tendon strain is calculated from myotendinous junction movements.

    DOI CiNii

  • Effect of series elasticity on isokinetic torque-angle relationship in humans

    Kawakami, Y, Kubo, K, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T

    Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.   87 ( 4-5 ) 381 - 387  2002.08  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    The influence of muscle series elasticity on the relationship between torque and joint angle during dynamic contractions was studied. The torque-angle relationship during the maximal isokinetic knee extension was determined for six male subjects (25-45 years) at 0.52, 1.05, 1.57, 2.09, 2.62, 3.49 rad/s. The knee joint angle at which peak torque was observed showed a systematic shift to more extended positions, i.e., the quadriceps muscle-tendon unit length became shorter as the velocity increased [from 1.01 (0.12) rad (0.52 rad/s) to 0.75 (0.14) rad (3.49 rad/s), mean (SD)]. The corresponding difference in muscle-tendon unit length between 0.52 and 3.49 rad/s, estimated from the angle shift at peak torque and the moment arm length change of the quadriceps muscles, was 9 (4) mm. The relationship between estimated changes in muscle-tendon unit length and muscle force of the vastus lateralis and intermedius (VLI) over the seven velocities (including isometric contraction, 0 rad/s) coincided with the load-elongation properties of the series elastic component of VLI, determined separately in vivo by ultrasonography when the same subjects performed a ramp isometric knee extension. The results suggest that the torque-angle relationship is affected by the interaction between contractile and elastic components, and that peak torque angle shift is attributable to the elongation of tendinous tissues as a function of force applied to them.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    36
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Muscle and tendon interaction during human movements

    Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y, Kubo, K, Kanehisa, H

    Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev.   30 ( 3 ) 106 - 110  2002.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Muscle and tendon interaction was estimated in vivo by real-time ultrasonography. Differences between muscles in internal muscle-fiber shortening during isometric actions are due to the elastic properties of tendon. Compliant human tendons allow muscles to contract isometrically during many human movements for efficient force generation.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    120
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Effects of equivolume isometric training programs comprising medium or high resistance on muscle size and strength

    Kanehisa, H., Nagareda, H., Kawakami, Y., Akima, H., Masani, K., Kouzaki, M., Fukunaga, T.

    Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.   87 ( 2 ) 112 - 119  2002.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Isometric unilateral elbow extension training was conducted for 10 weeks (3 times per week) on 12 young adult men to investigate the effects of equivolume exercise programs with different combinations of intensity and duration on the morphological and functional aspects of the triceps brachii muscle. One group of 6 subjects trained by developing maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for 6 s per set with, 12 sets per session (100%G), while the other group of 15 subjects trained at 60% of MVC for 30 s per set with 4 sets per session (60%G). Training significantly increased the muscle volume (V-m), fascicle pennation angle of the triceps brachii, and torque output during concentric and eccentric elbow extensions at three constant velocities of 0.52, 1.57, and 3.14 rad.s(-1) as well as under the training condition, with no significant differences in the relative gains between the two programs. However, 100%G showed significantly greater V-m than 60%G after training, when V-m before training was normalized. Thus, only 60%G significantly increased the ratio of torque to V-m developed in the eccentric actions at the three velocities and concentric action at 1.57 rad.s(-1). The present results indicate that isometric training programs of medium resistance/long duration and high resistance/short duration produce different effects on V-m, and dynamic strength relative to V-m even if the training volume is equalized between the two protocols.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    48
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • In vivo muscle fibre behaviour during counter-movement exercise in humans reveals a significant role for tendon elasticity

    Kawakami, Y, Muraoka, T, Ito, S, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T

    J. Physiol.   540 ( 2 ) 635 - 646  2002.04  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Six men performed a single ankle plantar flexion exercise in the supine position with the maximal effort with counter movement (CM, plantar flexion preceded by dorsiflexion) and without counter movement (NoCM, plantar flexion only) produced by a sliding table that controlled applied load to the ankle (40% of the maximal voluntary force). The reaction force at the foot and ankle joint angle were measured using a force plate and a goniometer, respectively. From real-time ultrasonography of the gastrocnemius medialis muscle during the movement, the fascicle length was determined. The estimated peakforce, average power, and work at the Achilles' tendon during the plantar flexion phase in CM were significantly greater than those in NoCM. In CM, in the dorsiflexion phase, fascicle length initially increased with little electromyographic activity, then remained constant while the whole muscle-tendon unit lengthened, before decreasing in the final plantar flexion phase. In NoCM, fascicle length decreased throughout the movement and the fascicle length at the onset of movement was longer than that of the corresponding phase in CM. It was concluded that during CM muscle fibres optimally work almost isometrically, by leaving the task of storing and releasing elastic energy for enhancing exercise performance to the tendon.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    196
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Superficial aponeurosis of human gastrocnemius is elongated during contraction: implications for modeling muscle-tendon unit

    Muramatsu, T, Muraoka, T, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    J. Biomech.   35 ( 2 ) 217 - 223  2002.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Two questions were addressed in this study: (1) how much strain of the superficial aponeurosis of the human medial gastrocnemius muscle (MG) was obtained during voluntary isometric contractions in vivo, (2) whether there existed inhomogeneity of the strain along the superficial aponeurosis. Seven male subjects, whose knees were extended and ankles were flexed at right angle, performed isometric plantar flexion while elongation of superficial aponeurosis of MG was determined from the movements of the intersections made by the superficial aponeurosis and fascicles using ultrasonography. The strain of the superficial aponeurosis at the maximum voluntary contraction, estimated from the elongation and length data, was 5.6 +/- 1.2%. There was no significant difference in strain between the proximal and distal parts of the superficial aponeurosis. Based on the present result and that of our previous study for the same subjects (J. Appl. Physiol 90 (2001) 1671), a model was formulated for a contracting uni-pennate muscle-tendon unit. This model, which could be applied to isometric contractions at other angles and therefore of wide use, showed that similar strain between superficial and deep aponeuroses of MG contributed to homogeneous fascicle length change within MG during contractions. These findings would contribute to clarifying the functions of the superficial aponeurosis and the effects of the superficial aponeurosis elongation on the whole muscle behavior. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    28
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Measurement of viscoelastic properties of tendon structures in vivo

    Kubo, K, Kawakami, Y, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T

    Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports   12 ( 1 ) 3 - 8  2002.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the viscoelastic properties of tendon structures in humans. Elongation of the tendon and aponeurosis of medial gastrocnemius muscle (MG) was directly measured by ultrasonography, while subjects (n=19) performed ramp isometric plantar flexion up to the voluntary maximum, followed by a ramp relaxation. The relationship between tendon elongation (L) and estimated muscle force (Fm) was fitted to a linear regression, the slope of which was defined as compliance of the tendon structures. The hysteresis was calculated as the ratio of the area within the L-Fm loop (elastic energy dissipated) to the area beneath the load portion of the curve (elastic energy input). The resulting L-Fm relationship was non-linear in form, as previously reported on animal and human tendons in vitro. The mean compliance was 4.5+/-1.1 . 10(-2) mm/N. However, there was a considerable inter-subject variability (2.9 to 7.2 . 10(-2) mm/N). The Young's modulus, i.e., the slope of the stress-strain curve, was 280 MPa, which tended to be lower than the previously reported values for human tendons. It was also found that the strain of the tendon structures was homogeneously distributed along their length. The mean hysteresis (energy dissipation) was 22.2+/-8.8%. However, again there was a considerable inter-subject variability (9.7 to 37.2%). The present results indicated that the tendon structures of human MG were considerably compliant and their hysteresis was in accordance with previously reported values.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    76
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Muscle and tendon relations in humans: Power enhancement in counter-movement exercise

    Tetsuo Fukunaga, Yasuo Kawakami, Tetsuro Muraoka, Hiroaki Kanehisa

    Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology   508   501 - 505  2002

     View Summary

    To clarify the mechanisms of power enhancement during counter-movement exercise, in vivo muscle fibre behavior during plantar flexion exercise was estimated by real time ultrasonography. Six healthy male subjects were requested to perform ankle plantar flexion exercise with counter-movement (CM, plantar flexion preceded by dorsiflexion) and without counter-movement (noCM, plantar flexion only) on a specially designed dynamometer. In CM, in the dorsiflexion phase, muscle fascicle length was initially lengthened, following which its length remained unchanged while the whole muscle-tendon unit was still lengthened, and decreased in the plantar flexion phase. In noCM, fascicle length decreased throughout the movement and it was longer at the onset of movement than in CM. During dorsiflexion phase in CM, muscle fascicles were not actively lengthened, but contracted isometrically at near optimum length of fibre; thus the increase in muscle-tendon unit length was taken up by elongation of the tendinous tissues. These results demonstrate that power enhancement during CM is due to higher force production by isometric contraction at optimal fibre length.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    6
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • In vivo mechanical properties of proximal and distal aponeuroses in human tibialis anterior muscle

    Muramatsu, T, Muraoka, T, Takeshita, D, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    Cells Tissues Organs   170 ( 2-3 ) 162 - 9  2002  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Load-strain characteristics of distal (deep) and proximal (superficial) aponeuroses were determined in vivo for human tibialis anterior muscle (TA). Seven male subjects exerted isometric dorsiflexion torque from relaxation to voluntary maximum while elongation of both aponeuroses of TA was determined by ultrasonography. Two positions (end of the muscle belly and a proximal part) and one position (distal part) were scanned for the deep and superficial aponeuroses, respectively, and tendinous movements of the respective positions were determined. Based on the tendinous movements, elongation of each aponeurosis was determined. Both aponeuroses were elongated significantly, and there was no significant difference in strain between the deep (3.3 ± 0.8%) and superficial (3.0 ± 0.5%) aponeuroses. In addition, there was a significant linear relationship between strain of deep and superficial aponeuroses. It was suggested that both aponeuroses similarly act as an elastic component in pennate muscles. Copyright © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    8
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • 骨格筋トレーニングによる筋のマクロ的変化

    川上泰雄

    バイオメカニクス研究   6 ( 3 ) 220 - 226  2002  [Invited]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

    J-GLOBAL

  • アキレス腱モーメントアームの新たな推定法の提案

    川上泰雄, 中井敬子, 小田俊明, 千野謙太郎, 栗原俊之, 福永哲夫

    東京体育学研究   2002   41 - 45  2002  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author

    J-GLOBAL

  • 足関節における柔軟性と下腿三頭筋の機能的・形態的特性との関係

    小田俊明, 千野謙太郎, 栗原俊之, 川上泰雄, 金久博昭, 福永哲夫

    トレーニング科学   13 ( 3 ) 157 - 166  2002  [Refereed]

    CiNii

  • Length change of human gastrocnemius aponeurosis and tendon during passive joint motion

    Muraoka, T, Muramatsu, T, Takeshita, D, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    Cells Tissues Organs   171 ( 4 ) 260 - 268  2002  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The extent of elongation and slackness of aponeurosis and tendon, and muscle fiber length of human medial gastrocnemius muscle are determined in vivo using ultrasonography. The ankle joint is passively moved at 50/s within the joint range of -36 to 7degrees (0degrees = neutral anatomic position; positive values for dorsiflexion) by a dynamometer while the length change of the aponeurosis and tendon is determined using ultrasonography (n = 8 men), Strain is calculated as the length change relative to the reference length of aponeurosis and tendon when the passive joint moment is 0. Elongation (positive strain Accepted after revision: February 10, 2002 values) of aponeurosis and tendon at 7degrees are 2.1 +/- 1.1 and 2.4 +/- 1.0%, respectively. The extent of slackness (negative strain values) of aponeurosis and tendon at -36degrees are -1.8 +/- 1.1 and -3.5 +/- 1.6%, respectively, and there is a significant difference between them (p &lt; 0.05). This may be related to the existence of muscle fibers that attach to the aponeurosis over its whole length and do not allow it to fold. The results indicate that the length change of aponeurosis and tendon of medial gastrocnemius muscle occurs over the range of ankle joint positions even during passive joint motions. Copyright (C) 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    54
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • In vivo determination of fascicle curvature in contracting human skeletal muscles

    Muramatsu, T, Muraoka, T, Shibayama, A, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    J. Appl. Physiol.   92 ( 1 ) 129 - 134  2002.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Fascicle curvature of human medial gastrocnemius muscle (MG) was determined in vivo by ultrasonography during isometric contractions at three (distal, central, and proximal) locations (n=7) and at three ankle angles (n=7). The curvature significantly (P&lt;0.05) increased from rest to maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) (0.4-5.2 m(-1)). In addition, the curvature at MVC became larger in the order dorsiflexed, neutral, plantar flexed (P&lt;0.05). Thus both contraction levels and muscle length affected the curvature. Intramuscular differences in neither the curvature nor the fascicle length were found. The direction of curving was consistent along the muscle: fascicles were concave in the proximal side. Fascicle length estimated from the pennation angle and muscle thickness, under the assumption that the fascicle was straight, was underestimated by similar to6%. In addition, the curvature was significantly correlated to pennation angle and muscle thickness. These findings are particularly important for understanding the mechanical functions of human skeletal muscle in vivo.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    102
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Intramuscular variability of the architecture in human medial gastrocnemius muscle in vivo and its functional implications

    Muramatsu, T, Muraoka, T, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    Adv. Exerc. Sports Physiol.   8 ( 1 ) 17 - 21  2002  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Intramuscular variability in fascicular architecture was determined in human medial gastrocnemius muscle (MG) in vivo. Seven male subjects exerted isometric plantar flexion torque while fascicle length, pennation angle and muscle thickness were determined at distal, central and proximal part along the medio-lateral center of MG by ultrasonography. As for the fascicle length, the effect of the location difference was not significant (P>0.05), whereas significant effects were found for pennation angle and muscle thickness (P<0.05). Pennation angle in the proximal part was significantly larger than that in distal and central parts (P<0.05) Muscle thickness in each part was significantly (P<0.05) different from each other (proximal>central>distal). We further showed that the estimation of the physiological cross-sectional area, using the fascicle length and pennation angle derived from a specific portion within a muscle, was substantially affected by architectural inhomogeneity.

    CiNii

  • Influence of static stretching on viscoelastic properties of human tendon structures in vivo

    K Kubo, H Kanehisa, Y Kawakami, T Fukunaga

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY   90 ( 2 ) 520 - 527  2001.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of static stretching on the viscoelastic properties of human tendon structures in vivo. Seven male subjects performed static stretching in which the ankle was passively flexed to 35 degrees of dorsiflexion and remained stationary for 10 min. Before and after the stretching, the elongation of the tendon and aponeurosis of medial gastrocnemius muscle (MG) was directly measured by ultrasonography while the subjects performed ramp isometric plantar flexion up to the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), followed by a ramp relaxation. The relationship between the estimated muscle force (Fm) of MG and tendon elongation (L) during the ascending phase was fitted to a linear regression, the slope of which was defined as stiffness of the tendon structures. The percentage of the area within the Fm-L loop to the area beneath the curve during the ascending phase was calculated as an index representing hysteresis. Stretching produced no significant change in MVC but significantly decreased stiffness and hysteresis from 22.9 +/- 5.8 to 20.6 +/- 4.6 N/mm and from 20.6 +/- 8.8 to 13.5 +/- 7.6%, respectively. The present results suggest that stretching decreased the viscosity of tendon structures but increased the elasticity.

    DOI

    Scopus

    284
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Muscle fiber and tendon length changes in the human vastus lateralis during slow pedaling

    T. Muraoka, Y. Kawakami, M. Tachi, T. Fukunaga

    Journal of Applied Physiology   91 ( 5 ) 2035 - 2040  2001  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Muscle fascicle lengths of vastus lateralis (VL) muscle were measured in five healthy men during slow pedaling to investigate the interaction between muscle fibers and tendon. Subjects cycled at a pedaling rate of 40 rpm (98 W). During exercise, fascicle lengths changed from 91 ± 7 (SE) to 127 ± 5 mm. It was suggested that fascicles were on the descending limb of their force-length relationship. The average shortening velocity of fascicle was greater than that of muscle-tendon complex in the first half of the knee extension phase and was less in the second half. The maximum shortening velocity of fascicle in the knee extension phase was less than that of muscle-tendon complex by 22 ± 9%. These discrepancies in velocities were mainly caused by the elongation of the tendinous tissue. It was suggested that the elasticity of VL tendinous tissue enabled VL fascicles to develop force at closer length to their optimal length and kept the maximum shortening velocity of VL fascicles low during slow pedaling.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    47
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Influences of repetitive muscle contractions with different modes on tendon elasticity in vivo

    Keitaro Kubo, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Yasuo Kawakami, Tetsuo Fukunaga

    Journal of Applied Physiology   91 ( 1 ) 277 - 282  2001  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of repetitive muscle contractions on the elasticity of human tendon structures in vivo. Before and after each endurance test, the elongation of the tendon and aponeurosis of vastus lateralis muscle (L) was directly measured by ultrasonography while the subjects performed ramp isometric knee extension up to maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC). Six male subjects performed muscle endurance tests that consisted of knee extension tasks with four different contraction modes: 1) 50 repetitions of maximal voluntary eccentric action for 3 s with 3 s of relaxation (ET1), 2) three sets of 50 repetitions of MVC for 1 s with 3 s of relaxation (ET2), 3) 50 repetitions of MVC for 3 s with 3 s of relaxation (ET3), and 4) 50 repetitions of 50% MVC for 6 s with 6 s of relaxation (ET4). In ET1 and ET2, there were no significant differences in L values at any force production levels between before and after endurance tests. In the cases of ET3 and ET4, however, the extent of elongation after the completion of the tests tended to be greater. The L values above 330 N in ET3 and 440 N in ET4, respectively, were significantly greater after endurance tests than before. These results suggested that the repeated longer duration contractions would make the tendon structures more compliant and that the changes in the elasticity might be not be affected by either muscle action mode or force production level but by the duration of action.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    71
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Mechanical properties of tendon and aponeurosis of human gastrocnemius muscle in vivo

    Muramatsu, T, Muraoka, T, Takeshita, D, Kawakami, Y, Hirano, Y, Fukunaga, T

    J. Appl. Physiol.   90 ( 5 ) 1671 - 1678  2001  [Refereed]

    DOI CiNii

    Scopus

    207
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • ボート競技の競技力向上を目的とした艇の力学量測定システムの開発

    川上泰雄, 下田学, 福永哲夫

    トレーニング科学   13 ( 1 ) 21 - 30  2001  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

    CiNii

  • Changes in muscle size, architecture, and neural activation after 20 days of bed rest with and without resistance exercise

    Kawakami, Y, Akima, H, Kubo, K, Muraoka, Y, Hasegawa, H, Kouzaki, M, Imai, M, Suzuki, Y, Gunji, A, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T

    Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.   84 ( 1-2 ) 7 - 12  2001.01  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Nine healthy men carried out head-down bed rest (BR) for 20 days. Five subjects (TR) performed isometric, bilateral leg extension exercise every day, while the other four (NT) did not. Before and after BR, maximal isometric knee extension force was measured. Neural activation was assessed using a supramaximal twitch interpolated over voluntary contraction. From a series cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging scans of the thigh, physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSA) of the quadriceps muscles were estimated (uncorrected PCSA, volume/estimated fibre length). Decrease in mean muscle force after BR was greater in NT [-10.9 (SD 6.9)%, P &lt; 0.05] than in TR [0.5 (SD 7.9)%, not significant]. Neural activation did not differ between the two groups before BR, but after BR NT showed smaller activation levels. Pennation angles of the vastus lateralis muscle, determined by ultrasonography, showed no significant changes in either group. The PCSA decreased in NT by -7.8 (SD 0.8)% (P &lt; 0.05) while in TR PCSA showed only an insignificant tendency to decrease [-3.8 (SD 3.8)%]. Changes in force were related more to changes in neural activation levels than to those in PCSA. The results suggest that reduction of muscle strength by BR is affected by a decreased ability to activate motor units, and that the exercise used in the present experiment is effective as a countermeasure.

    DOI

    Scopus

    149
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Changes in muscle size and architecture following 20 days of bed rest.

    Y. Kawakami, Y. Muraoka, K. Kubo, Y. Suzuki, T. Fukunaga

    Journal of gravitational physiology : a journal of the International Society for Gravitational Physiology   7 ( 3 ) 53 - 59  2000.12  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Five healthy men carried out a program of head-down bed rest (BR) for 20 days. Before and after BR, a series of cross-sectional scans of the thigh were performed using magnetic resonance imaging, from which volumes of the quadriceps muscles were determined and physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSA) were calculated. Muscle thickness and pennation angles of the triceps brachii, vastus lateralis, and triceps surae muscles were also determined by ultrasonography. During BR, subjects performed unilateral isokinetic knee extension exercises every day. The contralateral limb served as a control. Decrease in PCSA after BR was greater in the control (-10.2 +/- 6.3%) than in the trained limb (-5.2 +/- 4.2%). Among the quadriceps, vastus intermedius in the control limb was predominantly atrophied by BR with respect to the volume and PCSA, and the rectus femoris showed the greatest training effect and retained its size in the trained limb. Decreases in muscle thicknesses in leg muscles were not prevented by the present exercise protocol, suggesting a need for specific exercise training for these muscles. Neither trained nor control muscles showed significant changes in pennation angles in any muscles after BR, suggesting that muscle architecture does not change remarkably by muscle atrophy by up to 10%.

    PubMed

  • Effect of short-duration spaceflight on thigh and leg muscle volume

    H Akima, Y Kawakami, K Kubo, C Sekiguchi, H Ohshima, A Miyamoto, T Fukunaga

    MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE   32 ( 10 ) 1743 - 1747  2000.10  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Purpose: Human skeletal muscle probably atrophies as a result of spaceflight, but few studies have examined this issue. Thus, little is known about the influence of microgravity upon human skeletal muscle, nor is it possible to assess the validity of ground based models of spaceflight. This study tested the hypothesis that the magnitude of spaceflight induced muscle atrophy would be a function of flight duration and greater than that of bed rest. Methods: Three astronauts flew 9, 15, and 16 d in space. Volume of the knee extensor (quadriceps femoris), knee flexor (hamstrings, sartorius, and gracilis), and plantar flexor (triceps surae) muscle groups was measured using magnetic resonance imaging before and after spaceflight and during recovery. The Volume of each muscle group in each image was determined by multiplying cross-sectional area by slice thickness. These values were subsequently summed to calculate muscle volume. Results: Volume changes in the knee extensor. knee flexor, and plantar flexor muscle groups ranged from -15.4 to -5.5, -14.1 to -5.6, and -8.8 to -15.9%, respectively. Muscle volume decreases normalized by flight duration ranged from 0.62 to 1.04%.d(-1). These relative changes appeared to be greater than those that we have reported previously for bed rest (Akima et al., J. Gravitat. Physiol. 4:15-22, 1997). Conclusions: These results suggest that atrophy as a result of at least 2 wk of spaceflight varied among individuals and muscle groups and that the degree of atrophy appeared to be greater than that induced by 20 d of bed rest.

    DOI

    Scopus

    112
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Interaction between series compliance and sarcomere kinetics determines internal sarcomere shortening during fixed-end contraction

    Kawakami, Y, Lieber, R. L

    J. Biomech.   33 ( 10 ) 1249 - 1255  2000.10  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author

     View Summary

    The interaction between contractile force and in-series compliance was investigated for the intact skeletal muscle-tendon unit (MTU) of Rana pipiens semitendinosus muscles during fixed-end contraction. It was hypothesized that internal sarcomere shortening is a function of the length-force characteristics of contractile and series elastic components. The MTUs (n = 18) were dissected, and, while submerged in Ringer's solution, muscles were activated at nine muscle lengths(-2 to +6 mm relative to optimal length in 1 mm intervals), while measuring muscle force and sarcomere length (SL) by laser diffraction. The MTU was clamped either at the bone (n = 6), or at the proximal and distal ends of the aponeuroses (n = 6). Muscle fibers were also trimmed along with aponeuroses down to 5-20 fibers and identical measurements were performed (n = 6). The magnitude of shortening decreased as MTU length increased. The magnitude of shortening ranged from -0.08 to 0.3 mu m, and there was no significant difference between Delta SL as a function of clamp location. When aponeuroses were trimmed, sarcomere shortening was not observed at L-0 and longer. These results suggest that the aponeurosis is the major contributor to in-series compliance. Results also support our hypothesis but there also appear to be other factors affecting internal sarcomere shortening. The functional consequence of internal sarcomere shortening as a function of sarcomere length was to skew the muscle length-tension relationship to longer sarcomere lengths. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI

    Scopus

    48
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Fatigue responses of human triceps surae muscles during repetitive maximal isometric contractions

    Kawakami, Y, Amemiya, K, Kanehisa, H, Ikegawa, S, Fukunaga, T

    J. Appl. Physiol.   88 ( 6 ) 1969 - 1975  2000.06  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Nine healthy men (22-45 yr) completed 100 repetitive maximal isometric contractions of the ankle plantar flexor muscles in two knee positions of full extension (K0) and flexion at 90 degrees (K90), positions that varied the contribution of the gastrocnemii. Electromyographic activity was recorded from the medial and lateral gastrocnemii and soleus muscles by using surface electrodes. Plantar flexion torque in K0 was greater and decreased more rapidly than in K90. The electromyographic amplitude decreased over time, and there were no significant differences between muscles and knee joint positions. The level of voluntary effort, assessed by a supramaximal electrical stimulation during every 10th contraction, decreased from 96 to 70% (P &lt; 0.05) with no difference between K0 and K90. It was suggested that a decrease in plantar flexion torque was attributable to both central and peripheral fatigue and that greater fatigability in K0 than in K90 would result from a greater contribution and hence more pronounced fatigue of the gastrocnemius muscle. Further support for this possibility was provided from changes in twitch torque.

    DOI

    Scopus

    89
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Elasticity of tendon structures of the lower limbs in sprinters

    K Kubo, H Kanehisa, Y Kawakami, T Fukunaga

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA   168 ( 2 ) 327 - 335  2000.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The present study aims to investigate the elasticity of tendon structures of the lower limbs in sprinters and its relation with sprint performance. Subjects were 10 male sprinters and 14 controls whose anthropometric variables and isometric maximum strength were similar. The elongation iii of the tendon and aponeurosis of vastus lateralis (VL) and medial gastrocnemius muscles (MG) during isometric knee extension and planter flexion, respectively, were determined using a real-time ultrasonic apparatus in vivo, while the subjects developed a gradually increasing torque from zero (relax) to maximal effort (MVC) within 5 s. While sprinters compared with controls showed significantly greater L above 500 N (about 50% of MVC) and higher dL/dF for VL at less than 20% of MVC during knee extension, there were no significant differences between the two groups in L and dL/dF for MG at every 10% of MVC during planter flexion. Moreover, the average value of dL/dF above 50% of MVC, proposed as the compliance of tendon structures, did not significantly differ between sprinters and controls in either VL or MG. In a regression analysis within sprinters, the compliance of VL was negatively correlated to 100-m sprint time, r= -0.757 (P &lt; 0.05), but that of MG was not, r= 0.228 (P &gt; 0.05). Thus the present results indicate that the elasticity of tendon structures of VL and MG at high force production levels, which might be assumed to associate with the storage and subsequent release of energy during exercises involving the stretch-shortening cycle, are similar in both sprinters and controls. For sprinters, however, the tendon structures of VL are more compliant than that for controls at low force production levels, and its elasticity at high force production levels may influence sprint performance.

    DOI

    Scopus

    102
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Elastic properties of muscle-tendon complex in long-distance runners

    K Kubo, H Kanehisa, Y Kawakami, T Fukunaga

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY AND OCCUPATIONAL PHYSIOLOGY   81 ( 3 ) 181 - 187  2000.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the elastic properties of muscle-tendon complex (MTC) in knee extensor muscles and the capacity for elastic energy utilization in long-distance runners (LDR) by comparing with data obtained from untrained individuals (CON). The elongation (L) of the tendon and aponeurosis of vastus lateralis muscle during isometric knee extension was determined by real-time brightness mode ultrasonography, while the subjects developed a gradually increasing torque from 0 (relaxed) to maximal effort (MVC) within 7 s. In addition, performances in two kinds of maximal vertical jumps, i.e. squatting (SJ) and counter-movement jumps (CMJ), were measured. The relationship between L muscle and force (F) was curvilinear and consisted of an initial region (toe region), characterized by a large increase in L with increasing F, immediately followed by a linear region. The slope of the regression equation for the L-F relationship in the range 50%-100%, of MVC was defined as an index of MTC compliance, where the rate of the changes in L to that in muscle Fat every 10% of MVC became almost constant. The maximal L (L-max) and MTC compliance were significantly lower in LDR than in CON: 29.9 (SD 3.9) mm in LDR compared to 33.3 (SD 5.5) mm in CON for L-max and 1.55 (SD 0.25) x 10(-2) mm . N-1 in LDR compared to 1.88 (SD 0.82) x 10(-2) mm . N-1 in CON for MTC compliance. Also, LDR showed significantly less elastic energy absorption (E-e) than CON, defined as the area below the L-F relationship curve from 0 to 100% of MVC. Not only jump heights but also the differences between the heights in SJ and CMJ, expressed as the percentage of the height in SJ, were significantly lower in LDR than in CON. The augmentation with countermovement was significantly correlated to either MTC compliance (r = 0.554, P &lt; 0.05) or E-e (r = 0.563, P &lt; 0.05). Thus, the present results would indicate that MTC of vastus lateralis muscle is less compliant and its potential for energy storage during MTS lengthening is lower in LDR than untrained individuals. These elastic profiles of vastus lateralis muscle in LDR may be associated with their lower performances during CMJ.

    DOI

    Scopus

    93
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Architecture of contracting human muscles and its functional significance

    Kawakami, Y, Ichinose, Y, Kubo, K, Ito, M, Imai, M, Fukunaga, T

    J. Appl. Biomech.   16 ( 1 ) 88 - 97  2000.02  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    This paper reviews three of our recent studies on human muscle architecture in vivo. 1. Hypertrophic changes: From B-mode ultrasonograms, pennation angles and thickness of triceps brachii were determined for normal subjects and highly-trained bodybuilders. There was a significant correlation between muscle thickness and pennation angles. It was confirmed that hypertrophy was accompanied by an increase in pennation angles. 2. Variation of fascicle architecture: Fascicle lengths and pennation angles were obtained from different positions in the gastrocnemius muscle while the subjects relaxed and performed isometric planter flexion. The fascicle length was uniform throughout the muscle and shortened by contraction (30-34% at 50% of the maximal force). On the other hand, pennation angles differed among positions and increased by contraction. The muscle thickness did not change by contraction. Pennation angles were significantly correlated with muscle thickness within muscle. 3. Joint position-fascicle length relationships: Ultrasonic images of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were obtained while the subject performed maximal isometric plantarflexion at various joint positions, from which fascicle lengths and angles were determined. The length-force relationship of each muscle was estimated. It was suggested that human muscle architecture has an ability to make substantial changes to adapt to environmental conditions.

    DOI

    Scopus

    53
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Introduction: Specificity and plasticity of skeletal muscle architecture

    Y. Kawakami, T. Fukunaga

    Journal of Applied Biomechanics   16 ( 1 ) 68 - 69  2000.02  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Muscle architecture is a concept based on muscle geometry, in which distinct levels exist from sarcomeres to whole muscle. In general, muscle architecture determines functional characteristics of muscle together with intrinsic properties such as fiber composition. In this article, an account is given on the specificity and plasticity of muscle architecture and their influence on muscle functions.

    DOI

    Scopus

  • In vivo dynamics of human medial gastrocnemius muscletendon complex during stretch-shortening cycle exercise

    K. Kubo, H. Kanehisa, D. Takeshita, Y. Kawakami, S. Fukashiro, T. Fukunaga

    Acta Physiologica Scandinavica   170 ( 2 ) 127 - 135  2000  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dynamics of human muscle-tendon complex (MTC) during stretch-shortening cycle exercises through in vivo observation. A total of seven male subjects performed dorsi flexion followed by plantar flexion at two different frequencies, 0.3 Hz (slow) and 1.0 Hz (fast), in a toe-standing position. The fascicle length (L(F)) of the medial gastrocnemius muscle during the movements was determined using a real-time ultrasonography in vivo. The L(F) at the switching phase from dorsi to plantar flexion was significantly shorter in the fast exercise (54.4 ± 5.5 mm) than in the slow one (58.2 ± 5.4 mm), suggesting that the elongation of tendon structures at that time was significantly greater in the former than in the latter. Furthermore, at the initial stage of plantar flexion during the fast movement, the L(F) hardry changed with a rapid shortening of tendon structures at that time. The observed relation between MTC length and force showed that the behaviour of tendon structures contributed to 20.2 and 42.5% of the total amount of work completed during plantar flexion phase in the slow and fast movements, respectively. Thus, the present results suggest that tendon structures make the dynamics of MTC more efficient during stretch-shortening cycle exercises by changing their lengths.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    83
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Influence of elastic properties of tendon structures on jump performance in humans

    K Kubo, Y Kawakami, T Fukunaga

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY   87 ( 6 ) 2090 - 2096  1999.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the elastic properties of tendon structures in vivo and to investigate the influence of the tendon properties on jump performance with and without countermovement. Elongation of the tendon and aponeurosis of vastus lateralis muscle (dL) was directly measured by ultrasonography while subjects (n = 31) performed ramp isometric knee extension up to the voluntary maximum (MVC). The relationship between muscle force and dL was fitted to a linear regression above 50% MVC, the slope of which was defined as stiffness of the tendon structures. Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference between duplicated measurements of stiffness, with an interday reliability of r = 0.88 and a coefficient of variance of 6.1%. Although the stiffness was not significantly related to absolute jump height in either vertical jump, it was inversely correlated with the difference in jump height between the vertical jumps performed with and without countermovement. The results suggested that the stiffness of tendon structures has a favorable effect on stretch-shortening cycle exercise, possibly due to adequate storage and recoil of elastic energy.

    DOI

    Scopus

    256
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Application of fuzzy modeling to rowing motion analysis

    Kanta Tachibana, Takeshi Furuhashi, Manabu Shimoda, Yasuo Kawakami, Tetsuo Fukunaga

    Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics   6   VI190 - VI195  1999  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Fuzzy modeling has distinct features, which are applicability to nonlinear systems and ability to extract knowledge. Fuzzy neural network (FNN) enables automatic acquisition of knowledge. The authors have proposed an uneven division of input space for the FNN which reduces the number of fuzzy rules without sacrificing the precision of the model. In many sports, nonlinear factors affect the performance. In rowing competitions, the performance criterion is the boat speed. In this paper, fuzzy modeling is applied to reveal the relationships between the supplied power and the boat speed. The forces and the angles of on-water rowing are measured. The subjects are candidates of Japanese national team members. The total propulsive work, consistency and uniformity of the propulsive power were calculated from the force and the angle data. The relationships between these factors and the performance were identified with fuzzy modeling. Comparing to linear regression, more precise and more comprehensive model was obtained.

    DOI

  • Nonisometric behavior of fascicles during isometric contractions of a human muscle

    M Ito, Y Kawakami, Y Ichinose, S Fukashiro, T Fukunaga

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY   85 ( 4 ) 1230 - 1235  1998.10  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Fascicle length, pennation angle, and tendon elongation of the human tibialis anterior were measured in vivo by ultrasonography. Subjects (n = 9) were requested to develop isometric dorsiflexion torque gradually up to maximal at the ankle joint angle of 20 degrees plantarflexion from the anatomic position. Fascicle length shortened from 90 +/- 7 to 76 +/- 7 (SE) mm, pennation angle increased from 10 +/- 1 to 12 +/- 1 degrees, and tendon elongation increased up to 15 +/- 2 mm with graded force development up to maximum. The tendon stiffness increased with increasing tendon force from 10 N/mm at 0-20 N to 32 N/mm at 240-260 N. Young's modulus increased from 157 MPa at 0-20 N to 530 MPa at 240-260 N. It can be concluded that, in isometric contractions of a human muscle, mechanical work, some of which is absorbed by the tendinous tissue, is generated by the shortening of muscle fibers and that ultrasonography can be used to determine the stiffness and Young's modulus for human tendons.

    DOI

    Scopus

    200
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Architectural and functional features of human triceps surae muscles during contraction

    Kawakami, Y, Ichinose, Y, Fukunaga, T

    J. Appl. Physiol.   85 ( 2 ) 398 - 404  1998.08  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author

     View Summary

    Architectural properties of the triceps surae muscles were determined in vivo for six men. The ankle was positioned at 15 degrees dorsiflexion (-15 degrees) and 0, 15, and 30 degrees plantar flexion, with the knee set at 0, 45, and 90 degrees. At each position, longitudinal ultrasonic images of the medial (MG) and lateral (LG) gastrocnemius and soleus (Sol) muscles were obtained while the subject was relaxed (passive) and performed maximal isometric plantar flexion (active), from which fascicle lengths and angles with respect to the aponeuroses were determined. In the passive condition, fascicle lengths changed from 59, 65, and 43 mm (knee, 0 degrees; ankle, -15 degrees) to 32, 41, and 30 mm (knee, 90 degrees ankle, 30 degrees) for MG, LG, and Sol, respectively. Fascicle shortening by contraction was more pronounced at longer fascicle lengths. MG had greatest fascicle angles, ranging from 22 to 67 degrees, and was in a very disadvantageous condition when the knee was flexed at 90 degrees, irrespective of ankle positions. Different lengths and angles of fascicles, and their changes by contraction, might be related to differences in force-producing capabilities of the muscles and elastic characteristics of tendons and aponeuroses.

    DOI

    Scopus

    400
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Morphological and functional differences in the elbow extensor muscle between highly trained male and female athletes

    Y. Ichinose, H. Kanehisa, M. Ito, Y. Kawakami, T. Fukunaga

    European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology   78 ( 2 ) 109 - 114  1998.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in the morphological and functional aspects of the triceps brachii muscle between highly trained male and female athletes who were members of the 1996 Japanese Olympic teams in each of three different events: soccer, gymnastics and judo. The thickness (TB(mt)) and fibre pennation angle (TB(pen)) of the triceps brachii muscle and force output during elbow extensions were determined using a B-mode ultrasound apparatus and an isokinetic dynamometer, respectively. The TB(mt) and its value relative to upper arm length (TB(mt)/l(ua)) were significantly larger in the men than in the women in all the events except judo. In all the subjects, a significant correlation was found between TB(mt)/l(ua)) and TB(pen) (r = 0.721, P < 0.05). The existence of the sex difference in TB(pen) within the same event was in agreement with that observed in TB(mt)/l(ua) except for the soccer players. The TB(pen) of the soccer players were similar in both sexes although a significant sex differences was found in TB(mt)/l(ua). The isokinetic forces measured using the two velocities 60°.s-1 (F60) and 180°.s-1 (F180) were significantly correlated to the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the triceps brachii muscle estimated from TB(mt) (r = 0.702, P < 0.05 for F60, and r = 0.776, P < 0.05 for F180). No significant sex differences were found in either F60/CSA or F180/CSA in any of the events. From these results, it could be assumed, at least in the Olympic athletes tested in this study, that the fibre angulation of the triceps brachii muscle was almost the same in the two sexes if allowance was made for the difference in the muscle size, and the sex difference in force generation capability of the triceps brachii muscle could in the main be attributed to the difference in CSA rather than in the architectural characteristics.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    58
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Bilateral deficit in plantar flexion: relation to knee joint position, muscle activation, and reflex excitability

    Kawakami, Y, Sale, D. G, MacDougall, J. D, Moroz, J. S

    Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.   77 ( 3 ) 212 - 216  1998.02  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Six male subjects made maximal isometric plantar flexions unilaterally (UL and bilaterally (BL. with the knee joint angle positioned at 90 degrees and 0 degrees (full extension) and the ankle joint kept at 90 degrees. Plantar flexion torque and electromyogram (EMG) of the lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and the soleus (Sol) muscles were recorded. There was a deficit in torque in BL compared to UL (P &lt; 0.05), and the deficit was greater when the knee was extended than when bent to 90 degrees (13.9% vs 6.6%). The integrated EMG (IEMG) of UL and BL did not differ when the knee was at 90 degrees. On the other hand, when the knee was extended IEMG of LG was smaller for BL than for UL, suggesting that the larger bilateral deficit when the knee was extended was due to a reduced activity of the LG motor units. In addition, the H-reflex recorded from Sol when the contralateral leg was performing a maximal unilateral plantarflexion was reduced. This would indicate that the force deficit was associated with a reduction of motoneuron excitability.

    DOI

    Scopus

    53
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Relationship between muscle fiber pennation and force generation capability in Olympic athletes

    Y. Ichinose, H. Kanehisa, M. Ito, Y. Kawakami, T. Fukunaga

    International Journal of Sports Medicine   19 ( 8 ) 541 - 546  1998  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The thickness (TBmt) and fiber pennation angle (TBpen) of triceps brachii as well as isokinetic force developed during elbow extension were measured in Olympic athletes to investigate the relationship between muscle fiber pennation and force generation capability. The subjects were male members of the 1996 Japanese Olympic team who competed in seven different events; 9 wrestlers, 16 soccer players, 11 sprinters, 5 judo athletes, 7 gymnasts, 9 rowers and 18 baseball players. The TBmt and TBpen, measured by a B-mode ultrasound, ranged between 29 mm and 50 mm and between 11 degrees and 30 degrees, respectively, and on average were larger in the judo athletes, wrestlers and gymnasts compared to the other groups. A significant correlation (r = 0.580, p < 0.05) was found between TPpen and TBmt per unit of the upper arm length, and so the observed event-related differences in TBpen tended to reflect the differences in TBmt. The isokinetic forces relative to the cross-sectional area (CSA) estimated from TBmt, measured at two constant velocities of 1.05 rad/s (F1.05/CSA) and 3.14 rad/s (F3.14/CSA), were negatively correlated to the CSA; r = -0.617 (p < 0.05) for F1.05/CSA and r = -0.635 (p < 0.05) for F3.14/CSA. In addition, low but significant negative correlations existed between TBpen and both F1.05/CSA (r = -0.365, p < 0.05) and F3.14/CSA (r = -0.336, p < 0.05). Even when the effect of TBpen was statistically normalized, the F1.05/CSA and F3.14/CSA were still negatively correlated to the CSA, r = -0.530 (p < 0.05) for F1.05/CSA and r = -0.561 (p < 0.05) for F3.14/CSA. Therefore, at least in the Olympic athletes tested in this study, the magnitude of the pennation angles reflects muscle size, but it does not seem to be a factor that explains extensively the lower F/CSA in athletes with large muscle size.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    20
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Relationship between training frequency and subcutaneous and visceral fat in women.

    T Abe, Y Kawakami, M Sugita, T Fukunaga

    Medicine and science in sports and exercise   29 ( 12 ) 1549 - 53  1997.12  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    We examined the interaction of two different frequencies of aerobic exercise training (30 min at 50-60% of maximal heart rate reserve per session) and a self-administered caloric restriction program on the changes in subcutaneous (SFM) and visceral (VFM) fat mass over a period of 13 wk. Twenty-six sedentary young women (27.9% body fat) were randomized into three groups: nonexercising control (C, N = 8); 1-2 sessions/wk plus a 240 kcal caloric restriction (1-2SW, N = 9); and 3-4 sessions/wk without caloric restriction (3-4SW, N = 9). There was a equivalent decrease in the percentage of body fat and total fat mass in both exercise groups compared with that in C. Reduction in SFM was significant in 3-4SW, but not in 1-2SW or C. A negative correlation was observed between training frequency and changes in SFM (r = -0.65). In contrast, VFM decreased significantly and equivalently in both 1-2SW and 3-4SW, but there was no correlation between training frequency and changes in VFM (r = 0.20). It is suggested that the decrease in SFM, but not VFM, is proportional to the amount of aerobic exercise training. A change in VFM appears to be related to an deficit in caloric balance either by dietary restriction (decrease caloric intake) or by increased caloric expenditure.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    19
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Muscle architecture and function in humans

    T Fukunaga, Y Kawakami, S Kuno, K Funato, S Fukashiro

    JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICS   30 ( 5 ) 457 - 463  1997.05  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The present study focused on architectural factors which are considered to influence the linkage of muscle fiber and joint actions. By means of real-time ultrasonography we can observe clearly and noninvasively in vivo the movement of fascicle and aponeurosis in human muscle and measure directly the changes in pennation angle and length of fascicle during muscle contraction. During dorsi and plantar flexion without load the movement of tendinous tissue in human tibialis anterior muscle (TA) appeared to synchronize with the displacement of the ankle joint, indicating that the muscle-tendon complexes are stiff relative to the applied force, which is fairly small in the case of foot shaking motion. On the other hand, when the ankle joint was Bred and the TA contracted 'statically' the ultrasonic echo from deep aponeurosis in the TA was observed to move proximally, indicating the elastic component (i.e. mainly tendinous tissue) was stretched significantly by the contraction force of muscle. In the case of the knee joint, a length of fascicle in vastus lateralis decreased by 18% with the extension of the knee passively from a 100 degrees flexed position. When the knee extensors contracted 'statically' the fascicle length decreased al every joint angles and its magnitude was greater (30%) when the knee was closer to full extension than (5%) at the flexed positions. The present results clearly show that the architecture of actively contracting muscle fibers differ considerably than that which occurs when movement is passively induced. The use of cadaver data in the study of architecture and modeling of muscle functions would result in inaccurate, and in some cases even erroneous results. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

    DOI PubMed CiNii

    Scopus

    171
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Estimation of active force-length characteristics of human vastus lateralis muscle

    Y. Ichinose, Y. Kawakami, M. Ito, T. Fukunaga

    Cells Tissues Organs   159 ( 2-3 ) 78 - 83  1997.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The length and angles of fascicles were determined for the vastus lateralis muscle (VL) using ultrasonography in 6 subjects performing ramp isometric knee extension. The subject increased torque from zero (relax) to maximum (MVC) with the knee positioned every 15°, from 10° to 100° flexion (0° = full extension). As the knee was positioned closer to extension, fascicle length was shorter [116+4.7 (mean ± SEM) mm at 100° vs. 88+4.1 mm at 10° (relax)]. The fascicle length of the VL decreased with increasing torque at each knee position [116+4.7 (relax) to 92 ± 4.3 mm (MVC) at 100°]. On the other hand, fascicle angles increased with an increase in torque. These changes reflected the compliance of the muscle-tendon complex which increased as the knee reached a straight position. The estimated muscle force of the VL was maximal (2,052 ± 125 N) for a fascicle length of 78 ± 2.7 mm (i.e. optimum length) with the knee positioned at 70° of flexion. The relationship between muscle force and fascicle length indicated that the VL uses the ascending (knee < 70°), plateau (70 °), and descending regions (>70°) of the force-length curve. © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel.

    DOI

    Scopus

    33
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Determination of fascicle length and pennation in a contracting human muscle in vivo

    Fukunaga, T, Ichinose, Y, Ito, M, Kawakami, Y, Fukashiro, S

    J. Appl. Physiol.   82 ( 1 ) 354 - 358  1997.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We have developed a technique to determine fascicle length in human vastus lateralis muscle in vivo by using ultrasonography. When the subjects had the knee fully extended passively from a position of 110 degrees flexion (relaxed condition), the fascicle length decreased from 133 to 97 mm on average. During static contractions at 10% of maximal voluntary contraction strength (tensed condition), fascicle shortening was more pronounced (from 126 to 67 mm), especially when the knee was closer to full extension. Similarly as the knee was extended, the angle of pennation (fascicle angle, defined as the angle between fascicles and aponeurosis) increased (relaxed, from 14 to 18 degrees; tensed, from 14 to 21 degrees), and a greater increase in the pennation angle was observed in the tensed than in the relaxed condition when the knee was close to extension (&lt;40 degrees). We conclude that there are differences in fascicle lengths and pennation angles when the muscle is in a relaxed and isometrically tensed conditions and that the differences are affected by joint angles, at least at the submaximal contraction level.

    DOI

    Scopus

    343
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Tendinous movement of a human muscle during voluntary contractions determined by real-time ultrasonography

    T Fukunaga, M Ito, Y Ichinose, S Kuno, Y Kawakami, S Fukashiro

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY   81 ( 3 ) 1430 - 1433  1996.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The degree of shortening or lengthening of muscles during joint actions has not been clarified in humans, although such information is essential in understanding human muscle functions. In this study, the tendinous movement of a muscle was determined by real-time ultrasonography during voluntary contractions. The tibialis anterior muscle (TA) was tested in five healthy men who performed dorsi- and plantar flexion movements (shortening and lengthening of TA) at two frequencies (0.1 and 1.5 Hz). The insertion point (eta) of fascicles onto the aponeurosis was clearly visualized on the ultrasonogram, and its position relative to a fixed marker moved proximally and distally according to dorsi- and plantar flexion of ankle joint. The movement of eta occurred in phase with the angular change of ankle joint, giving high correlations (I = 0.93 to 0.97) between the displacement of eta and the angle. The displacement of eta for one radian of joint angle change, 46.5 +/- 1.7 (SD) mm, was comparable to the reported moment arm of TA. The present method has many potential applications in the field of muscle physiology and biomechanics in humans.

    DOI

    Scopus

    83
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Total and segmental subcutaneous adipose tissue volume measured by ultrasound

    Takashi Abe, Fumiko Tanaka, Yasuo Kawakami, Kohki Yoshikawa, Tetsuo Fukunaga

    Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise   28 ( 7 ) 908 - 912  1996.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Total and segmental subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes (SATV) were estimated and compared in 13 healthy young women with a mean age of 21.4 yr. Total and segmental (head and neck, forearm, upper arm, trunk, thigh, and lower leg) SATV were estimated from subcutaneous adipose tissue layer thickness and the body surface area; the former by B-mode ultrasound and the latter by direct measurement. Consecutive magnetic resonance images (MRI) were obtained from head to toe (10 mm thickness), from which adipose tissue areas as well as total and regional SATV were determined. SATV of the upper arm and thigh estimated by ultrasound was significantly lower compared to that of MRI-measured SATV; however, there were no significant differences found in the other four segments. As a results, total estimated SATV obtained was on average 5.5% lower with ultrasound than with MRI-measured total SATV: however there were no statistically significant differences between the two values. Significant strong correlations were observed between MRI-measured total and segmental SATV, and SATV estimated by ultrasound (r =0.79-0.95) for all segments except head and neck. These results show the effectiveness of the ultrasound method for estimating SATV; however, the quantitative analysis tissue volumes would require correction.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    20
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Training-induced changes in muscle architecture and specific tension

    Kawakami, Y, Abe, T, Kuno, S, Fukunaga, T

    Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.   72 ( 1-2 ) 37 - 43  1995.12  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Five men underwent unilateral resistance training of elbow extensor (triceps brachii) muscles for 16 weeks. Before and after training, muscle layer thickness and fascicle angles of the long head of the triceps muscle were measured in vivo using B-mode ultrasound, and fascicle lengths were estimated. Series anatomical cross-sectional areas (ACSA) of the triceps brachii muscle were measured by magnetic resonance imaging, from which muscle volume (V-m) was determined and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) was calculated. Elbow extension strength (isometric; concentric and eccentric at 30, 90 and 180 degrees . s(-1)) was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer to determine specific tension. Muscle volumes, ACSA, PCSA, muscle layer thickness and fascicle angles increased after training and their relative changes were similar, while muscle and fascicle length did not change. Muscle strength increased at all velocities; however, specific tension decreased after training. Increase in fascicle angles, which would be the result of increased V-m and PCSA, would seem to imply the occurrence of changes in muscle architecture. This might have given a negative effect on the force-generating properties of the muscles.

    DOI

    Scopus

    253
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • 羽状筋のアーキテクチャモデル--第2報--

    川上泰雄, 市之瀬慈歩, 久野譜也, 福永哲夫

    東京大学教養学部体育学紀要   29   31 - 37  1995  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

  • 羽状筋における筋線維配置のマッピングの試み

    川上泰雄, 市之瀬慈歩, 久野譜也, 福永哲夫

    Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine   43 ( 6 ) 622 - 622  1994.12

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

    CiNii

  • Specific tension of elbow flexor and extensor muscles based on magnetic resonance imaging

    Kawakami, Y, Nakazawa, K, Fujimoto, T, Nozaki, D, Miyashita, M, Fukunaga, T

    Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.   68 ( 2 ) 139 - 147  1994.02  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Series cross-section images of the upper extremity were obtained for four men by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and anatomical cross-sectional areas (ACSA) of elbow flexor muscles [biceps brachii (BIC), brachialis (BRA), brachioradialis (BRD)] and extensor muscles [triceps brachii (TRI)] were measured. Physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) was calculated from the muscle volume and muscle fibre length, the former from the series ACSA and the latter from the muscle length multiplied by previously reported fibre/muscle length ratios. Elbow flexion/extension torque was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer and the force at the tendons was calculated from the torque and moment arms of muscles measured by MRI. Maximal ACSA of TRI was comparable to that of total flexors, while PCSA of TRI was greater by 1.9 times. Within flexors, BRA had the greatest contribution to torque (47%), followed; by BIC (34%) and BRD (19%). Specific tension related to the estimated velocity of muscle fibres were similar for elbow flexors and extensors, suggesting that the capacity of tension development is analogous between two muscle groups.

    DOI

    Scopus

    123
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Prediction equations for body composition of Japanese adults by B-mode ultrasound.

    Takashi Abe, Masakatsu Kondo, Yasuo Kawakami, Tetsuo Fukunaga

    American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council   6 ( 2 ) 161 - 170  1994  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    A total of 117 Japanese subjects (62 men and 55 women) volunteered for the study. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) and muscle thicknesses were measured by B-mode ultrasonography at nine sites of the body. Body density (BD) was determined the hydrodensitometry. Reproducibility of thickness measurements by ultrasonography was high (r = 0.96-0.99). Correlations between AT thickness and BD ranged from -0.46 (gastrocnemius) to -0.87 (abdomen) for males and -0.46 (gastrocnemius) to -0.84 (abdomen) for females. A higher negative correlation (r = -0.89) was observed for the sum of AT thicknesses (forearm, biceps, triceps, abdomen, subscapula, quadriceps, hamstrings, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior) both in males and in females. Slightly lower coefficients were observed between muscle thickness and LBM (r = 0.36 to r = 0.70 for males and r = 0.44 to r = 0.55 for females). Prediction equations for BD and LBM from AT and muscle thickness were obtained by multiple regression analysis. Cross-validation on a separate sample (33 men and 44 women) showed an accurate prediction for BD. The present findings suggest that B-mode ultrasonography can be applied in clinical assessment and field surveys. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    217
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Upper limit of fat-free mass in humans: A study on Japanese Sumo wrestlers.

    Masakatsu Kondo, Takashi Abe, Shigeki Ikegawa, Yasuo Kawakami, Tetsuo Fukunaga

    American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council   6 ( 5 ) 613 - 618  1994  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    If limitations exist in skeletal dimensions, fat-free mass (FFM) might have an upper limit. To explore the upper limit to FFM, 37 professional Japanese Sumo wrestlers, 14 highly trained bodybuilders, and 26 untrained men were investigated for body composition (fat mass and FFM) and cross-sectional areas (CSA) of limb muscles, by hydrodensitometry and ultrasound, respectively. Mean % fat of Sumo wrestlers, bodybuilders, and untrained subjects were, respectively, 26.1%, 10.9%, and 12.1%. Sumo wrestlers had a significantly greater FFM than bodybuilders, who had a greater FFM than the untrained men. Six of the wrestlers had more than 100 kg of FFM, including the largest one of 121.3 kg (stature: 186 cm, mass: 181 kg, %fat: 33.0%). The FFM/stature ratio of elite Sumo wrestlers averaged at 0.61 kg/cm, with the highest 0.66 kg/cm. It is suggested that a FFM/stature ratio of 0.7 kg/cm may be an upper limit in humans. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    36
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training and Dietary Administration on Visceral Fat Mass.

    安部孝, 板井もりえ, 川上泰雄, 杉田正明, 川原貴, 福永哲夫, 吉川宏起

    BULLETIN OF THE PHYSICAL FITNESS RESEARCH INSTITUTE   85 ( 0 ) 65 - 72  1994  [Refereed]

    DOI CiNii J-GLOBAL

  • 筋群間にみられる筋厚と筋線維角度の相互関係

    川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    東京大学教養学部体育学紀要   28 ( 28 ) 25 - 30  1994  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

    CiNii

  • トレーニングに伴う上腕三頭筋の生理学的断面積および筋線維角度の変化

    川上泰雄, 安部孝, 久野譜也, 福永哲夫

    Proceedings of the Congress of the Japanese Society of Physical Education   0 ( 44 ) 304  1993.10

    Authorship:Lead author

    DOI

  • Concentric and eccentric muscle strength before, during and after fatigue in 13 year-old boys

    Kawakami, Y, Kanehisa, H, Ikegawa, S, Fukunaga, T

    Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.   67 ( 2 ) 121 - 124  1993.08  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the force-producing characteristics of boys aged 13 years in relation to fatigue of elbow flexor muscles. Maximal voluntary force in elbow flexion was measured before and after a muscle endurance test (MET) by using an isokinetic dynamometer isometrically, concentrically and eccentrically at three velocities, i.e. 0.21, 0.52, and 1.05 rad - s-1. The MET consisted of maximal concentric and eccentric muscle actions performed alternately at 0.52 rad - s-1 for 50 consecutive trials. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of elbow flexor muscles (biceps brachii and brachialis) was measured by a B-mode ultrasound apparatus. Although eccentric force showed significantly higher values than concentric force during MET, there was no significant difference in the rate of decline in force between the two actions. There was no significant difference in the rate of decline in force after MET for each velocity and muscle action. Isometric, concentric and eccentric force before MET was significantly related to muscle CSA whereas, after MET, concentric force significantly correlated with muscle CSA but there was no significant correlation between muscle CSA and isometric or eccentric force. From our study, it is therefore suggested that in development to maturity, isometric, concentric and eccentric force decrease at the same rate with advancing muscle fatigue; however, there might be differences among muscle actions in facors affecting force development.

    DOI

    Scopus

    31
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Muscle-fiber pennation angles are greater in hypertrophied than in normal muscles

    Kawakami, Y, Abe, T, Fukunaga, T

    J. Appl. Physiol.   74 ( 6 ) 2740 - 2744  1993.06  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Muscle-fiber pennation angles were measured in vivo with the use of ultrasonography to investigate the relationship between fiber pennation and muscle size for 32 male subjects (from untrained subjects to highly trained bodybuilders). From the image of a B-mode ultrasonogram, fiber pennation angles and thickness of triceps brachii were determined, the former as angles between echoes from the interspaces of fascicles and from the aponeurosis of long and medial heads of triceps and the latter as the distance between the fat-muscle and muscle-bone interfaces. The pennation angles were in the range of 15 and 53-degrees for the long head and 9 to 26-degrees for the medial head, which were similar to or greater than the published and the present data on human cadavers. Significant differences were observed between normal subjects and bodybuilders in muscle thickness and pennation angles (P &lt; 0.01), and there were significant correlations between muscle thickness and pennation angles for both long (r = 0.884) and medial (r = 0.833) heads of triceps, suggesting that muscle hypertrophy involves an increase in fiber pennation angles.

    DOI

    Scopus

    400
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Differences in activation patterns in elbow flexor muscles during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions

    Kimitaka Nakazawa, Yasuo Kawakami, Tetsuo Fukunaga, Hideo Yano, Mitsumasa Miyashita

    European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology   66 ( 3 ) 214 - 220  1993.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    To investigate the relative activation of the synergistic muscles during three different types of muscle contraction, the electromyograms (EMG) of two elbow flexor muscles, the biceps brachii (BB) and the brachioradialis (BR), have been compared. To accomplish this eight healthy human subjects performed the following elbow flexions against the same load - concentric, eccentric and isometric contractions. The isometric contractions were performed at three elbow angles: 10, 45 and 90° (0° equal to full expension). The EMG were recorded by bipolar surface electrodes, and the relative activation between the two muscles was evaluated as the quotient of mean EMG activities (BR/BB). For the isotonic elbow flexions, BR/BB were calculated at three angle divisions: 0-30°, 30-60° and 60-90°. Results indicated that the relative activation of the BR during the concentric contractions was higher than that of the eccentric contraction, particularly at the extended elbow angles, i.e. the BR/BB of the concentric contractions for the elbow joint angles ranging from 0-30° and 30-60° were significantly greater (P<0.05) than those of the eccentric contractions. During the isometric and eccentric contractions, the BR/BB at the flexed joint angles tended to be greater than those at the extended angles. In contrast, there were no angle-dependent BR/BB variations during the concentric elbow flexions. Further, changing patterns in the EMG power spectra due to the type of contraction were different between BB and BR. These results indicated that the activation pattern in the two elbow flexor muscles varied with the muscle contraction pattern. © 1993 Springer-Verlag.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    102
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Mechanical efficiency of rowing a single scull

    Nozaki, D, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T, Miyashita, M

    Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports   3 ( 4 ) 251 - 255  1993  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    To determine the mechanical of rowing, oxygen uptake and mechanical work rate were measured during rowing a single scull under windless conditions. Steady‐state pulmonary oxygen uptake was determined as a function of boat velocity (v (m‐s−1)) in 5 subjects. Oxygen uptake (1‐min−1) increased as 0.065 v2.99. Workrate in two subjects was determined as a function of v by measuring the force applied to the oar and its angular velocity. Work rate (w) was expressed as 3.85 v3.25. From these equations, mechanical efficiency (%) was expressed as 17 v0.262. Thus, mechanical efficiency increased from 20% at 2 m‐s−1 to 24% at a boat velocity of 4 m‐s−1. Copyright © 1993, Wiley Blackwell. All rights reserved

    DOI

    Scopus

    8
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Effect of leg extension training on concentric and eccentric strength of quadriceps femoris muscles

    Kawakami, Y, Hirano, Y, Miyashita, M, Fukunaga, T

    Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports   3 ( 1 ) 22 - 27  1993  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Ten healthy male subjects carried out bilateral concentric leg extension training twice a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training, maximal voluntary isometric and isokinetic strength and cross‐sectional areas of the quadriceps femoris were measured. Maximal bilateral leg extension power increased significantly after the training. Isometric and concentric unilateral strength did not change significantly before and after the training, while eccentric strength at 0.52 and 1.05 rad·s−1 increased after the training with no changes in cross‐sectional area. The correlations between strength and cross‐sectional area increased significantly after the training. It was speculated that the increase in eccentric strength of knee extensors was due to modification of the neural inhibition during eccentric muscle actions. Copyright © 1993, Wiley Blackwell. All rights reserved

    DOI

    Scopus

    7
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • 筋厚と筋線維角度に基づいた羽状筋のアーキテクチャモデル

    川上泰雄, 安部孝, 福永哲夫

    東京大学教養学部体育学紀要   27 ( 27 ) 9 - 13  1993  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

    CiNii

  • Reliability of measurement of oxygen uptake by a portable telemetric system

    Kawakami, Y., Nozaki, D., Matsuo, A., Fukunaga, T.

    European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology   65 ( 5 ) 409 - 414  1992.11  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    The purpose of the present study was to check the reliability of measurements of oxygen uptake (VO2) using a newly developed portable telemetry system. This system (K2) consisted of a face mask, a flow meter, a gas analyser with a transmitter, and a receiver. The total mass for the subject to carry was about 850 g. Three experiments were carried out, firstly to check the reliability and reproducibility of the flow meter and the K2 gas analyser, secondly to check the accuracy of K2 by comparing it with the Douglas bag method (DB), and thirdly to apply K2 to sports activities. In the first experiment, the flow meter was highly accurate up to 180 l·min-1 with good reproducibility. The measurement error of the gas analyser was less than 2%. In the second experiment, there was no significant difference in the calculated ventilation between K2 and DB. The VO2 showed no significant difference between K2 and DB with some exceptions. In the third experiment, we succeeded in the measurement of VO2 during rowing on water. The measurement of VO2 during running and playing soccer was also possible. It would seem that the present system could well be a powerful tool in the field measurement of VO2 during various sports activities. © 1992 Springer-Verlag.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    78
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • 0411101 コンセントリックおよびエキセントリック・トレーニングがヒト骨格筋の力学的特性と形態に与える効果

    石井 直方, 川上 泰雄, 阿部 孝, 福永 哲夫, 池川 繁樹

    日本体育学会大会号   ( 43 ) 279 - 279  1992.10

    DOI CiNii

  • 0411011 肘関節屈筋・伸筋のモーメントアームの実測

    川上 泰雄, 中沢 公孝, 福永 哲夫

    日本体育学会大会号   ( 43 ) 278 - 278  1992.10

    DOI CiNii

  • 高齢者の筋機能と身体組成

    福永 哲夫, 松尾 彰文, 船渡 和男, 川上 泰雄, 安部 孝

    日本体育学会大会号   ( 43 ) 552 - 552  1992.10

    DOI CiNii

  • 0430903 中高年女性における年齢と筋パワー出力特性

    船渡 和男, 松尾 彰文, 福永 哲夫, 川上 泰雄, 小沢 治夫, 合田 浩二

    日本体育学会大会号   ( 43 ) 348 - 348  1992.10

    DOI CiNii

  • Isometric and isokinetic knee joint performance in Japanese alpine ski racers

    T. Abe, Y. Kawakami, S. Ikegawa, H. Kanehisa, T. Fukunaga

    Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness   32 ( 4 ) 353 - 357  1992  [Refereed]

    PubMed

  • ボートの競技記録に影響を及ぼす因子

    川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    バイオメカニズム学会誌   16 ( 2 ) 101 - 109  1992  [Invited]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

    DOI J-GLOBAL

  • 等尺性、短縮性および伸張性筋活動時の筋力-筋放電量の関係

    川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    東京大学教養学部体育学紀要   26 ( 26 ) 5 - 14  1992  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

    CiNii

  • 準高所における運動に対する生理的応答-平地との比較から-

    川上泰雄, 福永哲夫, 野崎大地

    東京大学教養学部体育学紀要   26   89 - 94  1992  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

    CiNii

  • 0410813 足背屈における伸張性筋力の特性

    池川 繁樹, 川上 泰雄, 福永 哲夫

    日本体育学会大会号   ( 42 ) 269 - 269  1991.09

    DOI CiNii

  • 0430803 MRI法による肘関節屈筋・伸筋の生理的筋断面積の測定

    川上 泰雄, 中沢 公孝, 福永 哲夫, 宮下 充正

    日本体育学会大会号   ( 42 ) 365 - 365  1991.09

    DOI CiNii

  • 0420806 肘関節屈筋群の活動様式と活動量

    中沢 公孝, 川上 泰雄, 福永 哲夫, 宮下 充正

    日本体育学会大会号   ( 42 ) 310 - 310  1991.09

    DOI CiNii

  • Some factors affecting eccentric contraction strength

    Kawakami, Y., Fukunaga, T., Kanehisa, H., Miyashita, M.

    Journal of Biomechanics   22 ( 10 ) 1034 - 1034  1989  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author

     View Summary

    Properties of the force developed during eccentric contractions were investigated using a specially designed dynamometer. Elbow flexion was performed at the maximal voluntary contraction level. A force transducer was placed on the anterior surface of the wrist to measure elbow flexion force. Immediately after an isometric contraction of 2 seconds (ST1), the elbow joint was eccentrically stretched about 15° (ECC), and again put in an isometric state (ST2). Starting elbow angles were randomly assigned every 15° from 70° to 130° (full extension 180°) and stretch speeds ranged from 2.5 to 20 rpm. The muscle force during ECC was always greater than those during ST1 and ST2, and the difference between starting isometric force and eccentric peak force was greater at a higher speed.

    DOI

    Scopus

    3
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Determination of anaerobic threshold by heart rate recording

    Kawakami, Y., Yamamoto, Y., Mutoh, Y., Miyashita, M., Mokushi, K., Nakamura, Y.

    Respiration and Circulation   37 ( 2 ) 179 - 183  1989  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author

    PubMed

  • 心拍数を利用した無酸素性作業閾値(AT)の決定

    川上泰雄, 山本義春, 杢子耕一, 中村好男, 武藤芳照, 宮下充正

    呼吸と循環   37   179 - 183  1989  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author

    DOI CiNii

  • New method for detecting anaerobic threshold from heart rate recording

    Yoshiharu Yamamoto, Yasuo Kawakami, Yoshio Nakamura, Kouichi Mokushi, Yoshiteru Mutoh, Mitsumasa Miyashita

    IEEE/Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society Annual Conference   10 ( pt 1 ) 265 - 266  1988.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The authors detect the anaerobic threshold (AT) only from heart rate (HR) recording. Ten subjects performed 13-min cycle exercise on an electrically braked ergometer. The work rate (WR) varied between 40-100 by a pseudorandom binary sequence (dt = 1 s, 8 bits, 3 cycles), while HR (beats/min) was calculated every second from R-R intervals. Frequency analysis revealed that the transferred gains from WR to HR at the frequencies of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 Hz were less attenuated for all subjects comparing to those of the other frequencies. Therefore, each subject performed incremental exercise (mean Δ= 0.33 W/s) with the compounded sinusoidal fluctuation. From this study, it is concluded that AT can be determined only from HR recording. As HR is one of the easiest parameters to measure, especially during exercise, evaluation of AT would therefore be easier by this method.

  • Development of exercise testing system for exercise prescription to ischemic heart disease patients

    Y. Yamamoto, H. Hamamoto, Y. Mutoh, K. Mokushi, S. Tamura, Y. Kawakami

    Bulletin of the Physical Fitness Research Institute   ( 69 ) 134 - 147  1988

  • 動物の水中運動

    川上泰雄

    Jpn. J. Sports Sci.   7   510 - 516  1988  [Invited]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

▼display all

Books and Other Publications

  • Sport Sciences

    Yasuo Kawakami( Part: Joint author, Biomechanical principles of ourstanding human movements)

    Bunkodo  2024.03 ISBN: 9784830651977

  • 障がい者のスポーツ・身体運動を再考する

    川上 泰雄( Part: Edit, 障がい者のスポーツ・身体運動を再考する(編集担当))

    体育の科学 74巻 1月号,杏林書院  2024.01

  • Withコロナでの生活が心身・社会に及ぼす影響

    川上泰雄( Part: Edit, Withコロナでの生活が心身・社会に及ぼす影響(編集担当))

    体育の科学 73巻 3月号,杏林書院  2023.03

  • Imaging: Ultrasound. In: Fascia: The Tensional Network of the Human Body (2nd Ed.)

    Kawakami, Y, Secco, A( Part: Joint author)

    Schleip R;Stecco C;Driscoll M;Huijing P・Elsevier  2022.03

  • 菊芋×運動レシピでイキキ! アクティブシニアライフのすすめ

    川上泰雄, 田中史子

    内閣府・SIP早稲田大学研究班  2019

  • 疲労と身体運動 スポーツでの勝利も健康の改善も疲労を乗り越えて得られる(分担執筆)

    川上泰雄

    杏林書院  2018

  • スポーツ科学で健康寿命延伸 Osteoporosis Japan PLUS

    川上泰雄

    ライフサイエンス出版  2017

  • 体の動きと熱を生み出す筋肉

    川上泰雄

    少年写真新聞社  2016

  • これからの医療を支えるメディカルデザイン(分担執筆)

    川上泰雄

    ライフサイエンス出版  2016

  • 筋の硬さとストレッチング

    稲見崇孝, 川上泰雄

    杏林書院  2015

  • SEBI・SEIのためのストレッチングエクササイズ指導理論

    加藤えみか, 川上泰雄

    (公)日本フィットネス協会  2014.07

  • 新版 スポーツ生理学(分担執筆)

    川上泰雄ほか

    市村出版  2014

  • 現代高校保健体育 教授用参考資料(分担執筆)

    川上泰雄ほか

    大修館書店  2013

  • 最新高等保健体育(分担執筆)

    川上泰雄ほか

    大修館書店  2013

  • ゴルフ解剖学

    クレイグ・デイビース, ヴィンス・ディサイア著, 川上泰雄, 武田淳也訳, 監訳

    ベースボール・マガジン  2012.12 ISBN: 9784583103716

  • バイオメカニクスの基礎

    医学映像教育センター, 川上, 泰雄

    医学映像教育センター  2012 ISBN: 9784862435071

  • 歩・走動作

    医学映像教育センター, 川上, 泰雄

    医学映像教育センター  2012 ISBN: 9784862435088

  • 跳動作

    医学映像教育センター, 川上, 泰雄

    医学映像教育センター  2012 ISBN: 9784862435095

  • Fascia in Manual Therapy

    Langevin, H, Kawakami, Y

    Elsevier  2012

  • スポーツバイオメカニクスの基礎 Vol. 1 バイオメカニクスの基礎

    川上泰雄

    医学映像教育センター(DVD)  2012

  • スポーツバイオメカニクスの基礎 Vol. 2 歩・走動作

    川上泰雄

    医学映像教育センター(DVD)  2012

  • スポーツバイオメカニクスの基礎 Vol. 3 跳動作

    川上泰雄

    医学映像教育センター(DVD)  2012

  • ローイングの健康スポーツ科学

    川上泰雄ほか

    市村出版  2011

  • 柔軟性の科学

    マイケル J.オルター著, 伊藤マモル, ほか] 訳

    大修館書  2010.02 ISBN: 9784469266948

  • 神経・骨格筋系の科学

    医学映像教育センター制作著作

    医学映像教育センタ  2010 ISBN: 9784862434005

  • 柔軟性の科学

    川上泰雄ほか

    大修館書店  2010

  • スプリントトレーニングー速く走る・泳ぐ・滑るを科学するー

    川上泰雄ほか

    朝倉書店  2009

  • 身体運動のバイオメカニクス研究方法

    川上泰雄ほか

    講談社  2008

  • 健康運動指導実践マニュアル

    川上泰雄ほか

    文光堂  2008

  • トレーニング科学最新エビデンス

    川上泰雄ほか

    講談社  2008

  • 身近なはてな

    川上泰雄ほか

    ニュートンプレス  2008

  • 大学院で「研究」する意味とは

    川上泰雄

    大学受験白書  2007

  • ヒトの動きのしくみを探る

    福永, 哲夫, 川上, 泰雄

    早稲田大学スポーツ科学学術院内日本バイオメカニクス学会第19回大会事務局  2006.12

  • スポーツの百科事典

    川上泰雄ほか

    丸善  2006

  • オックスフォードスポーツ医科学辞典

    川上泰雄ほか

    朝倉書店  2006

  • スポーツ科学事典

    川上泰雄ほか

    平凡社  2006

  • 整形外科医に必要なスポーツ医学の知識

    川上泰雄ほか

    金原出版  2005

  • NSCAパーソナルトレーナーのための基礎知識

    川上泰雄ほか

    森永製菓  2005

  • バイオメカニクス〜身体運動の科学的基礎〜

    川上泰雄ほか

    杏林書院  2004

  • ランニング障害

    川上泰雄ほか

    文光堂  2003

  • 筋の科学事典

    川上泰雄ほか( Part: Joint author)

    朝倉書店  2002

  • The length-force characteristics of human gastrocnemius and soleus muscles in vivo

    Kawakami, Y, Kumagai, K, Huijing, P. A, Hijikata, T, Fukunaga, T

    Skeletal Muscle Mechanics, From Mechanisms to Function, John Wiley&amp;Sons  2000

  • 教養としてのスポーツ・身体運動

    川上泰雄ほか

    東京大学出版会  2000

  • スポーツ・バイオメカニクス

    川上泰雄ほか

    朝倉書店  2000

  • 骨格筋-運動による機能と形態の変化-

    川上泰雄ほか

    ナップ  1997

  • からだの「仕組み」のサイエンス

    川上泰雄ほか

    杏林書院  1997

  • 生化学、生理学からみた骨格筋に対するトレーニング効果

    川上泰雄

    ナップ  1996

  • トレーニング科学ハンドブック

    川上泰雄ほか

    朝倉書店  1996

  • 人間の骨格筋の形状と筋活動能力

    川上泰雄

    [川上泰雄  1995

  • スポーツ・スピード

    川上泰雄ほか

    ベースボールマガジン社  1991

  • 競技力向上のスポーツ科学II

    川上泰雄ほか

    朝倉書店  1989

  • 指導者のための基礎知識フィットネスQ&amp;A

    川上泰雄ほか

    南江堂  1988

  • 指導者のための基礎知識フィットネスQ&A

    川上泰雄ほか

    南江堂  1988

  • スポーツ・データバンク小事典

    川上泰雄ほか

    ぎょうせい  1987

▼display all

Works

  • Changes in architectural and functional characteristics during growth

    1993
    -
     

Presentations

  • 急性・慢性負荷に対する筋・腱の適応〜トレーニングと傷害予防の観点から〜

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    第50回長野県接骨学会  (長野)  長野県接骨学会

    Presentation date: 2024.03

    Event date:
    2024.03
    -
     
  • 骨格筋メカニクスから考える身体運動とスポーツ外傷・障害

    川上 泰雄  [Invited]

    日本超音波骨軟組織学会 第45回東日本支部学術集会, 東京  (オンライン)  日本超音波骨軟組織学会

    Presentation date: 2024.01

    Event date:
    2024.01
     
     

     View Summary

    超音波法などを中心とした組織画像解析による運動中の筋・腱動態(骨格筋メカニクス)の生体計測を通じて、筋・腱の形態的特性は個々の筋の出力特性と深く関わることがわかってきた。また、人間を対象とした生体計測は筋形状や出力特性の極めて高い可塑性や身体運動能力と関連性を明らかにしつつある。この骨格筋の構成成分の変化は筋力発揮特性や身体運動のできばえ、そしてスポーツ外傷・障害の発生に多大な影響を及ぼす可能性が示されている。

  • “Spring” in running: Whereabouts and how it is optimized

     [Invited]

    Thammasat University Seminar “Let’s talk about sprinting and running”  (Rangsit) 

    Presentation date: 2023.12

    Event date:
    2023.12
    -
     
  • 運動するための身体のデザイン

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    麗澤大学スポーツデータサイエンス講演, 千葉  (千葉) 

    Presentation date: 2023.12

    Event date:
    2023.12
     
     
  • 身体の「バネ」の所在と使い方を考える

    川上 泰雄  [Invited]

    日本スプリント学会第 34 回大会, 京都  (同志社大学 今出川キャンパス 良心館, 京都)  日本スプリント学会, 早稲田大学ヒューマンパフォーマンス研究所

    Presentation date: 2023.12

    Event date:
    2023.12
     
     

     View Summary

    筋や腱についての基本的レクチャーを含め,スプリンターのトレーニングの中で理解しておきたい形態や機能,アキレス腱や足底腱膜の特性等について,川上先生と大塚先生を中心に生体計測で得られた知見を,大谷先生にロボットの視点から速く走ることへのヒントとなる制御機能についてご紹介いただき,スプリントトレーニングへのヒントを探る発展的なディスカッションを目指す.

  • Morphological and functional features of musculo/tendinous/fascial entity in the lower extremity and their relevance to movement performance and injury

    Yasuo Kawakami  [Invited]

    Korean Society of Biomechanics & Korean Society of Sport Biomechanics Conference 

    Presentation date: 2023.12

    Event date:
    2023.12
     
     
  • 災害を考え、防災へつなげる:産官学連携の深化に向けて(シンポジウムオーガナイザー)

    川上 泰雄  [Invited]

    早稲田大学総合研究機構主催 第2回シンポジウム  (早稲田大学小野記念講堂)  早稲田大学総合研究機構

    Presentation date: 2023.10

    Event date:
    2023.10
    -
     

     View Summary

    「災害を考え、防災へつなげる:産官学連携の深化に向けて」と題し、ハイブリット形式によるシンポジウムを開催。

  • Muscle architecture in the lower extremity and its relevance to strain injury

     [Invited]

    (Bangkok) 

    Presentation date: 2023.08

    Event date:
    2023.08
    -
    2023.09
  • The future of muscle mechanics studies

     [Invited]

    Kasetsart University Faculty of Sports Science Research Seminar  (Bangkok)  Kasetsart University

    Presentation date: 2023.08

  • Muscles Alive-how far have we come since then?

     [Invited]

    Presentation date: 2023.07

    Event date:
    2023.07
    -
    2023.08
  • In vivo 3-dimensional ultrasonography of human biceps femoris reveals a twisted proximal aponeurosis

    Mantecon, C J T, Weide, G, Takahashi, K, Kawakami, Y, Maas, H

    29th Congress of International Society of Biomechanics  (Fukuoka) 

    Event date:
    2023.07
    -
    2023.08
  • Mechanical interaction between Achilles tendon and plantar fascia during isometric ankle plantar flexion

    Shiotani, H, Takahashi, K, Tomari, K, Sado, N, Kawakami, Y

    29th Congress of International Society of Biomechanics  (Fukuoka) 

    Event date:
    2023.07
    -
    2023.08
  • Unique shape of human biceps femoris aponeurosis: in vivo and in situ findings

    Mantecon, C J T

    Human Movement Studies: From Perspectives of Sport Science, Engineering, and Medicine  (Tokyo) 

    Presentation date: 2023.07

    Event date:
    2023.07
    -
     
  • Beyond the sagittal plane: In vivo quantification of human skeletal muscle 3D structure by diffusion tensor imaging

    (Tokyo) 

    Presentation date: 2023.07

    Event date:
    2023.07
    -
     
  • Effect of aging and exercise habits on morphological property of human deep fascia

    (Tokyo) 

    Presentation date: 2023.07

    Event date:
    2023.07
    -
     
  • Human performance transcendence: An approach from sport science, engineering, and medicine

     [Invited]

    (Tokyo) 

    Presentation date: 2023.07

    Event date:
    2023.07
    -
     
  • Biceps femoris aponeurosis structure is not continuous but separated by loose connective tissue: a cadaver study

    Mantecon, C J T, Nanizawa, E, Otsuka, S, Naito, M, Maas, H, Kawakami, Y

    28th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science 

    Presentation date: 2023.07

    Event date:
    2023.07
     
     
  • Contributions of ankle joint and gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit behavior to rebound jump performance

    Tomari, K, Tasaka, H, Homma, D, Mantecon, C J T, Tanaka, F, Otani, T, Kawakami, Y

    28th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science 

    Presentation date: 2023.07

    Event date:
    2023.07
     
     
  • Human performance transcendence: an approach to the health promotion of humans from sport science and engineering perspective

    2nd International Conference on TU Health Science 

    Presentation date: 2023.03

    Event date:
    2023.03
     
     
  • Withコロナでの体力の維持・向上:科学的知見の応用を考える

    川上泰雄, 飯田綱規, 田中史子  [Invited]

    早稲田大学総合研究機構シンポジウム「Withコロナ時代の人間と社会のあり方を考える」 

    Presentation date: 2023.03

    Event date:
    2023.03
    -
     
  • 筋収縮時の腓腹筋内側頭における筋束と腱膜の3次元動態

    高橋克毅, 塩谷彦人, 佐渡夏紀, 川上泰雄

    第28回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2022.11

    Event date:
    2022.11
     
     
  • スポーツを科学する〜人間を測って三十有余年〜

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    早稲田大学国際学生寮WISH SIプログラム講演 

    Presentation date: 2022.10

    Event date:
    2022.10
     
     
  • Lower extremity muscle activity during walking at different speeds: the quadriceps change most

    Kawakami, Y, Jiayi, W, Aoki, R, Shiotani, H

    27th Annual Congress of the European College of Sports Science 

    Presentation date: 2022.08

    Event date:
    2022.08
    -
    2022.09
  • 3D fascicle arrangement of the biceps femoris indicate the need to take curvature and bending of fascicles into consideration when assessing the architectural parameters

    Mantecón, C J T, Kawakami, Y, Maas, H, Weide, G

    27th Annual Congress of the European College of Sports Science 

    Presentation date: 2022.08

    Event date:
    2022.08
    -
    2022.09
  • Associations between exercise-induced flattening of foot arch and fatigue of extrinsic and intrinsic foot muscles

    Shiotani, H, Takahashi, K, Tomari, K, Honma, Y, Hayashi, H, Sado, N, Kumai, T, Kawakami, Y

    40th Conference of the International Society of Biomechanics in Sports 

    Presentation date: 2022.07

  • Contraction-driven muscle-tendon-fascia interaction: in vivo and ex situ evidence

    Kawakami, Y, Otsuka, S  [Invited]

    9th World Congress of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2022.07

  • Non-uniform distribution of muscle fascicle strains within human medial gastrocnemius during passive lengthening in vivo

    Takahashi, K, Shiotani, H, Evangelidis, P. E, Sado, N, Kawakami, Y

    9th World Congress of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2022.07

  • Ankle joint angles and activation patterns during shod walking and the association with kinetic variables and muscle sizes in children

    Apibantaweesakul, S, Omura, S, Qi, W, Sado, N, Shiotani, H, Tanaka, F, Suttanon, P, Kawakami, Y

    9th World Congress of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2022.07

  • Mechanical interactions between Achilles tendon and plantar fascia modulate passive mechanics of human ankle-foot complex in vivo

    Shiotani, H, Takahashi, K, Tomari, K, Honma, Y, Hayashi, H, Sado, N, Kawakami, Y

    9th World Congress of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2022.07

  • Shear-wave elastography and dynamic ultrasound imaging applications to quantify musculoskeletal function

     [Invited]

    Presentation date: 2022.05

  • With and after コロナ時代におけるスポーツ・身体運動

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    第95回日本整形外科学会学術集会シンポジウム「with and after コロナにおけるスポーツ医学のあり方」 

    Presentation date: 2022.05

  • 音で身体運動パフォーマンスを評価する

    川上泰雄, 相澤岳  [Invited]

    日本音響学会2022年春季研究発表会 

    Presentation date: 2022.03

    Event date:
    2022.03
     
     
  • Biceps femoris fascicle architecture changes upon knee flexion-extension

    Mantecon, C J T, Kawakami, Y, Maas, H, Weide, G  [Invited]

    2022 International Symposium Multi-level structural and functional adaptability of skeletal muscles and the whole-body 

    Presentation date: 2022.03

    Event date:
    2022.03
     
     
  • Fascio-tendinous linkage in the human lower extremity

    Shiotani, H, Takahashi, K, Tomari, K, Honma, Y, Hayashi, H, Sado, N, Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    2022 International Symposium Multi-level structural and functional adaptability of skeletal muscles and the whole-body 

    Presentation date: 2022.03

    Event date:
    2022.03
     
     
  • Application of ultrasound image for muscle and tendon activity and injury evaluation

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    The 18th Kasetsart University Kamphaengsaen Campus National Conference  (online) 

    Presentation date: 2021.12

  • 子どもから高齢者に及ぶ一般人の体力・生活能力の評価技術の確立と応用

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    早稲田大学オープンイノベーション戦略研究機構Wellbeingフォーラム研究シーズ紹介 

    Presentation date: 2021.11

    Event date:
    2021.11
    -
     
  • 骨格筋メカニクスから考えるストレングストレーニングと外傷・障害予防

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    第32回日本臨床スポーツ医学会 

    Presentation date: 2021.11

    Event date:
    2021.11
     
     
  • Effects of amino acid mixture on functional and morphological properties of achilles tendon

    Kawakami, Y, Shiotani, H, Otuska, S, Hui, L, Ichinose, H, Chi, Y, Kurumisawa, K, Yamada, Y, Shan, X, Saeki, J, Sado, N, Tanaka, F, Kumai, T, Nishitani, S, Takada, M, Toyoda, S, Uchida, H, Adachi, Y

    American College of Sports Medicine 68th Annual Meeting 

    Presentation date: 2021.06

    Event date:
    2021.06
     
     
  • Interrelationship between muscle size, and locomotor ability of the elderly

    Kawakami. Y  [Invited]

    1st International Online Conference on TU Health Science 

    Presentation date: 2021.03

  • 腱と筋膜を深堀りする夜!〜バイオメカニクスと解剖の見地から〜

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    第2回 さいとう整形セミナー 

    Presentation date: 2021.03

  • ボディビルダーの減量における⼤腿部筋横断⾯積および⾮収縮要素横断⾯積の変化

    一瀬星空, 長瀬嘉剛, 佐渡夏紀, 呂匯, 山田雄基, 川上泰雄

    第33回日本トレーニング科学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2020.12

  • Influence of sprint duration on muscle activation and peripheral tissue oxygenation

    Yamagishi, T, Iwata, S, Otsuka, S, Ichinose, H, Kurumisawa, K, Kawakami, Y

    25th European College of Sport Science Anniversary Congress 

    Presentation date: 2020.10

  • Acute effects of static stretching of ankle and metatarsophalangeal joint on plantar fascial and muscular stiffness, passive joint range of motion, and foot arch deformation during drop jump

    Shiotani, H, Sado, N, Kurumisawa, K, Saeki, J, Kawakami, Y

    第26回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2020.09

  • 「人生におけるスポーツの価値と科学的エビデンス 新型コロナ感染収束後の社会のために」

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    日本学術会議主催学術フォーラム 

    Presentation date: 2020.06

  • 健康づくりの重要性について、研究結果からわかりやすく解説

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    西東京市しゃきしゃき体操集中講座 

    Presentation date: 2019.12

  • ダイナミックな動作を取り入れた体操教室の実施が高齢者の体幹筋量に及ぼす影響

    大崎諒, 田中史子, 山岸卓樹, 柴田重信, 川上泰雄

    第24回日本基礎理学療法学会学術大会 

    Presentation date: 2019.11

  • Efficacy of novel material for surface electromyography

    Otsuka, S, Mihara, S

    Electrophysiological and Imaging Approaches to Study the Neuro-Musculo-Mechanics of Human Movement 

    Presentation date: 2019.11

  • Current knowledge and demonstration of ultrasound measurements to study the characteristics of the muscle-tendon structures

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    Electrophysiological and Imaging Approaches to Study the Neuro-Musculo-Mechanics of Human Movement 

    Presentation date: 2019.11

  • ランニングが足底腱膜の形態的・力学的特性および足部形態に及ぼす影響:長距離ランナーは急性の変化を小さくランニングを遂行する

    塩谷彦人, 溝口朋裕, 山下亮, 川上泰雄

    第32回日本トレーニング科学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2019.10

  • 足底腱膜の形態的・力学的特性の定量評価を通じた足部コンディション評価法の確立:静的ストレッチングが足底腱膜の形態的・力学的特性および足部形態に及ぼす影響

    川上泰雄, 塩谷彦人, 佐渡夏紀, 佐伯純弥, 戚维璜, 池田尚樹, 上杉繁  [Invited]

    ヒューマンパフォーマンス研究所第2回研究会 

    Presentation date: 2019.09

  • シューズのミッドソール素材の物性値が着地動作中の地面反力特性に及ぼす影響

    胡桃沢啓介, 塩谷彦人, 佐渡夏紀, 川上泰雄

    第74回日本体力医学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2019.09

  • 男子長距離ランナーの足底腱膜の形態的・力学的特性の定量評価と左右差の検討

    塩谷彦人, 山下亮, 溝口朋裕, 川上泰雄

    第74回日本体力医学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2019.09

  • シューズ着用の有無がランニングによる下肢筋群の力学的特性の変化に与える影響

    佐伯純弥, 塩谷彦人, 大塚俊, 単西瑶, 山岸卓樹, 川上泰雄

    第74回日本体力医学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2019.09

  • 下肢深筋膜の厚さと筋厚および筋力との関係性

    大塚俊, 単西瑶, 胡桃沢啓介, 大村志穂, 川上泰雄

    第74回日本体力医学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2019.09

  • Musculo-tendinous-fascial interaction during joint actions: in vivo evidence

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    27th Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2019.08

  • Site- and joint angle- dependent elastic properties of human iliotibial band: A shear wave elastography study

    Otsuka, S, Yoshida, K, Kawakami, Y

    27th Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2019.08

  • Inhomogeneous and anisotropic mechanical properties of the triceps surae aponeuroses in vivo during submaximal muscle contraction

    Shan, X, Otsuka, S, Kawakami, Y

    27th Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2019.08

  • Musculotendinous mechanics for exercise performance enhancement: importance of motor control.

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    27th Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2019.08

  • Musculotendinous mechanics for exercise performance enhancement: importance of motor control.

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    the 43rd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2019.07

  • Muscle shear modulus in hamstrings: Effect of intensity, contraction type, and relationship with muscle anatomy

    Evangelidis, P, Shan, X, Otsuka, S, Yang, C, Kawakami, Y

    27th Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2019.07

  • Mechanical characteristics of the foot, lower extremity muscle sizes, and walking performance of children and adults

    Apibantaweesakul, S, Nagayoshi, T, Aduayom-Ahego, A, Qi, W, Shiotani, H, Omura, S, Aizawa, G, Tanaka, F, Kawakami, Y

    27th Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2019.07

  • Effects of ankle and metatarsophalangeal joint angles on morphological and mechanical properties of the plantar fascia

    Shiotani, H, Maruyama, N, Kurumisawa, K, Yamagishi, T, Kawakami, Y

    27th Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2019.07

  • Muscle-tendon-fascia system as a fibre-reinforced entity of actuators and springs: in-vivo and ex-situ evidence.

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    4th Rocky Mountain Muscle Symposium 

    Presentation date: 2019.07

  • Fatigue-induced changes in hamstrings shear modulus and load distribution depend on contraction type.

    Evangelidis, P, Shan, X, Otsuka, S, Yang, C, Yamagishi, T, Kawakami, Y

    4th Rocky Mountain Muscle Symposium 

    Presentation date: 2019.07

  • Effect of rhythmic lower limb movments on the performance of multi-limb rhytmic movement

    Qi, W, Nakajima, T, Sakamoto, M, Kato, K, Kawakami, Y, Kanosue, K

    24rd Annual Congress of the European College of Sports Science 

    Presentation date: 2019.07

  • Musculotendinous ultrasonography: basics and clinical application.

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    Seminar in Thammasat University 

    Presentation date: 2019.05

  • 人間の身体特性とその操作技術:身体能力向上に向けてのバイオメカニクス的アプローチ

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    東京医科歯科大学セミナー 

    Presentation date: 2019.05

  • しんたい20周年記念事業「毎月20日は“しんたい”の日」企画第1弾

    川上泰雄, 田中史子, 菊池萌水  [Invited]

    今、改めて「筋肉」を学ぶ! 

    Presentation date: 2019.04

  • 元気に暮らし続けるための筋肉の作り方

    川上泰雄, 田中史子, 菊池萌水  [Invited]

    (公財)身体教育医学研究所「みんなのための筋肉の話」ケアポートみまき 

    Presentation date: 2019.04

  • 身体運動能力と骨格筋特性の加齢変化から考える高齢者の運動指導

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    高齢者運動指導エクセレンスセミナー 

    Presentation date: 2019.03

  • 「高齢者の身体能力に及ぼす運動×機能性食品の相乗効果~時間栄養学・運動学の観点から~」

    田中史子

    第8回シンポジウム 未来志向の次世代食品機能性と自然免疫 

    Presentation date: 2019.03

  • The effect of locally braking crank rotation during pedaling on the pedaling force and activation of lower limb muscles

    Iwata, S, Horiuchi, T, Yamagishi, T, Tokuyasu, Y, Wesugi, S, Kawakami, Y

    KU Leuven-Waseda International Workshop 

    Presentation date: 2019.03

  • Acute effects of running on morphological and mechanical characteristics of the plantar fascia

    Shiotani, H, Mizokuchi, T, Yamashita, R, Kawakami, Y

    KU Leuven-Waseda International Workshop 

    Presentation date: 2019.03

  • The effect of knee and hip joint angle changes on the stiffness of iliotibial band

    Otsuka, S, Yoshida, K, Kawakami, Y

    KU Leuven-Waseda International Workshop 

    Presentation date: 2019.03

  • 身体運動能力と骨格筋特性の加齢変化から考える高齢者の運動指導

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    高齢者運動指導エクセレンスセミナー 

    Presentation date: 2019.03

  • 身体運動能力と骨格筋特性の加齢変化から考える高齢者の運動指導

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    高齢者運動指導エクセレンスセミナー 

    Presentation date: 2019.02

  • 軟組織のマニピュレーションが筋腱複合体の伸長性や発揮筋力に及ぼす影響

    川上泰雄, 池田尚樹  [Invited]

    日本超音波骨軟組織学会 第33回西日本支部学術集会 

    Presentation date: 2019.02

  • 身体運動能力と骨格筋特性の加齢変化から考える高齢者の運動指導

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    高齢者運動指導エクセレンスセミナー 

    Presentation date: 2019.02

  • Effect of different knee-joint positions on passive stiffness of medial gastrocnemius muscle and aponeuroses during passive ankle motion

    Shan, X, Evangelidis, P, Kositsky A, Ikeda, N, Kawakami, Y

    21th International Conference on Sport, Health and Exercise Science 

    Presentation date: 2019.02

  • 「生涯を通した健康増進に向けて」「身体能力を測る・磨く・育むに」ついての紹介

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    ヒューマンパフォーマンス研究所第2回シンポジウム 

    Presentation date: 2018.12

  • 筋腱複合体の形態と機能に関する新たな視座:生体計測の知見から

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    第23回日本基礎理学療法学会学術大会 

    Presentation date: 2018.12

  • 人間の骨格筋の可塑性と適応性ーバイオメカニクスの観点からー

    田中史子

    コロイド先端技術講座2018 スポーツで活躍するソフトマター 

    Presentation date: 2018.11

  • ロードバイクにおける高速ダウンヒルコーナリング技能の修得支援―自動速 度維持装置を活用した車体姿勢操作と走行精度の向上方法の検討―

    上林周平, 榎本晋之介, 酒井大樹, 岩田宗也, 川上泰雄, 上杉繁

    日本機械学会 シンポジウム: スポーツ工学・ヒューマンダイナミクス2018 

    Presentation date: 2018.11

  • ロードバイクにおけるペダリング技能向上支援に関する研究 ―引き足を対象としたクランク位置での局所制動を付与するトレーニングツールの開発―

    雪吹俊哉, 徳安陽一, 岩田宗也, 川上泰雄, 上杉繁

    日本機械学会 シンポジウム: スポーツ工学・ヒューマンダイナミクス2018 

    Presentation date: 2018.11

  • Anisotropic elastic properties of the fascia lata during muscle contraction at different intensities-a shear wave elastography study、5th International Fascia Research Congress

    Otsuka, S, Shan, X, Kawakami, Y

    5th International Fascia Research Congress 

    Presentation date: 2018.11

  • Biomechanics of human locomotion from a viewpoint of energy save and use.

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    5th Joint Symposium of Thammasat University, BK21 PLUS of CUK & National Defense Medical Center, Biomedical Sciences and Biomechanics of Health 

    Presentation date: 2018.11

  • 長距離ランナーの3か月間の走り込みトレーニングが走タイムとアキレス腱の力学的・形態的特性に及ぼす影響

    池田尚樹, 川上泰雄

    第31回日本トレーニング科学大会 

    Presentation date: 2018.10

  • Muscle-tendon-fascia unit as a functional entity in humans: in-vivo and ex-situ evidence

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    5th International Autumn School of Movement Science in Berlin, 8-12/10/2018 

    Presentation date: 2018.10

  • Muscle-tendon-fascia unit as a functional entity in humans: In vivo and ex-situ evidence

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    5th International Autumn School of Movement Science in Berlin, 8-12/10/2018 

    Presentation date: 2018.10

  • 西東京市しゃきしゃき体操推進リーダー養成講座

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    西東京市しゃきしゃき体操推進リーダー養成講座 

    Presentation date: 2018.09

  • Muscle size and function, and locomotion ability of the elderly in Japan: Assessment and intervention

    Kawakami, Y, Tanaka, F  [Invited]

    Visite d’une délégation de la Faculty of Sport Science s de l'Université de Waseda Universite Liebe De Bruxelles 

    Presentation date: 2018.09

  • Research activities

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    KU Leuven & Waseda Joint Seminar 

    Presentation date: 2018.09

  • ペダリング中の局所的なクランク回転制動が踏力および下肢筋群の筋活動に及.ぼす影響

    岩田宗也, 堀内智貴, 山岸卓樹, 徳安陽一, 上杉繁, 川上泰雄

    第25回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2018.09

  • ランニングが足底腱膜の形態的・力学的特性に及ぼす影響とその部位差

    塩谷彦人, 溝口朋裕, 山下亮, 川上泰雄

    第25回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2018.09

  • ゴルフスイング中の筋活動と身体の動き

    川上泰雄, 原有心  [Invited]

    藤倉化成(株) 技術交流会 

    Presentation date: 2018.08

  • Musculature and composition of the thigh of the elderly: A new perspective.

    Ichinose, H, Evangelidis, P, Yamagishi, T, Tanaka, F, Shibata, S, Kawakami, Y

    23rd Annual Congress of the European College of Sports Science 

    Presentation date: 2018.07

  • Site- and gender-differences in morphological and mechanical properties of the plantar fascia in asymptomatic young individuals

    Shiotani, H, Yamashita, R, Mizokuchi, T, Kawakami, Y

    23rd Annual Congress of the European College of Sports Science 

    Presentation date: 2018.07

  • Influence of leg muscle size and power on maximal aerobic cycling performance of male and female athletes

    Yamagishi, T, Saito, A, Kawakami, Y

    23nd Annual Congress of the ECSS 

    Presentation date: 2018.07

  • 動いて食べて延ばせ健康寿命

    田中史子

    日本女子大学講演会 

    Presentation date: 2018.06

  • Single-joint eccentric knee extension training induces selective hypertrophy: a potential preventive measure against strain injuries

    Maeo, S, Shan, X, Otsuka, S, Kanehisa, H, Kawakami, Y

    The American College of Sports Medicine 65th Annual Meeting 

    Presentation date: 2018.05

  • 人間の骨格筋を支持構造から考える:腹膜の意義に関して

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    第37回 東日本支部学術集会 

    Presentation date: 2018.04

  • しゃきしゃき体操とその有効性

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    西東京市 東伏見体育館 しゃきしゃき体操講演 

    Presentation date: 2018.04

  • トップアスリートの身体特性とその操作技術

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    東京医科歯科大学×早稲田大学 第3回連携ワークショップ「いのちを科学する」 

    Presentation date: 2018.04

  • Neuro-musculo-tendinous mechanics and exercise performance.

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    Conference on Sport Sciences 

    Presentation date: 2018.03

  • 足底腱膜の形態的・力学的特性の定量評価を通じた足部コンディション評価法の確立

    塩谷彦人, 溝口朋裕, 山下亮, 永吉俊彦, 山岸卓樹, 堀内智貴, 熊井司, 磯繁雄, 相楽豊, 上杉繁, 川上泰雄

    ヒューマンパフォーマンス研究所第1回シンポジウム 

    Presentation date: 2018.02

  • 大腿部深筋膜の力学的特性の定量評価~人間の身体能力への応用を見据えて~

    大塚俊, 大道裕介, 大道美香, 矢倉富子, 内藤宗和, 中野隆, 川上泰雄

    第3回Muscle Biomechanics Imagingセミナー 

    Presentation date: 2018.02

  • 身体運動のパフォーマンスにおける下肢の筋腱複合体のはたらき:下腿三頭筋の解剖学的特性を中心に

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    第41回JSBM超音波ハンズオンセミナー初級編 基調講演 

    Presentation date: 2018.01

  • Synergistic effect of exercise and functional foods on the physical performance of the elderly: from the perspective of chrono-nutrition & Kinesiology.

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    Food, Exercises and Technology for Health Promotion 

    Presentation date: 2018.01

  • Synergistic effect of exercise and functional foods on the physical performance of the elderly: From the perspective of chrono-nutrition & Kinesiology.

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    Food, Exercises and Technology for Health Promotion 

    Presentation date: 2018.01

  • 足首に装着する単一の慣性センサに基づく足の筋肉収縮強度推定手法の提案.

    谷子曦, 兒玉拓磨, 河西利太朗, 張頔, 孔维晟, コセンティノ・サラ, セッサ・サルバトーレ, 川上泰雄, 高西淳夫

    第18回 計測自動制御学会システムインテグレーション部門講演会 

    Presentation date: 2017.12

  • Elastic mechanism in human movement.

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    Italy-Japan Workshop 2017 

    Presentation date: 2017.12

  • Measurement of the plantar fascia elasticity using shear wave elastography: Site and gender differences.

    Shiotani, H, Yamashita, R, Mizokuchi, T, Kawakami, Y

    The 5th international Conference on Biomedical Ultrasound 

    Presentation date: 2017.12

  • Site dependence of the human fascia lata elasticity

    Otsuka, S, Shan, X, Evangelidis, P, Tanaka, F, Shibata, S, Kawakami, Y

    The 5th international Conference on Biomedical Ultrasound 

    Presentation date: 2017.12

  • Anisotropic elasticity of adjoining aponeuroses of gastrocnemius medialis and soleus in older adults: In vivo measurements using shear wave elastography

    Shan, X, Evangelidis, P, Tanaka, F, Shibata, S, Kawakami, Y

    The 5th international Conference on Biomedical Ultrasound 

    Presentation date: 2017.12

  • 高齢者の身体能力に及ぼす運動×機能性食品の相乗効果:時間栄養学・運動学の観点から

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    内閣府 戦略的イノベーション創造プログラム(SIP)「次世代農林水産業創造技術」「次世代機能性農林水産物・食品の開発」公開シンポジウム―得られた成果とさらなる発展に向けて 

    Presentation date: 2017.11

  • Neural and hypertrophic adaptations to maximal eccentric versus concentric training matched for total work

    Maeo, S, Shan, X, Otsuka, S, Kanehisa, H, Kawakami, Y

    BASES-FEPSAC Conference 2017 

    Presentation date: 2017.11

  • 人体の画像解析からみるトップアスリートたち(シンポジスト)

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    日本メディカルライター協会・東京工科大学共催シンポジウム「メディカルデザイン-その限りない可能性をさぐる」 

    Presentation date: 2017.11

  • エリートアスリートの随意最大筋力に影響する因子

    齋藤輝, 前大純朗, 池田尚樹, 大塚俊, 河越勇紀, 西田和正, 塩谷彦人, 山岸卓樹, 川上泰雄

    第30回日本トレーニング科学大会 

    Presentation date: 2017.10

  • ランニング中の下肢の関節運動計測(招待講演)

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    MAC3Dセミナー 

    Presentation date: 2017.10

  • ベイジアンネットワークによる生活習慣データの因果推論と特定項目の改善の提案

    石川詩苑, 田中史子, 川上泰雄, 浜田道昭

    生命情報科学若手の会 第9回研究会 

    Presentation date: 2017.10

  • 器具を用いた軟組織モビライゼーションが足関節柔軟性および筋スティフネスに与える影響.

    池田尚樹, 大塚俊, 川西陽三, 川上泰雄

    第68回日本体育学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2017.09

  • Interrelationships among deformability and size of the upper- and lower-limb muscles in the elderly.

    Tanaka, F, Shan, X, Filiz, A, Higuchi, M, Shibata, S, Kawakami, Y

    The 26th Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2017.07

  • Measurement of plantar fascia elasticity by using shear wave elastography: Site-dependent differences and relation to ankle joint positions.

    Shiotani, H, Shan, X, Kawakami, Y

    26th Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2017.07

  • Relationships between walking speed mobility and trunk muscle size.

    Osaki, R, Saito, A, Tanaka, F, Higuchi, M, Shibata, S, Kawakami, Y

    International Society of Biomechanics 2017 

    Presentation date: 2017.07

  • Effect of changing gait parameters on joint kinematics and muscle activities of the lower limb during walking.

    Nishida, K, Tagami, K, Kawakami, Y

    26th congress of the international society of biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2017.07

  • The effect of thigh compression garment on isokinetic knee extension and flexion torque development.

    Kawagoe, Y, Otsuka, S, Kawakami, Y

    26th Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2017.07

  • Relationships between various aerobic factors during and after maximal exercise in elite athletes.

    Yamagishi, T, Saito, A, Maeo, S, Kawakami, Y

    22nd Annual Congress of the ECSS 

    Presentation date: 2017.07

  • 生体計測を通じた人間の身体能力の評価

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    産業技術総合研究所スポーツ科学セミナー 

    Presentation date: 2017.07

  • 人間の筋腱複合体の形状と機能-運動能力との関連性-

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    愛知医科大学特別講義 

    Presentation date: 2017.06

  • 高齢者の身体機能に及ぼす運動の効果

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    平成29年公益社団法人東京都柔道整復師会世田谷支部(城南ブロック合同)研究会「認知症と運動」 

    Presentation date: 2017.06

  • Muscle size strength and locomotor ability of the elderly in Japan: Assessment and intervention.

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    The 8th Asia-Pacific Conference on Exercise and Sports Science 2017 & The 7th International Conference on Sport and Exercise Science 

    Presentation date: 2017.06

  • Age-related differences in size and deformability of the rector femoris muscle.

    Tanaka, F, Shan, X, Filiz, A, Saito, A, Ema, R, Higuchi, M, Shibata, S, Kawakami, Y

    The 8th Asia-Pacific Conference on Exercise and Sports Science 2017 & The 7th International Conference on Sport and Exercise Science 

    Presentation date: 2017.06

  • Force transmission and epimuscular interaction through fascia: some evidence from in vivo observations.

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    CONNECT 2017: Connective Tissus in Sports Medicine 

    Presentation date: 2017.03

  • Structure and function of human fascia lata: site dependence of elastic property.

    Otsuka, S, Yakura, T, Ohmichi, Y, Ohmichi, M, Naito, M, Nakano, T, Kawakami, Y

    Connective Tissues in Sports Medicine 2nd International Congress 

    Presentation date: 2017.03

  • Site- and direction-dependent morphological and mechanical properties of the human triceps surae apponeuroses.

    Shan, X, Otsuka, S, Yakura, T, Naito, M, Nakano, T, Kawakami, Y

    Connective Tissues in Sports Medicine 2nd International Congress 

    Presentation date: 2017.03

  • Force transmission and epimuscular interaction through fascia: Some evidence from in vivo observations.

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    Connective Tissus in Sports Medicine 

    Presentation date: 2017.03

  • Exercise Performance Enhancement Utilizing Muscle Mechanics.

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    MEXT Top Global University Project: Health Promotion: The Joy of Sports and Exercise. The 3rd International Symposium 

    Presentation date: 2017.03

  • Effect of changing gait parameters on joint kinematics and muscle activities of the lower limb during walking.

    Nishida, K, Tagami, K, Kawakami, Y

    Health promotion: The joy of sports and exercise. International symposium 

    Presentation date: 2017.03

  • The effect of thigh compression garment on isokinetic knee extension and flexion torque development.

    Kawagoe, Y, Otsuka, S, Kawakami, Y

    Health promotion: The joy of sports and exercise. International symposium 

    Presentation date: 2017.03

  • Efficacy of elastic shoe insoles in leg spring and energy efficiency modulation in running.

    Shiotani, H, Oikawa, S, Kawakami, Y

    Health promotion: The joy of sports and exercise. International symposium 

    Presentation date: 2017.03

  • The relationship between walking ability dynamic balance and trunk muscle size in middle-aged and elderly individuals.

    Osaki, R, Saito, A, Tanaka, F, Higuchi, M, Shibata, S, Kawakami, Y

    Health promotion: The joy of sports and exercise. International symposium 

    Presentation date: 2017.03

  • Local vibration stretching: A novel stretching modality improving flexibility and drop jump performance.

    Ikeda, N, Yonezu, T, Inami, T, Shan, X, Kawakami, Y

    Health promotion: The joy of sports and exercise. International symposium 

    Presentation date: 2017.03

  • Exercise performance enhancement utilizing muscle mechanics.

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    MEXT Top Global University Project: Health Promotion: The Joy of Sports and Exercise. The 3rd International Symposium 

    Presentation date: 2017.03

  • しゃきしゃき筋力・脳力アップ介入が、高齢者の気分・認知機能に与える影響~性差に着目して~

    灰谷知純, 田中史子, 山岸卓樹, 井上和哉, 齋藤順一, 髙橋徹, 川上泰雄, 熊野宏昭

    早稲田大学応用脳科学研究所シンポジウム「応用脳科学の進展2017」 

    Presentation date: 2017.02

  • 「スマホアプリ『メタボウォッチ』」:時間栄養・運動学的観点から成人男女の生活習慣と体型の関連性を探る」

    田中史子

    早稲田大学重点領域研究 公開シンポジウム「食・農で日本を健康にする」研究開発シンポジウム 

    Presentation date: 2017.02

  • Task-dependent muscle damage localizations induced by quadriceps eccentric exercises.

    Maeo, S, Saito, A, Otsuka, S, Shan, X, Kanehisa, H, Kawakami, Y

    5th NSCA International Coference 

    Presentation date: 2017.01

  • 「メタボウォッチ」-スマホを活用して成人男女の生活習慣と体型の関連性を探る:時間栄養・運動学的観点から-

    川上泰雄, 田中史子  [Invited]

    IoMTサミット2016 (第1回IoMT学会総会) 

    Presentation date: 2016.12

  • The power index of sit-to-stand test score with upright trunk predicts anatomical cross-sectional area of quadriceps femoris in middle-aged and elderly population.

    Saito, A, Ema, R, Inami, T, Maeo, S, Otsuka, S, Higuchi, M, Shibata, S, Kawakami, Y

    10th International conference on strength training 

    Presentation date: 2016.11

  • 高強度運動後の筋硬度と筋形状変化

    米津貴久, 池田尚樹, 川上泰雄, 福林徹

    第29回日本トレーニング科学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2016.10

  • 大腿四頭筋の伸長性運動で生じる筋損傷の好発部位とその課題依存性

    前大純朗, 齋藤輝, 大塚俊, 単西瑶, 金久博昭, 川上泰雄

    第29回日本トレーニング科学会 

    Presentation date: 2016.10

  • 加齢が大腿部の個々の筋量・筋力に及ぼす影響とその性差

    大塚俊, 齋藤輝, 前大純朗, 江間諒一, 田中史子, 柴田重信, 川上泰雄

    第29回日本トレーニング科学会 

    Presentation date: 2016.10

  • Muscle mechanics for exercise performance enhancement (keynote lecture).

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    34th International Conference on Biomechanics in Sports 

    Presentation date: 2016.07

  • Inter-muscle differences in hamstrings strain during a straight leg raise test: an elastography study.

    Kawakami, Y, Komiya M, Ikeda, N, Inami, T  [Invited]

    21th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science 

    Presentation date: 2016.07

  • Age-related increase in muscle deformability of the rectus femoris: Relevance to sarcopenia.

    Tanaka, F, Ates, F, Kawakami, Y

    21st annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science 

    Presentation date: 2016.07

  • Local vibration stretching: A novel modality enhancing musculotendious stiffness while maintaining muscle strength.

    Ikeda, N, Yonezu, T, Inami, T, Kawakami, Y

    21st annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science 

    Presentation date: 2016.07

  • Gender difference in muscularity of the quadriceps femoris in varsity rowers: relation to knee alignment.

    Ema, R, Wakahara, T, hirayama, K, Kawakami, Y

    21st annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science 

    Presentation date: 2016.07

  • Efficacy of elastic shoe insoles in kinematics kinetics and muscle activity during walking and running.

    Shiotani, H, Fukuda, W, Kawakami, Y

    21st annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science 

    Presentation date: 2016.07

  • The effect of wearing masai barefoot technology shoes on recovery after marathon running.

    Nakagawa, K, Inami, T, Yonedu, T, Kenmotsu, Y, Narita, T, Kawakami, Y, Kanosue, K

    21st annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science 

    Presentation date: 2016.07

  • Structure and function of human fascia lata: site-dependence of thickness and fiber orientation.

    Otsuka, S, Ohmichi, Y, Ohmichi, M, Yakura, T, Naito, M, Nakano, T, Kawakami, Y

    21st annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science 

    Presentation date: 2016.07

  • 超音波法による筋腱複合体特性の評価:骨格筋の「量と質」を可視化する

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    日本超音波骨軟組織学会第28回超音波ハンズオンセミナー初級編 

    Presentation date: 2016.04

  • Decrease in the rate of torque development after static stretching is independent of the change in musculotendinous elastic properties.

    Ikeda, N, Yonezu, T, Inami, T, Kawakami, Y

    The 2nd International Symposium on"Health Promotion: The Joy of Sports and Exercise" Waseda Univ. 

    Presentation date: 2016.03

  • 大腿部筋膜の構造と機能(第1報):深筋膜における線維走行の部位比較

    大塚俊, 大道裕介, 大道美香, 矢倉富子, 内藤宗和, 中野隆, 川上泰雄

    第121回日本解剖学会総会・全国学術集会 

    Presentation date: 2016.03

  • Musculo-mechanical aspects of sprint running (invited speech).

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    Kasetsart University Kamphaeng Saen Campus 12nd National Conference in the Field of Health & Sport Science 

    Presentation date: 2015.12

  • プライオメトリックトレーニングが腱スティフネスおよびドロップジャンプ中の筋腱動態に与える影響

    平山邦明, 岩沼聡一朗, 池田尚樹, 吉川亜有美, 江間諒一, 川上泰雄

    第28回日本トレーニング科学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2015.10

  • 一流スプリンターの筋腱特性

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    2014 International Conference of Korean Society of Sport Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2014.09

  • Musculo-mechanical profile of world top sprinters (keynote lecture).

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    2014 International Conference of Korean Society of Sport Biomechanics. 

    Presentation date: 2014.09

  • Muscle-tendon unit in humans

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    第22回日本運動生理学会大会(招待講演) 

    Presentation date: 2014.07

  • 静的ストレッチングとランニングを組み合わせたウォームアップが跳躍能力に及ぼす影響

    池田尚樹, 川上泰雄

    第22回日本運動生理学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2014.07

  • 骨格筋を筋腱複合体として捉える: 基礎知識および最近の知見

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    第22回日本運動生理学会大会モーニングセッション 

    Presentation date: 2014.07

  • 前脛骨筋の伸張性収縮時のトルクの角速度依存性

    Kawakami, Y, Hishikawa, K, Shimamoto, K, Mogi, Y

    7th World Congress of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2014.07

  • Velocity dependence of maximal eccentric dorsiflexion in humans: Effect of muscle activity and length-force property of the tibialis anterior.

    Kawakami, Y, Hishikawa, K, Shimamoto, K, Mogi, Y  [Invited]

    7th World Congress of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2014.07

  • 等尺性足関節底屈時のトルク増加速度がトルク−筋放電量関係に及ぼす影響

    Kawakami, Y, Hatano, J, Wakahara, T

    19th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science 

    Presentation date: 2014.07

  • Effect of the rate of torque development on isometric plantar flexion torque-EMG relationship: fascicle behavior matters.

    Kawakami, Y, Hatano, J, Wakahara, T  [Invited]

    19th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science 

    Presentation date: 2014.07

  • Proceedings of the 20th CISM-IFToMM Symposium on Robot Design

    Otani T, Uryu, K, Yahara, M, Iizuka, A, Hamamoto, S, Miyamae, S, Hashimoto, K, Destephe, M, Sakaguchi, M, Kawakami, Y.,Lim, H. O, Takanishi

    Dynamics and Control 

    Presentation date: 2014.06

  • Development of rotational joint leg that mimics elastic characteristics of human leg in running stance phase.

    Otani T, Uryu, K, Yahara, M, Iizuka, A, Hashimoto, K, Destephe, M, Sakaguchi, M, Kawakami, Y, Lim, H. O, Takanishi A

    2014 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation 

    Presentation date: 2014.05

  • Running model and hopping robot using pelvic movement and leg elasticity.

    Otani T, Yahara, M, Uryu, K, Iizuka, A, Hashimoto, K, Kishi, T, Endo, N, Sakaguchi, M, Kawakami, Y, Hyon, S. H.,Lim, H. O, Takanishi, A

    Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation 

    Presentation date: 2014.05

  • Muscle size and strength of children

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    日本学術振興会公開シンポジウム「子どもの動きの獲得に必要な運動・身体活動」 

    Presentation date: 2014.03

  • 子供の動きを支える筋力

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    日本学術会議公開シンポジウム「子どもの動きの獲得に必要な運動・身体活動」 

    Presentation date: 2014.03

  • 超音波法による筋腱特性の評価: その個人差と可塑性

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    運動器超音波研究会 

    Presentation date: 2014.03

  • On the validity of evaluation of human tendinous tissues elasticity in vivo by ultrasonography.

    Kawakami, Y, Mogi, Y, Ikeda, N  [Invited]

    The 9th International Sport Science Symposium on "Active Life" Waseda Univ. 

    Presentation date: 2013.11

  • 人間の骨格筋の形状と機能

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    XXIV Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2013.08

  • Form and function of skeletal muscle tendon unit in humans.

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    XXIV Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2013.08

  • 加齢や不活動により骨格筋の変化と身体運動の効果

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    公開セミナー: 高齢者が元気で暮らし続けるには(早稲田大学スポーツ科学学術院・やわらグループ共催) 

    Presentation date: 2013.06

  • 腱および腱膜の弾性エネルギー貯蔵能力

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    Connect 2013: Connective Tissues in Sports Medicine 

    Presentation date: 2013.04

  • Kinetic storage of tendons and aponeuroses (chair and speaker).

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    Connect 2013: Connective Tissues in Sports Medicine. 

    Presentation date: 2013.04

  • 一流スプリンターのバイオメカニクス的特性

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    The 8th International Sport Sciences Symposium on "Active Life" 

    Presentation date: 2013.02

  • Biomechanical profile of world top sprinters.

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    The 8th International Sport Sciences Symposium on "Active Life" 

    Presentation date: 2013.02

  • 筋・腱のバイオメカニクス研究の最新の知見とトレーニング実践への応用

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    国立スポーツ科学センター講演会 

    Presentation date: 2013.02

  • 身体の「バネ」能力-パフォーマンスレベル向上の要因について-

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    (社)アスリートケア 2012年度研修会 

    Presentation date: 2012.10

  • How to publish papers in international journals

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    第67回日本体力医学会(教育講演)第67回日本体力医学会(教育講演) 

    Presentation date: 2012.09

  • 国際誌に掲載されるための主要ポイント アクセプトを目指して

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    第67回日本体力医学会(教育講演) 

    Presentation date: 2012.09

  • Series elasticity of human muscles: phenomena and whereabouts.

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    Seminar in the Institute of Physical Therapy College of Medicine National Taiwan University 

    Presentation date: 2012.08

  • Series elasticity of the triceps surae muscle-tendon unit in humans.

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    Seminar in the Faculty of Human Movement Science Frije Universiteit Amsterdam 

    Presentation date: 2012.07

  • 運動中の筋膜・腱膜の挙動: 超音波法による可視化の試み

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    日本超音波骨軟組織学会第3回北陸分科会(招待講演) 

    Presentation date: 2011.11

  • 身体運動と筋・腱の動態

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    第26回日本整形外科学会基礎学術集会(パネルディスカッション) 

    Presentation date: 2011.10

  • 下腿三頭筋の弾性要素: 腱組織と足アーチ

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    日本超音波骨軟組織学会 第23回西日本学術集会 

    Presentation date: 2011.09

  • Series elastic component in humans: anatomical basis and functional implications.

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    Seminar in the Faculty of Kinesiology University of Calgary 

    Presentation date: 2011.09

  • 人間の筋腱特性とその機能的意義

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    第39回青森県スポーツ医学研究会 

    Presentation date: 2011.09

  • 筋腱相互作用に関する最近の知見

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    鹿屋体育大学研究セミナー(招待講演) 

    Presentation date: 2010.12

  • 断裂後のアキレス腱の形態的・力学的特性の変化

    川上泰雄, 若原卓, 川本伸一  [Invited]

    第10回日本超音波骨軟組織学会学術総会 

    Presentation date: 2010.10

  • ローイング運動の生理学・バイオメカニクス

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    第65回日本体力医学会大会ワークショップ 

    Presentation date: 2010.09

  • 腱伸長と筋力との対応関係に関する新知見

    Kawakami, Y, Mitsukawa, N, Sugisaki, N, Miyamoto, N, Yanai, T, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T

    World Congress of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2010.08

  • Does tendon elongation accurately represent muscle force?: some contradicting findings on human gastrocnemius ands soleus muscle tendon units.

    Kawakami, Y, Mitsukawa, N, Sugisaki, N, Miyamoto, N, Yanai, T, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T  [Invited]

    6th World Congress of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2010.08

  • 身体のバネ-現象論と解剖学的所在

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    日本超音波骨軟組織学会第23回西日本支部中部分科会 

    Presentation date: 2010.02

  • 人間の筋腱特性および筋腱相互作用の個人差: トレーニングへの応用の可能性

    川上泰雄, 宮本直和, 若原卓, 光川眞壽, 佐久間淳, 平山邦明  [Invited]

    文部科学省学術フロンティア研究プロジェクト 第4回研究発表会 

    Presentation date: 2010.01

  • In vivo ultrasound imaging of fasciae (Invited Speech).

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    Second International Fascia Research Congress 

    Presentation date: 2009.10

  • 超音波法による筋膜の可視化

    Kawakami Y  [Invited]

    Second International Fascia Research Congress 

    Presentation date: 2009.10

  • Influence of tendon stiffness on joint power enhancement by a counter-movement against various loads.

    Miyamoto, N, Murata, K, Wakahara, T, Sugisaki, N, Kanehisa, H, Yanai, T, Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    2009 Workshop on Multi-Scale Muscle Mechanics 

    Presentation date: 2009.09

  • Joint performance during isokinetic knee extension and vastus lateralis tendon behavior.

    Kawakami, Y, Shimizu, M, Miyamoto, N, Wakahara, T, Mitsukawa, N, Hirayama, K, Yanai, T, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T  [Invited]

    2009 Workshop on Multi-Scale Muscle Mechanics 

    Presentation date: 2009.09

  • The role of muscle-tendon interaction in the individuality of work enhancement by counter-movement.

    hirayama, K, Miyamoto, N, Sugisaki, N, Kanehisa, H, Yanai, T, Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    2009 Workshop on Multi-Scale Muscle Mechanics 

    Presentation date: 2009.09

  • The effect of speed movement to muscle soreness and dysfunction after exercise.

    Kurihara, T, Sakuma, J, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    2009 Workshop on Multi-Scale Muscle Mechanics 

    Presentation date: 2009.09

  • Velocity fields of in vivo human skeletal msucle tissues during dynamic joint actions.

    Oda, T, Kinugasa, R, Himeno, R, Kawakami, Y

    2009 Workshop on Multi-Scale Muscle Mechanics 

    Presentation date: 2009.09

  • Architectural factors influencing maximal muscle power in vivo.

    Wakahara, T, Kanehisa, H, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T, Yanai, T

    2009 Workshop on Multi-Scale Muscle Mechanics 

    Presentation date: 2009.09

  • 収縮強度および運動単位の動員度がPostactivation Potentiationに及ぼす影響

    福谷充輝, 金久博昭, 宮本直和, 川上泰雄, 矢内利政

    日本体育学会第60回記念大会 

    Presentation date: 2009.08

  • 等尺性収縮に伴う肘関節屈曲筋群の横断面変化

    赤木亮太, 岩沼聡一朗, 金久博昭, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    日本体育学会第60回記念大会 

    Presentation date: 2009.08

  • Shift of the optimum fascicle length after eccentric exercise on the ascending limb of the force-length relationship.

    Lee, H.-D, Kawakami, Y, Kim, S.-J

    XXII Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2009.07

  • Passive tension-length relations of human triceps surae muscles after repeated eccentric-concentric exercise.

    Kurihara, T, Sakuma, J, Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    XXII Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2009.07

  • Local behavior of fascicles in human skeletal muscles in vivo during dynamic movements.

    Oda, T, Kinugasa, R, Yamauchi, J, Iwanuma, S, Himeno, R, Kawakami, Y

    XXII Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2009.07

  • Estensibility of the human Achilles tendon during isometric contraction: an in vivo MRI study.

    Iwanuma, S, Akagi, R, Kurihara, T, Ikegawa, S, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science 

    Presentation date: 2009.06

  • Architectural features of human anterior duirng passive ankle angle changes measured by 3D-ultrasonography.

    Ikegawa, S, Kurihara, T, Iwanuma, S, Akagi, R, Sakaguchi, M, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science 

    Presentation date: 2009.06

  • A 6-week stretching program alters mechanical and architectural properties of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit.

    Kato, E, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science 

    Presentation date: 2009.06

  • Applicability of segmental bio-electrical impedance for estimating skeletal muscle volume in childeren aged 6-12 years.

    Ohta, M, Midorikawa, T, Hikihara, Y, Masuo, Y, Sakamoto, S, Kawakami, Y, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T

    14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science 

    Presentation date: 2009.06

  • Muscle/tendon behavior during contraction: findings on humans and rats.

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    Symposium for Dr. Peter Huijing 

    Presentation date: 2009.04

  • 身体運動における骨格筋と腱の役割

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    文部科学省学術フロンティア研究プロジェクト 第3回学術講演会 

    Presentation date: 2008.02

  • 人体筋の機能と筋腱特性

    川上泰雄, 加藤えみか, 光川眞壽, 岩沼総一朗, 福永哲夫  [Invited]

    文部科学省学術フロンティア研究プロジェクト「ライフステージに応じた健康増進と多様性保持」第2回研究会 

    Presentation date: 2007.12

  • 柔軟性のトレーニング効果(教育講演)

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    日本トレーニング科学会第20回大会 

    Presentation date: 2007.11

  • 垂直跳びによるパワー発揮特性の類型化の試み: サッカー選手を対象として

    清水美奈, 平山邦明, 星川佳広, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第20回日本トレーニング科学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2007.11

  • 筋の力発揮の速度が腱の粘弾性におよぼす影響

    田村恵彦, 栗原俊之, 若原卓, 加藤えみか, 阪口正律, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第20回日本トレーニング科学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2007.11

  • 同一挙上重量における両側性と一側性の肘関節屈曲伸展動作中の筋活動

    福井俊太郎, 高井洋平, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第20回日本トレーニング科学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2007.11

  • バスケットボールのフリースロー成功率に及ぼす関節運動の影響

    元安陽一, 勝亦陽一, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第20回日本トレーニング科学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2007.11

  • 発育期の野球選手における投球スピードの1年間の変化

    勝亦陽一, 丸山洋輔, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第20回日本トレーニング科学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2007.11

  • BI法を用いた小学生の部位別骨格筋量推定の可能性

    太田めぐみ, 緑川泰史, 増尾善久, 坂本静男, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第20回日本トレーニング科学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2007.11

  • 異なるストレッチング方法が関節可動域と腱の粘弾性に及ぼす影響(学会賞受賞)

    加藤えみか, 飯森沙百合, 栗原俊之, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第20回日本トレーニング科学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2007.11

  • 異なる衝撃緩衝性を有するシューズがランニング中の脚スティフネスと下肢の関節トルクに及ぼす影響

    阪口正律, 小林海, 元安陽一, 福永哲夫, 江口貴弘, 川上泰雄

    第20回日本トレーニング科学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2007.11

  • Stretch-Shortening Cycle (SSC) 運動中の腓腹筋とヒラメ筋の筋と腱の力学量の推定

    佐久間淳, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第20回日本トレーニング科学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2007.11

  • エキセントリック収縮時に下腿三頭筋に生じる応力・ひずみの大きさとその分布: シミュレーション研究

    小田俊明, 金久博昭, 川上泰雄, 姫野龍太郎

    第20回日本トレーニング科学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2007.11

  • ジャンプ時におけるアキレス腱組織のひずみと応力の推定

    小田俊明, 川上泰雄, 片岡弘之, 横田秀夫, 姫野龍太郎

    シンポジウム: ヒューマン・ダイナミクス 

    Presentation date: 2007.11

  • 人間の骨格筋における筋腱相互作用とスポーツパフォーマンスの関係(招待講演)

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    大阪体育学会講演会 

    Presentation date: 2007.11

  • Design for effective power production in human movements: musculoskeletal perspective (Invited Speech).

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    International Symposium on Nature-Inspired Technology 

    Presentation date: 2007.10

  • 人間の骨格筋のパワー発揮特性

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    International Symposium on Nature-Inspired Technology 

    Presentation date: 2007.10

  • 光学3次元人体形状計測に基づく体表面積の推定式の作成

    設楽佳世, 油井明子, 土井正裕, 並木幸久, 若原卓, 金久博昭, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第62回日本体力医学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2007.09

  • 足関節角度の違いがアキレス腱の形状に与える影響

    岩沼聡一郎, 栗原俊之, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第62回日本体力医学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2007.09

  • 持続的な最大下等尺性足関節底屈トルク発揮中の下腿三頭筋の筋活動および腱伸長の変化

    光川眞壽, 野入篤志, 杉崎範英, 宮本直和, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第62回日本体力医学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2007.09

  • 能動的および受動的な腱伸長が筋腱複合体の力学的特性に及ぼす影響

    加藤えみか, 光川眞壽, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第62回日本体力医学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2007.09

  • 最大随意収縮後に単収縮張力が増強する要因を探る-筋束および腱組織の長さに着目して-

    宮本直和, 光川眞壽, 杉崎範英, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第62回日本体力医学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2007.09

  • 3次元超音波法をもちいた収縮中の腱組織の長さ変化測定

    池川繁樹, 栗原俊之, 金久博昭, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第62回日本体力医学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2007.09

  • ヒト大腿四頭筋における伸張性筋活動後の等尺性筋力増強

    杉崎範英, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第62回日本体力医学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2007.09

  • 生体電気インピーダンス法(BI法)による下肢骨格筋量の推定における測定姿勢の検討

    冨田真司, 増尾善久, 高井洋平, 太田めぐみ, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第62回日本体力医学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2007.09

  • 発育期男子における腓腹筋の筋・腱の形状

    栗原俊之, 金久博昭, 安部孝, 角田直也, 加藤えみか, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第62回日本体力医学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2007.09

  • 中学生陸上競技選手のスプリントパフォーマンスの縦断的変化

    小林海, 勝亦陽一, 土江寛裕, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第62回日本体力医学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2007.09

  • 筋形態および筋機能の変化が投球スピードの変化に及ぼす影響

    勝亦陽一, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第62回日本体力医学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2007.09

  • ローイング動作中の発揮パワーと筋活動の関係

    四谷高広, 下田学, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第62回日本体力医学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2007.09

  • 身体運動中の骨格筋のふるまい?超音波法による生体計測?(招待講演)

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    第7回日本超音波骨軟組織学会学術総会大会 

    Presentation date: 2007.09

  • 関節角度の違いがPostactivation potentiationに与える影響

    宮本直和, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    日本体育学会第58回大会 

    Presentation date: 2007.09

  • 中高年齢者における関節トルクおよび筋力と筋断面積指標との関係-安静時と最大等尺性収縮時の比較-

    赤木亮太, 高井洋平, 福田誠, 金久博昭, 太田めぐみ, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    日本体育学会第58回大会 

    Presentation date: 2007.09

  • ボート競技におけるオフシーズントレーニングの縦断的検討-大学ボート部員を対象として-

    四谷高広, 下田学, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    日本体育学会第58回大会 

    Presentation date: 2007.09

  • 3次元肩甲骨キネマティクス測定法の検討-Magnetic tracking deviceとMRI法の比較-

    村田浩一郎, 吉村達彦, 矢内利政, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    日本体育学会第58回大会 

    Presentation date: 2007.09

  • 関節運動制限下での投球スピードにおける大学野球選手と未経験者の比較

    勝亦陽一, 丸山洋輔, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    日本体育学会第58回大会 

    Presentation date: 2007.09

  • 和弓の押手技術が矢の速度に与える影響の力学的考察.

    井出敦夫, 川上泰雄

    第40回日本武道学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2007.08

  • Presentation of target torque level and error information enhance maximal voluntary elbow flexion torque.

    Fukuda, M, Takai, Y, Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    American Society of Biomechanics 2007 Annual Conference 

    Presentation date: 2007.08

  • Determination of the psoas major muscle thickness by B-mode ultrasonography.

    Katsumata, Y, Takai, Y, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    American Society of Biomechanics 2007 Annual Conference 

    Presentation date: 2007.08

  • Changes in leg stiffness and sprint characteristics during the acceleration phase of running in top sprinters.

    Kobayashi, K, Iso, S, Kanosue, K, Tsuchie, H, Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    American Society of Biomechanics 2007 Annual Conference 

    Presentation date: 2007.08

  • Muscle-tendon interaction in counter-movement exercise: effect of movement speed.

    Kawakami, Y, Sakuma, J, Fukunaga, T  [Invited]

    20th Congress of the European College of Sport Science 

    Presentation date: 2007.07

  • Relationship between fascicle length and surface EMG responses of the gastrocnemius muscle during maximal static plantar flexions.

    Wakahara, T, Kanehisa, H, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    20th Congress of the European College of Sport Science 

    Presentation date: 2007.07

  • Aponeurosis and tendon length changes in tibialis anterior muscle upon contraction measured by 3D-ultrasonography. 20th Congress of the European College of Sport Science

    Ikegawa, S, Kurihara, T, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    Presentation date: 2007.07

  • Effect of resistance training and stretching on elastic property of muscle-tendon complex.

    Fukunaga, T, Kubo, K, Kawakami, Y

    20th Congress of the European College of Sport Science 

    Presentation date: 2007.07

  • The behavior of medial gastrocnemius and soleus muscles as related to force decline during repeated bouts of isometric plantar flexions.

    Mitsukawa, N, Sugisaki, N, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    20th Congress of the European College of Sport Science 

    Presentation date: 2007.07

  • Applicability of segmental bio-electrical impedance for estimating skeletal muscle volume of junior high school students.

    Ohta, M, Abe, T, Miyatani, M, Masuo, Y, Takeshita, K, Ishiguro, N, Kawakami, Y, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T

    20th Congress of the European College of Sport Science 

    Presentation date: 2007.07

  • Effect of hip joint angles on the fascicle length of the vastus lateralis muscle during maximal voluntary isometric knee extension.

    Sugisaki, N, Kawakami, Y, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T

    20th Congress of the European College of Sport Science 

    Presentation date: 2007.07

  • Lower-limb muscular activities during physical tasks of daily living are higher in the elderly compared with the young.

    Takai, Y, Sawai, S, Shimada, M, Kanehisa, H, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    20th Congress of the European College of Sport Science 

    Presentation date: 2007.07

  • Effects of submaximal muscle contraction and stretching on vertical jump technique.

    Kato, E, Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    XXIst Congress of International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2007.07

  • Gastrocnemius muscle architecture and external tendon length in young boys.

    Kurihara, T, Kanehisa, H, Abe, T, Tsunoda, N, Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    XXIst Congress of International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2007.07

  • Effects of muscle architecture on force enchancement following active muscle stretching in human tibialis anterior in vivo.

    Lee, H.-D, Kawakami, Y, Herzog, W

    XXIst Congress of International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2007.07

  • 身体運動を測る:スポーツにおけるバイオメカニクスの役割(招待講演)

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    早稲田大学スポーツ科学研究センター設立記念シンポジウム 

    Presentation date: 2007.03

  • 受動伸長時における下腿三頭筋の局所ひずみの大きさ・分布に腱膜が与える影響

    小田俊明, 姫野龍太郎, 金久博昭, 加藤えみか, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    日本体育学会東京支部第34回大会 

    Presentation date: 2007.03

  • 下腿三頭筋の体積とアキレス腱の横断面積の関係

    岩沼総一郎, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    日本体育学会東京支部第34回大会 

    Presentation date: 2007.03

  • 身体運動中の筋腱複合体のふるまい(招待講演)

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    第7回フィールドケア21 

    Presentation date: 2007.01

  • 人間の筋腱特性の性差および加齢変化

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    文部科学省学術フロンティア研究プロジェクト「ライフステージに応じた健康増進と多様性保持」第1回研究会 

    Presentation date: 2006.12

  • 骨格筋の特性について(招待講演)

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    近江理学療法勉強会 

    Presentation date: 2006.09

  • Body Line Scanner (BLS)による身体セグメント別体積測定

    設楽佳世, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄, 金久博昭, 永島秀彦, 近藤隆, 山本百合, 守屋有佳里, 小野寺正道, 福渡 靖

    第61回日本体力医学会大会予稿集 

    Presentation date: 2006.09

  • 安静時および最大等尺性筋活動時の肘関節屈筋群筋厚および上腕周径囲:測定位置の影響

    赤木亮太, 金久博昭, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第61回日本体力医学会大会予稿集 

    Presentation date: 2006.09

  • 日常生活動作を利用したトレーニング動作の有用性

    高井洋平, 金久博昭, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第61回日本体力医学会大会予稿集 

    Presentation date: 2006.09

  • ヒトアキレス腱の形状と力発揮時の応力分布および局所変形との関係-シミュレーション研究-

    小田俊明, 姫野龍太郎, 栗原俊之, 金久博昭, 加藤えみか, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第61回日本体力医学会大会予稿集 

    Presentation date: 2006.09

  • 生体電気インピーダンス(BI)法を用いた筋形状変化推定に関する検討

    美濃羽弘樹, 赤木亮太, 太田めぐみ, 増尾善久, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第61回日本体力医学会大会予稿集 

    Presentation date: 2006.09

  • 足関節可動域の性差および年代差とアキレス腱伸長の関係

    加藤えみか, 小田俊明, 千野謙太郎, 栗原俊之, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第61回日本体力医学会大会予稿集 

    Presentation date: 2006.09

  • 予備緊張による短縮性トルク増加の要因

    千野謙太郎, 小田俊明, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第61回日本体力医学会大会予稿集 

    Presentation date: 2006.09

  • 反動動作中の筋腱複合体の動態(招待講演)

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    第19回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2006.09

  • 最大等尺性足底反復時の筋疲労と筋束動態

    光川眞壽, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第19回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2006.09

  • 大腿四頭筋モーメントアーム長の推定方法間比較

    杉崎範英, 金久博昭, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第19回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2006.09

  • 下腿後面の筋厚とアキレス腱の横断面積の比較

    岩沼聡一朗, 永吉俊彦, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第19回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2006.09

  • 超音波法を用いたヒラメ筋の力?速度関係の生体計測

    千野謙太郎, 小田俊明, 栗原俊之, 永吉俊彦, 加藤えみか, 深代千之, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第19回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2006.09

  • レジスタンストレーニングによる筋線維および腱組織の適応と筋腱複合体の力発揮特性との関係

    小田俊明, 長野明紀, 金久博昭, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第19回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2006.09

  • 等尺性収縮中の腓腹筋および前脛骨筋の筋形状の部位差

    栗原俊之, 金久博昭, 小田俊明, 千野謙太郎, 永吉俊彦, 加藤えみか, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第19回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2006.09

  • 生体電気インピーダンス(BI)法を用いた筋量推定に関する検討

    美濃羽弘樹, 赤木亮太, 太田めぐみ, 増尾善久, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第19回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2006.09

  • 足部底背屈動作における下腿三頭筋の収縮動態

    佐久間淳, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第19回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2006.09

  • 膝関節角度が伸張性足底屈トルクに与える影響

    若原卓, 金久博昭, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第19回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2006.09

  • 肘関節屈曲における筋張力と筋断面積指標の関係:安静時と最大等尺性筋活動時の比較

    赤木亮太, 金久博昭, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第19回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2006.09

  • 異なる強度の等尺性底屈トルク発揮が下腿三頭筋・腱の伸張性に及ぼす影響

    加藤えみか, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第19回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2006.09

  • 一流短距離選手にみられる加速局面の脚スティフネスおよび関節スティフネスの変化

    小林海, 土江寛裕, 松尾彰文, 彼末一之, 礒繁雄, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第19回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2006.09

  • 和弓射術のパフォーマンス評価のためのパラメータの検討

    井出敦夫, 永吉俊彦, 加藤えみか, 光川眞壽, 小林海, 三好裕介, 栗原俊之, 千野謙太郎, 小田俊明, 彼末一之, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第19回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2006.09

  • 大学野球投手と未経験者における投球動作中の床反力の比較

    勝亦陽一, 丸山洋輔, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第19回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2006.09

  • ボート競技におけるローイング動作の特徴-熟練者と未熟練者のキネマティクスおよびキネティクスの比較-

    四谷高広, 三好裕介, 小林海, 光川眞壽, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第19回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2006.09

  • 漕運動の機械的効率とローイング動作との関係

    三好裕介, 四谷高広, 小林海, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第19回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2006.09

  • 肩回旋腱板筋群(ローテータカフ)の3次元形態特性

    吉村達彦, 岩沼聡一朗, 光川眞壽, 村田浩一郎, 小田俊明, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第19回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2006.09

  • 筋疲労回復手段としてのスタティック・ストレッチングの効果

    金子 潤, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第19回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2006.09

  • 腱の弾性と筋活動が反動効果に与える影響

    平山邦明, 加藤えみか, 永吉俊彦, 杉崎範英, 光川眞壽, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第19回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2006.09

  • Tendon mechanical properties: influence of muscle actions (Invited Speech).

    Kawakami, Y, Sugisaki, N, Chino, K, Oda, T, Fukunaga, T  [Invited]

    5th World Congress of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2006.07

  • Effect of fascicle behavior on voluntary and electrically evoked eccentric torques.

    Chino, K, Mitsukawa, N, Kobayashi, K, Miyoshi, Y, Fukunaga, T, Fukashiro, S, Kawakami, Y

    5th World Congress of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2006.07

  • Effect of muscle-tendon interaction on torque development of isometric tetanic contraction.

    Oda, T, Chino, K, Kurihara, T, Nagayoshi, T, Kato, E, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    5th World Congress of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2006.07

  • Changes in mechanical properties of Achilles tendon resulting from muscle contraction and stretching.

    Kato, E, Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    5th World Congress of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2006.07

  • Feasibility of resistance training employing daily physical actions for improvement of muscle strength.

    Takai, Y, Sugisaki, N, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    5th World Congress of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2006.07

  • Behavior of Achilles tendon and gastrocnemius aponeurosis during concentric and eccentric plantar flexions (Invited Speech).

    Kawakami, Y, Sugisaki, N, Chino, K, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T  [Invited]

    19th Congress of the European College of Sport Science 

    Presentation date: 2006.07

  • 腱の力学的特性と収縮様式

    Kawakami, Y, Sugisaki, N, Chino, K, Oda, T, Fukunaga, T  [Invited]

    5th World Congress of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2006.07

  • 足底屈運動中のアキレス腱のふるまい

    Kawakami, Y, Sugisaki, N, Chino, K, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T

    19th Congress of the European College of Sport Science 

    Presentation date: 2006.07

  • 筋活動様式の用語について再考する(教育講演)

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    日本体育学会東京支部第33回大会 

    Presentation date: 2006.03

  • ジャンプにおける筋腱複合体の動態(シンポジウム)

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    日本体育学会第56回大会 

    Presentation date: 2005.11

  • 下肢の自重負荷トレーニングが歩行・走行パワーに及ぼす影響-高齢者のホーム貯筋プロジェクト-

    高田佑輔, 赤木亮太, 竹下香寿美, 金久博昭, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    日本体育学会第56回大会 

    Presentation date: 2005.11

  • 下肢の自重負荷トレーニングが高齢者の脚伸展パワーに与える効果-高齢者のホーム貯筋プロジェクト-

    永吉俊彦, 赤木亮太, 竹下香寿美, 金久博昭, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    日本体育学会第56回大会 

    Presentation date: 2005.11

  • 自重を利用した筋力トレーニングが身体機能に与える影響-高齢者のホーム貯筋プロジェクト-

    太田めぐみ, 赤木亮太, 竹下香寿美, 金久博昭, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    日本体育学会第56回大会 

    Presentation date: 2005.11

  • 自重負荷トレーニングが筋力及び関節トルクに与える影響-高齢者のホーム貯筋プロジェクト-

    小林寛, 山下耕平, 竹下香寿美, 金久博昭, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    日本体育学会第56回大会 

    Presentation date: 2005.11

  • 短縮性筋活動中の筋線維速度と筋速度の比較

    若原卓, 金久博昭, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    日本体育学会第56回大会 

    Presentation date: 2005.11

  • アメリカンフットボールクォーターバックの投球動作の3次元解析

    川上泰雄, 金井健斗, 栗原俊之, 福永哲夫  [Invited]

    第18回日本トレーニング科学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2005.11

  • 和弓における矢の飛翔エネルギーに関する研究

    井出敦夫, 永吉俊彦, 加藤えみか, 下田学, 光川眞壽, 小林海, 三好裕介, 小田俊明, 千野謙太郎, 依田玉枝, 彼末一之, 福永哲夫

    第18回日本トレーニング科学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2005.11

  • アキレス腱のどこが伸びるのか?

    永吉俊彦, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第18回日本トレーニング科学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2005.11

  • アイシングがその後の運動中の筋酸素化動態と血流量に与える影響

    光川眞壽, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第18回日本トレーニング科学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2005.11

  • 陸上競技選手と野球選手の100m疾走の特徴

    小林海, 土江寛裕, 勝亦陽一, 礒繁雄, 彼末一之, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第18回日本トレーニング科学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2005.11

  • 運動中の筋腱複合体のふるまい(シンポジウム)

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    日本臨床バイオメカニクス学会 

    Presentation date: 2005.10

  • ゴルフ動作の測定(招待講演)

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    日本ゴルフ学会第18回大会 

    Presentation date: 2005.09

  • 和弓における矢速の規定因子に関する研究

    井出敦夫, 川上泰雄

    日本武道学会第38回大会 

    Presentation date: 2005.09

  • In vivo muscle fiber kinetics during tetanic contraction.

    Oda, T, Kurihara, T, Chino, K, Kanehisa, H, Nagayoshi, T, Kato, E, Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    XXth International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2005.08

  • Three-dimensional architecture of human gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles during isometric actions.

    Kurihara, T, Oda, T, Chino, K, Nagayoshi, T, Kato, E, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    XXth International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2005.08

  • Behavior of aponeurosis and external tendon of medial gastrocnemius muscle during dynamic plantar flexion exercise.

    Sugisaki, N, Kanehisa, H, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    XXth International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2005.08

  • Effects of knee joint angle on the force-length and velocity characteristics of gastrocnemius muscle.

    Wakahara, T, Kanehisa, H, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    XXth International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2005.08

  • Repetitive muscle contraction comes about plastic deformation for tendon.

    Kato, E, Oda, T, Chino, K, Kurihara, T, Nagayoshi, T, Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y

    XXth International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2005.08

  • スポーツ科学研究における超音波断層法利用の展開(招待講演)

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    日本超音波骨軟組織学会第11回東日本支部学術集会および日本超音波骨軟組織学会第8回東日本支部学術集会 

    Presentation date: 2005.04

  • アメリカンフットボールクォーターバックの投球動作の解析:新たな3次元解析への試み

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    日本トレーニング科学会第44回トレーニングカンファレンス 

    Presentation date: 2005.03

  • 筋腱の科学

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    東京スポーツメディシンフォーラムin JISS 

    Presentation date: 2004.12

  • トッププロとアマチュアのゴルフスウィングの比較

    川上泰雄, 井出敦夫, 野澤むつこ, 永吉俊彦, 小林海, 小田俊明, 千野謙太郎, 栗原俊之, 加藤えみか, 福永哲夫  [Invited]

    第17回トレーニング科学研究会大会 

    Presentation date: 2004.11

  • 上肢の反動効果利用時の力発揮能力と投球速度の関係

    山下耕平, 東香寿美, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第17回トレーニング科学研究会大会 

    Presentation date: 2004.11

  • 垂直跳びにおいて重りをもつことが跳躍動作に及ぼす影響

    金子 潤, 杉崎範英, 東香寿美, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第17回トレーニング科学研究会大会 

    Presentation date: 2004.11

  • 大腿筋量の推定方法に関する検討

    太田めぐみ, 宮谷昌枝, 東香寿美, 石黒憲子, 増尾善久, 金久博昭, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第17回トレーニング科学研究会大会 

    Presentation date: 2004.11

  • アメリカンフットボールのファンダメンタルヒットに関するバイオメカニクス的研究

    栗原俊之, 村井雄太, 金井建斗, 永吉俊彦, 加藤えみか, 井出敦夫, 小田俊明, 千野謙太郎, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第17回トレーニング科学研究会大会 

    Presentation date: 2004.11

  • 和弓の「離れ」における射手の押し手の挙動に関する研究

    井出敦夫, 下田学, 小田俊明, 千野謙太郎, 栗原俊之, 永吉俊彦, 加藤えみか, 小西あき, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第17回トレーニング科学研究会大会 

    Presentation date: 2004.11

  • 自重によるシットアップ及びスクワット動作における筋活動水準

    高井洋平, 杉崎範英, 東香寿美, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第17回トレーニング科学研究会大会 

    Presentation date: 2004.11

  • 力の立ち上がり局面の筋線維張力を決定する因子の経時変化

    小田俊明, 栗原俊之, 千野謙太郎, 金久博昭, 永吉俊彦, 加藤えみか, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第17回トレーニング科学研究会大会 

    Presentation date: 2004.11

  • 足関節の静的ストレッチング中にアキレス腱が伸長する

    加藤えみか, 小田俊明, 千野謙太郎, 栗原俊之, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第17回トレーニング科学研究会大会 

    Presentation date: 2004.11

  • 動的筋力発揮における腓腹筋の腱膜および外部腱の動態

    杉崎範英, 金久博昭, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第17回トレーニング科学研究会大会 

    Presentation date: 2004.11

  • 6週間の等尺性筋力発揮トレーニングに伴う肘屈曲トルク及び上腕屈筋群筋厚の変化

    東香寿美, 勝亦陽一, 高井洋平, 赤木亮太, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第17回トレーニング科学研究会大会 

    Presentation date: 2004.11

  • 6週間の等尺性筋力発揮トレーニングに伴うトルクと筋電図の変化

    勝亦陽一, 東香寿美, 高井洋平, 赤木亮太, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第17回トレーニング科学研究会大会 

    Presentation date: 2004.11

  • Strength training effects on muscle size and architecture: errors and interpretations (Invited Speech).

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    4th International Conference of Strength Training. 

    Presentation date: 2004.11

  • 筋力トレーニングと筋形状

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    4th International Conference of Strength Training 

    Presentation date: 2004.11

  • 高齢者にみられる足関節可動域の性差

    川上泰雄, 小田俊明, 永吉俊彦, 久野譜也, 金久博昭, 福永哲夫  [Invited]

    日本体育学会第55回大会 

    Presentation date: 2004.09

  • ヒト前脛骨筋における強縮/単収縮比と腱組織の力学的特性との関連

    小田俊明, 栗原俊之, 千野謙太郎, 永吉俊彦, 加藤えみか, 金久博昭, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第59回日本体力医学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2004.09

  • 長時間の静的ストレッチングが下腿三頭筋の伸長に及ぼす急性効果

    加藤えみか, 小田俊明, 千野謙太郎, 栗原俊之, 永吉俊彦, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第59回日本体力医学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2004.09

  • 収縮中の腓腹筋および前脛骨筋の羽状角の3次元計測

    栗原俊之, 小田俊明, 千野謙太郎, 永吉俊彦, 加藤えみか, 金久博昭, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第59回日本体力医学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2004.09

  • 筋音図解析によるCatchlike property発生機序の解明

    吉武康栄, 川上泰雄, 金久博昭, 福永哲夫

    第59回日本体力医学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2004.09

  • 3D-muscle functional MRIを用いた収縮様式の違いによる下腿三頭筋の筋活動特性の比較

    衣笠竜太, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第59回日本体力医学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2004.09

  • 強縮後の単収縮増強と筋線維動態の関連性

    川上泰雄, 小田俊明, 千野謙太郎, 永吉俊彦, 金久博昭, 福永哲夫  [Invited]

    第18回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2004.09

  • ヒト前脛骨筋における単収縮中の張力および筋線維長の経時変化

    小田俊明, 栗原俊之, 千野謙太郎, 金久博昭, 永吉俊彦, 加藤えみか, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第18回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2004.09

  • ヒラメ筋の力-速度関係の生体計測

    千野謙太郎, 小田俊明, 金久博昭, 深代千之, 永吉俊彦, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第18回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2004.09

  • 和弓の会・離れのバイオメカニクス-熟練射手における事例研究-

    井出敦夫, 川上泰雄

    日本武道学会第37回大会 

    Presentation date: 2004.08

  • 人間の骨格筋の形状と筋活動能力(招待講演)

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    (財)生弓会平成16年度中央研修会 

    Presentation date: 2004.08

  • ファイバーが生み出す力とパワー:マッスルファイバーとテンドンファイバー(招待講演)

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    みらいせんい展スポーツ系イベントシンポジウム「究極の繊維と人間のファイバーが生み出すオリンピック勝利への道:しなやかな叡知を!」 

    Presentation date: 2004.08

  • 3D-muscle functional MRIによる筋活動の計測

    衣笠竜太, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第12回日本運動生理学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2004.07

  • In vivo myofascial force transmission between passive EDL segments in humans.

    Kawakami, Y, Huijing, P. A. J. B. M, Ito, M, Muraoka, Y, Kubo, K, Fukunaga, T  [Invited]

    14th European Society of Biomechanics Conference. 

    Presentation date: 2004.07

  • 人間の骨格筋における力の側方伝達

    Kawakami, Y, Huijing, P. A. J. B. M, Ito, M, Muraoka, Y, Kubo, K, Fukunaga, T

    14th European Society of Biomechanics Conference 

    Presentation date: 2004.07

  • Catchlike property decreases the amplitude of mechanomyogram in humans.

    Yoshitake Y, Shinohara, M, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    XVth Congress of the International Society of Electrophysiology and Kinesiology. 

    Presentation date: 2004.06

  • Localization of three-dimensional distribution of muscle activation using muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Kinugasa, R, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    XVth Congress of the International Society of Electrophysiology and Kinesiology. 

    Presentation date: 2004.06

  • スポーツとバイオメカニクス?軟部組織の生体計測の視点から?(教育研修講演)

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    第12回よこはまスポーツ整形外科フォーラム 

    Presentation date: 2004.06

  • 超音波法による骨格筋収縮動態の生体計測(招待講演)

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    日本超音波骨軟組織学術研究会第9回東日本支部研究会 

    Presentation date: 2004.04

  • Analysis of human skeletal muscles by ultrasound (Invited Lecture).

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    Conference of Korean Society of Sport Biomechanics. 

    Presentation date: 2004.03

  • 超音波法による人間の骨格筋の分析

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    Conference of Korean Society of Sport Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2004.03

  • ローイングパワーの安定性がボートの艇速に及ぼす効果

    川上泰雄, 下田学  [Invited]

    第16回トレーニング科学研究会大会 

    Presentation date: 2003.11

  • バレエダンサーの足関節の特徴-足関節可動域と下腿三頭筋・腱の伸長に着目して

    加藤えみか, 小田俊明, 千野謙太郎, 栗原俊之, 永吉俊彦, 川上泰雄

    第16回トレーニング科学研究会大会 

    Presentation date: 2003.11

  • ベッドレストによる足関節可動域および筋腱複合体の受動伸長性の変化

    川上泰雄, 加藤えみか, 栗原俊之, 小田俊明, 千野謙太郎, 永吉俊彦, 金久博昭, 福永哲夫  [Invited]

    日本体育学会第54回大会 

    Presentation date: 2003.09

  • 3次元超音波法を用いたヒト前脛骨筋体積の生体内計測

    栗原俊之, 川上泰雄, 小田俊明, 千野謙太郎, 永吉俊彦, 加藤えみか, 金久博昭, 福永哲夫

    日本体育学会第54回大会 

    Presentation date: 2003.09

  • 等速性運動中の下腿三頭筋の筋線維動態には筋腱相互作用が多大な影響を及ぼす

    千野謙太郎, 小田俊明, 栗原俊之, 金久博昭, 深代千之, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    日本体育学会第54回大会 

    Presentation date: 2003.09

  • ヒト下腿三頭筋の単収縮加重による発揮張力と筋線維長変化との関係

    小田俊明, 栗原俊之, 千野謙太郎, 永吉俊彦, 加藤えみか, 金久博昭, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    日本体育学会第54回大会 

    Presentation date: 2003.09

  • ヒト骨格筋線維の長さ?力特性は収縮強度によって変化する

    小田俊明, 栗原俊之, 千野謙太郎, 永吉俊彦, 加藤えみか, 金久博昭, 福永哲夫, 川上泰雄

    第58回日本体力医学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2003.09

  • Muscle functional MRIによる3次元T2 mappingの試み

    衣笠竜太, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第58回日本体力医学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2003.09

  • In vivo muscle fiber behavior in humans.

    Kawakami, Y, Oda, T, Chino, K, Kurihara, T, Nagayoshi, T, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T  [Invited]

    World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering. 

    Presentation date: 2003.08

  • Velocity of shortening and lengthening of gastrocnemius and soleus muscle fibers during concentric and eccentric plantar flexions in humans.

    Chino, K, Oda, T, Kurihara, T, Nagayoshi, T, Kato, E, Kawakami, Y, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T

    World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering. 

    Presentation date: 2003.08

  • Modeling the mechanical behaviour of skeletal muscle at different structural levels using a continuum approach.

    Lemos, R, Epstein, M, Herzog, W, Kawakami, Y, Kurihara, T, Wyvill, B

    World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering. 

    Presentation date: 2003.08

  • 人間生体における筋線維動態

    Kawakami, Y, Oda, T, Chino, K, Kurihara, T, Nagayoshi, T, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T  [Invited]

    World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering 

    Presentation date: 2003.08

  • In vivo force-velocity relationship of the human triceps brachii muscles.

    Kawakami, Y, Kurihara, T, Oda, T, Chino, K, Nagayoshi, T, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T, Toji, H, Kaneko M  [Invited]

    XIXth Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2003.07

  • In vivo measurement of human tibialis anterior muscle volume using three-dimensional ultrasonography.

    Kurihara, T, Kawakami, Y, Nagayoshi, T, Oda, T, Chino, K, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T

    XIXth Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2003.07

  • Effects of elastic properties of muscle-tendon complex on sports performances (Muybridge Lecture).

    Fukunaga, T, Kubo, K, Kawakami, Y, Kanehisa, H

    XIXth Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2003.07

  • ヒト骨格筋の収縮中の筋線維と腱のふるまい

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    身体運動科学シンポジウム第10回記念大会 行動する身体と心-21世紀を支える身体運動の科学- 

    Presentation date: 2002.11

  • Architecture of contracting human gastrocnemius muscle: an approach from three-dimensional ultrasound imaging

    栗原俊之, 川上泰雄, 小田俊明, 千野謙太郎, 永吉俊彦

    身体運動科学シンポジウム第10回記念大会 行動する身体と心-21世紀を支える身体運動の科学- 

    Presentation date: 2002.11

  • 足背屈トルクと前脛骨筋の筋形状指標との間の関係

    永吉俊彦, 小田俊明, 千野謙太郎, 栗原俊之, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫, 前田雅人, 丸山敦夫

    身体運動科学シンポジウム第10回記念大会 行動する身体と心-21世紀を支える身体運動の科学- 

    Presentation date: 2002.11

  • 伸張性筋活動の繰り返しによる骨格筋の力発揮特性の変化

    川上泰雄, 栗原俊之, 千野謙太郎, 小田俊明, 野坂和則, 福永哲夫  [Invited]

    日本体育学会第53回大会 

    Presentation date: 2002.10

  • 電気刺激誘発の筋収縮における刺激パターンと張力および筋腱複合体の関係

    吉武康栄, 川上泰雄, 栗原俊之, 金久博昭, 福永哲夫

    第57回日本体力医学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2002.09

  • 筋力発揮のバイオメカニクス(招待講演)

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    第17回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2002.09

  • 上腕三頭筋の力?速度関係のin vivo計測の試み

    川上泰雄, 栗原俊之, 小田俊明, 千野謙太郎, 永吉俊彦, 中井敬子, 金久博昭, 田路秀樹, 金子公宥, 福永哲夫  [Invited]

    第17回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2002.09

  • 三次元超音波法を利用した筋体積推定法の検討

    栗原俊之, 川上泰雄, 小田俊明, 千野謙太郎, 永吉俊彦, 金久博昭, 福永哲夫

    第17回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2002.09

  • 筋力を推定する際の生理学的筋横断面積の有効性について

    永吉俊彦, 小田俊明, 千野謙太郎, 栗原俊之, 中井敬子, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫, 前田雅人, 丸山敦夫

    第17回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2002.09

  • 単収縮および単収縮加算時におけるヒト生体内の腓腹筋・ヒラメ筋の筋線維動態

    小田俊明, 千野謙太郎, 栗原俊之, 永吉俊彦, 中井敬子, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第17回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2002.09

  • 下腿三頭筋の短縮性 伸張性筋活動中の筋線維動態

    千野謙太郎, 小田俊明, 栗原俊之, 中井敬子, 永吉俊彦, 川上泰雄, 金久博昭, 福永哲夫

    第17回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2002.09

  • 筋収縮に伴うアキレス腱の配列変化は筋腱接合部をどの程度移動させるのか?

    村松憲, 村岡哲郎, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第17回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2002.09

  • Changes in mechanical properties of human tibialis anterior muscle following repeated eccentric contractions (symposium).

    Kawakami, Y, Kurihara, T, Chino, K, Oda, T, Nosaka, K, Fukunaga, T  [Invited]

    4th World Congress of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2002.08

  • In vivo measurement of tendon elongation and fascicle length change during tensional summation.

    Oda, T, Chino, K, Kurihara, T, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    4th World Congress of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2002.08

  • In vivo muscle fiber behavior of the triceps surae muscles during concentric and eccentric plantar flexions.

    Chino, K, Oda, T, Kawakami, Y, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T

    4th World Congress of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2002.08

  • Architecture of contracting human gastrocnemius muscle: an approach from three-dimensional ultrasound imaging.

    Kurihara, T, Kawakami, Y, Oda, T, Chino, K, Fukunaga, T

    4th World Congress of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2002.08

  • Behaviours of muscle-tendon complex during electrical stimulation with trains of linearly varying frequency in humans.

    Yoshitake Y, Kawakami, Y, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T

    4th World Congress of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2002.08

  • Different fatigue responses of triceps surae muscles to repeated isometric contractions revealed by in vivo fascicle length changes.

    Kawakami, Y, Shimoda, M, Oishi, Y, Oda, T, Chino, K, Kurihara, T, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T  [Invited]

    Banff Symposium on Skeletal Muscle 

    Presentation date: 2002.08

  • In vivo estimation of behavior of muscle fiber and tendon during human movements.

    Fukunaga, T, Kawakami, Y, Kubo, K, Kanehisa, H

    Banff Symposium on Skeletal Muscle 

    Presentation date: 2002.08

  • In vivo measurement of tendon elongation and fascicle length change during tensional summation.

    Oda, T, Chino, K, Kurihara, T, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    Banff Symposium on Skeletal Muscle 

    Presentation date: 2002.08

  • In vivo muscle fiber behavior of the triceps surae muscles during isokinetic concentric plantar flexions.

    Chino, K, Oda, T, Kurihara, T, Kawakami, Y, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T

    Banff Symposium on Skeletal Muscle 

    Presentation date: 2002.08

  • Comparison between 2D and 3D ultrasonography for determining human skeletal muscle architecture.

    Kurihara, T, Kawakami, Y, Oda, T, Chino, K, Fukunaga, T

    Banff Symposium on Skeletal Muscle 

    Presentation date: 2002.08

  • ヒト生体における筋収縮時のアキレス腱伸張率の算出

    村松憲, 村岡哲郎, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    日本運動生理学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2002.07

  • 骨格筋における筋?腱相互作用:生体計測によるアプローチ(招待講演)

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    日本体力医学会関東地方会 

    Presentation date: 2002.07

  • 収縮中のヒト腓腹筋形状:超音波法による三次元構築

    栗原俊之, 川上泰雄, 小田俊明, 千野謙太郎, 福永哲夫

    日本体力医学会関東地方会 

    Presentation date: 2002.07

  • ヒト生体における筋収縮時の腓腹筋・前脛骨筋の腱膜伸長特性

    村松憲, 村岡哲郎, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    日本体力医学会関東地方会 

    Presentation date: 2002.07

  • 人体筋の形状と機能-既存のパラダイムへの挑戦-

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    福永哲夫教授退官記念シンポジウム 運動を引き起こす筋の科学-新たな視野を求めて- 

    Presentation date: 2002.03

  • 収縮中の腓腹筋形状:超音波法による三次元構築

    栗原俊之, 川上泰雄, 小田俊明, 千野謙太郎, 福永哲夫

    福永哲夫教授退官記念シンポジウム 運動を引き起こす筋の科学-新たな視野を求めて- 

    Presentation date: 2002.03

  • 短縮性・伸張性足底屈運動中の下腿三頭筋の筋線維動態

    千野謙太郎, 小田俊明, 栗原俊之, 金久博昭, 福永哲夫

    福永哲夫教授退官記念シンポジウム 運動を引き起こす筋の科学-新たな視野を求めて- 

    Presentation date: 2002.03

  • 下腿三頭筋の筋束動態からみた単収縮の加重プロセス

    小田俊明, 千野謙太郎, 栗原俊之, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    福永哲夫教授退官記念シンポジウム 運動を引き起こす筋の科学-新たな視野を求めて- 

    Presentation date: 2002.03

  • RQAによる筋電図の解析

    池川繁樹, 川上泰雄, 久保啓太郎, 村岡哲郎, 福永哲夫

    福永哲夫教授退官記念シンポジウム 運動を引き起こす筋の科学-新たな視野を求めて- 

    Presentation date: 2002.03

  • 間欠的最大足底屈運動時の筋疲労に収縮間インターバルが及ぼす影響

    下田学, 川上泰雄, 小田俊明, 千野謙太郎, 栗原俊之, 金久博昭, 福永哲夫

    福永哲夫教授退官記念シンポジウム 運動を引き起こす筋の科学-新たな視野を求めて- 

    Presentation date: 2002.03

  • アキレス腱モーメントアームの新たな推定法の提案(学会賞受賞)

    川上泰雄, 中井敬子, 小田俊明, 千野謙太郎, 栗原俊之, 福永哲夫  [Invited]

    日本体育学会東京支部第29回大会 

    Presentation date: 2002.03

  • Architecture of human skeletal muscles and its functional implications.

    Kawakami, Y, Fukashiro, S  [Invited]

    Advances in Neural and Architectural Mechanisms That Control Muscle Activity and Movement 

    Presentation date: 2001.10

  • 柔軟性と筋・腱の特性との関係

    川上泰雄, 小田俊明, 千野謙太郎, 金久博昭, 福永哲夫, 安部孝  [Invited]

    日本体育学会第52回大会 

    Presentation date: 2001.09

  • 動作速度の異なる肘屈曲運動中の上腕二頭筋のEMG評価パラメータの特徴

    小田俊明, 千野謙太郎, 川上泰雄, 金子秀和, 岡田守彦

    日本体育学会第52回大会 

    Presentation date: 2001.09

  • 異なる収縮間インターバルでの反復運動が共働筋の筋束動態と筋収縮力に及ぼす影響

    大石芳江, 下田 学, 川上泰雄, 池川繁樹, 金久博昭, 福永哲夫

    第56回日本体力医学会大会 

    Presentation date: 2001.09

  • In vivo estimation of human Achilles tendon moment arm based on ultrasonography.

    Kawakami, Y, Nakai, K, Maganaris, C.N, Oda, T, Chino, K, Fukunaga, T  [Invited]

    25th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2001.08

  • Muscle fiber behavior during drop jump in human.

    Fukunaga, T, Kurokawa, S, Kawakami, Y

    25th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2001.08

  • Human skeletal muscle biomechanics-in vivo approach by ultrasonography-(Tutorial Lecture).

    Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T  [Invited]

    XVIIIth Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2001.07

  • Flexibility is related to elasticity of tendon rather than muscle fibers: in vivo observation in humans.

    Kawakami, Y, Oda, T, Chino, K, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T  [Invited]

    XVIIIth Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2001.07

  • Mechanical properties of tendon and aponeurosis of human gastrcnemius muscle in vivo.

    Fukunaga, T, Muramatsu, T, Muraoka, T, Takeshita, D, Kawakami, Y

    XVIIIth Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2001.07

  • Detecting displacement of innervation zone of biceps brachii muscle due to joint angle changes.

    Oda, T, Chino, K, Kawakami, Y, Kaneko, H, Okada, M

    XVIIIth Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2001.07

  • Relationships between muscle power patterns and rowing performance.

    Tachibana, K, Furuhashi, T, Shimoda, M, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    XVIIIth Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2001.07

  • A proposal of computer simulation combined with fuzzy modeling for effective feedback to rower.

    Tachibana, K, Furuhashi, T, Shimoda, M, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    VIIIth International Symposium on Computer Simulation in Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 2001.07

  • 3週間のベッドレストによる筋形状および筋力発揮特性の変化とトレーニングの有効性

    川上泰雄, 宮谷昌枝, 黒川貞生, 村岡哲郎, 小田俊明, 千野謙太郎, 金久博昭, 福永哲夫, 中川央, 東香寿美  [Invited]

    第二回公開シンポジウム「不動・疑似微小重力環境の生体への影響」 

    Presentation date: 2001.03

  • 3週間のベッド安静が下肢筋群の腱組織の粘弾性に及ぼす影響

    久保啓太郎, 川上泰雄, 金久博昭, 福永哲夫

    第二回公開シンポジウム「不動・疑似微小重力環境の生体への影響」 

    Presentation date: 2001.03

  • 筋形状からみた受動トルクの規定要因

    村岡哲郎, 村松憲, 竹下大介, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第13回トレーニング科学研究会 

    Presentation date: 2001.03

  • 3週間のベッド安静が腱組織の弾性特性に及ぼす影響

    久保啓太郎, 秋間広, 神崎素樹, 川上泰雄, 金久博昭, 福永哲夫

    第13回トレーニング科学研究会 

    Presentation date: 2001.03

  • 足関節の柔軟性(可動域)には加齢と筋力レベルが影響を及ぼす

    小田俊明, 千野謙太郎, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第13回トレーニング科学研究会 

    Presentation date: 2001.03

  • In vivo determination of skeletal muscle architecture in humans using ultrasonography.

    Kawakami, Y, Abe, T, Fukunaga, T  [Invited]

    45th Annual Convention of American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine 

    Presentation date: 2001.03

  • Effect of stretching training on the viscoelastic properties of human tendon structures in vivo.

    Kubo, K, Kanehisa, H, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    45th Annual Convention of American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine 

    Presentation date: 2001.03

  • 高齢者と青年の筋特性の比較

    川上泰雄, 久保啓太郎, 福永哲夫, 熊谷賢哉, 安部孝  [Invited]

    日本体育学会第51回大会 

    Presentation date: 2000.10

  • 反動動作を伴った足底屈運動中に腱組織の伸張-短縮が生じる

    川上泰雄, 村岡哲郎, 伊藤栄, 金久博昭, 福永哲夫  [Invited]

    第8回日本運動生理学会/第16回日本バイオメカニクス学会合同大会 

    Presentation date: 2000.07

  • 身体運動における筋腱複合体の動態-関節動作と筋線維動態との相互作用-

    福永哲夫, 川上泰雄, 久保啓太郎

    第8回日本運動生理学会/第16回日本バイオメカニクス学会合同大会 

    Presentation date: 2000.07

  • 筋形状の実測による大腿四頭筋の固有筋力

    安部孝, 熊谷賢哉, 伊藤雅充, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第8回日本運動生理学会/第16回日本バイオメカニクス学会合同大会 

    Presentation date: 2000.07

  • ボート選手の呼吸循環系機能および筋力と2000mローイング・パフォーマンスとの関係

    樋口満, 吉賀千恵, 松下雅雄, 田畑 泉, 岡村弘嗣, 川上泰雄

    第8回日本運動生理学会/第16回日本バイオメカニクス学会合同大会 

    Presentation date: 2000.07

  • ボート選手のトレッドミルおよびローイング・エルゴメータによる漸増負荷試験に対する呼吸循環系応答

    吉賀千恵, 松下雅雄, 田畑泉, 岡村弘嗣, 川上泰雄, 樋口満

    第8回日本運動生理学会/第16回日本バイオメカニクス学会合同大会 

    Presentation date: 2000.07

  • 力の発揮様式における違いが腱組織の弾性特性に及ぼす影響-一時的および長期的な変化-

    久保啓太郎, 金久博昭, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第8回日本運動生理学会/第16回日本バイオメカニクス学会合同大会 

    Presentation date: 2000.07

  • Anthropometric and physiological factors in Japanese female rowers.

    Yoshiga, C, Kawakami, Y, Matushita, M, Tabata, I, Okamura, K, Higuchi, M

    5th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science. 

    Presentation date: 2000.07

  • Plasma lipid and lipoprotein profile in male rowers.

    Higuchi, M, Yoshiga, C, Kawakami, Y, Oka, J

    5th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science. 

    Presentation date: 2000.07

  • Skill evaluation of rowers using fuzzy modeling.

    Tachibana, K, Furuhashi, T, Shimoda, M, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    XVIIIth International Symposium of Biomechanics in Sports 

    Presentation date: 2000.06

  • In vivo muscle-fiber behavior reveal significant contribution of tendon elasticity in stretch-shortening cycle.

    Kawakami, Y, Muraoka, T, Ito, S, Kanehisa, H, Fukunaga, T  [Invited]

    47th American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting 

    Presentation date: 2000.05

  • Effects of 20 days of bed rest with and without resistance exercise on size architecture and force production of human skeletal muscles.

    Kawakami, Y, Kubo, K, Akima, H, Suzuki, Y, Gunji, A, Fukunaga, T  [Invited]

    4th symposium of "Inactivity (prolonged bed-rest) Health and Aging" 

    Presentation date: 2000.04

  • 競技の競技力向上を目的とした艇の力学量計測システムの開発

    川上泰雄, 下田学, 福永哲夫  [Invited]

    第12回トレーニング科学研究会 

    Presentation date: 2000.03

  • 筋肉損傷の最新の知見

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    平成11年度第3回スポーツドクター研修会 

    Presentation date: 2000.02

  • 骨格筋のかたちと力発揮特性

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    日本体育学会第50回記念大会共催シンポジウム 

    Presentation date: 1999.10

  • ヒト下腿三頭筋の長さ-力関係

    川上泰雄, 村岡慈歩, 福永哲夫  [Invited]

    日本運動生理学会第7回大会 

    Presentation date: 1999.10

  • ローイング・エルゴメータの成績に影響を及ぼす因子

    吉賀千恵, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫, 武安缶史, 岡村浩嗣, 樋口 満

    日本運動生理学会第7回大会 

    Presentation date: 1999.10

  • 歩行中の筋長・筋線維長変化について-超音波法によるin vivo計測からの知見-

    川上泰雄, 久保啓太郎, 福永哲夫  [Invited]

    日本バイオメカニクス学会特別大会 

    Presentation date: 1999.10

  • 女子大学生の骨強度と形態および体力テスト点との関係

    石田良恵, 小島康昭, 奥山秀雄, 黒川貞生, 杉浦雄策, 川上泰雄, 金久博昭

    日本体育学会第50回記念大会 

    Presentation date: 1999.10

  • 筋肉損傷の最新の知見

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    平成11年度2回スポーツドクター研修会 

    Presentation date: 1999.10

  • Mechanical properties of muscle-tendon complex in sprinters.

    Fukunaga, T, Kubo, K, Kawakami, Y, Kanehisa, H

    XVIIth Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 1999.08

  • Observations of in vivo human muscle behavior reveal considerable interaction between muscle fibers and tendon (Invited Lecture).

    Kawakami, Y, Kubo, K, Muraoka, T, Fukunaga, T  [Invited]

    XVIIth Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 1999.08

  • Changes in voluntary and evoked plantar flexion torque during repetitive maximal isometric contractions.

    Kawakami, Y, Amemiya, K, Kanehisa, H, Ikegawa, S, Fukunaga, T  [Invited]

    XVIIth Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 1999.08

  • The influence of elastic properties of tendon structures on jump performance.

    Fukunaga, T, Kubo, K, Kawakami, Y

    Canmore Satellite Symposium on Skeletal Muscle Mechanics 

    Presentation date: 1999.08

  • The length-force characteristics of human gastrocnemius and soleus muscles in vivo.

    Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T  [Invited]

    Canmore Satellite Symposium on Skeletal Muscle Mechanics 

    Presentation date: 1999.08

  • 関節パフォーマンスと筋腱複合体

    川上泰雄  [Invited]

    日本体育学会東京支部第1回研究会 

    Presentation date: 1999.07

  • Sarcomere shortening during fixed-end contraction of frog semitendinosus muscles.

    Kawakami, Y, Lieber, R. L  [Invited]

    46th American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting 

    Presentation date: 1999.06

  • 筋は収縮によってダイナミックにかたちを変える

    川上泰雄, 福永哲夫  [Invited]

    第25回日本医学会総会記念日本体力医学会シンポジウム 

    Presentation date: 1999.03

  • 筋収縮能力および神経系の興奮水準の疲労による変化

    川上泰雄, 金久博昭, 福永哲夫, 池川繁樹  [Invited]

    日本体育学会第49回大会 

    Presentation date: 1998.10

  • RPAによる等尺性収縮中の筋電図の解析

    池川繁樹, 川上泰雄, 久保啓太郎, 福永哲夫

    第49回日本体育学会大会 

    Presentation date: 1998.10

  • 短距離選手における腱の弾性特性

    久保啓太郎, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第49回日本体育学会大会 

    Presentation date: 1998.10

  • オリンピック選手における上腕三頭筋の筋形状と筋力との関係

    市之瀬慈歩, 金久博昭, 伊藤雅充, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第49回日本体育学会大会 

    Presentation date: 1998.10

  • 長距離選手における腱の弾性特性

    久保啓太郎, 川上泰雄, 柳谷登志雄, 福永哲夫, 澤木啓祐

    第14回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 1998.09

  • 発育期児童における腱の弾性特性

    久保啓太郎, 川上泰雄, 金久博昭, 福永哲夫

    第53回日本体力医学会大会 

    Presentation date: 1998.09

  • ヒト歩行時の筋線維(腓腹筋)の収縮動態

    福永哲夫, 久保啓太郎, 川上泰雄

    第53回日本体力医学会大会 

    Presentation date: 1998.09

  • In vivo measurements of human muscle behavior with special reference to tendon compliance.

    Kawakami, Y, Kubo, K, Fukunaga, T  [Invited]

    3rd World Congress of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 1998.08

  • In vivo determination of tendon properties of human tibialis anterior by means of ultrasonography.

    Ito, M, Ichinose, Y, Kawakami, Y, Fukashiro, S, Fukunaga, T

    45th American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting 

    Presentation date: 1998.06

  • 関節角度と随意最大筋力の関係における男女差

    川上泰雄, 柳谷登志雄, 福永哲夫  [Invited]

    日本体育学会第48回大会 

    Presentation date: 1997.10

  • 大規模集団の肘屈曲の角度-力関係および力-速度関係

    篠原稔, 石井直方, 川上泰雄, 深代千之, 小林寛道, 福永哲夫

    日本体育学会第48回大会 

    Presentation date: 1997.10

  • スクワット運動中の筋束長変化

    久保啓太郎, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    日本体育学会第48回大会 

    Presentation date: 1997.10

  • 超音波法による歩行時の筋線維動態の観察

    福永哲夫, 久保啓太郎, 川上泰雄, 政二慶

    日本体力医学会第52回大会 

    Presentation date: 1997.09

  • 等速性膝伸展中の筋束短縮速度

    市之瀬慈歩, 伊藤雅充, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    日本体力医学会第52回大会 

    Presentation date: 1997.09

  • 生体での外側広筋腱膜の弾性測定の試み

    久保啓太郎, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    日本体力医学会第52回大会 

    Presentation date: 1997.09

  • ベッドレスト中の等速性膝伸展トレーニングの有効性

    船渡和男, 伊藤雅充, 黒川貞生, 下田学, 流田宏, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫, 鈴木洋児

    日本体力医学会第52回大会 

    Presentation date: 1997.09

  • Changes in muscle-tendon unit during passive stretching in humans.

    Kawakami, Y, Ichinose, Y, Imai, M, Fukunaga, T  [Invited]

    XVIth Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 1997.08

  • Shortening velocity of muscle fibers is not constant during 'isokinetic' joint action.

    Ichinose, Y, Ito, M, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    XVIth Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 1997.08

  • Trunk extension and flexion torque in athletes.

    Ikegawa, S, Shimoda, M, Nagareda, H, Kubo, K, Okada, J, Kawakami, Y, Funato, K, Fukunaga, T

    XVIth Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 1997.08

  • In vivo fascicle length changes of the human vastus lateralis muscle during squatting.

    Kubo, K, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    XVIth Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 1997.08

  • In vivo moment arm estimations of human vastus lateralis during contractions.

    Ito, M, Ichinose, Y, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    XVIth Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 1997.08

  • Architecture of contracting human muscles and its functional significance.

    Kawakami, Y  [Invited]

    Satellite symposium of the International Congress of Biomechanics: Specificity and Plasticity of Skeletal Muscle Architecture 

    Presentation date: 1997.08

  • カーフレイズ中の筋束長変化

    久保啓太郎, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    日本運動生理学会第5回大会 

    Presentation date: 1997.07

  • Effects of isokinetic strength training during bed rest on morphological and functional characteristics of skeletal muscle.

    Funato, K, Kawakami, Y, Ito, M, Suzuki, Y, Fukunaga, T

    44th American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting 

    Presentation date: 1997

  • Three-dimensional arrangement of fascicles in the human gastrocnemius muscle.

    Ichinose, Y, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    44th American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting 

    Presentation date: 1997

  • 静的ストレッチング中の筋束長の変化

    川上泰雄, 市之瀬慈歩, 福永哲夫  [Invited]

    第13回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 1996.11

  • 静的筋活動時でも筋束は短縮する

    市之瀬慈歩, 伊藤雅充, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第13回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 1996.11

  • ベッド安静状態(3週間)及び筋力トレーニングが筋の生理学的断面積および固有筋力(断面積あたりの筋力)に及ぼす影響

    久保啓太郎, 川上泰雄, 流田宏, 柳谷登志雄, 鈴木洋児, 福永哲夫

    第13回日本バイオメカニクス学会大会 

    Presentation date: 1996.11

  • 下腿三頭筋の筋束長と筋放電量に及ぼす関節角度の影響

    川上泰雄, 市之瀬慈歩, 福永哲夫  [Invited]

    第51回日本体力医学会大会 

    Presentation date: 1996.09

  • 腓腹筋の筋形状-超音波法による3D再構築-

    市之瀬慈歩, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第51回日本体力医学会大会 

    Presentation date: 1996.09

  • 静的筋活動時の筋束長・羽状角変化

    伊藤雅充, 市之瀬慈歩, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第51回日本体力医学会大会 

    Presentation date: 1996.09

  • 相撲選手および長距離ランナーの内臓脂肪量と皮下脂肪分布

    近藤正勝, 倉田順子, 安部孝, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    第51回日本体力医学会大会 

    Presentation date: 1996.09

  • ヒト固有筋力(Specific Tension)に見られる筋群間差異

    福永哲夫, 川上泰雄, 池川繁樹, 岡田純一

    第4回日本運動生理学会 

    Presentation date: 1996.07

  • Effect of knee joint angle on plantarflexor bilateral deficit.

    Kawakami, Y, Sale, D. G, MacDougall, J. D, Moroz, J. S  [Invited]

    43rd American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting 

    Presentation date: 1996.05

  • Regional changes in body fat following aerobic exercise training with dietary self-administration.

    Abe, T, Kawakami, Y, Sugita, M, Fukunaga, T

    42nd American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting 

    Presentation date: 1996.05

  • In vivo determination of fascicle length and pennation during voluntary contraction of human muscle.

    Fukunaga, T, Ichinose, Y, Ito, M, Kawakami, Y, Fukashiro, S

    42nd American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting 

    Presentation date: 1996.05

  • トレーニングがヒト羽状筋の筋線維角度におよぼす影響

    市之瀬慈歩, 安部孝, 村山光義, 川上泰雄, 福永哲夫

    日本体力医学会関東地方会平成8年3月 

    Presentation date: 1996.03

  • Bilateral deficit in plantarflexor muscles during isometric contractions.

    Kawakami, Y, Sale, D. G, MacDougall, J. D, Moroz, J. S  [Invited]

    3rd Meeting of the Canadian Society of Exercise Physiology 

    Presentation date: 1995.10

  • An application of acceleration analysis to evaluation of rowing technique.

    Shimoda, M, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    XIII International Symposium of Biomechanics in Sport 

    Presentation date: 1995.07

  • The relationship between fascicle lengths of the triceps surae and ankle and knee joint angles in humans.

    Kawakami, Y, Ichinose, Y, Fukunaga, T  [Invited]

    XVth Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 1995.07

  • In vivo measurement of fascicle arrangement in human vastus lateralis muscle using ultrasound.

    Ichinose, Y, Ito, M, Kawakami, Y, Fukunaga, T

    XVth Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics 

    Presentation date: 1995.07