Updated on 2021/12/08

写真a

 
KONDO, Yasushi
 
Affiliation
Faculty of Political Science and Economics, School of Political Science and Economics
Job title
Professor

Concurrent Post

  • Faculty of Political Science and Economics   Graduate School of Economics

  • Faculty of Political Science and Economics   Graduate School of Political Science

Degree

  • 筑波大学   博士(社会経済)

  • University of Tsukuba   PhD in Economics

Professional Memberships

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    Japanese Economic Association

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    The Iron and Steel Institute of Japan

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    Society for Environmental Economics and Policy Studies

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    Japan Society of Material Cycles and Waste Management

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    Institute of Life Cycle Assessment, Japan

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    Forum for Sustainability through Life Cycle Innovation

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    International Input-Output Association

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    International Society for Industrial Ecology

▼display all

 

Research Areas

  • Economic statistics

  • Environmental impact assessment

Research Interests

  • industrial ecology, input-output economics

Papers

  • Quantifying the carbon footprint reduction potential of lifestyle choices in Japan

    Yosuke Shigetomi, Keiichiro Kanemoto, Yuki Yamamoto, Yasushi Kondo

    Environmental Research Letters   16 ( 6 ) 064022 - 064022  2021.06  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • Capital in the American carbon, energy, and material footprint

    Peter Berrill, T. Reed Miller, Yasushi Kondo, Edgar G. Hertwich

    Journal of Industrial Ecology   24 ( 3 ) 589 - 600  2020.06  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • Affluent countries inflict inequitable mortality and economic loss on Asia via PM2.5 emissions

    Keisuke Nansai, Susumu Tohno, Satoru Chatani, Keiichiro Kanemoto, Midori Kurogi, Yuta Fujii, Shigemi Kagawa, Yasushi Kondo, Fumiya Nagashima, Wataru Takayanagi, Manfred Lenzen

    Environment International   134   105238 - 105238  2020.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This research sets out to quantify the mortality and economic loss in individual Asian countries caused by the PM2.5 emissions induced by the consumption of the world's five highest-consuming countries (US, China, Japan, Germany, UK). In 2010 alone, the economic impact of these five countries' consumption caused a loss of almost 45 billion US dollars due to the premature deaths of more than 1 million people in Asia, including 15 thousand children younger than 5 years old. The percentage ratio of economic loss to value-added driven by consumers via trade differed greatly among the impacted countries. For the US, the highest percentage loss was 4.1% in Laos, followed by 2.0% in Bangladesh, both markedly higher than the figures for the more developed countries, such as 0.21% for Japan and 0.18% for Korea. This reflects the inequitable value chain existing between consumer countries and impacted countries, and implies that developing countries are obtaining value-added in exchange for unintentionally increased health risks, delaying their development and potentially creating a vicious circle that hinders much-needed improvements in areas like poverty reduction and public health. This inequitable situation needs to be redressed through introduction of clean energy and other types of technological assistance to help achieve United Nations Sustainable Development Goals 7, 10 and 13. Such as move is essential if premature infant deaths are to be curtailed.

    DOI

  • Meat consumption does not explain differences in household food carbon footprints in Japan

    Keiichiro Kanemoto, Daniel Moran, Yosuke Shigetomi, Christian Reynolds, Yasushi Kondo

    One Earth    2019.12  [Refereed]

  • Nexus between economy-wide metal inputs and the deterioration of sustainable development goals

    Keisuke Nansai, Yasushi Kondo, Damien Giurco, David Sussman, Kenichi Nakajima, Shigemi Kagawa, Wataru Takayanagi, Yosuke Shigetomi, SusumuTohno

    Resources, Conservation and Recycling   149   12 - 19  2019.10

    DOI

  • Environmental Hotspot Analysis Based on Product Life Cycle

    ITSUBO Norihiro, TAHARA Kiyotaka, KONDO Yasushi

    Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, Japan   15 ( 1 ) 10 - 21  2019  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    <p>Sharing the information of product environmental performances among multi stakeholders is critically important to promote eco-design by producers and replacement of ordinary products to eco-products in the society. These results of assessment should be based on scientific approach and these results should also be comprehensive to cover the significant environmental impacts as far as possible. The authors developed an environmental hotspot analysis method which integrate the following three methods; an updated Japanese inventory database(IDEAv2), waste input output analysis(WIO)which includes downstream processes of products and services, and Japanese impact assessment method including weighting among endpoints(LIME2). We carried out hotspot analysis for 100 products and services in Japan using the method developed in this research project. These calculated results are shared with program holders of TypeI ecolabel and TypeIII ecolabel and these results are expected to increase the reliability of evaluation criteria in these programs.</p>

    DOI CiNii

  • Waste Footprint in Japan Based on Extended Input-Output Analysis

    ICHISUGI Yuki, KONDO Yasushi, TAHARA Kiyotaka, ITSUBO Norihiro

    Papers on Environmental Information Science   33 ( 0 ) 229 - 234  2019  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    <p>In recent years, in order to establish a recycling-oriented society, Japan has been working on the improvement of resource recovery rate, on waste reduction and on the increase of the waste treatment energy efficiency under the 4th Fundamental plan for establishing a sound material-cycle society. Therefore, in this research, based on an input-output approach, we tried to calculate the Japanese waste footprint by using the extended waste input-output table. The amount of waste generated and landfilled waste through the life-cycle of each industrial sector were highlighted. Later, the waste footprint was compared with the carbon footprint, it was shown that reducing waste for "food manufacturing", "eating and drinking services" and "building construction" would lead to the mitigation of climate change.</p>

    DOI CiNii

  • Hypothetical extractions from a global perspective

    Erik Dietzenbacher, Bob van Burken, Yasushi Kondo

    Economic Systems Research    2019.01

    DOI

  • Toward an integrated model of the circular economy: Dynamic waste input–output

    Shinichiro Nakamura, Yasushi Kondo

    Resources Conservation and Recycling   139   326 - 332  2018.12

     View Summary

    Since its development at the end of the previous century, the waste input–output (WIO) model has been extended to wide areas of industrial ecology including material flow analysis (MFA), life-cycle costing (LCC), regional analysis, and linear programming (LP)-based technology selection. To our knowledge, the dynamics of waste generation and recycling is an area of possible conceptual extension that remains least explored. Building upon our recent work on dynamic MFA, in this work, we develop a dynamic WIO (dWIO) model that fully considers the issue of quality in recycling that involves mixing, dissipation, and contamination.

    DOI

  • Decomposition analysis of food waste management with explicit consideration of priority of alternative management options and its application to the Japanese food industry from 2008 to 2015

    Hidemichi Fujii, Yasushi Kondo

    Journal of Cleaner Production   188   568 - 574  2018.07

     View Summary

    The prevention and recycling of food waste contribute to a circular economy due to improvements in resource efficiency and energy recovery. This study introduces a framework for evaluating the prevention and utilization of food waste using Japanese food industry data from 2008 to 2015. To elucidate the changes in the amount of unutilized food waste, this study applies a decomposition analysis framework that classifies five factors: waste prevention, food recycling, heat recovery, volume reduction, and production scale. The results show that the amount of unutilized food waste throughout the food industry decreased between 2008 and 2011, primarily due to three factors: increased food waste recycling, volume reduction, and a decrease in production scale. However, the key factors driving changes in food waste management varied by food industrial sectors. The primary drivers of the decline in unutilized food waste were recycling in the food manufacturing industry, waste prevention in the retail industry, and a decrease in production scale in the food service industry. Thus, policies for food waste management should account for the diversity of characteristics across food industries and the food waste management strategies employed.

    DOI

  • Optimal Recycling of Steel Scrap and Alloying Elements: Input-Output based Linear Programming Method with Its Application to End-of-Life Vehicles in Japan

    Hajime Ohno, Kazuyo Matsubae, Kenichi Nakajima, Yasushi Kondo, Shinichiro Nakamura, Yasuhiro Fukushima, Tetsuya Nagasaka

    ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY   51 ( 22 ) 13086 - 13094  2017.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Importance of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) as an urban mine is expected to grow, as more people in developing countries are experiencing increased standards of living, while the automobiles are increasingly made using high-quality materials to meet stricter environmental and safety requirements. While most materials in ELVs, particularly steel, have been recycled at high rates, quality issues have not been adequately addressed due to the complex use of automobile materials, leading to considerable losses of valuable alloying elements. This study highlights the maximal potential of quality-oriented recycling of ELV steel, by exploring the utilization methods of scrap, sorted by parts, to produce electric-arc-furnace-based crude alloy steel with minimal losses of alloying elements. Using linear programming on the case of Japanese economy in 2005, we found that adoption of parts-based scrap sorting could result in the recovery of around 94-98% of the alloying elements occurring in parts scrap (manganese, chromium, nickel, and molybdenum), which may replace 10% of the virgin sources in electric arc furnace-based crude alloy steel production.

    DOI

  • Quantifying Recycling and Losses of Cr and Ni in Steel Throughout Multiple Life Cycles Using MaTrace-Alloy

    Shinichiro Nakamura, Yasushi Kondo, Kenichi Nakajima, Hajime Ohno, Stefan Pauliuk

    ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY   51 ( 17 ) 9469 - 9476  2017.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Alloying metals are indispensable ingredients of high quality alloy steel such as austenitic stainless steel, the cyclical use of which is vital for sustainable resource management. Under the current practice of recycling, however, different metals are likely to be mixed in an uncontrolled manner, resulting in function losses and dissipation of metals with distinctive functions, and in the contamination of recycled Steels. The latter could result in dilution loss, if metal scrap needed dilution with virgin iron to reduce the contamination below critical levels. Management of these losses resulting from mixing in repeated recycling of metals requires tracking of metals over multiple life cycles of products with compositional details. A new model (MaTrace-alloy) was developed that tracks the fate of metals embodied in each of products over multiple life cycles of products, involving accumulation, discard, and recycling, with compositional details at the level of both alloys and products. The model was implemented for the flow of Cr and Ni in the Japanese steel cycle involving 27 steel species and 115 final products. It was found that, under a high level of scrap sorting, greater than 70% of the initial functionality of Cr and Ni could be retained over a period of 100 years, whereas under a poor level of sorting, it could plunge to less than 30%, demonstrating the relevance of waste management technology in circular economy policies.

    DOI PubMed

  • Economic and social determinants of global physical flows of critical metals

    Yosuke Shigetomi, Keisuke Nansai, Shigemi Kagawa, Yasushi Kondo, Susumu Tohno

    RESOURCES POLICY   52   107 - 113  2017.06  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • Regional distribution and losses of end-of-life steel throughout multiple product life cycles Insights from the global multiregional MaTrace model

    Stefan Pauliuk, Yasushi Kondo, Shinichiro Nakamura, Kenichi Nakajima

    RESOURCES CONSERVATION AND RECYCLING   116   84 - 93  2017.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Substantial amounts of post-consumer scrap are exported to other regions or lost during recovery and remelting, and both export and losses pose a constraint to desires for having regionally closed material cycles. To quantify the challenges and trade-offs associated with closed-loop metal recycling, we looked at the material cycles from the perspective of a single material unit and trace a unit of material through several product life cycles. Focusing on steel, we used current process parameters, loss rates, and trade patterns of the steel cycle to study how steel that was originally contained in high quality applications such as machinery or vehicles with stringent purity requirements gets subsequently distributed across different regions and product groups such as building and construction with less stringent purity requirements. We applied MaTrace Global, a supply-driven multiregional model of steel flows coupled to a dynamic stock model of steel use. We found that, depending on region and product group, up to 95% of the steel consumed today will leave the use phase of that region until 2100, and that up to 50% can get lost in obsolete stocks, landfills, or slag piles until 2100. The high losses resulting from business-as-usual scrap recovery and recycling can be reduced, both by diverting postconsumer scrap into long-lived applications such as buildings and by improving the recovery rates in the waste management and remelting industries. Because the lifetimes of high-quality (cold-rolled) steel applications are shorter and remelting occurs more often than for buildings and infrastructure, we found and quantified a tradeoff between low losses and high-quality applications in the steel cycle. Furthermore, we found that with current trade patterns, reduced overall losses will lead to higher fractions of secondary steel being exported to other regions. Current loss rates, product lifetimes, and trade patterns impede the closure of the steel cycle. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • The role of primary processing in the supply risks of critical metals

    Keisuke Nansai, Kenichi Nakajima, Sangwon Suh, Shigemi Kagawa, Yasushi Kondo, Wataru Takayanagi, Yosuke Shigetomi

    ECONOMIC SYSTEMS RESEARCH   29 ( 3 ) 335 - 356  2017  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This study seeks to understand the role of primary processing, i.e. the first post-mining stage, in supply risk, by means of a case study on three critical metals (neodymium, cobalt, and platinum) in the context of Japan. Applying the footprint' concept with a multiregional input-output model, we have quantified the direct and indirect vulnerability of the Japanese economy to such risks. Considering the supply risks associated with primary processors, we find that Japanese final consumers are exposed to relatively higher supply risks for neodymium as compared with cobalt and platinum. Our study shows that the primary processing stage of a metal's supply chain may contribute significantly to the overall supply risks, suggesting that this stage should be taken into due account in understanding and mitigating supply-chain vulnerability through, e.g. supplier diversification and alternative material development.

    DOI

  • Measuring the waste footprint of cities in Japan: An interregional waste input-output analysis

    Makiko Tsukui, Shigemi Kagawa, Yasushi Kondo

    Journal of Economic Structures   4 ( 18 )  2015.10

  • Toward the efficient recycling of alloying elements from end of life vehicle steel scrap

    Hajime Ohno, Kazuyo Matsubae, Kenichi Nakajima, Yasushi Kondo, Shinichiro Nakamura, Tetsuya Nagasaka

    RESOURCES CONSERVATION AND RECYCLING   100   11 - 20  2015.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    There has been a sharp increase in the production of automobiles over the past decade. In 2010, one billion automobiles were in circulation worldwide. The automobile industry is one of the largest metals consumers and plays an important role in their sustainable use. Steel materials, including alloy steels that contain alloying elements (AEs) such as manganese, chromium, nickel, and molybdenum, are the main component of automobiles. The recycling of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) significantly affects the cycling of iron, steel, and AEs. Currently, ELV recycling is performed using the electric arc furnace (EAF). In this method, losses of AEs are likely to occur because their presence is rarely considered. This study evaluated the environmental and economic benefits of alternative ELV recycling schemes, which allow more efficient utilization of AEs found in ELV-derived steel scrap (ELV-dSS). The AE contents in ELV-dSS (as car-parts) were estimated by means of a waste input-output material flow analysis (WIO-MFA) model extended for the detailed analysis of automobile composition. Using Japanese data, it was found that sorting ELV-dSS by parts can result in a significant recovery of AEs; more specifically, a 10-fold saving in AEs was achieved by sorting exhaust parts. The recoverable mass of AEs from sorted ELV-dSS was found to correspond to 8.2% of the annual consumption of AEs in Japan, as virgin resources in EAF steelmaking. ELV-dSS sorting was found to be significantly effective in the conservation of AE resources. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Global Mining Risk Footprint of Critical Metals Necessary for Low-Carbon Technologies: The Case of Neodymium, Cobalt, and Platinum in Japan

    Keisuke Nansai, Kenichi Nakajima, Shigemi Kagawa, Yasushi Kondo, Yosuke Shigetomi, Sangwon Suh

    ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY   49 ( 4 ) 2022 - 2031  2015.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Meeting the 2-degree global warming target requires wide adoption of low-carbon energy technologies. Many such technologies rely on the use of precious metals, however, increasing the dependence of national economies on these resources. Among such metals, those with supply security concerns are referred to as critical metals. Using the Policy Potential Index developed by the Fraser Institute, this study developed a new footprint indicator, the mining risk footprint (MRF), to quantify the mining risk directly and indirectly affecting a national economy through its consumption of critical metals. We formulated the MRF as a product of the material footprint (MF) of the consuming country and the mining risks of the countries where the materials are mined. A case study was conducted for the 2005 Japanese economy to determine the MF and MRF for three critical metals essential for emerging energy technologies: neodymium, cobalt and platinum. The results indicate that in 2005 the MFs generated by Japanese domestic final demand, that is, the consumption-based metal output of Japan, were 1.0 x 10(3) t for neodymium, 9.4 x 10(3) t for cobalt, and 2.1 x 10 t for platinum. Export demand contributes most to the MF, accounting for 3.0 x 10(3) t, 1.3 x 10(5) t, and 3.1 x 10 t, respectively. The MRFs of Japanese total final demand (domestic plus export) were calculated to be 1.7 x 10 points for neodymium, 4.5 x 10(-2) points for cobalt, and 5.6 points for platinum, implying that the Japanese economy is incurring a high mining risk through its use of neodymium. This countrys MRFs are all dominated by export demand. The paper concludes by discussing the policy implications and future research directions for measuring the MFs and MRFs of critical metals. For countries poorly endowed with mineral resources, adopting low-carbon energy technologies may imply a shifting of risk from carbon resources to other natural resources, in particular critical metals, and a trade-off between increased mining risk and deployment of such technologies. Our analysis constitutes a first step toward quantifying and managing the risks associated with natural resource mining.

    DOI

  • Forecasting Replacement Demand of Durable Goods and the Induced Secondary Material Flows A Case Study of Automobiles

    Shigemi Kagawa, Shinichiro Nakamura, Yasushi Kondo, Kazuyo Matsubae, Tetsuya Nagasaka

    JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY   19 ( 1 ) 10 - 19  2015.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The aim of this article is to propose a method for forecasting future secondary material flows by combining a product lifetime distribution analysis with a waste input-output analysis and present a simple case study of automobiles. The case study demonstrates that the proposed method enables us to estimate replacement demand of new vehicles, number of end-of-life (EOL) vehicles arising from the aging of vehicles, volume of shredder scraps recovered from EOL vehicles, and volume of shredder scraps required to meet final consumption in the future.

    DOI

  • Triangulation of Input–Output Tables Based on Mixed Integer Programs for Inter-temporal and Inter-regional Comparison of Production Structures

    Yasushi Kondo

    Journal of Economic Structures   3 ( 1 )  2014.12

     View Summary

    Understanding the industrial structure of a national or regional economy is one of the central issues in economics. The triangulation of an input–output table (IOT) can be employed to understand the production structure of an economy. Inter-temporal and inter-regional comparisons of multiple IOTs have addressed interesting and important issues pertaining to international trade, economic growth, and inter-industry relationships in the economy. Rank correlation coefficients between sector rankings obtained by solving optimization problems have been utilized to quantify similarities among production structures. However, it is well known that calculated rank correlations might be weak even if underlying structures are similar because the optimization problem inherently has multiple optimal solutions, thus leading to erroneous interpretations. This paper proposes a new method to triangulate IOTs based on mixed integer programs (MIPs) for comparing the production structures of multiple economies. The proposed new method does not suffer from non-uniqueness of optimal solutions and is consistent with maximization of the Kendall rank correlation coefficient. The application of the proposed method to the Japanese economy demonstrates stability of the Japanese production structure during 1995–2005. Comparisons of triangulated IOTs further reveal similarities in production structures of the Chinese, Japanese, and the U.S. economy for the year 2009. Electronic Supplementary Material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/2193-2409-3-2) contains supplementary material. JEL Classification: C61, C67, L16.

    DOI

  • MaTrace: Tracing the fate of materials over time and across products in open-loop recycling.

    Shinichiro Nakamura, Yasushi Kondo, Shigemi Kagawa, Kazuyo Matsubae, Kenichi Nakajima, Tetsuya Nagasaka

    Environmental Science and Technology   48 ( 13 ) 7207 - 7214  2014.05

    DOI

  • Global Flows of Critical Metals Necessary for Low-Carbon Technologies: The Case of Neodymium, Cobalt, and Platinum

    Keisuke Nansai, Kenichi Nakajima, Shigemi Kagawa, Yasushi Kondo, Sangwon Suh, Yosuke Shigetomi, Yuko Oshita

    ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY   48 ( 3 ) 1391 - 1400  2014.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This study, encompassing 231 countries and regions, quantifies the global transfer of three critical metals (neodymium, cobalt, and platinum) considered vital for low-carbon technologies by means of material flow analysis (MFA),. using trade data (BACI) and the metal contents of trade commodities, resolving the optimization problem to ensure the material balance of the metals within each country and region. The study shows that in 2005 international trade led to global flows of 18.6 kt of neodymium, 154 kt of cobalt, and 402 t of platinum and identifies the main commodities and top 50 bilateral trade links embodying these metals. To explore the issue of consumption efficiency, the flows were characterized according to the technological level of each country or region and divided into three types: green ("efficient use"), yellow ("moderately efficient use"), and red ("inefficient use"). On this basis, the shares of green, yellow, and red flows in the aggregate global flow of Nd were found to be 1.2%, 98%, and 1.2%, respectively. For Co, the respective figures are 53%, 28%, and 19%, and for Pt 15%, 84%, and 0.87%. Furthermore, a simple indicator focusing on the composition of the three colored flows for each commodity was developed to identify trade commodities that should be prioritized for urgent technical improvement to reduce wasteful use of the metals. Based on the indicator, we discuss logical, strategic identification of the responsibilities and roles of the countries involved in the global flows.

    DOI

  • Identifying environmentally important supply chain clusters in the automobile industry

    Shigemi Kagawa, Sangwon Suh, Yasushi Kondo, Keisuke Nansai

    ECONOMIC SYSTEMS RESEARCH   25 ( 3 ) 265 - 286  2013.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this paper, we develop a new approach that combines the spectral clustering method and input-output analysis to detect environmentally important supply chain clusters. The newly developed method was applied to automobile manufacturing in Japan, and major clusters with high energy intensities in the automobile supply chain were identified. This paper proposes that the car manufacturers will be able to regularly publish their life-cycle assessment reports with a focus on the indirect energy consumptions within the critical supply chains and request key auto-part manufacturers in the cluster to reduce the indirect consumptions through the relevant supply chain engagement.

    DOI

  • Finding environmentally important industry clusters: Multiway cut approach using nonnegative matrix factorization

    Shigemi Kagawa, Shunsuke Okamoto, Sangwon Suh, Yasushi Kondo, Keisuke Nansai

    Social Networks   35 ( 3 ) 423 - 438  2013.07

     View Summary

    This paper proposes an optimal combinatorial method for finding groups of industries with relatively large CO2 emissions through industrial relations. Using an economic input-output table, we estimated a non-symmetric matrix describing how much CO2 is emitted in producing the commodity of industry i, which was purchased to produce commodity of industry j, to meet the final demand for a specific commodity. A symmetric strength of relations matrix describing the CO2 emissions associated with the industrial relations was further estimated using the non-symmetric matrix. The strength of relations matrix can be viewed as a representation of the supply-chain network of the final commodity. In this study, we estimated the strength of relations matrix associated with the final demand for automobiles and applied the multiway cut approach using nonnegative matrix factorization to the matrix in order to find environmentally important industry clusters in the Japanese automobile supply chain. According to our empirical results, the optimal number of industry clusters is 19, and 4 industry clusters are playing a key role in CO2 emission reduction. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

    DOI

  • Simultaneous material flow analysis of nickel, chromium, and molybdenum used in alloy steel by means of input-output analysis

    Kenichi Nakajima, Hajime Ohno, Yasushi Kondo, Kazuyo Matsubae, Osamu Takeda, Takahiro Miki, Shinichiro Nakamura, Tetsuya Nagasaka

    Environmental Science and Technology   47 ( 9 ) 4653 - 4660  2013.05

     View Summary

    Steel is not elemental iron but rather a group of iron-based alloys containing many elements, especially chromium, nickel, and molybdenum. Steel recycling is expected to promote efficient resource use. However, open-loop recycling of steel could result in quality loss of nickel and molybdenum and/or material loss of chromium. Knowledge about alloying element substance flow is needed to avoid such losses. Material flow analyses (MFAs) indicate the importance of steel recycling to recovery of alloying elements. Flows of nickel, chromium, and molybdenum are interconnected, but MFAs have paid little attention to the interconnected flow of materials/substances in supply chains. This study combined a waste input-output material flow model and physical unit input-output analysis to perform a simultaneous MFA for nickel, chromium, and molybdenum in the Japanese economy in 2000. Results indicated the importance of recovery of these elements in recycling policies for end-of-life (EoL) vehicles and constructions. Improvement in EoL sorting technologies and implementation of designs for recycling/disassembly at the manufacturing phase are needed. Possible solutions include development of sorting processes for steel scrap and introduction of easier methods for identifying the composition of secondary resources. Recovery of steel scrap with a high alloy content will reduce primary inputs of alloying elements and contribute to more efficient resource use. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

    DOI PubMed

  • Quality- and dilution losses in the recycling of ferrous materials from end-of-life passenger cars: Input-output analysis under explicit consideration of scrap quality

    Shinichiro Nakamura, Yasushi Kondo, Kazuyo Matsubae, Kenichi Nakajima, Tomohiro Tasaki, Tetsuya Nagasaka

    Environmental Science and Technology   46 ( 17 ) 9266 - 9273  2012.08

     View Summary

    Metals can in theory be infinitely recycled in a closed-loop without any degradation in quality. In reality, however, open-loop recycling is more typical for metal scrap recovered from end-of-life (EoL) products because mixing of different metal species results in scrap quality that no longer matches the originals. Further losses occur when meeting the quality requirement of the target product requires dilution of the secondary material by adding high purity materials. Standard LCA usually does not address these losses. This paper presents a novel approach to quantifying quality- and dilution losses, by means of hybrid input-output analysis. We focus on the losses associated with the recycling of ferrous materials from end-of-life vehicle (ELV) due to the mixing of copper, a typical contaminant in steel recycling. Given the quality of scrap in terms of copper density, the model determines the ratio by which scrap needs to be diluted in an electric arc furnace (EAF), and the amount of demand for EAF steel including those quantities needed for dilution. Application to a high-resolution Japanese IO table supplemented with data on ferrous materials including different grades of scrap indicates that a nationwide avoidance of these losses could result in a significant reduction of CO2 emissions.

    DOI

  • Estimates of Embodied Global Energy and Air-Emission Intensities of Japanese Products for Building a Japanese Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment Database with a Global System Boundary

    Keisuke Nansai, Yasushi Kondo, Shigemi Kagawa, Sangwon Suh, Kenichi Nakajima, Rokuta Inaba, Susumu Tohno

    ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY   46 ( 16 ) 9146 - 9154  2012.08  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    To build a life cycle assessment (LCA) database of Japanese products embracing their global supply chains in a manner requiring lower time and labor burdens, this study estimates the intensity of embodied global environmental burden for commodities produced in Japan. The intensity of embodied global environmental burden is a measure of the environmental burden generated globally by unit production of the commodity and can be used as life cycle inventory data in LCA. The calculation employs an input-output LCA method with a global link input-output model that defines a global system boundary grounded in a simplified multiregional input-output framework. As results, the intensities of embodied global environmental burden for 406 Japanese commodities are determined in terms of energy consumption, greenhouse-gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, perfluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, and their summation), and air-pollutant emissions (nitrogen oxide and sulfur oxide). The uncertainties in the intensities of embodied global environmental burden attributable to the simplified structure of the global link input output model are quantified using Monte Carlo simulation. In addition, by analyzing the structure of the embodied global greenhouse-gas intensities we characterize Japanese commodities in the context of LCA embracing global supply chains.

    DOI

  • Characterization of Economic Requirements for a "Carbon-Debt-Free Country"

    Keisuke Nansai, Shigemi Kagawa, Yasushi Kondo, Sangwon Suh, Kenichi Nakajima, Rokuta Inaba, Yuko Oshita, Takashi Morimoto, Kazumasa Kawashima, Takuji Terakawa, Susumu Tohno

    ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY   46 ( 1 ) 155 - 163  2012.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In recent years, greenhouse gas emission controls that incorporate the supply chains of products and services, thereby emphasizing the role of consumers rather than producers, have been drawing increasing attention. A country's consumption-based emissions, including those due to global supply chains, reflect the total emissions on which the national economy relies. To design effective emissions control strategies there is therefore an urgent need for countries to elucidate the structural relationship between their domestic economy and emissions occurring through global supply chains. Here we consider the structural characteristics of consumption-based emissions in Japan, which in 2005 totaled 1675 Mt CO(2)eq. Outside the country the Japanese economy generated global emissions of 541 Mt CO(2)eq, 35.7% of which were UNFCCC Annex I emissions and 64.3% were non-Annex I and other emissions. This figure of 64.3% reveals that Japan is actually relying to a considerable degree on emissions that are subject to no international obligations. We identify key economic contributors to consumption-based emissions at the commodity level and specify items of household expenditure that are effective options for both financial savings and emissions reduction. We then discuss the importance of emissions control for evolving toward a "carbon-debt-free country".

    DOI

  • Impacts of Final Consumptions in Tokyo on Productions and Environmental Loads in Other Regions: An Interregional Waste Input-Output Approach

    Makiko Tsukui, Shigemi Kagawa, Yasushi Kondo

    Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, Japan   8 ( 1 ) 26 - 36  2012.01

    DOI CiNii

  • The anatomy of capital stock: input-output material flow analysis (MFA) of the material composition of physical stocks and its evolution over time

    Y. Kondo, K. Nakajima, K. Matsubae, S. Nakamura

    REVUE DE METALLURGIE-CAHIERS D INFORMATIONS TECHNIQUES   109 ( 5 ) 293 - 298  2012  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The operation of an economy is supported by the stock of materials in the form of durables and infrastructure such as machinery, equipment, buildings, and structures. The amount of durables and infrastructure or "capital stock" in the economy is of great interest in the literature of economics, and is usually measured in monetary terms based on the data on capital expenditure. In spite of its wide use by economists, this measure of "capital stock" is of very limited use for sustainable management of material stock because of its neglect of physical properties such as the mass and material composition. This paper proposes a new method of measuring the stock of long-lived durables and infrastructure in terms of the mass of its materials. This method is based on the WIO-MFA method [S. Nakamura et al. J. Ind. Ecol. 11 (2007) 50-63] and the capital formation matrix that is one of the supplementary tables of the input-output table. The method is applied to the Japanese input-output data with 400 sectors, with 9 types of metals (iron, ferroalloy, copper, zinc, lead, tin, aluminum, silver, and gold) and 8 types of plastics (thermo-setting resins, PE (low), PE (high), PS, PP, PVC, high-performance resins, and other resins) occurring as materials. It was found that substantial variations exist among sectors while fixed capital formation in the year 2000 weighs 518 kg per million Japanese yen on average in metals and plastics.

    DOI

  • Further Extension of Environmentally Extended Input-Output Analysis Descriptive Accounting and Analytical Modeling

    Yasushi Kondo

    JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY   15 ( 5 ) 671 - 673  2011.10  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • UPIOM: A New Tool of MFA and Its Application to the Flow of Iron and Steel Associated with Car Production

    Shinichiro Nakamura, Yasushi Kondo, Kazuyo Matsubae, Kenichi Nakajima, Tetsuya Nagasaka

    ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY   45 ( 3 ) 1114 - 1120  2011.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Identification of the flow of materials and substances associated with a product system provides useful information for Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), and contributes to extending the scope of complementarity between LCA and Materials Flow Analysis/Substances Flow Analysis (MFA/SFA), the two major tools of industrial ecology. This paper proposes a new methodology based on input-output analysis for identifying the physical input-output flow of individual materials that is associated with the production of a unit of given product, the unit physical input-output by materials (UPIOM). While the Sankey diagram has been a standard tool for the visualization of MFA/SFA, with an increase in the complexity of the flows under consideration, which will be the case when economy-wide intersectoral flows of materials are involved, the Sankey diagram may become too complex for effective visualization. An alternative way to visually represent material flows is proposed which makes use of triangulation of the flow matrix based on degrees of fabrication. The proposed methodology is applied to the flow of pig iron and iron and steel scrap that are associated with the production of a passenger car in Japan. Its usefulness to identify a specific MFA pattern from the original 10 table is demonstrated.

    DOI

  • Role of Motor Vehicle Lifetime Extension in Climate Change Policy

    Shigemi Kagawa, Keisuke Nansai, Yasushi Kondo, Klaus Hubacek, Sangwon Suh, Jan Minx, Yuki Kudoh, Tomohiro Tasaki, Shinichiro Nakamura

    ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY   45 ( 4 ) 1184 - 1191  2011.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Vehicle replacement schemes such as the "cash for clunkers" program in the U.S. and the "scrappage scheme" in the UK have featured prominently in the economic stimulation packages initiated by many governments to cope with the global economic crisis. While these schemes were designed as economic instruments to support the vehicle production industry, governments have also claimed that these programs have environmental benefits such as reducing CO(2) emissions by bringing more fuel-efficient vehicles onto the roads. However, little evidence is available to support this claim as current energy and environmental accounting models are inadequate for comprehensively capturing the economic and environmental trade-offs associated with change&apos;s in product life and product use. We therefore developed a new dynamic model to quantify the carbon emissions due to changes in product life and consumer behavior related to product use. Based on a case study of Japanese vehicle use during the 1990-2000 period, we found that extending, not shortening, the lifetime of a vehicle helps to reduce life-cycle CO(2) emissions throughout the supply chain. Empirical results also revealed that even if the fuel economy of less fuel-efficient ordinary passenger vehicles were improved to levels comparable with those of the best available technology, i.e. hybrid passenger cars currently being produced in Japan, total CO(2) emissions would decrease by only 0.2%. On the other hand, we also find that extending the lifetime of a vehicle contributed to a moderate increase in emissions of health-relevant air pollutants (NO(x), HC, and CO) during the use phase. From the results, this study concludes that the effects of global warming and air pollution can be somewhat moderated and that these problems can be addressed through specific policy instruments directed at increasing the market for hybrid cars as well as extending lifetime of automobiles, which is contrary to the current wisdom.

    DOI

  • Identifying the Substance Flow of Metals Embedded in Japanese International Trade by Use of Waste Input-Output Material Flow Analysis (WIO-MFA) Model

    Kenichi Nakajima, Keisuke Nansai, Kazuyo Matsubae, Yasushi Kondo, Shigemi Kagawa, Rokuta Inaba, Shinichiro Nakamura, Tetsuya Nagasaka

    ISIJ INTERNATIONAL   51 ( 11 ) 1934 - 1939  2011  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This study proposes a method of combining a waste input output material flow analysis (WIO-MFA) model with trade statistical data to identify the flows of substances embedded in trade commodities. We focused on the case of Japan as a typical processing and trading country, and we estimated each mass of iron and aluminum embedded in the imports and exports of 300 product items categorized in the WIO-MFA. We found that iron ore imported from Australia, Brazil, and India as a raw material is processed and exported to South Korea, China, and other Asian countries as steel materials and to the United States as steel materials and automobiles. Primary aluminum imported from Russia, Australia, and Brazil as a raw material is processed and exported to Asia as rolled materials and to the United States as rolled materials and automobiles.

    DOI

  • Factor X (eco-efficiency) assessment on global warming a household in Japan

    Taeko Aoe, Ryoichi Yamamoto, Toshiharu Ikaga, Yasushi Kondo, Yuichi Matsuoka, Moriki Fukuda

    Nihon Enerugi Gakkaishi/Journal of the Japan Institute of Energy   89 ( 11 ) 1070 - 1087  2010

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a new method for evaluating the eco-efficiency of a household based on Factor X, which was proposed by Yamamoto and colleagues in 1999. We had proposed methods for evaluating Factor X of a household which consists of a building and home appliances, and implemented empirical evaluations. However, there remained the following two issues to be considered. One is how to quantify the function of a household. The other is how to take account of the so-called synergy effects. It proposes the method for calculating the overall functions of one household using the purchasing price as a weighting coefficient. This method is the same as Laspeyres quantity index in economics fields. As a synergy effect, the insulating effect in the building, etc. are considered. The result showed that the annual greenhouse gas emission of a typical household drastically decreased by 52.2% from 1990 to 2009 while the aggregated function of the household slightly decreased by 0.2% during the same period so that Factor X was 2.1 with respect to global warming. It was thus shown quantitatively that Factor X of households in Japan presumably improved during the period although only limited assessments were implemented.

    DOI CiNii

  • Waste Input-Output Material Flow Analysis Model: Newly Developed Top-down MFA Approach

    Kenichi Nakajima, Shinichiro Nakamura, Kazuyo Matsubae-Yokoyama, Yasushi Kondo, Tetsuya Nagasaka

    Material Cycles and Waste Management Research   20 ( 5 ) 206 - 211  2009.09

    DOI

  • Using Waste Input-Output Model to Analyze the Environmental Impacts of Dietary Habits

    Sayaka Ita, Koji Takase, Yasushi Kondo, Ayu Washizu

    Journal of the Japan Society of Material Cycles and Waste Management   20 ( 2 ) 119 - 132  2009.06

    DOI

  • IMPROVING THE COMPLETENESS OF PRODUCT CARBON FOOTPRINTS USING A GLOBAL LINK INPUT-OUTPUT MODEL: THE CASE OF JAPAN

    Keisuke Nansai, Shigemi Kagawa, Yasushi Kondo, Sangwon Suh, Rokuta Inaba, Kenichi Nakajima

    ECONOMIC SYSTEMS RESEARCH   21 ( 3 ) 267 - 290  2009  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper is concerned with the main activities of Japan&apos;s &apos;Disclosure of CO(2) emissions&apos; programme, aimed at illustrating the CO(2) emissions associated with consumer products as a &apos;carbon footprint&apos; (CF). Although the current, provisional guidelines for calculating product carbon footprints specify that only the bottom-up approach is to be used for this purpose, this paper presents useful applications of input-output analysis that can improve the reliability of the method considerably, by taking full advantage of the strengths of input-output analysis. To this end, we first estimated the global carbon footprint (GCF) of food and consumables in Japan, using a global link input-output (GLIO) model comprising 804 economic sectors in Japan and 230 foreign countries and regions. By visualizing the GCF on a world map, the global distribution (including Middle East and African countries) of the induced CO(2) emissions of each of the Japanese sectors were identified. To investigate the scope for reducing the data collection burden for CF practitioners, GCFs were compared with CFs obtained using a single-region input-output model. This showed that there are certain commodity groups with a CF equating to 70% to over 90% of the corresponding GCF, even if the imported goods used for producing a Japanese domestic product are considered environmentally equivalent to their domestically produced counterparts. Furthermore, it was identified which data should preferably be collected by the bottom-up approach to secure CO(2) emissions coverage greater than a certain predefined level and keep data and labour costs at a minimum.

    DOI

  • The waste input-output approach to materials flow analysis: Concepts and application to base metals

    Shinichiro Nakamura, Kenichi Nakajima, Yasushi Kondo, Tetsuya Nagasaka

    Journal of Industrial Ecology   11 ( 4 ) 50 - 63  2007.09

     View Summary

    A general analytical model of materials flow analysis (MFA) incorporating physical waste input-output is proposed that is fully consistent with the mass balance principle. Exploiting the triangular nature of the matrix of input coefficients, which is obtained by rearranging the ordering of sectors according to degrees of fabrication, the material composition matrix is derived, which gives the material composition of products. A formal mathematical definition of materials (or the objects, the flow of which is to be accounted for by MFA) is also introduced, which excludes the occurrence of double accounting in economy-wide MFAs involving diverse inputs. By using the model, monetary input-output (IO) tables can easily be converted into a physical material flow account (or physical input-output tables [PIOT]) of an arbitrary number of materials, and the material composition of a product can be decomposed into its input origin. The first point represents substantial saving in the otherwise prohibitive cost that is associated with independent compilation of PIOT. The proposed methodology is applied to Japanese IO data for the flow of 11 base metals and their scrap (available as e-supplement on the JIE Web site). © 2007 by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Yale University.

    DOI

  • An integrated model for evaluating environmental impact of consumer's behavior: Consumption 'technologies' and the waste input-output model

    Yasushi Kondo, Koji Takase

    ADVANCES IN LIFE CYCLE ENGINEERING FOR SUSTAINABLE MANUFACTURING BUSINESSES   ( Springer, London ) 413 - +  2007  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper is concerned with a new integrated analytical model for evaluating environmental loads induced by consumer behavior. The model consists of two components: One is the waste input-output (WIO) model that is a consistent framework for the hybrid life-cycle assessment and life-cycle costing. The other is an economics model of consumer behavior within the constraints of limited income and time based on the concept of consumption 'technologies.' Because consumers are regarded as industrial sectors in the newly developed model, not only time and income rebound effects but also a part of the so-called economy-wide rebound effects is accounted for.

    DOI

  • Hybrid LCC of appliances with different energy efficiency

    Shinichiro Nakamura, Yasushi Kondo

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT   11 ( 5 ) 305 - 314  2006.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Goal, Scope and Background. This paper is concerned with a life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCQ by the use of the waste input-output (WIO) quantity- and price model of air conditioners with different energy efficiency at the use phase (high-end, lowend and average models) that were available in Japan as of winter 2002. The functional unit is an air conditioner of the 2.5kW type that is used for 10 years, and then subjected to an end-of-life (EoL) process that is consistent with the Japanese law on the recycling of appliances.
    Methods. This is the first simultaneous application of the WIO methodology to an LCA and LCC over the entire life-cycle of a product including the use phase, and represents a methodological extension (in the sense of considering the use phase) and integration (in the sense of a simultaneous application) of previous studies by us (Kondo and Nakamura, Int J LCA 2004, Nakamura and Kondo, Ecol Econ 2006). The main body of data is provided by the WIO table for the year 2000, an update of the previous table for 1995 that was used in the above WIO studies. Compared with the WIO table for 1995 that consisted of only about 80 industry sectors, the current one consists of about 400 industry sectors, and includes air conditioner as a separate sector. The data on the purchase price and efficiency of air conditioners indicate wide variations: the cheapest one (the lowend model) costs half of the most expensive one (the high-end model), but its efficiency is about half of the latter.
    Results and Discussion. When the cost in the use and EoL phases is included, the low-end model becomes the most expensive one, and the high-end model with the highest purchase cost the least expensive. This reversal of the relative cost levels is attributed to the difference in the efficiency in the use phase. A sensitivity analysis indicates that a reduction of the electricity price in the use phase by about 40% does not alter the significant superiority of the high-end model over the low-end model. In spite of the largest amount of input in the production phase, the high-end model performs the best in terms of both global warming potential (GWP) and landfill, while the low-end model performs the worst. The use phase generates the largest amount of waste for landfill across the three models, the largest component of which is flyash generated from coal firing power plants. A possible internalization of externality in the form of carbon tax was found to work in favor of the high-end model. The cost advantage of the high-end model, however, is sensitive to the rate of discounting of future costs: discounting at 15% diminishes its advantage over the low-end model.
    Recommendation and Perspective. The results indicate the effectiveness of the pricing based on the life cycle cost for achieving sustainability, that is, for promoting the shift of the demand away from appliances with low environmental performance to the one with higher environmental performance. Acceptance by society of pricing based on life cycle costing would require, among other things, an economywide standardization of the LCC concept (in a manner analogous to ISO-LCA) that can be used complementary to ISO-LCA.

    DOI

  • Application of Markov chain model to calculate the average number of times of use of a material in society - An allocation methodology for open-loop recycling

    Hiroyuki Yamada, Ichiro Daigo, Yasunari Matsuno, Yoshihiro Adachi, Yasushi Kondo

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT   11 ( 5 ) 354 - 360  2006.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Goal, Scope and Background. It has been recognized that LCA has a limitation in assessing open cycle recycling of materials because of inevitable subjective judgments in setting system boundary. According with the enforcement of recycling laws, there has been a rapid increase in recycling ratio of materials at the end-of-life of products in many industrialized countries. So, materials' life cycle is getting more complicated, which makes it difficult to quantify the environmental impacts of materials used in a product in an appropriate way. The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to calculate the average number of times a material is used in a society from cradle to grave. The method developed in this paper derives the average number of times material is used; this value could be used for allocation of environmental burdens of virgin material as well as an indicator for assessing the state of material,use in a certain year, based on material flow of material in that year.
    Main Features. Our methodology is based on Markov chain model using matrix-based numerical analysis. A major feature of this method is that it creates transition probability matrices for a material from the way in which the material is produced, consumed, and recycled, making it possible to simply elicit indicators that assess the status of material use in products in society. Our methodology could be an alternative method to derive the average number of times material is used, which could be used for allocation of environmental burdens of virgin material.
    Results and Discussions. The methodology was applied to hypothetical examples of material flows, in which a virgin material was produced and used in products, recycled and finally landfilled. In some cases, closed loop and open loop recycling of materials existed. The transition probability matrix was created for each material flow, and how many times a virgin material is used in products until all of the elements are ultimately landfilled.
    Conclusions. This methodology is applicable to a complicated material flow if the status of residence of a material and its flow in a society can be figured out. All the necessary data are the amount of virgin material production, amount of the material used in products, recycling rate of the material at the end of life of each product, the amount of scrap of the material that are used for products. In Part 2 of this paper, case studies for steel were conducted.

    DOI

  • A waste input-output life-cycle cost analysis of the recycling of end-of-life electrical home appliances

    Shinichiro Nakamura, Yasushi Kondo

    ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS   57 ( 3 ) 494 - 506  2006.05  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    However excellent a product may be environmentally, it would not come into wide use in the economy to realize its environmental load reducing potential unless it is also economically affordable. Life-cycle costing (LCC) is a tool to assess the cost of a product over its entire life cycle, and can be regarded as an economic counterpart of LCA. A combined use of LCA and LCC would be imperative for assessing the sustainability of a product or product systems in the economy. This paper presents a new methodology of LCC which gives the cost and price counterpart of the hybrid LCA tool (Waste Input-Output, WIO) that was developed by Nakamura and Kondo (2002) [Nakamura, S., Kondo, Y., 2002. Input-output analysis of waste management. Journal of Industrial Ecology 6 (1), 39-63.1]for LCA of waste management. Building upon the preceding LCA study by Kondo and Nakamura (2004) [Kondo, Y., Nakamura, S., 2004. Evaluating alternative life-cycle strategies for electrical appliances by the waste input-output model. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 9 (4), 236-246.], the applicability of the methodology is illustrated by a case study of electric appliances under alternative end-of-life scenarios: landfilling, intensive recycling that is consistent with the Japanese law on the recycling of appliances, and an advanced form of intensive recycling augmented by Design for Disassembly (DfD). Application of the proposed LCC methodology indicates that while the life-cycle cost is the highest under intensive recycling and the lowest under landfilling, the cost of recycling can be reduced by appropriate implementation of MD. The possible introduction of a carbon tax is also found to significantly reduce the cost disadvantage of recycling against landfilling. Given the high level of environmental load associated with landfilling and the possible introduction of carbon taxes, Design for Environment or EcoDesign emerges as a strategy of vital importance to achieve the sustainability of appliances. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • An analysis of consumers' behavior by the waste input-output model: Environmental impact of income and time use

    Koji Takase, Yasushi Kondo, Ayu Washizu

    Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, Japan   2 ( 1 ) 48 - 55  2006.01

    DOI

  • An analysis of sustainable consumption by the waste input-output model

    Koji Takase, Yasushi Kondo, Ayu Washizu

    Journal of Industrial Ecology   9 ( 1-2 ) 201 - 219  2005.12

     View Summary

    The extension of the waste input-output (WIO) model to analyze households' sustainable consumption patterns is presented in this article. We estimate direct and indirect emission loads induced by household consumption by the WIO model. The WIO model is much more suitable for the analysis of sustainable consumption than the conventional input-output model because it can deal with the disposal stage of consumed goods as well as the purchase and use stages. A simple method for evaluating income rebound effects is also introduced. As indicators of environmental loads, we estimate carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions and landfill consumption induced by house-hold consumption. The model is applied to some typical sustainable consumption scenarios: shifting transportation modes from a private car to public transportation, the longer use of household electric appliances, and eating at restaurants instead of cooking at home. We found that the income rebound effects should be considered to evaluate environmental loads induced by different consumption patterns. © 2005 by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Yale University.

    DOI

  • Waste input-output linear programming model with its application to eco-efficiency analysis

    Yasushi Kondo, Shinichiro Nakamura

    Economic Systems Research   17 ( 4 ) 393 - 408  2005.12

     View Summary

    This paper is concerned with a decision analytic extension of the waste input-output model, based on the method of linear programming. The resulting model, which is named the waste input-output linear programming model, allows one to automatically obtain an 'optimal' waste management and recycling strategy from among a given set of alternative feasible strategies. The model can thus explore the extent to which a given measure of eco-efficiency can be maximized by an appropriate combination of existing (technological and resource) potentials. An application to Japanese data is also presented. © 2005 The International Input-Output Association.

    DOI

  • Impact environnemental et co&ucirc;t &eacute;conomique du traitement des d&eacute;chets: Analyse par le mod&egrave;le entr&eacute;e-sortie des d&eacute;chets

    Shinichiro Nakamura, Yasushi Kondo

    L. M. Cloutier and C. Debresson (eds.) Changement Climatique, Flux Technologiques, Financiers et Commerciaux (Climate Change and Technological Innovation: New Input-Output Analysis Methods)   ( Presses de l’Universit&eacute; du Qu&eacute;bec ) 91 - 103  2004

  • Recycling and extended life of electric home appliances: hybrid analysis based on the waste input-output model

    S Nakmura, Y Kondo

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2004 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ELECTRONICS & THE ENVIRONMENT, CONFERENCE RECORD   ( IEEE, Piscataway ) 104 - 105  2004  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Effects of alternative life cycle strategies of end of life electrical home appliances (EL-EHA) on the emission of CO(2), landfill volume, and the level of employment are evaluated by the waste input-output model. Extension of product life with functional upgradability is found effective to reduce the environmental effects without having negative impact on employment.

    DOI

  • Evaluating alternative life-cycle strategies for electrical appliances by the waste input-output model

    Y Kondo, S Nakamura

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT   9 ( 4 ) 236 - 246  2004  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Goal, Scope and Background. In 2001, a new law on the recycling of end-of-life electric home appliances (EL-EHA) was put into effect in Japan; it was the first legislation of its sort in the world, and deserves to be called the 'Japan model.' This article is concerned with the LCA of alternative life-cycle strategies for EL-EHA, which consist of recycling as prescribed by the law, 'ecodesign' strategies such as the implementation of design for disassembly (DfD) and the extension of product life (EPL), with and without ex-post functional upgradability, and the once-dominant treatment methods such as landfilling and simple shredding.
    Methods. We use the waste input-output (WIO) analysis, a new method of hybrid LCA that was developed by the authors [I]. The WIO extends the conventional input-output analysis to explicitly take into account the interdependence between the flow of goods and the flow of waste in the whole economy, and. hence provides an optimal platform for LCA involving waste treatment and recycling. Furthermore, the WIO enables us to evaluate not only environmental impacts, but also economic: impacts such as sectoral output and employment. Our analysis is based on the WIO table for 1995 and detailed process data. on recycling.
    Results and Discussion. Recycling was found to outperform the 'traditional' treatment method strategy with regard to the reduction of CO2 emission, landfill consumption, and the demand for abiotic resources. Thanks to efficient utilization of the existing retail network system, it was also found to be more efficient economically. Additional implementation of DfD and the associated increase in the quality of recovered materials (plastics) were found to augment the positive environmental impacts of recycling. The EPL without upgrading resulted in a significant reduction in the environmental impacts, but also in the level of employment. On the other hand, the EPL with upgrading was found to outperform the recycling strategy in terms of environmental impacts without having significant negative economic impacts.
    Conclusion and Recommendation. Recycling of EL-EHA, as prescribed by the Japanese law on the recycling of EL-EHA, was found to be effective in reducing CO, emission, depletion of abiotic resources, generation of waste, and landfill consumption, provided the rate of retrieval remains at a high level. Our results also indicate the possible effectiveness of ecodesign strategy toward the realization of a sustainable economy.

    DOI

  • Waste Input-Output Analysis and Optimization of Waste Management

    Yasushi Kondo, Shinichiro Nakamura

    IEEJ Transactions on Electronics, Information and Systems   124 ( 10 ) 2187 - 2194  2004

     View Summary

    A decision analytic model of life cycle assessment (LCA) for waste management based on the waste input-output (WIO) model is presented. The resulting WIO-LP model can help environmental decision making with regard to choosing an "optimal" waste management from among a set of possible technological alternatives to meet given policy objectives under consideration of given physical, economic, and institutional constraints. Its implementation to Japanese data reveals the presence of a trade-off relationship between the reduction of CO2 emission and the consumption of landfill capacity. © 2004, The Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Hedonic Price Index Estimation under Mean-Independence of Time Dummies from Quality-Characteristics

    Yasushi Kondo, Myoung-jae Lee

    Econometrics Journal   6 ( 1 ) 28 - 45  2003.06

    DOI

  • Clinic and Hospital in Japan

    Katsuya Yamamoto, Yasushi Kondo

    Iryo To Shakai   13 ( 1 ) 97 - 112  2003.05

    DOI

  • Input-Output Analysis of Waste Management

    Shinichiro Nakamura, Yasushi Kondo

    Journal of Industrial Ecology   6 ( 1 ) 39 - 63  2002.12

    DOI

  • 重複受診の現状と要因

    近藤康之

    Quarterly of Social Security Research   38 ( 1 ) 14 - 24  2002.06

  • Recycling, Landfill Consumption, and CO2 Emission: Analysis by Waste Input-Output Model

    Shinichiro Nakamura, Yasushi Kondo

    Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management   4 ( 1 ) 2 - 11  2002.03

    DOI

  • 企業統治・外部役員・企業パフォーマンス:日本企業システムの形成と変容

    宮島英昭, 近藤康之, 山本克也

    日本経済研究   43   18 - 45  2001.07

  • 厨芥処理のLCA:廃棄物産業連関の応用

    中村愼一郎, 近藤康之, 平井康宏

    都市清掃   54 ( 241 ) 186 - 191  2001.05

  • Waste input-output analysis of disposal, recycling, and extended life of electric home appliances

    S. Nakamura, Y. Kondo

    Proceedings - 2nd International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing   ( IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos ) 814 - 819  2001

     View Summary

    Economic and emission effects of alternative life-cycle strategies for electric home appliances were analyzed by use of waste input-output (WIO). The strategies consist of (1) landfilling, (2) conventional shredding with iron recovery, (3) integrated recycling with the recovery of metals, glass, and plastics, and (4) extension of products lives without and with increased maintenance and updating activities. It was found that strategy 3 outperformed strategies 1 and 2 in terms of both CO2 emission and landfill consumption. The result was robust to the variation of transport conditions. The overall increase in labor cost under strategy 3 turned out almost neutral. Strategy 4 outperformed strategy 3 in terms of environmental effects. The extent to which the reduced sales of new appliances were compensated by the increased demand for maintenance was found to have significant effects on the level of employment.

    DOI

  • An hedonic analysis of the rental office market in the Tokyo central business district: 1985-1994 fiscal years

    K Nagai, Y Kondo, M Ohta

    JAPANESE ECONOMIC REVIEW   51 ( 1 ) 130 - 154  2000.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We study the rental office market in the Tokyo central business district by estimating hedonic equations for the office rent for 1985-94 fiscal years. This period includes the "Bubble" of asset prices, followed by its deflation. We find that the characteristics related to transportational conveniences are less effective in explaining office rents than the characteristics related to the agglomeration of offices and the amenity characteristics of the office buildings themselves. Using a skewed error-term specification, we show that the discount in rental transactions is not irrelevant. The hedonic office rent indices and possible policy implications are also presented. JEL Classification Numbers: L85, R32.

    DOI

  • Recycling of electrical home appliances: Its impacts on the economy and environment

    S Nakamura, Y Kondo

    ELECTRONICS GOES GREEN 2000 (PLUS): A CHALLENGE FOR THE NEXT MILLENNIUM, VOL 1, PROCEEDINGS   1 ( VDE Verlag, Berlin ) 827 - 832  2000  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In 1998, the Japanese government passed a law for the recycling of specified kinds of electrical home appliances, which is to be put in full operation in 2001. Under the law, the manufacturers of TV sets, refrigerators, washing machines, and air conditioners, who operate in Japan, are obliged to recycle specified percentage of discarded appliances. While the recycling is said to be technically feasible, uncertainty remains with respect to its overall effects on the environment and economy. Using the Waste Input-Output Model (WIO, [1]) we evaluated these effects, and found that the landfill consumption and carbon dioxide emission could be reduced without reducing the level of employment.

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Books and Other Publications

  • Waste Input-Output Analysis: Concepts and Application to Industrial Ecology

    Shinichiro Nakamura, Yasushi Kondo

    Springer  2009.02

Misc

Awards

  • The ILCAJ Outstanding Achievement Award, The Institute of Life Cycle Assessment, Japan for contributions in Input-Output Analysis of Material Cycles and Waste Management

    2019.03  

  • Most Cited Paper Award, RCR (Resources, Conservation and Recycling) Annual Awards for its highest number of citations among papers published in 2015 in RCR in the following three years 2015-2017; H. Ohno, K. Matsubae, K. Nakajima, Y. Kondo, S. Nakamura, T. Nagasaka. Toward the efficient recycling of alloying elements from end of life vehicle steel scrap. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 100, 11-20, 2015.

    2018.01  

  • The Sir Richard Stone Prize, International Input-Output Association (IIOA) for the best paper during the period 2009-2010, K. Nansai, S. Kagawa, Y. Kondo, S. Suh, R. Inaba, K. Nakajima, Improving the completeness of product carbon footprints using a global link input-output model: The case of Japan. Economic Systems Research 21(3), 267-290, 2009.

    2011.06  

  • 廃棄物資源循環学会論文賞(板明果, 高瀬浩二, 近藤康之, 鷲津明由「食に関するライフスタイル変化の環境影響評価:廃棄物産業連関(WIO)分析の応用」『廃棄物資源循環学会誌』20(2), 119-132, 2009年3月)

    2010.05  

Research Projects

  • 消費行動分析・効率性分析・サプライチェーン分析を統合した二酸化炭素排出評価

    Project Year :

    2020.04
    -
    2025.03
     

     View Summary

    第一の課題では、自動車の動的離散選択モデルの推定を行い、需要政策が自動車の最終需要に付随するライフサイクルCO2排出量に与える影響を推計し、需要政策が温暖化緩和に果たす役割を定量的に明らかにする。第二の研究課題では、日本の自動車製造に不可欠な金属14部門に着目したサプライチェーンDEAを行い、金属生産の技術効率・サプライチェーン効率の向上が自動車の最終需要に付随するCO2排出量に与える影響を分析する。第三の研究課題では、第一と第二の課題で明らかになる自動車需要政策に伴う最終需要変化と金属部門の効率性向上に伴う投入変化を考慮したサプライチェーンネットワーク分析を行う

  • Environmental hotspot analysis supporting policy and action towards global sustainability of food production and consumption

    Project Year :

    2019.04
    -
    2022.03
     

  • 希少合金元素の高効率リサイクルを目指した多元物質ストック・フロー解析モデルの開発

    Project Year :

    2019.04
    -
    2022.03
     

  • Responsibility footprint analysis of Japanese activities to water resources sustainability in the world considering future changes

    Project Year :

    2018.10
    -
    2022.03
     

  • アジアのバリューチェーンを通じたPM2.5による健康被害の発生メカニズムの解明

    Project Year :

    2016.04
    -
    2021.03
     

     View Summary

    大消費国である米国、中国、日本、ドイツ、英国に着目した消費者基準によるPM2.5に起因するアジア領域における早期死亡者に関する分析結果を国際学術雑誌で報告した。PM2.5の一次粒子と二次粒子前駆物質排出インベントリ,国際産業連関分析モデル,大気質輸送モデル,曝露リスク評価モデルを組み合わせ,消費国がアジアのサプライチェーンにおいて直接間接的に引き起こす早期死亡者を算定し,その早期死亡者数から逸失労働所得として経済損失額を明らかにした。更に,5カ国がアジアの国々にもたらす国際貿易を通じた付加価値に対する経済損失額の大きさを比較し,貿易に隠れた不公正について定量的な解析を行った。結果として,5カ国の消費は2010年にアジア域において,12.1百万トンの一次粒子を排出し,二次粒子前駆物質として,窒素酸化物を21.3 百万トン,二酸化硫黄を 26.0百万トン,一酸化炭素を159 百万トン,アンモニアを1.20百万トン,化石燃料起源とバイオマス起源の非メタン揮発性有機化合物をそれぞれ15.6 百万トンと10.7 百万トンを生じさせた。前駆物質により生成された二次粒子の濃度影響を含めて,一年間で約100万人の早期死亡者をアジア域に生じさせたことを確認した。年齢層別の早期死亡者を見ると,80歳以上の高齢者の死亡は多いが,下気道感染による疾患から乳幼児の死亡者も無視できないことが分かった。特に,中国とインドで多く生じ,5カ国の消費が年間1千500人の5歳未満の乳幼児を犠牲にした。約100万人の早期死亡者による経済損失被害は450億米ドルと推計された。アジア各国に与える被害額と貿易により生み出す付加価値を比べると,例えば,日本は被害額の割合が0.2%程度と小さいがラオスは4.1%と大きく,特に途上国において貿易の不公正が顕著であった。本年度は,5つの大消費国を対象にPM2.5によるアジア域での影響を消費基準勘定により明らかにする学際研究成果をオープンアクセスの国際学術雑誌(Environment International)に掲載することができた。特に,消費基準での早期死亡者を経済損失として理解し,貿易の不公正の存在を世界で初めて明らかにした点で学術的貢献は高いと考え,進捗は概ね順調であると判断する。今後は,昨年度より継続して進めている,消費基準による分析をサプライチェーンに分解して計算することを目的として,アジア各国の発生源別にPM2.5に起因する早期死亡者数を定量化し,早期死亡者数に関する原単位を整備する。これらの原単位を多地域間産業連関分析と組み合わせ,サプライチェーンを分解可能な消費基準の計算を可能にする

  • Evaluating CO2 emissions through the international trade network analysis

    Project Year :

    2014.04
    -
    2018.03
     

     View Summary

    Using a model that represents global supply-chain networks, we identified supply-chain clusters with high CO2 emissions within more than 300 million individual supply chains. We distinguished 4756 significant CO2 clusters and found that in 2008, global supply-chain networks associated with U.S. construction demand included relatively large CO2 clusters in China, accounting for 10% of the U.S. CO2 footprint. Due to the sensitivity issue, there is a danger of overfitting of the results. In order to confirm the robustness and stability of the obtained clusters, we proposed a simulation-based experiment. We further developed an economic network analysis to find environmentally critical transmission sectors, transactions and paths in global supply chain networks. The edge betweenness centrality in the global supply chain networks is newly formulated. High-priority supply-chain clusters were visualized using both edge betweenness centrality and vertex betweenness centrality

  • 多元物質フロー解析モデルの開発と随伴元素成分を考慮した鉄鋼リサイクルへの応用

    科学研究費助成事業(早稲田大学)  科学研究費助成事業(基盤研究(C))

    Project Year :

    2015
    -
    2017
     

  • Development for consumption-based environmental and resource management model for Japan and its application to future scenario analysis

    Project Year :

    2013.04
    -
    2016.03
     

     View Summary

    A global link input-output model of multiregional input-output model, which combined global material flow data on metal resources and Japanese input-output table, measured material footprints (MF) of the resources and greenhouse gases emissions induced by final demand in Japan through the international supply chain. Mining risk on each metal resource was also quantified by using the political risk of mining countries and the global market concentration of the metal output, and attribution of the mining risk to Japanese economy was calculated based on the magnitude of the Japanese MF. In addition, focusing on changes in the household composition and the population the due to the declining birth rate and the aging population, the household consumption by household type from 2005 to 2035 were estimated and employed to analyse the future changes in the consumption-based GHG and MFs of rare metals associated with household consumption in Japan

  • Method for visualizing supply chains in life-cycle analysis

    Project Year :

    2012.04
    -
    2015.03
     

     View Summary

    We developed a mathematical model and applied it to visualization of supply chains, which encourages exchange of views among stakeholders and facilitates decision making to promote an effective reduction of greenhouse gas emission. The developed model is an extension of a well-known method of input-output economics, called structural path analysis, with which a total emission can be disaggregated into the contributions of parts constituting a supply chain. Moreover, we improved an existing method for triangulating input-output tables, the results of which can be used to analyze economic structures and visualize supply chains, and demonstrated the usefulness of the improved method through empirical analyses

  • Comparative Analysis of CO2 Emission Structures Using the Spectral Graph Theory

    Project Year :

    2011.04
    -
    2014.03
     

     View Summary

    This study proposes clustering techniques for finding groups of industries with relatively large CO2 emissions through industrial relations, that is CO2 cluster. According to our empirical results, the optimal number of industry clusters from the automobile supply-chain network is 19, and 4 industry clusters are playing a key role in CO2 emission reduction. In addition, this study attempted to detect CO2 clusters from the industrial structures of Japan, U.S.A., and China by applying the environmentally-extended Asian input-output table to the clustering technique. The results show that the Japanese economy, US economy, and Chinese economy include 5 clusters, 11 clusters, and 7 clusters, respectively and reveal a variety of cluster structures in their economies

  • Material flow analysis and methods for visualization based on input-output analysis

    Project Year :

    2009
    -
    2011
     

     View Summary

    A new method for material flow analysis(MFA), termed the unit physical input-output by material(UPIOM), was developed. The UPIOM diagram can effectively visualize inter-sector material flow, in particular, when there are a lot of sectors and loops. The UPIOM diagram can be complementary to the Sankey diagram, which is well-known in the literature of MFA. In constructing the UPIOM and Sankey diagrams, it is vital to reduce information and/or place boxes representing sectors at appropriate positions. New methods for carrying out these vital steps were developed. These methods are triangulation of input-output tables, structural path analysis, and path-based matrix decomposition analysis(PMDA). These methods were applied to MFA of metal species and carbon in Japanese economy

  • Research on Estimation of Environmental and Economic Accounting of Japan, including Effects on Global Environment, and Sustainability

     View Summary

    (1) We estimated imputed costs on global environment by abatement cost and quantity of pollutants Japan discharged and by production cost and quantity of resources Japan imported. But, we excluded some resources whose imputed costs are in dispute.(2) We made an trial estimates of Japanese environmental and economic accounting of 26X27 matrix in 1990 and 1995 which include effects of economic activities on global environment.(3) According to these estimates of Japanese environmental and economic accounting which include effects on global environment, environmentally adjusted NDP of Japan increased during these five years. It does not mean sufficient condition for "economic" sustainability and any "physical" sustainability, but a kind of necessary condition for "economic" sustainability.(4) There are two approaches for measurement of national income; i.e. Hicksian income and national welfare. We showed that since environmentally adjusted NDP belongs to the former, theoretically it is a linear approximation for "true" national income, so it is not sufficient for managing environmental problems

  • ヘドニック・アプローチによる不動産価格等の分析と計量経済学的方法の改善

     View Summary

    今年度を含む研究期間(平成12-13年度)において,以下の研究を行った.1.東京中心業務地区における賃貸オフィスについてのヘドニック分析を行い,ヘドニック価格指数を推定した.特定化の誤りを避けてセミパラメトリック法を用いたが,時点ダミーが財の諸特性と平均に関して独立であることから,クロス・バリデーション,特定化検定などを実行する際の興味深い問題点が明らかになった.また,その対処方法を示した.2.ヘドニック価格指数の推定における標本選別問題,すなわち,成約したオフィスのデータだけを用いて推定した場合の推定結果に無視し難い偏りが生じる可能性を検討した.実証分析結果として,統計的検定により標本選別の存在が示されたが,ヘドニック価格指数の推定値自体への影響は大きく無いとの知見を得た.3.パネル・データが利用可能な場合の回帰微係数の新たなノンパラメトリック推定法を開発した.この推定方法は,既存の推定方法と比較して,計算が同程度にしか複雑でない,相対的により有効である,という理論的特徴を持つ.計算実験により,漸近理論に基づく理論的特徴が小標本においても確認された.4.最小絶対偏差推定量のための効率的算法を開発した.最小絶対偏差推定量は,線形計画問題の解として得られる.開発した算法は,双対単体法を改良したものであり,計算量が少ないという特徴を持つ

  • 消費者行動分析と廃棄物産業連関分析の統合と持続可能な消費に関する研究

     View Summary

    次の4つの分析モデル(1)〜(4)を組み合わせることにより,ライフスタイルに起因する環境影響を評価可能な統合モデルを開発した:(1)家計生産の理論に基づく消費者行動モデル,(2)家計消費部門を内生化した産業連関モデル,(3)廃棄物産業連関数量モデル,(4)廃棄物産業連関価格モデル。(1)消費者行動モデルにおいては,同じ目的(例えば摂食)を達成するための消費技術を複数(例えば内食,中食,外食)想定し,効用最大化の仮定に基づいて,所得と諸財価格が与えられたときの最適な各消費技術の稼動水準の組合せが選択されるものとした。消費者の行動において,所得と時間に関する制約が常に等式で満たされることから,所得に関するリバウンド効果および時間に関するリバウンド効果を含めた環境影響評価が可能となっている点に,このモデルの特徴がある。(2)家計消費部門の内生化により,労働供給量の選択も含めた消費者行動の考慮と,市場を介したリバウンド効果の一部を含めた環境影響評価が可能となっている。開発したモデルを応用して,自家用車と公共交通(電車,バス),内食と中食・外食の選択と,その他の消費技術の選択と環境負荷との関係について分析を行った。自家用車利用の抑制と内食の抑制を同時に実施すると,価格と所得の変化を通じた消費者行動の変化により,安価で時間のかかる活動であるテレビを見る時間などが増加して,環境負荷低減に効果があるとの結果が得られた。移動と摂食の代替的消費技術の選択に主たる興味のある分析であるが,余暇時間も含めた選択行動が結果として得られており,余暇時間の活動を詳細に分類することにより,環境負荷低減効果の評価結果が変わることも予想されるため,この点での拡張も残された重要な課題である

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Presentations

  • Identifying barriers to a circular economy by a dynamic waste input-output analysis: Can Cr and Ni from end-of-life products be effectively recycled?

    Yasushi Kondo, Shinichiro Nakamura, Kenichi Nakajima, Hajime Ohno

    13th Conference of the Socio-Economic Metabolism Section of the International Society for Industrial Ecology  (Berlin, Germany) 

    Presentation date: 2019.05

  • 行政報告データ等の活用による自治体レベルの物質循環分析の展望

    近藤康之, 橋本征二, 山田正人

    第14回日本LCA学会研究発表会  (福岡, 九州大学) 

    Presentation date: 2019.03

  • Uncertainty analysis with consideration of correlation between the elements of input-output table

    Jian Jin, Yasushi Kondo

    The 3rd International Conference on Economic Structures (ICES 2019)  (Ibaraki, Osaka, Japan) 

    Presentation date: 2019.03

  • Waste input–output analysis of prefectures in Japan to promote sound material cycles by using data in official reports collected for waste management

    Yasushi Kondo

    3RINCs 2019  (Bangkok, Thailand) 

    Presentation date: 2019.02

  • Metal dynamics of a circular economy: Identifying barriers to sustainable recycling

    Shinichiro Nakamura, Yasushi Kondo, Kenichi Nakajima, Hajime Ohno

    EcoBalance 2018  (Tokyo, Japan) 

    Presentation date: 2018.10

  • Promoting circular economy strategies of regions through waste input-output analysis

    Yasushi Kondo

    EcoBalance 2018  (Tokyo, Japan) 

    Presentation date: 2018.10

  • Material Flow Analysis of Prefectures to Promote Sound Material Cycles by Use of Data in Official Reports Collected for Waste Management

    Yasushi Kondo

    The 1st Life Cycle Innovation Conference (LCIC 2018)  (Berlin, Germany) 

    Presentation date: 2018.09

  • Promoting Circular Economy Strategies of Prefectural Governments through Waste Input-Output Analysis

    Yasushi Kondo

    Gordon Research Conference in Industrial Ecology 2018  (Les Diablerets, Switzerland) 

    Presentation date: 2018.05

  • 行政報告データ等の活用による自治体レベルの物質循環分析の展望

    近藤康之, 橋本征二, 山田正人

    第13回日本LCA学会研究発表会  (東京, 早稲田大学) 

    Presentation date: 2018.03

  • A note on the relationship between the waste input-output linear programming (WIO-LP) model and the rectangular choice-of-technology (RCOT) model

    Yasushi Kondo

    The 2nd International Conference on Economic Structures (ICES 2018)  (Nagoya, Japan) 

    Presentation date: 2018.03

  • Promoting Circular Economy Strategies of Regions through Hybrid Input-Output Analysis

    Yasushi Kondo

    The 6th Indian Conference on Life Cycle Management  (New Delhi, India) 

    Presentation date: 2017.10

  • 環境産業の規模の産業連関分析に基づく定量評価

    近藤康之

    環太平洋産業連関分析学会2017年度大会  (茨木, 立命館大学大阪いばらきキャンパス) 

    Presentation date: 2017.10

  • Hotspots Analysis for Promoting Circular Economy

    Yasushi Kondo, Koichi Tachio

    LCM 2017 (The 8th International Conference on Life Cycle Management)  (Luxembourg Congres, Luxembourg) 

    Presentation date: 2017.09

  • Detecting what drives a social issue: Forward structural path analysis with an integrated multiregional input-output framework

    Yasushi Kondo, Shigemi Kagawa, Norihiro Itsubo

    The 25th International Input-Output Conference  (Atlantic City, New Jersey, USA) 

    Presentation date: 2017.06

  • MaTrace-alloy: Input-Output Based Integration of Dynamic MFA and SFA with Application to Cr and Ni in Steel Alloys

    Shinichiro Nakamura, Yasushi Kondo, Kenichi Nakajima, Hajime Ohno, Stefan Pauliuk

    The 9th Meeting of the International Society for Industrial Ecology  (Chicago, Illinois, USA) 

    Presentation date: 2017.06

  • 廃棄物産業連関表の推計とホットスポット分析への応用

    近藤康之, 立尾浩一, 溝田健一, 池本久利, 中村愼一郎

    第12回日本LCA学会研究発表会  (つくば, 産業技術総合研究所) 

    Presentation date: 2017.03

  • Hotspots Analysis for Promoting 3R and Green Procurement

    Yasushi Kondo, Koichi Tachio

    3RINCs 2017  (New Delhi, India) 

    Presentation date: 2017.03

  • Who are responsible for illegal logging in Indonesia? Forward structural path analysis with an integrated input-output framework and its application to the Eora MRIO table

    Yasushi Kondo, Shigemi Kagawa, Norihiro Itsubo

    The 1st International Conference on Economic Structures (ICES 2017)  (Tokyo, Japan) 

    Presentation date: 2017.03

  • Waste Input-Output (WIO) and Its Application to Hotspots Analysis

    Yasushi Kondo, Koichi Tachio, Shinichiro Nakamura

    EcoBalance 2016  (Kyoto, Japan) 

    Presentation date: 2016.10

  • Constructing a New Waste Input-Output Database and Its Application in Life Cycle Analysis

    Yasushi Kondo

    The 5th Indian Conference on Life Cycle Management  (New Delhi, India) 

    Presentation date: 2016.10

  • Tradeoff between material loss and closed-loop recycling in the global steel cycle: An application of MaTrace Global

    Yasushi Kondo, Stefan Pauliuk, Shinichiro Nakamura, Kenichi Nakajima

    The Joint 12th International Society for Industrial Ecology (ISIE) Socio-Economic Metabolism Section Conference and the 5th ISIE Asia-Pacific Conference  (Nagoya, Japan) 

    Presentation date: 2016.09

  • Incorporating Behavioral Aspects into Input-Output Model

    Yasushi Kondo, Sangwon Suh

    The 24th International Input-Output Conference  (Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea) 

    Presentation date: 2016.07

  • MaTrace Global: Tracing the fate of materials across regions over time in open-loop recycling

    Yasushi Kondo, Stefan Pauliuk, Shinichiro Nakamura, Kenichi Nakajima

    Circular Materials Conference 2016  (Chalmers Conference Centre in Gothenburg, Sweden) 

    Presentation date: 2016.05

  • Constructing a New Waste Input-Output Database and Its Application in Environmental Footprint and Hotspots Analysis

    Yasushi Kondo, Koichi Tachio, Shinichiro Nakamura

    3RINCs 2016  (Hanoi, Viet Nam) 

    Presentation date: 2016.03

  • MaTrace Global:時間、地域、素材品質を考慮したリサイクル可能な資源の追跡

    近藤康之

    環太平洋産業連関分析学会2015年度大会  (東京, 明治大学) 

    Presentation date: 2015.10

  • 経済効果を生み出す産業ネットワークの見える化

    近藤康之

    日本オペレーションズ・リサーチ学会2015年秋季研究発表会シンポジウム「経済・経営分析とOR」  (九州工業大学戸畑キャンパス) 

    Presentation date: 2015.09

  • Developing Methodologies and Databases for Environmental Hotspot Analysis: An Ongoing Research Project in Japan

    Yasushi Kondo, Norihiro Itsubo, Kiyotaka Tahara, Shinichiro Nakamura

    The 4th Indian Conference on Life Cycle Management  (New Delhi, India) 

    Presentation date: 2015.09

  • Constructing a New Waste Input-Output Database and Its Application in Environmental Footprint and Hotspot Analysis

    Yasushi Kondo, Koichi Tachio, Kenichi Mizota, Hisatoshi Ikemoto, Shinichiro Nakamura

    LCM 2015 (The 7th International Conference on Life Cycle Management)  (Bordeaux, France) 

    Presentation date: 2015.08

  • MaTrace global: Tracing the fate of materials across regions over time in open-loop recycling

    Yasushi Kondo, Stefan Pauliuk, Shinichiro Nakamura, Kenichi Nakajima, Richard Wood, Hajime Ohno, Kazuyo Matsubae, Edgar Hertwich, Tetsuya Nagasaka

    The 8th Meeting of the International Society for Industrial Ecology  (University of Surrey, Guildford, UK) 

    Presentation date: 2015.07

  • Simultaneous Material and Substance Flow Analysis: An Extension of WIO-MFA and Its Application to Effective Recycling of Steel Alloys

    Yasushi Kondo, Kenichi Nakajima, Shinichiro Nakamura

    World Resources Forum Asia-Pasific 2013  (Sydney, Australia) 

    Presentation date: 2015.06

  • 産業連関表に基づく環境負荷原単位算定における自家輸送マトリックスの利用

    輿石拓真, 佐藤邦光, 近藤康之

    第10回日本LCA学会研究発表会  (神戸大学六甲台第1キャンパス) 

    Presentation date: 2015.03

  • Visualizing Global Material Flow of Neodymium, Platinum and Cobalt Associated with Use of Durable Goods in Japan and Detecting Hotspots in the Supply Chains

    Yasushi Kondo, Keisuke Nansai, Kenichi Nakajima, Shigemi Kagawa

    The Joint 11th International Society for Industrial Ecology (ISIE) Socio-Economic Metabolism Section Conference and the 4th ISIE Asia-Pacific Conference  (Melbourne, Australia) 

    Presentation date: 2014.11

  • Visualizing Core Structure of International Carbon Network Associated with Household Consumption

    Yasushi Kondo

    EcoBalance 2014  (Tsukuba, Japan) 

    Presentation date: 2014.10

  • Visualizing Core Structure of International Carbon Network for Understanding of Shared Responsibility

    Yasushi Kondo

    The 3rd Indian Conference on Life Cycle Management  (New Delhi, India) 

    Presentation date: 2014.09

  • Visualizing Core Structure of International Carbon Network Associated with Household Consumption

    Yasushi Kondo

    The 22nd International Input-Output Conference  (Lisbon, Portugal) 

    Presentation date: 2014.07

  • Modeling Consumer's Choice and Its GHG Implication under Simultaneous Consideration of Available Income and Time

    Yasushi Kondo, Koji Takase

    Gordon Research Conference in Industrial Ecology 2014  (Lucca, Italy) 

    Presentation date: 2014.06

  • 我が国における耐久財使用に係るネオジム、プラチナ、コバルトの国際貿易フローおよび技術的見地からのホットスポットの可視化

    近藤康之, 南斉規介, 中島謙一, 加河茂美

    第9回日本LCA学会研究発表会  (東京, 芝浦工業大学豊洲キャンパス) 

    Presentation date: 2014.03

  • Visualizing International Bilateral Material Flow of Neodymium, Platinum and Cobalt Associated with Use of Durable Goods in Japan

    Yasushi Kondo, Keisuke Nansai, Kenichi Nakajima, Shigemi Kagawa

    3RINCs 2014  (Kyoto, Japan) 

    Presentation date: 2014.03

  • Extracting and Visualizing Core Structure from International Carbon Network Associated with Household Consumption

    Yasushi Kondo

    SETAC Europe 19th LCA Case Study Symposium  (Rome, Italy) 

    Presentation date: 2013.11

  • Visualizing International Bilateral Material Flow of Neodymium, Platinum and Cobalt Associated with Use of Durable Goods in Japan and Detecting Bottlenecks in the Supply Chains from Technology Perspectives

    Yasushi Kondo, Keisuke Nansai, Kenichi Nakajima, Shigemi Kagawa

    World Resources Forum 2013  (Davos, Switzerland) 

    Presentation date: 2013.10

  • An Analysis of Consumer Behavior Including Waste Discharge and Time-Use

    Koji Takase, Yasushi Kondo

    The 21st International Input-Output Conference  (Kitakyushu, Japan) 

    Presentation date: 2013.07

  • Simultaneous Material and Substance Flow Analysis: An Extension of WIO-MFA and Its Application to Effective Recycling of Steel Alloys

    Yasushi Kondo, Kenichi Nakajima, Shinichiro Nakamura, Kazuyo Matsubae, Tetsuya Nagasaka

    The 7th Meeting of the International Society for Industrial Ecology  (Ulsan, South Korea) 

    Presentation date: 2013.06

  • Structural Understanding of Production Network by Visualizing Inter-sector Carbon Flow: A Path-based Matrix Decomposition Analysis

    Yasushi Kondo, Anders Hammer Stromman, Shigemi Kagawa, Keisuke Nansai

    EcoBalance 2012  (Yokohama, Japan) 

    Presentation date: 2012.11

  • Path-based Matrix Decomposition Analysis and Its Application

    Yasushi Kondo, Anders Hammer Stromman, Shigemi Kagawa, Keisuke Nansai

    Gordon Research Conference in Industrial Ecology 2012  (Les Diablerets, Switzerland) 

    Presentation date: 2012.06

  • Path-based Matrix Decomposition Analysis: Theory and Application

    Yasushi Kondo, Anders Hammer Stromman, Shigemi Kagawa, Keisuke Nansai

    The 20th International Input-Output Conference  (Bratislava, Slovakia) 

    Presentation date: 2012.06

  • 構造経路分解法(SPA)を用いた産業ハイアラーキーの抽出と可視化

    近藤康之, アンネシュ H, シュトゥルマン, 加河茂美, 南斉規介

    第7回日本LCA学会研究発表会  (野田, 東京理科大学野田キャンパス) 

    Presentation date: 2012.03

  • UPIOM Cube: A New Tool for Visualization of Inter-industry Flow of Various Types of Material with Its Application to Car Production

    Yasushi Kondo, Shinichiro Nakamura

    EnviroInfo 2011  (JRC Ispra, Italy) 

    Presentation date: 2011.10

  • Visualization of Inter-industry Material Flow and Impurities in Iron and Steel Scrap along the Supply Chain of a Passenger Car

    Yasushi Kondo, Shinichiro Nakamura, Kenichi Nakajima, Kazuyo Matsubae, Shigemi Kagawa, Yuki Kudoh, Tetsuya Nagasaka

    World Resources Forum 2011  (Davos, Switzerland) 

    Presentation date: 2011.09

  • Extracting Tree-like Structure from Complex Production Network Based on Structural Path Analysis and Triangulation of Input-Output Table

    Yasushi Kondo, Anders Hammer Stromman, Shigemi Kagawa, Keisuke Nansai

    The 6th Meeting of the International Society for Industrial Ecology  (UC Berkeley, USA) 

    Presentation date: 2011.06

  • A New Method for Triangulation of Input-Output Tables for Comparing Industrial Structures and Investigating Clusters of Industries

    Yasushi Kondo

    The 19th International Input-Output Conference  (Alexandria, USA) 

    Presentation date: 2011.06

  • Structural Path Analysis and Triangularization of Input-Output Table for Understanding Carbon Footprint

    Yasushi Kondo, Anders Hammer Stromman, Shigemi Kagawa

    EcoBalance 2010  (Tokyo, Japan) 

    Presentation date: 2010.11

  • 廃棄物と資源循環:産業連関分析の応用

    近藤康之

    日本経済学会2010年度秋季大会, 特別セッションII「環境規制の政策評価:経済学の役割」  (西宮, 関西学院大学) 

    Presentation date: 2010.09

  • Best Attainable Eco-Efficiency of Consumers Lifestyle: Feasability and Acceptability of Change in Lifestyle

    Yasushi Kondo, Koji Takase

    The 3rd International Conference on Eco-Efficiency  (Egmond aan Zee, The Netherlands) 

    Presentation date: 2010.06

  • Visualization of Inter-industry Material Flow Based on Triangularization of Physical Input-Output Tables

    Yasushi Kondo, Kenichi Nakajima, Shinichiro Nakamura

    The 5th Meeting of the International Society for Industrial Ecology  (Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisboa, Portugal) 

    Presentation date: 2009.06

  • スペクトラルグラフ理論によるエネルギークラスターとハイアラーキーの解析

    近藤康之, 加河茂美, 南斉規介

    第4回日本LCA学会研究発表会  (北九州, 北九州国際会議場) 

    Presentation date: 2009.03

  • WIO-MFA and Its Application to Measure the Weight and Composition of Industrial Capital Stock

    Yasushi Kondo, Kenichi Nakajima, Kazuyo Matsubae-Yokoyama, Shinichiro Nakamura

    The Asia-Pacific International Workshop on Industrial Ecology  (Industrial Promotion Center, Kawasaki, Japan) 

    Presentation date: 2008.12

  • Waste Input-Output Analysis: Its Accounting System, Analytical Models and Applications

    Yasushi Kondo

    The 8th International Conference on EcoBalance  (Tokyo Big Sight Conference Tower, Tokyo, Japan) 

    Presentation date: 2008.12

  • Measuring the Weight and Composition of Industrial Capital Stock: An Approach based on WIO-MFA

    Yasushi Kondo, Kenichi Nakajima, Kazuyo Yokoyama, Shinichiro Nakamura

    ConAccount 2008  (The City Hall of Prague, Prague, Czech Republic) 

    Presentation date: 2008.09

  • Triangularization of Input-Output Table and Material Flow Analysis

    Yasushi Kondo

    The 2008 International Input-Output Meeting: Input-Output and Environment  (The Pablo de Olavide University of Seville, Seville, Spain) 

    Presentation date: 2008.07

  • The Anatomy of Capital Stock: Input-Output MFA of the Material Composition of Physical Stocks and its Evolution over Time

    Yasushi Kondo, Kenichi Nakajima, Kazuyo Yokoyama, Shinichiro Nakamura

    2nd International Seminar on Society and Materials (SAM2)  (Ecole des Mines de Nantes, France) 

    Presentation date: 2008.04

  • ライフスタイルの環境効率とリバウンド効果

    近藤康之, 高瀬浩二

    第3回日本LCA学会研究発表会  (名古屋, 名古屋大学) 

    Presentation date: 2008.03

  • An Integrated Model for Evaluating Environmental Impact of Heterogeneous Consumer Behavior

    Yasushi Kondo, Koji Takase

    The 3rd International Conference on Life Cycle Management  (University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland) 

    Presentation date: 2007.08

  • An Integrated Model for Evaluating Environmental Impact of Consumer's Lifestyle

    Yasushi Kondo, Koji Takase

    The 16th International Input-Output Conference  (Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey) 

    Presentation date: 2007.07

  • An Integrated Model for Evaluating Environmental Impact of Consumer's Behavior: Consumption "Technologies" and the Waste Input-Output Model

    Yasushi Kondo, Koji Takase

    The 14th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering  (Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan) 

    Presentation date: 2007.06

  • Inter-regional Waste Input-Output Model and Best Available Eco-efficiency of Regional and Nationwide Economy

    Yasushi Kondo, Shigemi Kagawa, Masato Yamada, Koichi Tachio

    The 4th Meeting of the International Society for Industrial Ecology  (University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada) 

    Presentation date: 2007.06

  • Waste Input-Output Analysis: Accounting System and Its Applications to LCA and LCC

    Yasushi Kondo

    Industrial Ecology Applications of Input-Output Economics Symposium in conjunction with the ISIE 2007 Conference  (University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada) 

    Presentation date: 2007.06

  • 産業連関表に基づく環境効率とシステム境界

    近藤康之

    第2回日本LCA学会研究発表会  (東京, 東京大学) 

    Presentation date: 2007.03

  • 産業連関表を利用した廃棄物排出量と産業間連鎖の分析

    近藤康之

    第154回鉄鋼協会春季講演大会  (千葉, 千葉工業大学) 

    Presentation date: 2007.03

  • Searching for an Optimal Strategy of Municipal Solid Waste Management: An Integration of WIO and H-IWM Models

    Yasushi Kondo

    The 7th International Conference on EcoBalance  (Tsukuba, Japan) 

    Presentation date: 2006.11

  • 北大総合廃棄物処理評価モデル(H-IWM)の線形化と廃棄物産業連関(WIO)との統合

    近藤康之

    第17回廃棄物学会研究発表会  (北九州, 北九州国際会議場) 

    Presentation date: 2006.11

  • Environmental Impacts of Consumer's Time Use: Consumption "Technologies" and the Waste Input-Output Model

    Yasushi Kondo

    Gordon Research Conference 2006 on Industrial Ecology  (The Queen's College, Oxford, UK) 

    Presentation date: 2006.08

  • Waste Input-Output Analysis: Its Accounting System, Analytical Models, and Applications

    Yasushi Kondo

    2006 Intermediate Input-Output Meeting  (Sendai, Japan) 

    Presentation date: 2006.07

  • Regional and Nationwide Eco-efficiency Analysis by the Inter-regional Waste Input-Output Model

    Yasushi Kondo, Shigemi Kagawa

    The 2nd International Conference on Quantified Eco-Efficiency Analysis for Sustainability  (Egmond aan Zee, The Netherlands) 

    Presentation date: 2006.06

  • Linearized Engineering Process Model of Waste Management and Waste Input-Output Analysis: Stable Algorithm for Flexible Scenario Analysis

    Yasushi Kondo

    SETAC Europe 16th Annual Meeting  (The Hague, The Netherlands) 

    Presentation date: 2006.05

  • 廃棄物産業連関を用いたエアコンのLCA と LCC

    中村愼一郎, 近藤康之

    第1回日本LCA学会研究発表会  (つくば, 産業技術総合研究所) 

    Presentation date: 2005.12

  • 産業連関法によるLCA における環境負荷の上限・下限を与える簡便法

    近藤康之

    第1回日本LCA学会研究発表会  (つくば, 産業技術総合研究所) 

    Presentation date: 2005.12

  • Inter-regional Waste Input-Output Linear Programming Model and Its Application to the Japanese Regions

    Yasushi Kondo, Shigemi Kagawa, Shinichiro Nakamura

    EcoDesign2005 (4th International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing)  (National Center of Sciences, Tokyo, Japan) 

    Presentation date: 2005.12

  • 産業連関法によるLCA における環境負荷の上限・下限を与える簡便法

    近藤康之

    土木学会第33回環境システム研究論文発表会  (札幌, 北海道大学学術交流会館) 

    Presentation date: 2005.11

  • 廃棄物処理広域化の環境影響評価:廃棄物産業連関線形計画モデルの地域間産業連関表への応用

    近藤康之, 加河茂美, 中村愼一郎

    第16回廃棄物学会研究発表会  (仙台, 仙台国際センター) 

    Presentation date: 2005.10

  • How Beneficial is a Regional Concentration of Waste Treatment and Disposal? An Application of the WIO-LP Model to Japanese Interregional Input-Output Table

    Yasushi Kondo, Shigemi Kagawa, Shinichiro Nakamura

    The 3rd Meeting of the International Society for Industrial Ecology  (Stockholm, Sweden) 

    Presentation date: 2005.06

  • WIO-LP Model and the Best Available Eco-efficiency of the Japanese Economy

    Yasushi Kondo, Shinichiro Nakamura

    The 6th International Conference on EcoBalance  (Tsukuba, Japan) 

    Presentation date: 2004.10

  • 廃棄物産業連関(WIO)による環境効率分析

    近藤康之, 中村愼一郎

    環境経済・政策学会2004年大会  (広島, 広島大学東千田キャンパス) 

    Presentation date: 2004.09

  • 廃棄物産業連関表による再資源化フロー

    中村愼一郎, 近藤康之

    電気学会メタボリズム社会・環境システム研究会  (東京, 早稲田大学) 

    Presentation date: 2004.06

  • Waste Input-Output Linear Programming Analysis of Eco-Efficiency

    Yasushi Kondo, Shinichiro Nakamura

    International Eco-Efficiency Conference, Eco-Efficiency for Sustainability: Quantified Methods for Decision Making  (Leiden, The Netherlands) 

    Presentation date: 2004.04

  • Evaluating the Cost of "Optimum" Waste Management by Use of Waste Input-Output Linear Programming and Price Model

    Yasushi Kondo, Shinichiro Nakamura

    SETAC Europe 14th Annual Meeting  (Prague, Czech Republic) 

    Presentation date: 2004.04

  • 廃棄物産業連関線形計画モデルの応用:シナリオの系統的作成

    近藤康之, 中村愼一郎

    第14回廃棄物学会研究発表会  (つくば, つくば国際会議場) 

    Presentation date: 2003.10

  • 廃棄物産業連関線形計画モデルと価格モデル:「最適な」廃棄物管理策と費用

    近藤康之, 中村愼一郎

    環境経済・政策学会2003年大会  (東京, 東京大学) 

    Presentation date: 2003.09

  • Decision Analytic extension of Waste Input-Output Model Based on Linear Programming

    Yasushi Kondo, Shinichiro Nakamura

    The 2nd Meeting of the International Society for Industrial Ecology  (Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA) 

    Presentation date: 2003.06

  • Waste Input-Output Analysis of Sustainable Consumption

    Yasushi Kondo, Koji Takase

    The 1st International Workshop on Sustainable Consumption  (Tokyo, Japan) 

    Presentation date: 2003.03

  • 廃棄物産業連関線形計画モデル

    近藤康之, 中村愼一郎

    環境経済・政策学会2002年大会  (札幌, 北海道大学) 

    Presentation date: 2002.09

  • Nonparametric Derivative Estimation for Related-Effect Panel Data

    Myoung-jae Lee, Yasushi Kondo

    The 10th International Conference on Panel Data  (Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Berlin, Germany) 

    Presentation date: 2002.07

  • 廃棄物産業連関表(1995年表)の推計

    近藤康之, 高瀬 浩二, 中村愼一郎

    第12回廃棄物学会研究発表会  (横浜, 神奈川県民ホールほか) 

    Presentation date: 2001.10

  • Nonparametric Derivative Estimation for Related-Effect Panel Data

    Myoung-jae Lee, Yasushi Kondo

    2001 Far Eastern Meeting of the Econometric Society  (The International Conference Center Kobe, Kobe, Japan) 

    Presentation date: 2001.07

  • 廃棄物産業連関による厨芥処理の環境・経済影響評価:焼却・堆肥化・メタン発酵

    中村愼一郎, 近藤康之, 高月紘, 平井康宏

    第11回廃棄物学会研究発表会  (札幌, 北海道大学) 

    Presentation date: 2000.11

  • Hedonic Price Index Estimation under Mean-Independence from Quality-Characteristics

    Yasushi Kondo, Myoung-jae Lee

    Presentation date: 1999.11

  • Estimation of the Hedonic Price Function Using Monotonicity Restrictions

    Yasushi Kondo

    Presentation date: 1998.09

  • Hedonic Analyses of the Rental Office Market in the Tokyo CBD: Parametric and Nonparametric Inferences

    Yasushi Kondo, Koichi Nagai, Makoto Ohta

    Presentation date: 1997.09

▼display all

Specific Research

  • 将来シナリオの新しい経済分析とリサイクルの質を考慮した動的多元物質フロー分析

    2018   加河茂美

     View Summary

    産業構造と技術進歩の将来シナリオを検討するための手法を新たに開発し、リサイクルの質を考慮した動的多元物質ストック・フロー分析を実施することを目的として研究を実施した。具体的には、World Input-Output Databaseから得られる40カ国の1995~2008年の国別産業連関表を用いたクラスタ分析を実施した。また、動学的廃棄物産業連関モデル(dynamic waste input-output model, dWIO)の開発を行った。これは、スクラップの需給バランスと合金の元素組成を統合された枠組みで考慮することのできる点に特徴のあるモデルである。日本のデータに基づくシナリオ分析を行い、回収されたスクラップの超過供給や、鋼材の品質基準と整合しないリサイクルの生じる可能性を検討した。

  • ライフサイクル分析におけるサプライチェーンの可視化手法に関する研究

    2015  

     View Summary

    製品・サービスのサプライチェーンにおけるステークホルダーのあいだの取引量の情報は、産業連関表のかたちに整理することができる。本研究においては、とくにサプライチェーンに係る環境負荷の低減に資することを目的として、産業連関表のかたちに整理されたサプライチェーンを可視化するための手法開発を行った。研究開発は、産業連関分析の手法(構造経路解析と三角化)とフロー可視化手法(サンキー図とヒートマップ)を拡張して統合することにより実施した。図のかたちで可視化されたサプライチェーンの情報は、ステークホルダーによる意見交換と意思決定の際に活用されることが期待される。

  • 廃棄物等の広域移動と循環利用の地域産業連関分析

    2008  

     View Summary

     廃棄物等の循環利用を推進する観点から,利用可能な統計資料整備を含む知見の蓄積が十分でないと考えられるものに,社会経済システムに存在する物質量の推計(物質ストックの勘定の整備)がある。すなわち,将来に循環利用し得る資源(=廃棄物等)がどこに,どのような形態で,どれくらい存在しているかを把握することは,長期的な循環資源管理として重要である。この点について,産業連関分析の手法を応用した推計方法を開発し,日本のデータに適用した。具体的には,Nakamura et al. (2007, Journal of Industrial Ecology, vol. 11, no. 4)により提案された廃棄物産業連関物質フロー解析(waste input-output material flow analysis, WIO-MFA)の方法と,産業連関表のふた意表である固定資本マトリックスを組み合わせて,産業別投資財別の物質組成を推計した。ただし,土石系は含まず,金属とプラスチックを推計対象とした。その結果,平成12年において,平均で投資額百万円あたり500kg強の物質がストックに追加されていたこと,この投資金額あたり重要は産業間で大きなばらつきがあることなどが見出された。 さらに,スペクトラルグラフ理論を応用した産業クラスタの抽出,産業連関表の三角化による産業間物質フローの可視化についても検討を行った。2つの方法を組み合わせることにより,Simpson and Tsukui (1965, Review of Economics and Statistics, vol. 47, no. 4)によって指摘されていた,産業間ブロックを考慮した産業連関表の三角化が効率的に実行可能となった。

  • 産業連関分析と混合型LCAのための効率的算法の開発とその応用

    2004  

     View Summary

    産業連関表はLCAにおいて広く応用されておりEIO-LCAとも呼ばれているが,そこで用いられる数理モデルは伝統的な産業連関モデルとは異なるものであることが多い。すなわち,Joshi (2000, Journal of Industrial Ecology, vol. 2, no. 2-3) による分類に従えば,「評価対象製品を仮想的新製品と見なすモデル(モデル1)」の方が,伝統的な産業連関モデルに対応する「既存産業部門を分割する(産業部門分類を詳細化する)モデル(モデル2)」よりも広く用いられている。モデル1の方がよく用いられる原因は,モデル2における行部門の分割に必要なデータの入手が困難なことが多い点にもある。しかしながら,モデル1は製品の普及に起因する間接効果を不適切に無視してしまうという欠点を持つ。すなわち,「川上」への波及効果は補足できるものの,「川下」への波及効果は補足できない。ここで補足されない間接効果は,汎用機器・素材,標準化された部品などについては大きいと考えられる。本研究においては,シミュレーションによってこの種の間接効果が,総需要に占める中間需要の割合の大きい製品について無視し得ないほどの大きさであることを示した。「川下」への効果は評価対象製品の普及率と密接な関連があるので,普及率の変化に伴って原単位も変化し得ることを考慮し,これに対応した原単位を推計するための簡便法を提案した。

  • 廃棄物処理施設の立地に関する計量経済学的研究

    2002  

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    廃棄物処理施設のうち,とくに焼却施設に注目し,その立地の変更が環境および経済に及ぼす影響を評価することを目的として研究を行った.評価の方法としては,不動産価格データを用いたヘドニック・アプローチによる評価も候補として考えられるが,今年度の研究では専ら産業連関分析による評価を行った.廃棄物産業連関モデルを線形計画問題へと拡張した方法により,二酸化炭素排出を最小にする場合,最終処分場消費を最小にする場合,いずれの場合でも,広域処理(多数の小規模施設を少数の大規模施設で置き換える.施設における処理効率は高まるが,輸送距離伸長に伴う環境負荷の増大等が予想される)が,最適な廃棄物管理方法として採用されることが明らかになった.また,持続可能な消費のあるべき姿を模索するために,線形計画問題の双対最適解の値を検討した.その結果,広域処理を含めた廃棄物管理方法の変更により,双対最適解の無視できない変化の生じる可能性が確認された.この点は,廃棄物処理施設の立地を含めた管理政策の変更により,持続可能な消費のあるべき姿自体が変化することを示唆する.なお,より詳細な地理情報を反映させられるように産業連関モデルを拡張することは,今後の重要な課題のひとつである.

 

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