2022/07/04 更新

写真a

ナカジマ タツオ
中島 達夫
所属
理工学術院 基幹理工学部
職名
教授

兼担

  • 附属機関・学校   グローバルエデュケーションセンター

  • 理工学術院   大学院基幹理工学研究科

学内研究所等

  • 2020年
    -
    2022年

    理工学術院総合研究所   兼任研究員

学位

  • 慶應義塾大学   工学博士

  • Doctor of Engineering

経歴

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    2005ノキアリサーチセンターリサーチフェロー

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    1999早稲田大学理工学部コンピュータネットワーク工学科 教授

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    1998ケンブリッジ大学訪問教員、AT&Tケンブリッジ研究所研究員

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    19931999 北陸先端科学技術大学院大学 情報科学研究科 助教授

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    19921993 カーネギーメロン大学 計算機科学科 研究員

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    19911992 ドイツ国立計算機科学研究所 研究員

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    19901991 カーネギーメロン大学 計算機科学科 研究員

▼全件表示

所属学協会

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    情報処理学会

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    ACM

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    IEEE

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    USENIX

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    ソフトウエア科学会

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    電子情報通信学会

▼全件表示

 

研究分野

  • ソフトウェア

研究キーワード

  • 分散システム、組み込みシステム、ユビキタスコンピューティング

論文

  • An Extensible Secure OS Architecture for Embedded Systems

    Ning Li, Yuki Kinebuchi, Hiromasa Shimada, Tatsuo Nakajima

    Journal of Information Processing   21 ( 4 ) 650 - 659  2013年10月

     概要を見る

    Some recent researches have shown that using a monitoring service outside the target system above hypervisors is an efficient way to protect the target system. The hypervisors isolate the monitoring service based on MMU-methods to improve security. However, The MMU-method may cause heavy overhead when there is no hardware support, which makes this method not viable for embedded processors that are rarely equipped with hardware virtualization extensions. In addition, the vulnerabilities that exist in hypervisors may compromise the isolation. In this paper, we propose a secure OS architecture that fits embedded systems without the dependency of a hypervisor. It provides a robust isolation between the monitoring service and the guest OS based on local memory, a hardware feature. In order to generalize this architecture, we adopt a secure pager to extend the local memory space (physically small) virtually by a swap mechanism with integrity checking of the monitoring service. The secure pager can also update the monitoring service to extend monitoring functions without disturbing the running of the guest OS. Comprehensive evaluations are made in our framework with one instance of embedded Linux as the guest OS and an isolated monitoring service running with the secure pager. The results demonstrate functions of the secure pager and influence of the secure pager on Linux in our system. On processors with a proper architecture, we can build an extensible secure OS architecture with reasonable resource consumption, without the issue of heavy overhead to the guest OS.Some recent researches have shown that using a monitoring service outside the target system above hypervisors is an efficient way to protect the target system. The hypervisors isolate the monitoring service based on MMU-methods to improve security. However, The MMU-method may cause heavy overhead when there is no hardware support, which makes this method not viable for embedded processors that are rarely equipped with hardware virtualization extensions. In addition, the vulnerabilities that exist in hypervisors may compromise the isolation. In this paper, we propose a secure OS architecture that fits embedded systems without the dependency of a hypervisor. It provides a robust isolation between the monitoring service and the guest OS based on local memory, a hardware feature. In order to generalize this architecture, we adopt a secure pager to extend the local memory space (physically small) virtually by a swap mechanism with integrity checking of the monitoring service. The secure pager can also update the monitoring service to extend monitoring functions without disturbing the running of the guest OS. Comprehensive evaluations are made in our framework with one instance of embedded Linux as the guest OS and an isolated monitoring service running with the secure pager. The results demonstrate functions of the secure pager and influence of the secure pager on Linux in our system. On processors with a proper architecture, we can build an extensible secure OS architecture with reasonable resource consumption, without the issue of heavy overhead to the guest OS.

    DOI CiNii

  • A software infrastructure for dependable embedded systems

    Hiromasa Shimada, Alexandre Courbot, Yuki Kinebuchi, Tatsuo Nakajima

    COMPUTER SYSTEMS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING   26 ( 6 ) 491 - 503  2011年11月  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    Recent embedded systems like mobile phones and digital TV appliances have been increasing their functionalities. These systems become very complex, but new products should be developed with short time-to-market. Therefore, future embedded systems that will be more complex require a new software infrastructure that industries can develop new products faster by reusing existing software as much as possible. In our project, we are developing SPUMONE which is able to compose multiple functionalities with a minimum cost. SPUMONE enables multiple OSes to coexist on a single system. Therefore, most of existing application programs require no modification. For satisfying the requirements of embedded systems, one of the most important goal of SPUMONE is to satisfy real-time constraints of real-time OSes. When real-time OS and general purpose OS like Linux run at the same time, the real-time OS can ensure the real-time responsiveness.
    It is also important to ensure security in future embedded systems that is always connected to the Internet. Increasing the complexity and functionality in embedded systems makes the OS kernel more vulnerable from malicious programs. This raises the need of the integrity management system for the general purpose OS kernel. The integrity management system that observes the behavior of kernel activities from the outside of the OS kernel is promising approach to increase the security of the general purpose OS kernel. However, traditional integrity management systems require extra resources and do not take into account the monitoring on a multi-core processor. The monitoring service which is an integrity management system running on SPUMONE as a new OS personality checks the integrity of data structures in the general purpose OS kernel. It also takes into account running on a multi-core processor. Therefore, the monitoring service and the general purpose OS can run on different cores to reduce the overhead of the integrity management.

  • A Library-based Performance Tool for Multicore Pervasive Servers

    Sayaka Akioka, Yuki Ohno, Midori Sugaya, Tatsuo Nakajima

    Journal of Information Processing   19   421 - 429  2011年08月

     概要を見る

    This paper proposes SPLiT (Scalable Performance Library Tool) as the methodology to improve performance of applications on multicore processors through CPU and cache optimizations on the fly. SPLiT is designed to relieve the difficulty of the performance optimization of parallel applications on multicore processors. Therefore, all programmers have to do to benefit from SPLiT is to add a few library calls to let SPLiT know which part of the application should be analyzed. This simple but compelling optimization library contributes to enrich pervasive servers on a multicore processor, which is a strong candidate for an architecture of information appliances in the near future. SPLiT analyzes and predicts application behaviors based on CPU cycle counts and cache misses. According to the analysis and predictions, SPLiT tries to allocate processes and threads sharing data onto the same physical cores in order to enhance cache efficiency. SPLiT also tries to separate cache effective codes from the codes with more cache misses for the purpose of the avoidance of cache pollutions, which result in performance degradation. Empirical experiments assuming web applications validated the efficiency of SPLiT and the performance of the web application is improved by 26%.This paper proposes SPLiT (Scalable Performance Library Tool) as the methodology to improve performance of applications on multicore processors through CPU and cache optimizations on the fly. SPLiT is designed to relieve the difficulty of the performance optimization of parallel applications on multicore processors. Therefore, all programmers have to do to benefit from SPLiT is to add a few library calls to let SPLiT know which part of the application should be analyzed. This simple but compelling optimization library contributes to enrich pervasive servers on a multicore processor, which is a strong candidate for an architecture of information appliances in the near future. SPLiT analyzes and predicts application behaviors based on CPU cycle counts and cache misses. According to the analysis and predictions, SPLiT tries to allocate processes and threads sharing data onto the same physical cores in order to enhance cache efficiency. SPLiT also tries to separate cache effective codes from the codes with more cache misses for the purpose of the avoidance of cache pollutions, which result in performance degradation. Empirical experiments assuming web applications validated the efficiency of SPLiT and the performance of the web application is improved by 26%.

    DOI CiNii

  • Hardware-assisted Reliability Enhancement for Embedded Multi-core Virtualization Design

    Tsung-Han Lin, Yuki Kinebuchi, Hiromasa Shimada, Hitoshi Mitake, Chen-Yi Lee, Tatsuo Nakajima

    2011 IEEE 17TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EMBEDDED AND REAL-TIME COMPUTING SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS (RTCSA 2011), VOL 2     101 - 105  2011年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    In this paper, we propose a virtualization architecture for the multi-core embedded system to provide more system reliability and security while maintaining the same performance without introducing additional special hardware supports or having to implement complex protection mechanism in the virtualization layer. Embedded virtualization design usually uses two kinds of approaches, traditional VMM and microkernel approaches, but both of them suffer from performance or engineering cost problems.
    To achieve better reliability and keep the virtualization layer design lightweighted, a common hardware component called local memory adopted in the multi-core embedded processors is used in this work. By taking this memory architecture's advantage, we can mitigate above-mentioned problems at once. We choose to re-map the virtualization layer's program called SPUMONE, which it runs all its guest systems in kernel space, on the local memory. By doing so, it can provide additional reliability and security for the entire system because the SPUMONE's design in a multi-core platform has each instance being installed on a separated processor core, which is different from the traditional virtualization layer design, and therefore the content of each SPUMONE in the local memory is inaccessible to each others.

    DOI

  • iDetective: A Location Based Game to Persuade Users Unconsciously

    Akihito Yoshii, Yoshio Funabashi, Hiroaki Kimura, Tatsuo Nakajima

    2011 IEEE 17TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EMBEDDED AND REAL-TIME COMPUTING SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS (RTCSA 2011), VOL 1     115 - 120  2011年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    Persuasive applications that change user behaviors and attitudes have been used for dietary support and healthcare and so on. When we use persuasive application to solve the social problems such as global warming and health issues, it is necessary that we extend the range of target users to people who are not interested in a problematic behavior. In this paper, we suggested an unconscious persuasive technique to design a persuasive application that is able to encourage people unconsciously. We have developed iDetective as a prototype application that persuades users unconsciously using agent persuasion and consciousness sensing. At the same time, we have evaluated the effectiveness of unconscious persuasion and influence on users through a user study using iDetective. As the result, although the unconscious persuasion on iDetective has yielded desirable effect, we could not find whether our application was able to attract people who are no interested in the target behavior. In addition, we have found that participants were not offended by the fact of unconscious persuasion and obtained possibilities and problems of unconscious persuasion.

    DOI

  • Temporal and Spatial Isolation in a Virtualization Layer for Multi-core Processor based Information Appliances

    Tatsuo Nakajima, Yuki Kinebuchi, Hiromasa Shimada, Alexandre Courbot, Tsung-Han Lin

    2011 16TH ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE (ASP-DAC)    2011年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    A virtualization layer makes it possible to compose multiple functionalities on a multi-core processor with minimum modifications of OS kernels and applications. A multi-core processor is a good candidate to compose various software independently developed for dedicated processors into one multi-core processor to reduce both the hardware and development cost. In this paper, we present SPUMONE, which is a virtualization layer suitable for developing multi-core processor based-information appliances.

  • SIGMA System: A Multi-OS Environment for Embedded Systems

    Wataru Kanda, Yu Murata, Tatsuo Nakajima

    JOURNAL OF SIGNAL PROCESSING SYSTEMS FOR SIGNAL IMAGE AND VIDEO TECHNOLOGY   59 ( 1 ) 33 - 43  2010年04月  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    Embedded systems are becoming increasingly sophisticated and there exists a wide variety of requirements such as traditional realtime requirements, multimedia support, etc. It is hard to satisfy all of the requirements by a single OS. Would they be satisfied, the system would become complex and this would cause new problems. A multi OS environment is an efficient approach to deal with these problems and to satisfy complex requirements while keeping the system simple. We propose a multi OS environment named the SIGMA system targeted especially at multiprocessor architectures. On the SIGMA system, guest OSes are corresponded one-to-one with cores. As a result, opposing to existing multi OS environment using virtualization techniques, the system does not degrade the performance of the guest OSes. In addition, the guest OS running on the SIGMA system requires almost no modification to its source code.

    DOI

  • Composition Kernel: A Multi-core Processor Virtualization Layer for Rich Functional Smart Products

    Tatsuo Nakajima, Yuki Kinebuchi, Alexandre Courbot, Hiromasa Shimada, Tsung-Han Lin, Hitoshi Mitake

    SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGIES FOR EMBEDDED AND UBIQUITOUS SYSTEMS   6399   227 - 238  2010年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    Future ambient intelligence environments will embed powerful multi-core processors to compose various functionalities into a smaller number of hardware components. This makes the maintainability of intelligent environments better because it is not easy to manage massively distributed processors.
    A composition kernel makes it possible to compose multiple functionalities on a multi-core processor with the minimum modification of OS kernels and applications. A multi-core processor is a good candidate to compose various software developed independently for dedicated processors into one multi-core processor to reduce both the hardware and development cost. In this paper, we present SPUMONE which is a composition kernel for developing future smart products.

  • A Library-based Tool to Improve CPU Assignment for Multicore Processor-based Pervasive Servers

    Yuki Ohno, Sayaka Akioka, Midori Sugaya, Tatsuo Nakajima

    16TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EMBEDDED AND REAL-TIME COMPUTING SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS (RTCSA 2010)     114 - 123  2010年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    This paper proposes SPLiT (Scalable Performance Library Tool) as the methodology to improve performance of applications on multicore processors, through CPU, and cache optimizations. SPLiT analyzes applications based on cycle counts, and cache misses, and predicts behavior of the applications according to the analysis. With these acquired knowledge on the target application, SPLiT improves CPU resource allocation determined by operating systems.
    SPLiT, and SPLiT library are designed to achieve resource optimizations based on the combination of hardware information collected by Operating System kernel, and software information collected by applications. Additionally, all the features of SPLiT are immediately available with the small modifications to the application source codes, and the modifications are basically to implant SPLiT library calls into the source code. This simple requirement diminishes programmers' difficulties for performance tuning of multicore applications. Through empirical experiments, we validated the efficiency of SPLiT, and observed that performance of the web application was improved by 26%.

    DOI

  • mBrace: Fine-Grained Profiling of Multi-Tier Web Applications

    Andrej Van Der Zee, Alexandre Courbot, Tatsuo Nakajima

    International Journal of Web Services Practices   Vol.5 ( No.1 ) 10 - 21  2010年

  • A lightweight monitoring service for multi-core embedded systems

    Hiromasa Shimada, Alexandre Courbot, Yuki Kinebuchi, Tatsuo Nakajima

    ISORC 2010 - 2010 13th IEEE International Symposium on Object/Component/Service-Oriented Real-Time Distributed Computing   1   202 - 209  2010年

     概要を見る

    The recent increase in complexity and functionality in embedded systems makes them more vulnerable to rootkit-type attacks, raising the need for integrity management systems. However, as of today there is no such system that can guarantee the system's safety while matching the low-resource, real-time and multi-core requirements of embedded systems. In this paper, we present a Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) based monitoring service for embedded systems that checks the actual kernel data against a safe data specification. However, due to the VMM and multi-core nature of the system, the guest OS can be preempted at any time, leading to the checking of potentially inconsistent states. We evaluated two approaches to solve this problem: detecting such invalid states by checking specific kernel data, and detecting system calls using the VMM. © 2010 IEEE.

    DOI

  • 情報家電向けLinuxのCPU資源制限システムの設計と実装

    菅谷 みどり, 中島 達夫

    電子情報通信学会論文誌 D   Volume J93-D ( No.10 ) 2001 - 2010  2010年

  • Building a self-healing embedded system in a multi-OS environment

    Tomohiro Katori, Lei Sun, Dennis K. Nilsson, Tatsuo Nakajima

    Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Computing     293 - 298  2009年

     概要を見る

    In this paper we describe our approach to improve dependability of a commodity OS for embedded systems. Usually it is too difficult for end-users to resolve the problem inside a single OS, especially for embedded systems. We propose a self-healing mechanism for Linux kernel to improve the system dependability without any operations by administrators. This paper presents our white box approach for monitoring and recovering Linux kernel. Key components are a system monitor and a virtual machine monitor. The system monitor is used to detect the inconsistency of data structures inside Linux kernel. The virtual machine monitor provides a multi-OS environment and it isolates the system monitor from Linux kernel. In a multi-OS environment, the system monitor is able to resolve failures inside Linux kernel without stopping crucial services running on another OS. We have developed a prototype for an embedded system to verify our approach. The experiment results show that our system can remove hidden processes and reload buggy kernel modules. The performance evaluation results show that our self-healing mechanism can be used even when Linux kernel is heavily-loaded and the overhead of the system monitor is vanishingly small in actual use. Copyright 2009 ACM.

    DOI

  • 講座 画像処理技術者のための組込み入門 (第5回)組込みオペレーティングシステム概論

    中島 達夫

    映像情報メディア学会   No.5  2009年

  • Constructing a Multi-OS Platform with Minimal Engineering Cost

    Yuki Kinebuchi, Takushi Morita, Kazuo Makijima, Midori Sugaya, Tatsuo Nakajima

    ANALYSIS, ARCHITECTURES AND MODELLING OF EMBEDDED SYSTEMS   310   195 - +  2009年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    Constructing an embedded device with a real-time and a general-purpose operating system has attracted attention as a promising approach to let the device balance real-time responsiveness and rich functionalities. This paper introduces our methodology for constructing such multi-OS platform with minimal engineering cost by assuming asymmetric OS combinations unique to embedded systems. Our methodology consists of two parts. One is a simple hypervisor for multiplexing resources to be shared between operating systems. The other is modifying operating systems to allow them to be aware of each other. We constructed an experimental system executing TOPPERS and Linux simultaneously on a hardware equipped with an SH-4A processor. The modification to each operating system kernel limited to a few dozen lines of code and do not introduce any overhead that would compromise real-time responsiveness or system throughput.

  • A Lightweight Anomaly Detection System for Information Appliances

    Midori Sugaya, Yuki Ohno, Andrej van der Zee, Tatsuo Nakajima

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE 12TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON OBJECT/COMPONENT/SERVICE-ORIENTED REAL-TIME DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING     257 - +  2009年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    In this paper, a novel lightweight anomaly and fault detection infrastructure called Anomaly Detection by Resource Monitoring (Ayaka) is presented for Information Appliances.
    Ayaka provides a general monitoring method for detecting anomalies using only resource usage information on systems independent of its domain, target application, and programming languages. Ayaka modifies the kernel to detect faults and uses a completely application black-box approach based on machine learning methods. It uses the clustering method to quantize the resource usage vector data and learn the normal patterns with a hidden Markov Model. In the running phase, Ayaka finds anomalies by comparing the application resource usage with the learned model. The evaluation experiment indicates that our prototype system is able to detect anomalies, such as SQL injection and buffer overrun, without significant overheads.

    DOI

  • Augmenting User Interaction in a Smart Home Applying Commonsense Knowledge

    Fahim Kawsar, Mostafa Al, Masum Shaikh, Jong Hyuk Park, Mitsuru Ishizuka, Tatsuo Nakajima

    International Journal of Smart Home   Vol. 2 ( No. 4 ) 17 - 32  2008年10月

  • 鏡を拡張したコンテクストアウェア情報表示装置

    藤波香織, カウサル ファヒム, 中島達夫

    情報処理学会論文誌   Vol. 49 ( No. 6 ) 1972 - 1983  2008年06月

  • Prottoy Middleware Platform for Smart Object Systems

    Fahim Kawsar, Kaori Fujinami, Tatsuo Nakajima

    International Journal of Smart Home   Vol.2 ( No.3 ) 1 - 18  2008年06月

  • Reflecting Human Behavior to Motivate Desirable Lifestyle

    Tatsuo Nakajima, Vili Lehdonvirta, Eiji Tokunaga, Hiroaki Kimura

    ACM DIS 2008    2008年02月

  • A Lightweight Kernel Objects Monitoring Infrastructure for Embedded Systems

    Lei Sun, Tatsuo Nakajima

    RTCSA 2008: 14TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EMBEDDED AND REAL-TIME COMPUTING SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS - PROCEEDINGS     55 - 60  2008年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    In this paper a lightweight system level monitoring infrastructure known as Kernel Objects Monitoring Infrastructure (KOMI) is presented for commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) embedded systems. The kernel objects consist of certain critical kernel data structures and entry points of system calls, which are protected as first-class objects inside the system. KOMI provides specific runtime protections to different kernel objects: kernel data structures are protected by the periodic detection and recovery, the interception of arguments is used to protect vulnerable system calls. Both protection methods can provide not only consistency regulations but also recovery actions for the system. During its runtime deployment, once any system inconsistency has been detected, predefined recovery actions will be invoked. Since KOMI requires few modifications to kernel source code, it is easy to integrate into existing embedded systems. The evaluation experiment results indicate our prototype system can correctly detect the inconsistent kernel data structures caused by security attacks and also prevent kernel from exploits due to vulnerable system calls with acceptable penalty to the system performance. Moreover KOMI is fully software-based without introducing any specific hardware and requires no modifications to system call APIs, therefore legacy applications can be also easily reused.

    DOI

  • A framework for self-verification of firmwareupdates over the air in vehicle ecus

    Dennis K. Nilsson, Lei Sun, Tatsuo Nakajima

    2008 IEEE Globecom Workshops, GLOBECOM 2008     1 - 5  2008年

     概要を見る

    An upcoming trend for automobile manufacturers is to provide firmware updates over the air (FOTA) as a service. Since the firmware controls the functionality of a vehicle, security is important. To this end, several secure FOTA protocols have been d veloped. However, the secure FOTA protocols only solve the security for the transmission of the firmware binary. Once the firm ware is downloaded, an attacker could potentially modify its contents before it is flashed to the corresponding ECU's ROM. Thus, there is a need to extend the flashing procedure to also verify that the correct firmware has been flashed to the ECU. We present a framework for self-verification of firmware updates over the air. We include a verification code in the transmission to the vehicle, and after the firmware has been flashed, the integrity of the memory contents can be verified using the verification code. The verification procedure entails only simple hash functionnsand is thus suitable for the limited resources in the vehicle. Virtualization techniques are employed to establish a truste computing base in the ECU, which is then u ed to perform the verification. The proposed framework allows the ECU it selfto perform self-verification and can thus ensure the successful flashing of the firmwa e © 2008 IEEE.

    DOI

  • A Framework for Self-healing Device Drivers

    Hiroo Ishikawa, Alexandre Courbot, Tatsuo Nakajima

    SASO 2008: SECOND IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SELF-ADAPTIVE AND SELF-ORGANIZING SYSTEMS, PROCEEDINGS     277 - 286  2008年

     概要を見る

    Device drivers are the major cause of operating system failure. Prior research proposed frameworks to improve the reliability of device drivers by means of driver restart. While avoiding any instrumentation of the driver, this approach does not always allow graceful recovery. In this paper, we propose a framework for self-healing device drivers that lets the driver developer consider and implement the failure recovery of device drivers. For this purpose, our framework provides easy to use and light-weight persistent memory that preserves the state of the driver needed to successfully recover We developped a prototype on top of the L4 microkernel, and were able to achieve full recovery of crashed drivers as fast as 0.2 ms for different device drivers. In all cases, recovery was totally transparent for the user.

    DOI

  • An Operating System Architecture for Future Information Appliances

    Tatsuo Nakajima, Hiroo Ishikawa, Yuki Kinebuchi, Midori Sugaya, Sun Lei, Alexandre Courbot, Andrej van der Zee, Aleksi Aalto, Kwon Ki Duk

    SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGIES FOR EMBEDDED AND UBIQUITOUS SYSTEMS, PROCEEDINGS   5287   292 - 303  2008年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    A software platform for developing future information appliances requires to satisfy various diverse requirements. The operating system architecture presented in this paper enhances the flexibility and dependability through virtualization techniques. The architecture allows a system to use multiple operating systems simultaneously, and to use multi-core processors in a flexible way. Also, dependability mechanisms in our architecture will avoid crashing or hanging a system as much as possible in order to improve the user experience when defects in the software are exposed. We present a brief overview of each component in the operating system architecture and some sample scenarios that illustrate the effectiveness of the architecture.

  • A Lightweight Detection and Recovery Infrastructure of Kernel Objects for Embedded Systems

    Lei Sun, Tatsuo Nakajima

    EUC 2008: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 5TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EMBEDDED AND UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING, VOL 1, MAIN CONFERENCE     136 - 143  2008年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    The kernel objects consist of critical kernel data structures and system call functions, which are, the most important data for a system, should be protected as first-class candidates. In this paper, a lightweight system-level detection and recovery infrastructure is presented for embedded systems. Inside the infrastructure, specific runtime protections have been implemented for different kernel objects, kernel data structures are protected by the periodic detection and recovery, the interception of arguments is used to protect vulnerable system calls. At runtime once any system inconsistency has been detected, predefined recovery actions will be invoked. The consistency detection regulations and corresponding recovery actions can also be flexibly customized by system developers. The infrastructure requires few modifications to kernel source code, thus it is easy to integrate into existing embedded systems. The evaluation experiment results indicate our prototype system can correctly detect the inconsistent kernel data structures caused by security attacks and also prevent kernel from exploits due to vulnerable system calls with acceptable penalty, to system performance. Moreover it is fully software-based without introducing any specific hardware and requires no modifications to system call APIs, therefore legacy commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) applications can be also easily reused.

    DOI

  • Deploy spontaneously: Supporting end-users in building and enhancing a smart home

    Fahim Kawsar, Tatsuo Nakajima, Kaori Fujinami

    UbiComp 2008 - Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing     282 - 291  2008年

     概要を見る

    This paper explores system issues for involving end users in constructing and enhancing a smart home. In support of this involvement we present an infrastructure and a tangible deployment tool. Active participation of users is essential in a domestic environment as it offers simplicity, greater usercentric control, lower deployment costs and better support for personalization. Our proposed infrastructure provides the foundation for end user deployment utilizing a loosely coupled framework to represent an artefact and its augmented functionalities. Pervasive applications are built independently and are expressed as a collection of functional tasks. A runtime component, FedNet maps these tasks to corresponding service provider artefacts. The tangible deployment tool uses FedNet and allows end users to deploy and control artefacts and applications only by manipulating RFID cards. Primary advantages of our approach are two-fold. Firstly, it allows end users to deploy ubicomp systems easily in a Do-it-Yourself fashion. Secondly, it allows developers to write applications and to build augmented artefacts in a generic way regardless of the constraints of the target environment. We describe an implemented prototype and illustrate its feasibility in a real life deployment session by the end users. Our study shows that the end users might be involved in deploying future ubicomp systems if appropriate tools and supporting infrastructure are provided. Copyright 2008 ACM.

    DOI

  • A lightweight indoor location model for sentient artefacts using sentient artefacts

    Fahim Kawsar, Kaori Fujinami, Tatsuo Nakajima

    SAC 2007     1024 - 1031  2007年04月

  • A study on asymmetric operating systems on symmetric multiprocessors

    Yu Murata, Wataru Kanda, Kensuke Hanaoka, Hiroo Ishikawa, Tatsuo Nakajima

    EMBEDDED AND UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING, PROCEEDINGS   4808   182 - 195  2007年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    This paper proposes a technique to achieve asymmetric multiple OSes environment for symmetric multiprocessors. The system has a host OS and guest OSes: L4 microkernel and their servers run as the host OS, and modified Linux runs as the guest OS. OS manager which is one of the servers on the host OS manages the guest OSes. Our approach avoids a lot of execution overheads and modification costs of the guest OSes because the each OS can control hardware directly without any virtualization. The results of the evaluation show that our system is much better than the existing virtual machine systems in point of the performance. In addition, a guest OS in our system requires a few amount of modification costs. Consequently, the experiments prove that our system is a practical approach for both performance and engineering cost sensitive systems.

  • Dynamic translator-based virtualization

    Yuki Kinebuchi, Hidenari Koshimae, Shuichi Oikawa, Tatsuo Nakajima

    SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGIES FOR EMBEDDED AND UBIQUITOUS SYSTEMS   4761   486 - +  2007年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    Microkernels and virtual machine monitors are both utilized as platforms for running operating systems. Although there are many similarities in their designs and features, they have opposite advantages and drawbacks. A microkernel based system is highly portable. However, the interface it exposes is inflexible and incompatible with other real hardware interfaces. In contrast, a virtual machine monitor interface is identical to a specific real hardware interface. However, the implementation of virtual machine monitors highly depends on processor architectures and specific hardwares.
    In this paper, we present a new model of virtual machine monitor, a flexible dynamic translator constructed on a portable microkernel. Our model offers both high portability and compatibility. Moreover, its flexible interface could be reconfigured to support various types of hardware interfaces. The results of the evaluation show that the performance of our prototype system is unsatisfactory, so we propose some techniques to improve its performance as future work.

  • System Support for Mobile Augmented Reality Services

    Hiroaki Kimura, Eiji Tokunaga, Tatsuo Nakajima

    APPLIED COMPUTING 2007, VOL 1 AND 2     1616 - 1623  2007年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    Developing and deploying augmented reality (AR) services in pervasive computing environments is quite difficult because almost of all current systems require heavy and bulky head-mounted displays (HMDs) and are based on inflexible centralized architectures for detecting service locations and superimposing AR images. We propose a light-weight mobile AR service framework that combines personal mobile devices most of people own nowadays, visual tags as inexpensive AR techniques, and mobile code that enables easy-to-deploy environments. Our framework enables developers to easily deploy mobile AR services in pervasive computing environments and users to interact them in a both of practical and intuitive way.

  • Constructing Machine Emulator on Portable Microkernel

    Yuki Kinebuchi, Hidenari Koshimae, Tatsuo Nakajima

    APPLIED COMPUTING 2007, VOL 1 AND 2     1197 - 1198  2007年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    In this paper, we present a new model of virtual execution environment, a flexible machine emulator with dynamic translator constructed on a portable microkernel. Our model offers both high portability and compatibility. Moreover, its flexible interface could be reconfigured to support various types of hardware interfaces.

  • Lifestyle ubiquitous gaming: Computer games making daily lives fun

    Eiji Tokunaga, Masaaki Ayabe, Hiroaki Kimura, Tatsuo Nakajima

    SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGIES FOR EMBEDDED AND UBIQUITOUS SYSTEMS   4761   202 - 212  2007年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    We propose a novel computer gaming style in which users can enjoy games through their daily lives without paying too much attention and time for the games, we call it lifestyle ubiquitous gaming. Lifestyle ubiquitous games track human daily activities implicitly and incorporate the tracked activities in their game logics. Then they represent decorated and virtualized those activities on ambient displays. We believe that this gaming style enables not only making their boring and messy daily tasks fun but improving their lazy lifestyle and customs. In this paper, we describe our lifestyle ubiquitous gaming concept and framework, and then we show our two case studies implementing distinguishing scenarios.

  • Dynamic translator-based virtualization

    Yuki Kinebuchi, Hidenari Koshimae, Shuichi Oikawa, Tatsuo Nakajima

    SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGIES FOR EMBEDDED AND UBIQUITOUS SYSTEMS   4761   486 - +  2007年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    Microkernels and virtual machine monitors are both utilized as platforms for running operating systems. Although there are many similarities in their designs and features, they have opposite advantages and drawbacks. A microkernel based system is highly portable. However, the interface it exposes is inflexible and incompatible with other real hardware interfaces. In contrast, a virtual machine monitor interface is identical to a specific real hardware interface. However, the implementation of virtual machine monitors highly depends on processor architectures and specific hardwares.
    In this paper, we present a new model of virtual machine monitor, a flexible dynamic translator constructed on a portable microkernel. Our model offers both high portability and compatibility. Moreover, its flexible interface could be reconfigured to support various types of hardware interfaces. The results of the evaluation show that the performance of our prototype system is unsatisfactory, so we propose some techniques to improve its performance as future work.

  • Lifestyle ubiquitous gaming: Making daily lives more plesurable

    Tatsuo Nakajima, Vili Lehdonvirta, Eiji Tokunaga, Masaaki Ayabe, Hiroaki Kimura, Ybhei Okuda

    13TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EMBEDDED AND REAL-TIME COMPUTING SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS, PROCEEDINGS     257 - +  2007年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    In this paper, we propose a novel computer gaming style Lifestyle Ubiquitous Gaming, where our experience is enriched in our daily lives by using gaming concepts. In lifestyle ubiquitous gaming, human daily activities are implicitly tracked and interpreted. Then, the feedback of the activities are returned to a user as a game system' presentation. The user can enjoy the game without too much conscious. This characteristic has a very big difference from traditional gaming.
    We describe the motivation and conceptual framework of lifestyle ubiquitous gaming, and show two case studies that we have conducted to demonstrate our proposal's feasibility and effectiveness.

  • RoonRoon: A wearable teddy as social interface for contextual notification

    Fahim Kawsar, Kaori Fujinami, Susanna Pirttikangas, Keisuke Hayashi, Tatsuo Nakajima

    NGMAST 2007: 2007 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON NEXT GENERATION MOBILE APPLICATIONS, SERVICES AND TECHNOLOGIES     76 - +  2007年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    In this paper we present a wearable teddy, RoonRoon (a physical embodiment artefact) that acts as a user interface for information services. It can monitor user's physical activity state (walking, standing, running and sitting) and can provide personalized information in a contextual manner minimizing interruptions. RoonRoon has four notification mechanisms: audible beeps, human voice, ambient sound and vibration. Since RoonRoon is intended primarily for mobile use, interaction is managed completely by voice using natural language. This paper describes the design and implementation of RoonRoon. We also present an informal study that reveals end users' impressions towards wearable toys as social interfaces.

  • CookieFlavors: Rapid composition framework for tangible media

    Hiroaki Kimura, Yohei Okuda, Tatsuo Nakajima

    NGMAST 2007: 2007 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON NEXT GENERATION MOBILE APPLICATIONS, SERVICES AND TECHNOLOGIES     100 - 109  2007年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    We propose an effective design process for tangible media using a novel framework "CookieFlavors". CookieFlavors provides developers with some abstractions which hide cumbersome implementation phase to develop tangible media. Moreover the framework supports developers to do prototyping them easily. From three case studies to develop tangible media using our framework, we have confirmed our design process and derived some future works of our framework.

  • DroPicks - A tool for collaborative content sharing exploiting everyday artefacts

    Simo Hosio, Fahim Kawsar, Jukka Riekki, Tatsuo Nakajima

    UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING SYSTEMS, PROCEEDINGS   4836   258 - +  2007年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    Emergence of social web services like YouTube[1], Flickr[2] etc. is constantly transforming the way we share our lifestyles with family, friends and colleagues. ne significance of specific contents can be enhanced if shared with the right person, at right location and time. This paper explores this contextual social content sharing mechanism and presents DroPicks that utilizes augmented everyday artefacts as containers for digital information. Many everyday artefacts are immobile, which implicitly restricts contents stored to a location. Such indirect, contextual sharing has advantages over direct communication mechanisms (E-mail, SMS, IM...) as it provides the content in correct context, seeking minimal attention. Considering the lightness of social contents, we argue that our approach is appropriate, as it does not seek immediate attention, but rather offers the content in the background.

  • A study on asymmetric operating systems on symmetric multiprocessors

    Yu Murata, Wataru Kanda, Kensuke Hanaoka, Hiroo Ishikawa, Tatsuo Nakajima

    EMBEDDED AND UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING, PROCEEDINGS   4808   182 - 195  2007年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    This paper proposes a technique to achieve asymmetric multiple OSes environment for symmetric multiprocessors. The system has a host OS and guest OSes: L4 microkernel and their servers run as the host OS, and modified Linux runs as the guest OS. OS manager which is one of the servers on the host OS manages the guest OSes. Our approach avoids a lot of execution overheads and modification costs of the guest OSes because the each OS can control hardware directly without any virtualization. The results of the evaluation show that our system is much better than the existing virtual machine systems in point of the performance. In addition, a guest OS in our system requires a few amount of modification costs. Consequently, the experiments prove that our system is a practical approach for both performance and engineering cost sensitive systems.

  • Building mobile augmented reality services in pervasive computing environments

    Hiroaki Kimura, Eiji Tokunaga, Tatsuo Nakajima

    INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PERVASIVE SERVICES, PROCEEDINGS     285 - +  2006年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    Developing and deploying augmented reality (AR) services in pervasive computing environments is quite difficult because almost of all current systems require heavy and bulky head mounted displays (HMD) and are based on unflexible centralized architectures for detecting service locations and superimposing AR images. We propose a light-weight mobile AR service framework that combines personal mobile devices, visual tags and mobile codes, which enable developers to easily deploy mobile AR services in pervasive computing environments and users to interact them in a both of practical and intuitive way.

  • Real-Time Machオペレーティングシステムの経験

    中島達夫, 追川修一

    コンピュータソフトウエア   23 ( 1 )  2006年

  • 高信頼性組み込みソフトウェア開発-最新技術動向と取り組み:4.高信頼・セキュア組み込みオペレーティングシステム

    中島 達夫

    情報処理学会会誌   Vol.47 No.5   506 - 513  2006年

  • A software infrastructure for wearable sensor networks

    Kensuke Hanaoka, Ayako Takagi, Tatsuo Nakajima

    12TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EMBEDDED AND REAL-TIME COMPUTING SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS, PROCEEDINGS     27 - +  2006年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    In ubiquitous computing environments, context-awareness is one of the most important research topics. Computers embedded in our surrounding can extract information about a user and the information makes it possible to offer personalized services according to the user's preference. To extract a large amount of context information, wearable sensor devices will become more important in the near future. However, it is not easy to develop context-aware services that use context information from wearable sensor devices because of the gap between low-level sensor information and high-level context that the services require.
    In this paper, we propose a software infrastructure for wearable sensor networks. We first discuss the requirements to retrieve context information from wearable sensor networks. Then, we introduce our software infrastructure named Cinnamon that extracts high-level context from low-level context information retrieved from wearable sensor networks. The software infrastructure makes it dramatically easy to develop context-aware services for wearable sensor networks. We present the design and implementation of Cinnamon, and discuss our current prototype implementation.

  • Accounting System: A fine-grained CPU resource protection mechanism for Embedded System

    Midori Sugaya, Shuichi Oikawa, Tatsuo Nakajima

    NINTH IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON OBJECT AND COMPONENT-ORIENTED REAL-TIME DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING, PROCEEDINGS     72 - 81  2006年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    In ubiquitous computing environments, our daily lives will be made convenient by embedded intelligent devices. Those devices, such as car navigation systems, personal digital assistances, and cellular phones, provide various kinds of the complex services. Those devices are networked with each other and provide complicated services, through the Internet. While they provide useful services, there is an increasing possibility of security attacks, which include the unexpected execution of un-secure codes. Current information appliances have not yet fully embodied a resource protection mechanism that prevents misbehaved applications from consuming the whole CPU capacity of system resources.
    In this paper we propose Accounting System, and describe its design and implementation. The system is a resource monitoring and restriction system that has the purpose of improving the system's reliability and security. We developed the system on Linux. Our system is a very generic to offer various services, such as security improvement, overload control, and class-based accounting, that require CPU resource control.

  • Bazaar: A conceptual framework for physical space applications

    K Fujinami, T Yamabe, T Nakajima

    UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING SYSTEMS   3598   174 - 191  2005年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    In ubiquitous computing era, the notion of context-awaxeness will play an important role. An application should be aware of its operating context for supporting and enriching human activities. Such contextual information is required to be extracted as seamlessly as possible through interaction between users and surrounding environments. This leads to the need for dealing with a wide variety of contextual information from a physical world.
    In this paper, we propose a conceptual framework, Bazaar, for modeling the physical world and for manipulating the model. It constructs the model with self-descriptive objects represented as a set of triples. Additionally, it provides a programming model for a developer so that he/she can intuitively manipulate the model and develop an application. We also report experiences with building a sample application.

  • Middleware supporting various input/output devices for networked audio and visual home appliances

    T Nakajima, N Kobayashi, E Tokunaga

    UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING SYSTEMS   3598   157 - 173  2005年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    In this paper, we propose universal interaction for networked home appliances, which provides a simple mechanism to fill the gap between traditional user interface systems and advanced user interaction devices. Our middleware enables us to control appliances in a uniform way at any places, and the system allows us to select suitable input and output interaction devices according to our preferences and situations. Our middleware has based on the stateless thin-client system, and translates input and output interaction events according to user interaction devices. Therefore, our system allows us to use a variety of interaction devices without modifying applications using existing GUI toolkits.

  • Resource Management Architecture for Future Information Appliances

    S. Oikawa, T. Nakajima

    Journal of Embedded Computing   1 ( 1 )  2005年

  • AwareMirror: A personalized display using a mirror

    K Fujinami, F Kawsar, T Nakajima

    PERVASIVE COMPUTING, PROCEEDINGS   3468   315 - 332  2005年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    In this paper, we propose a personalized display, "AwareMirror: an augmented mirror". AwareMirror presents information relevant to a person in front of it by super-imposing his/her image. A toothbrush has been chosen as an identification tool while proximity sensors have been utilized to detect a person's position (in front of the mirror). Also, three types of information that can affect a user's decision have been selected. The mirror has been constructed using an acrylic magic mirror board and ordinal computer monitor. The acrylic board has been attached in front of the monitor, and only bright color from the display can penetrate the board. As a result of preliminary evaluation, we found that the mirror is useful to offer information in an unobtrusive manner while preserving its metaphor.

  • Personal home server: Enabling personalized and seamless ubiquitous computing environments

    T Nakajima, Satoh, I

    SECOND IEEE ANNUAL CONFERENCE ON PERVASIVE COMPUTING AND COMMUNICATIONS, PROCEEDINGS     341 - 345  2004年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    In this paper, we propose a personal home server that makes it possible to coordinate various home appliances. Since each person has a different personal home server, it allows us to personalize how to use the appliances according to his preference. Also, our personal home server can discover and configure various appliances at any places, such as railroad stations, cars, and streets as well as houses in a seamless way. We show the design and implementation of a personal home server, and discuss the current design and future work.

  • ユビキタス環境における複合現実感のためのミドルウエア

    徳永英治, Andrej Van der Zee, 倉橋誠, 根本将寛, 中島達夫

    コンピュータソフトウエア   21 ( 1 )  2004年

  • コンテクストアウェアなアプリケーションフレームワークにおけるメタコンテキスト情報の利用方法の提案とその応用

    藤波香織, 山邊哲生, 中島達夫

    コンピュータソフトウエア   21 ( 1 )  2004年

  • Pervasive Servers: A Framework for Creating a Society of Appliances

    T. Nakajima

    Personal and Ubiquitous Computing   7 ( 3-4 ) 182 - 188  2003年07月  [査読有り]

    DOI

  • System support for distributed augmented reality in ubiquitous computing environments

    M Kurahashi, A van der Zee, E Tokunaga, M Nemoto, T Nakajima

    REAL-TIME AND EMBEDDED COMPUTING SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS   2968   279 - 295  2003年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    Ubiquitous computing will dramatically change our lives due to the enhancement of our real world. Augmented reality (AR) is a promising technique for realizing the enhancement by superimposing computer generated images on video images. However, it is not easy to build applications using augmented reality techniques since the developer needs to deal with issues like distribution and context-awareness. It is desirable to provide a software infrastructure to hide the complexities from programmers.
    In this paper, we propose a middleware called TEAR (Toolkit for Easy Augmented Reality) supporting augmented reality for ubiquitous computing environments. Our middleware provides several multimedia components that process video streams using AR techniques. New components to provide more complex functionality can be developed by composing these components.

  • A case study on a component-based system and its configuration

    H Ishikawa, T Nakajima

    SOFTWARE AND COMPILERS FOR EMBEDDED SYSTEMS   2826   198 - 210  2003年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    Ubiquitous computing proliferates complexity and heterogeneity of software. Component software provides better productivity and configurability by assembling software from several components. The purpose of this paper is to investigate system configurations on a component-based system and the side effects of the configurations. We have implemented a component-based Java virtual machine named Earl Gray, by modifying an existing Java virtual machine. The case study revealed several problems to use the current component framework when configuring software. We report three experiments of those problems and present a future direction to solve the problem.

  • Webプロトコルを用いたホームコンピューティングミドルウエアの統合

    上野乃毅, 中島達夫, 佐藤一郎, 副島康太

    情報処理学会論文誌:コンピューティングシステム   44 ( SIG10(ARC2) )  2003年

  • コンテクストアウェアなアプリケーション構築のためのフレームワーク

    藤波香織, 中島達夫

    情報処理学会論文誌:コンピューティングシステム   44 ( SIG10(ARC2) )  2003年

  • Applications Requirements for Middleware for Mobile and Pervasive Systems

    K.Raatikainen, H.B.Christensen, T.Nakajima

    Mobile Computing and Communications Review   6 ( 4 )  2002年

  • Experiences with building middleware for audio and visual networked home appliances on commodity software

    Tatsuo Nakajima

    10th ACM International Conference on Multimedia 2002    2002年

  • 組込みシステム用OSとしてのLinux

    中島 達夫

    情報処理学会会誌   43 ( 2 )  2002年

  • Middleware Component Supporting Flexible User Interaction for Networked Home Appliances

    T.Nakajima

    ACM Computer Architecture News   ( 12 )  2001年12月

  • Middleware for building adaptive migratory continuous media applications

    T Nakajima, H Aizu

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING   11 ( 1 ) 83 - 107  2001年02月  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    In this paper, we propose a middleware system for building adaptive migratory continuous media applications. In future computing environments, a variety of objects at home and in offices will embed computers, and various applications will be moved among these computers according to the user's locations. For example, a computer that executes an application may be changed to another computer according to the location of the ap plication's user for monitoring his behavior. However, since the computers may have dramatically different hardware and software configurations, the application cannot be moved without taking into account the configurations of the computers that the application is migrated. Therefore, migratory applications should be aware of environments where they are executed.
    The paper focuses on middleware for building adaptive migratory continuous media applications that are one of the most important classes of migratory applications. Our middleware consists of three components. The first component is an environment server that monitors computing environments that applications run, and it notifies the changes of the environments to the applications. The second component is a continuous media toolkit that enables us to build adaptive migratory continuous media applications easily. The toolkit enables us to build continuous media applications in a highly configurable way. This makes applications to be adapted to every computing environment by changing their configurations. The third component is a migration manager that makes applications migratory. We also show an example of a migratory application, and describe some experiences with building the application.

  • System Software for Audio and Visual Networked Home Appliances on Commodity Operating Systems

    Tatsuo Nakajima

    IFIP/ACM International Conference on Distributed Systems Platforms    2001年

  • Building audio and visual home appliances on commodity software

    K Soejima, M Matsuda, T Iino, T Hayashi, T Nakajima

    ICCE: 2001 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CONSUMER ELECTRONICS, DIGEST OF TECHNICAL PAPERS   47 ( 3 ) 308 - 309  2001年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    In this paper, we describe our currently ongoing work to build distributed middleware for networked audio and visual home appliances, which is executed on commodity software components, Linux and Java.

  • Practical explicit binding interface for supporting multiple transport protocols in a CORBA system

    T Nakajima

    2000 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON NETWORK PROTOCOLS, PROCEEDINGS     220 - 229  2000年  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    This paper proposes an extension To the standard CORBA interfaces to support explicit binding. The extended interface enables a program to select a suitable transport protocol for. each method invocation. and it provides a flexible and versatile framework to control various transport protocols. The interface is compatible with the object model of CORBA, and it is carefully designed to take into account the portability of an application to other CORBA implementations. The extended interface has implemented in omniORB2, which is a CORBA 2.0 compliant system that has been developing at. AT&T Laboratories, Cambridge.

▼全件表示

書籍等出版物

  • Case Study of Middleware Infrastructure for Ambient Intelligence Environments", In Handbook of Ambient Intelligence and Smart Environments

    Tatsuo Nakajima

    Springer  2009年

Misc

  • データアクセスパターンに基づくデータマイニング手法の分類

    秋岡 明香, 村岡 洋一, 山名 早人, 中島 達夫

    全国大会講演論文集   72   105 - 106  2010年03月

    CiNii

  • 21世紀COEプロジェクト「プロダクティブICTアカデミア」

    上田 和紀, 大石 進一, 甲藤 二郎, 中島 達夫, 村岡 洋一, 山名 早人

    情報処理   46 ( 4 ) 410 - 416  2005年04月

    CiNii

  • 適応・拡張可能なシステムソフトウエア

    中島 達夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告. SS, ソフトウェアサイエンス   99 ( 682 ) 25 - 32  2000年03月

     概要を見る

    本論文では, 我々が今までのおこなってきたプロジェクトを振り替えることにより, アプリケーション開発とシステムソフトウエア開発の違いを明らかにする.特に, 我々が今まで開発してきた適応/拡張可能ソフトウエアにおける問題点について述べる.次に, 現在我々が研究中の超異機種環境の概要について述べ, その実現には適応/拡張システムソフトウエアが重要なことを示す.最後に, 適応/拡張可能なシステムソフトウエアを構築する際に解決すべき問題点を明らかにする。

    CiNii

  • 移動計算機環境に適したオペレーティングシステム

    中島 達夫

    電子情報通信学会誌   80 ( 4 ) pp.324 - 330  1997年04月

    CiNii

  • 3. モバイルコンピューティングを支えるソフトウェア技術 3-2 分散オブジェクト技術とモバイルエージェント (<特集>モバイルコンピューティング)

    中島 達夫, 渡部 卓雄

    電子情報通信学会誌   80 ( 4 ) 357 - 363  1997年04月

     概要を見る

    モバイルエージェントやJavaなどのWebページ記述用言語に代表される移動可能プログラムをいつでもどこでも計算機を使用可能とするモバイルコンピューティング環境と組み合わせることによって, 計算機の可能性は飛躍的に向上する. 本稿では, 移動可能プログラムと移動可能プログラムをモバイルコンピューティング環境上で実行するために必要となる適応可能なソフトウェアアーキテクチャに関して紹介する.

    CiNii

  • 連続メディア処理に適したオペレーテイングシステム : 画像通信システム

    中島 達夫

    テレビジョン学会技術報告   18 ( 39 ) 43 - 48  1994年07月

     概要を見る

    In distributed multimedia systems, the concepts of quality of services (QOS) for continuous media data such as digital video and audio will become important. We have been developping Real-Time Mach for distributed multimedia computing, which is a real-time microkernel supporting these concepts. This paper presents several issues of operating system supports for continuous media.

    CiNii

▼全件表示

産業財産権

  • ネットワーク機器汎用相互通信装置

    4002442

    中島 達夫

    特許権

  • 機器統合のためのネットワーク構築装置

    4118566

    中島 達夫, 佐藤 一郎

    特許権

受賞

  • ノキアリサーチセンター訪問リサーチフェロー

    2005年04月  

共同研究・競争的資金等の研究課題

  • 振動同期を利用した分断同意手法に関する研究

    研究期間:

    2020年04月
    -
    2023年03月
     

     概要を見る

    自然界の振動系の同期現象(例えば心筋の伸縮周期やホタルの発信周期などの同調)に相当するメカニズムを分散システムに導入して、分散同意を効率化していく。分散合意は様々な分散アルゴリズムの基礎となるが、複数コンピュータによる合意要求等が重なると、分散合意処理に手戻りが生じ、合意に至るコストが大幅に大きくなるという問題が知られている。一方、分散合意手法がマルチキャスト通信とそれに対する返信を順番に繰り返していることから、自然界の振動系の同期現象と近く、自然界の同期メカニズムを分散システムに導入する方法を提案し、実装・評価を行う

  • 日常使用に耐えうる携帯機器の所持位置推定とその応用

    研究期間:

    2018年04月
    -
    2021年03月
     

     概要を見る

    本研究では,携帯機器を持ち運ぶ際の所持位置を,様々な日常動作の中で高精度に推定する手法とその応用方法を明らかにすることを目的としている.2019年度は以下を実施した.1)相性にもとづく推定器の選択による個人化方式の検討:相性を評価する対象を個人ではなく,複数人(≠全員)とすることで選択後の性能が大幅に向上することを確認した.また,相性評価時に全クラスのデータを提供するのではなく,利用者の負担を下げるために全クラスを使用した場合と任意位置を使用した場合の精度差を最小にするクラスに限定する手法を考案した.約60%程度のクラス数で全クラス使用時と同等の性能が得られることを確認した.2)新規の所持位置検出手法の検討:前年度の単一新規性検出器の検証をふまえ,複数の新規性検出器によるアンサンブル手法を提案した.最終的な既知/未知の判定に際し,単なる多数決ではアンサンブルの効果が限定的なことを実験的に示し,交差検証の考え方を用いることでほぼ最適な判定閾値を推定する手法を考案した.3)新規の所持位置追加手法の検討:検出された新規の所持位置に利用者が正解ラベルを付ける負担を下げるために,新規と判定された区間データをクラスタリングにより集約して仮クラスとする手法の開発に着手した.クラスタ数をX-meansクラスタリングにより決定し,前処理の次元圧縮としてt-SNEを用いることで良好な仮クラス検出が可能であることを確認した.4)着座時や自転車運転中など様々な行動または身体状態における所持位置推定手法の検討:まず行動/身体状態を数グループに分類し,その後,グループ毎に所持位置推定を行いその結果を統合するアンサンブル手法の検討に着手した.5)ラベル付け動機手法の検討:大人数でのデータ収集のような集団行動に意味や付加価値を与えるゲーミフィケーションフレームワークの検討を行った.年度当初に計画した項目は概ね実施できた.上記項目6の1)についてはズボンのポケットのような1クラスや身長体重などの属性のみでの相性判定は困難であることが分かったが,収集したデータからシステマティックに数種類(概ね全クラスのうちの60%程度)のクラスを選定する手法を考案したため,ユーザのデータ提供負担の軽減はある程度可能になったと考える.2)については,論文として出版された.4)は方式検討と第1段階の実験が完了し,中間報告の論文を執筆中である.5)については,方式検討の段階であるが,次年度に早期に実装して評価を行える目処が立った.一方,3)は2020年度に予定していたが,2)が早期に終了したために,前倒しで着手した.方式検討と初期実験が終了した段階である.本年度新たに実施する内容は以下である.まず,上記項目6の1)について,相性がよい分類器を選定する際の候補分類器の数はデータを提供した人数に関して出来るあらゆる組み合わせとなるため,選定に時間がかかる問題がある.このため,候補分類器を必要最小限にとどめる手法を開発する.そして,Novelty Detectionにより未知の所持場所候補を検出した後の効率的なラベル付け手法における重要なパラメータを明らかにし,そのシステマティックな設定方法を明らかにする.また,2020年度は最終年度であるために,これまで検討してきた項目を統合して,一連の「新規場所保持→検出→ラベル付け→再学習」の流れの中での性能を評価する.また,ゲーミフィケーション機能をスマートフォン端末に実装し,品質が良いラベル付きのデータを効率的に収集する実験を行う

  • 不揮発メモリ及び小型原子時計等を前提とした分散システム技術

    研究期間:

    2016年04月
    -
    2020年03月
     

     概要を見る

    本研究は不揮発性メモリや超小型原子時計などの新しいデバイスやクラウドコンピューティングを前提とした次世代分散トランザクション技術を提案し、評価することになる。既存のデータベース及び分散システムの研究では、メモリは揮発であり、明示的な永続化が必要であること。コンピュータ間の通信遅延は大きく、さらに予測できないことから、タイムスタンプを含む因果関係による順序づけが基本となる。しかし、不揮発性メモリを利用した場合、データベースにおいてデータの永続化処理が不要となる。また分散データベースにおいて各コンピュータが原子時計により正確な時刻を保証できる場合、通信は到着順ではなく、送信時刻で処理を行えることになる。本研究では不揮発性メモリを前提としたトランザクション処理と原子時計を前提とした分散協調メカニズムとなるが、両者は融合することで分散データベースの基盤技術となる。本年度は交付時の予定通り、DIMM接続型フラッシュメモリによる実験に加えて、本来ターゲットの不揮発性メモリのDIMMを用いた基礎評価を行ったが、既存の不揮発性メモリはフラッシュメモリと同様に読み書き性能に差が大きいことがわかった。また、原子時計に関してはGPS信号による置き換えにおいて実験を行った。Paxosアルゴリズムなどの3フェーズコミット手法を利用した分散トランザクションを提案・実装した。これはコンピュータの故障時において、データの複製を複数コンピュータで保持することになる。これらの成果については複数の国際会議で発表した。令和元年度が最終年度であるため、記入しない。令和元年度が最終年度であるため、記入しない

  • 柔軟な適応性をもつ分散システムの構築・管理

    研究期間:

    2012年04月
    -
    2016年03月
     

     概要を見る

    柔軟性により強健な分散システムを構築・管理する手法を明らかにする。分散システムではその用途やシステム構成は常に変化している。多様かつ未知の変化に対応するには、従来のように頑丈なシステムだけでなく、生物のように柔軟に適応できるシステムも望まれる。本研究は、生物的メタファ(細胞の分化・脱分化、細胞間相互作用)を導入した新しい適応化手法を提案し、汎用的なミドルウェアとして設計・実装・評価する。提案手法は適応化の柔軟性が高いこと、適応化中のシステム障害に耐えること、適応化によるコンピュータ間不整合を抑制できることなど、従来手法にない特質を数多く持ち、学術面はもちろん、実用面においても重要な貢献となる

  • パワーマネジメント・セキュリティのためのゲーム機向けミドルウエアの構築

    研究期間:

    2012年04月
    -
    2015年03月
     

     概要を見る

    様々な社会問題を解決するためには人間の行動を改変することが重要である.特に,エネルギーを削減し持続可能な社会を構築するためには,情報技術を利用した分散基盤ミドルウエアが重要となる.本研究では,クラウドソーシングの考え方を利用して,集団行動をナビゲートすることによりエネルギーを削減することを試みた.具体的には,マイクロクラウドファンディングというミドルウエアを開発した.マイクロクラウドファンディングでは仮想性を利用して集団の行動のナビゲートを可能とする.本研究では,仮想化を導入する複数の方式を提案し,それらの有効性に関して検討をおこなった

  • 情報爆発に対応する高度にスケーラブルなモニタリングアーキテクチャ

    科学研究費助成事業(早稲田大学)  科学研究費助成事業(特定領域研究)

    研究期間:

    2006年
    -
    2010年
     

     概要を見る

    本研究において目的とするモニタリングアーキテクチャは,情報基盤,社会基盤,人々の日常生活を守るためのソフトウエアの一群である.通常は独立に研究されていた研究分野を統合することにより,従来解決が困難であった問題を解決していくことを可能とする.本研究では,計算機システム,ネットワークシステム,実世界に関する統合的なスケーラブルモニタリングに関するシステム構築をおこなうことで将来の計算機システムのあるべき姿を検討した.

  • 組み込みOSに関する研究

    研究期間:

    2004年
    -
     
     

  • 次世代センサーリッチ携帯端末に関する研究

    研究期間:

    2003年
    -
     
     

  • 情報家電のためのミドルウエアに関する研究

    研究期間:

    2000年
    -
     
     

  • 分散マルチメディアシステムのためのオペレーティングシステムに関する研究

     概要を見る

    本研究では,分散型実時間オペレーティングシステムとして我々が現在,米国カ-ネギメロン大学,慶応義塾大学,北陸先端科学技術大学院大学で共同開発中のReal-Time Mach上に,連続メディアを処理するために適したネットワークシステム,ファイルシステム,メディア間同期システムを構築し,連続メディアを処理するために必要なオペレーティングシステムの機能を明らかにする.Real-Time Machは,実時間システムを構築するための共通カーネルとして,内外の多くのグループで利用されており,Real-Time Machが提供するリソース管理機構は,アプリケーションが持つ時間制約が満足するかどうかをプログラムを実行する前に予測することを可能とするので,時間制約を持つ連続メディアオブジェクトを形式的に扱う基盤として適していると考えられる.また,ファイルシステムやネットワークシステムをユーザレベルで実現することを可能とする最新のマイクロカーネル技術を用いているため,連続メディアを処理するための新しいオペレーティングシステムのコンポーネントを追加することが非常に容易である

  • ヘテロ型ネットワークシステムにおける診断知識の獲得とモデル化に関する研究

     概要を見る

    平成5年度から平成6年度にわたる研究により以下のような成果を得た。1.専門家の故障診断事例の分析 故障診断の専門家が有する、代表的な診断事例を分析することにより、専門家の利用する推論方式、知識構造に関する共通性を確認した。2.故障診断エキスパートシステムの概念モデルの構築 上記知見をふまえて、故障診断の原理を「プロトコルスタックの探索問題」であると同定し、エキスパートシステムの概念モデルを構築した。3.プロトタイプ第1版の開発 ネットワークプロトコルに関する知識を入力とし、徴候と故障仮説間の可能な因果関係すべてを故障木の形で出力する知識コンパイラを開発した。これにより、故障したハードウェアが特定できれば、そのハードウェア上のソフトウェアにおける故障箇所が特定できることが確認された。また、ネットワークハードウェア構成に関る知識の整備と実装が新たな課題として認識された。4.故障診断モデルの精密化 平成6年度においては、ネットワークハードウェア構成に関する知識を組み込むことにより、ソフトウェアにおける故障箇所を特定できるのみならず、診断初期に故障対象として仮定したネットワークハードウェア構成に関して仮説の変更を指示できるように、モデルの表現能力を改善した。5.故障診断エキスパートシステムの改良 (4)で述べた診断モデルを組み込んだ故障診断エキスパートシステムの改良版を開発した。上記により、プロトコルおよびハードウェア構成の知識を保持し、徴候と故障仮説間の可能な因果関係のすべてを故障木の形で出力する知識コンパイラを開発することに成功した

  • 脳情報の成分分析とヒューマノイドへの情報伝達

     概要を見る

    この研究計画は,次のような成果を得て,平成16年度に終了した.(1)この研究により,人体モーション,そのアニメーション,そしてヒューマノイドの動作の同一化(ユニフィケーション,unification)を行うことができた.このとき,人体モーションを認識して言語レベルに抽象化する機構の構築が鍵となることを指摘し,これを実現した.そしてその発表論文に対して,2004年度APNNA Best Paper Award for Application Oriented Researchを受賞した.(2)この研究により,ヒューマノイドの動作指令において言語レベルの抽象化を行うことが可能になったので,その指令を,形態の異なる複数のヒューマノイドに同時発行することが可能になった.すなわち,ヒューマノイド間の機械独立性を得ることができた.(3)脳の活動状態を推定してヒューマノイドを動作させる場合,現在の計測技術では分解能がまだ低いので,多種類の信号を発することはできない.ただし,上記(2)の信号を「上書き」するような緊急信号の発生に用いることは可能で,この方式は有用である.(4)脳の活動状態の推定法において,従来の推定法を特例として含むf-ICAを,理論的に,そしてソフトウェアとして開発した.この方法は脳信号の推定に限るものではなく,広く一般の情報源に適用可能なものである.その実例としてはディジタル画像やDNA配列があり,これらに対する成果も併せて発表した

  • 自己組織化・適応可能な分散システム

     概要を見る

    持続可能な分散システムを実現する方法として生物的メタファーに基づく分散システムの新しい自律的管理・耐故障手法を提案する。分散システムはその規模・複雑性ともに拡大しており、集中的なシステム管理手法はもちろんのこと、従来の分散管理手法も、動的に構成が変化する分散システムには対応できない。この研究課題では生物的なメタファーを導入し、(1)分散システムを振動系としてとらえる、(2)細胞分化のように機能適応する機構を導入する

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特定課題研究

  • アンビエント意思決定支援システム

    2011年  

     概要を見る

    我々の住む実世界を拡張するための様々な情報技術が開発されている.我々は,拡張現実技術を用いて実世界を拡張するための手法を開発し,その有効性を示すサービスの開発をおこなった.技術の背景は,実世界から情報を抽出するセンサー技術の発展である.様々なセンサーの発展により実世界で人々がどのように行動しているかを把握することが容易になり,その情報を利用して,サービスが状況に依存することが可能となった.また,プロジェクターや3次元CG技術はリアリティのある情報表現を可能とする.今年度の研究では,我々は3つの新しいサービスの構築をおこなった.1つ目は,Virtual Aquariumである.このシステムは,人間の日々の歯磨きの行動を支援する.心理学的な手法を用いて,現在の歯磨きの状態をリアルタイムにユーザにフィードバックする.これにより,ユーザは自分の現在の行動が望ましい物か,望ましくない物かを意識し,それにより行動を改変することになる.2つ目は, Augmented Goである.このシステムでは,現在の碁の対戦を碁盤をカメラでリアルタイムに認識することにより,次の手へのヒントを提供する.これは,意思決定を支援するための基本的な基盤を拡張現実技術が実現出来ることを示している.3つ目のシステムは,Augmented Trading Card Gameである.このシステムは遠隔地で対戦するプレーヤが対戦相手を仮想キャラクターとして表現することにより,プライバシーを改善する.以上のシステムの最も重要な点は,計算機を利用した仮想化を促進するのではなく,人間が使い慣れた物理的な物を拡張することで,リアリティを失わない用にすることである.実際に我々が開発したシステムのユーザ評価を行った結果では,物理的な感触はリアリティを失うことで使っているユーザの興味を失わない用にするために非常に重要であることがわかった.成果は3つの国際会議において論文発表をおこなった.それぞれの会議で,今年度の研究成果の有効性を伝えることができた.

海外研究活動

  • 次世代組込みシステムに関する研究

    2005年09月
    -
    2005年10月

    フィンランド   ヘルシンキ大学

    フィンランド   ノキア研究センター

 

現在担当している科目

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