Updated on 2022/06/29

写真a

 
KATTO, Jiro
 
Affiliation
Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Fundamental Science and Engineering
Job title
Professor

Concurrent Post

  • Faculty of Science and Engineering   Graduate School of Fundamental Science and Engineering

  • Affiliated organization   Global Education Center

Research Institute

  • 2021
    -
    2022

    データ科学センター   兼任センター員

  • 2020
    -
    2022

    国際情報通信研究センター   兼任研究員

  • 2020
    -
    2022

    理工学術院総合研究所   兼任研究員

Degree

  • Ph.D

Research Experience

  • 2008
    -
     

    Waseda University   School of Fundamental Science and Engineering

  • 2004
    -
    2008

    Professor, Waseda University

  • 2004
    -
    2008

    Director, NEDO

  • 1999
    -
    2004

    Associate Professor, Waseda University

  • 1992
    -
    1999

    Researcher, NEC C&C Laboratories

  • 1996
    -
    1997

    Visiting Scholar, Princeton University

▼display all

Professional Memberships

  •  
     
     

    ACM

  •  
     
     

    IEEE

  •  
     
     

    画像電子学会

  •  
     
     

    映像情報メディア学会

  •  
     
     

    情報処理学会

  •  
     
     

    電子情報通信学会

▼display all

 

Research Areas

  • Computer system

  • Communication and network engineering

Research Interests

  • Multimedia Signal Processing

  • Computer Networks

Papers

  • A containerized task clustering for scheduling workflows to utilize processors and containers on clouds

    Hidehiro Kanemitsu, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto, Hidenori Nakazato

    Journal of Supercomputing   77 ( 11 ) 12879 - 12923  2021.11

     View Summary

    Recent advancements of virtualization technologies for parallel processing involve scheduling containerized tasks in a workflow. Since a container can include multiple tasks, it can be reused or shared among applications. If every task in a workflow uses its dedicated container without sharing among any tasks, each container image must be downloaded for each task. As a result, many computational resources are required to process and the communication latency related to container image downloading can become a bottleneck for the makespan. In task scheduling algorithms for workflows, this characteristic produces a new challenging issue that how effectively shares containers among tasks to avoid redundant container image download processes and redundant task allocations. One of the fundamental problems is that no policy has been established for simultaneously satisfying effective container sharing, maintaining the degree of task parallelism, and effective computational resource utilization. In this paper, we propose a clustering-based containerized task scheduling algorithm for clouds, namely, shareable functional task clustering for utilizing virtualized resources (SF-CUV). The objective of SF-CUV is to minimize the makespan with less computational resources and containers than other algorithms by clustering tasks and sharing each container among tasks. SF-CUV consists of two phases: (i)task clustering and pre-virtual CPU (vCPU) allocation phase to derive an accurate scheduling priority, and (ii)task ordering and actual task reallocation phase. Experimental results obtained via simulation and in a real environment show that SF-CUV can utilize both vCPUs and containers with a shorter makespan compared with other approaches.

    DOI

  • ViT-GAN: Using Vision Transformer as Discriminator with Adaptive Data Augmentation

    Shota Hirose, Naoki Wada, Jiro Katto, Heming Sun

    2021 3rd International Conference on Computer Communication and the Internet, ICCCI 2021     185 - 189  2021.06

     View Summary

    These days, attention is thought to be an efficient way to recognize an image. Vision Transformer (ViT) uses a Transformer for images and has very high performance in image recognition. ViT has fewer parameters than Big Transfer (BiT) and Noisy Student. Therefore, we consider that Self-Attention-based networks are slimmer than convolution-based networks. We use a ViT as a Discriminator in a Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) to get the same performance with a smaller model. We name it ViT-GAN. Besides, we find parameter sharing is very useful to make parameter-efficient ViT. However, the performances of ViT heavily depend on the number of data samples. Therefore, we propose a new method of Data Augmentation. Our Data Augmentation, in which the strength of Data Augmentation varies adaptively, helps ViT for faster convergence and better performance. With our Data Augmentation, we show ViT-based discriminator can achieve almost the same FID but the number of the parameters of the discriminator is 35% fewer than the original discriminator.

    DOI

  • High-QoE DASH Live Streaming Using Reinforcement Learning

    Bo Wei, Hang Song, Jiro Katto

    2021 IEEE/ACM 29th International Symposium on Quality of Service, IWQOS 2021    2021.06

     View Summary

    With the live video streaming becomes more and more common in daily life such as live meeting and live video call, it is an urgent task to ensure high-quality and low-delay live video streaming service. High user quality of experience (QoE) should be ensured to satisfy the requirement of user, for which latency is one of the important factors. In this paper, a high-QoE live streaming method is proposed with reinforcement learning. Experiments are conducted to evaluate the proposed method. Results demonstrate that the proposal shows the best performance with highest QoE compared with conventional methods in three network conditions. In Ferry case, the QoE is almost twice of the QoE of other methods.

    DOI

  • Learned Image Compression with Fixed-point Arithmetic

    Heming Sun, Lu Yu, Jiro Katto

    2021 Picture Coding Symposium, PCS 2021 - Proceedings    2021.06

     View Summary

    Learned image compression (LIC) has achieved superior coding performance than traditional image compression standards such as HEVC intra in terms of both PSNR and MS-SSIM. However, most LIC frameworks are based on floating-point arithmetic which has two potential problems. First is that using traditional 32-bit floating-point will consume huge memory and computational cost. Second is that the decoding might fail because of the floating-point error coming from different encoding/decoding platforms. To solve the above two problems. 1) We linearly quantize the weight in the main path to 8-bit fixed-point arithmetic, and propose a fine tuning scheme to reduce the coding loss caused by the quantization. Analysis transform and synthesis transform are fine tuned layer by layer. 2) We exploit look-up-table (LUT) for the cumulative distribution function (CDF) to avoid the floating-point error. When the latent node follows non-zero mean Gaussian distribution, to share the CDF LUT for different mean values, we restrict the range of latent node to be within a certain range around mean. As a result, 8-bit weight quantization can achieve negligible coding gain loss compared with 32-bit floating-point anchor. In addition, proposed CDF LUT can ensure the correct coding at various CPU and GPU hardware platforms.

    DOI

  • FRAB: A Flexible Relaxation Method for Fair, Stable, Efficient Multi-user DASH Video Streaming

    Bo Wei, Hang Song, Jiro Katto

    IEEE International Conference on Communications    2021.06

     View Summary

    Dynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP (DASH) has been widely adopted in modern video streaming services. In DASH, the core technique is adaptive bitrate (ABR) control which can adjust the requested video bitrate level according to the network conditions to tradeoff between video quality and rebuffering risk. It is a challenge for the ABR methods in the scenarios when multiple DASH streaming users compete over the network bottleneck. This paper proposes a client-side ABR control method, flexible relaxation assisted by buffer (FRAB), to achieve fair, stable and efficient video streaming among different users. The idea of FRAB is to relax the change of the video quality based on current buffer level, which can enhance the stability of video streaming. Meanwhile, by flexibly adjusting the relaxation, the efficiency and fairness among all users are improved. FRAB is evaluated in real experiments under three different network conditions and compared with conventional multi-user ABR algorithms. Results indicate FRAB has the best performance in fairness, which reduces the unfairness by a maximum of 69.5% under real-world measured network condition. It also improves the efficiency by 71.3% comparing with PANDA, and enhances the stability by 73.3% comparing with TFDASH. The experiment results demonstrated that the proposed method has superior performances in multi-user DASH video streaming.

    DOI

  • Deep Learning-based R-R Interval Estimation by Using Smartphone Sensors during Exercise

    Satomi Shirasaki, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto

    Digest of Technical Papers - IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics   2021-January  2021.01

     View Summary

    Recently, aging of the population and medical cost inflation are emerging as social issues to be solved. To address this problem, estimations of bioinformation based on Internet of Things (IoT) and machine learning get more attention to researchers. In this paper, in order to estimate R-R Interval (RRI) without using specialized and professional wearable devices, we propose a deep learning based RRI estimation method by using mainly smartphone sensors. For dataset, we collect ECG (for label), 3-axis acceleration, pressure, illuminance, GPS and temperature (for training data) under different exercise types (walking and running) by using a smartphone and smart clothing called hitoe. To construct a regression model, we adopt a dual stage attention-based RNN model. From the evaluation results, we confirm that the proposed method can estimate RRI and LF/HF with acceptable accuracy.

    DOI

  • IoT-centric service function chainingorchestration and its performance validation

    Hibiki Sekine, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto, Hidehiro Kanemitsu, Hidenori Nakazato

    2021 IEEE 18th Annual Consumer Communications and Networking Conference, CCNC 2021    2021.01

     View Summary

    In order to simplify deployment and management of IoT services, Network Function Virtualization (NFV) and Service Function Chaining (SFC) are promising solutions, and much researchers have conducted these topics. To enhance the reliability of former research efforts, in this paper, we propose an orchestration framework for IoT-centric SFC by using Docker and Kubernetes. The framework enables an automatic IoT service deployment by satisfying service requirements and computing and network resource constraints. In such deployment, we apply a Virtual Network Function (VNF)/Service Function (SF) placement problem to achieve efficient utilization of the resources. We set an objective function as minimizing both numbers of SF instances and communications and build a mathematical model based on Integer Linear Programming (ILP). To validate it, we implement a model for the framework and evaluate the performances by carrying out a numerical evaluation and a real experiment. From the evaluation results, we confirm that the proposed approach can reduce the number of SF placements and the number of communications among SF instances.

    DOI

  • Performance evaluations of channel estimation using deep-learning based super-resolution

    Daiki Maruyama, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto

    2021 IEEE 18th Annual Consumer Communications and Networking Conference, CCNC 2021    2021.01

     View Summary

    Thanks to breakthrough and evolution of deep learning in computer vision areas, adaptation of deep learning into communication systems are getting lots of attention to researchers. Recently, a channel estimation method by using a deep learning-based image super-resolution (SR) technique, namely ChannelNet, has been proposed. Inspired by this research, in this paper, we propose a deep SR based channel estimation method by applying more accurate deep learning-based SR network architecture, EDSR. In order to enhance intelligibility and reliability of deep SR based channel estimation methods, we evaluate the performance of several deep SR based channel estimation methods (SRCNN, ChannelNet and EDSR) by carrying out practical 5G simulations. From the evaluations, the results conclude that the deep SR based channel estimation methods can potentially improve accuracy of channel estimation and reduce BER characteristics.

    DOI

  • Accelerating convolutional neural network inference based on a reconfigurable sliced systolic array

    Yixuan Zeng, Heming Sun, Jiro Katto, Yibo Fan

    Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems   2021-May  2021

     View Summary

    Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have achieved great successes on many computer vision tasks, such as image recognition, video processing, and target detection. In recent years, many hardware designs have been devoted to accelerating CNN inference. In order to further speed up CNN inference and reduce data waste, this work proposed a reconfigurable sliced systolic array: 1) Depending on the number of network nodes in each layer, the slice mode could be dynamically configured to achieve high throughput and resource utilization. 2) To take full advantage of convolution reuse and weight reuse, this work designed a tile-column sliding (TCS) processing dataflow. 3) A four-stage for loop algorithm was employed, which divides the CNN calculation into several parts based on the input nodes and output nodes. The entire CNN inference is carried out using integer-only arithmetic originated from TensorLite. Experimental results prove that these strategies lead to significant improvement in inference performance and energy efficiency.

    DOI

  • Approximated reconfigurable transform architecture for VVC

    Yixuan Zeng, Heming Sun, Jiro Katto, Yibo Fan

    Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems   2021-May  2021

     View Summary

    As the demand for high-resolution videos grows, the next generation video coding standard Versatile Video Coding introduces many new proposals, including Adaptive Multiple Transforms (AMT), to improve coding efficiency. This paper presents a reconfigurable transform core for the VVC standard where the implementation of 1D DST-VII and DCT-VIII for all transform sizes are enabled. To offer a very low circuit complexity, a simple approximation strategy with a little coding performance loss is proposed. An 8×8 Processing Element (PE) array is employed as the core computational unit, where each PE can be configured dynamically based on the transform type. In addition, the transforms of larger sizes can be realized in the finite PE units with the Partitioned Matrix Multiplication (PMM) scheme. The experimental and synthesis results show that this design can save at least 29.1% area compared with other works in literature with the negligible degradation of video quality and a slight increase in the bit rate.

    DOI

  • Performance analysis of adaptive bitrate algorithms for multi-user DASH video streaming

    Bo Wei, Hang Song, Shangguang Wang, Jiro Katto

    IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC   2021-March  2021

     View Summary

    With the increasing video demand in daily network traffic, it is an urgent task to develop effective algorithms to facilitate high-quality content delivery service. Recently, numerous adaptive streaming algorithms have been proposed to improve the user perceived experience. However, these algorithms were mainly developed from the perspective of single user. There is not yet systematical evaluation and comparison of the bitrate adaptation methods for multi-user video streaming. Besides, the Quality of Experience (QoE) metrics were not unified. In this work, we propose a new mininet-based testbed framework which is able to conduct real-time video streaming emulation in various multi-user scenarios. Seven state-of-the-art adaptation methods are incorporated into the testbed. Meanwhile, ITU-T P.1203 model, the world's first standard for measuring QoE of HTTP adaptive streaming, is implemented to calculate the mean opinion scores of different methods. Using the developed testbed, the performance of current adaptation methods in multi-user network is analyzed and compared. A variety of experiments are carried out by changing the user number and network conditions, in which the QoE of different users are investigated. It is found that current algorithms perform inconsistently in various network scenarios. In the excessive user and limited bandwidth cases, machine learning and scheduling techniques show superiority in providing high and equal QoE for all users. While in the high-delay case, the buffer-based approaches show robust performance. Overall, the findings of this work give an insight for designing and choosing adaptive streaming strategies in different multi-user network conditions.

    DOI

  • Fully Neural Network Mode Based Intra Prediction of Variable Block Size

    Heming Sun, Lu Yu, Jiro Katto

    2020 IEEE International Conference on Visual Communications and Image Processing, VCIP 2020     21 - 24  2020.12

     View Summary

    Intra prediction is an essential component in the image coding. This paper gives an intra prediction framework completely based on neural network modes (NM). Each NM can be regarded as a regression from the neighboring reference blocks to the current coding block. (1) For variable block size, we utilize different network structures. For small blocks 4×4 and 8×8, fully connected networks are used, while for large blocks 16×16 and 32×32, convolutional neural networks are exploited. (2) For each prediction mode, we develop a specific pre-trained network to boost the regression accuracy. When integrating into HEVC test model, we can save 3.55%, 3.03% and 3.27% BD-rate for Y, U, V components compared with the anchor. As far as we know, this is the first work to explore a fully NM based framework for intra prediction, and we reach a better coding gain with a lower complexity compared with the previous work.

    DOI

  • Enhanced Intra Prediction for Video Coding by Using Multiple Neural Networks

    Heming Sun, Zhengxue Cheng, Masaru Takeuchi, Jiro Katto

    IEEE Transactions on Multimedia   22 ( 11 ) 2764 - 2779  2020.11

     View Summary

    This paper enhances the intra prediction by using multiple neural network modes (NM). Each NM serves as an end-To-end mapping from the neighboring reference blocks to the current coding block. For the provided NMs, we present two schemes (appending and substitution) to integrate the NMs with the traditional modes (TM) defined in high efficiency video coding (HEVC). For the appending scheme, each NM is corresponding to a certain range of TMs. The categorization of TMs is based on the expected prediction errors. After determining the relevant TMs for each NM, we present a probability-Aware mode signaling scheme. The NMs with higher probabilities to be the best mode are signaled with fewer bits. For the substitution scheme, we propose to replace the highest and lowest probable TMs. New most probable mode (MPM) generation method is also employed when substituting the lowest probable TMs. Experimental results demonstrate that using multiple NMs will improve the coding efficiency apparently compared with the single NM. Specifically, proposed appending scheme with seven NMs can save 2.6%, 3.8%, and 3.1% BD-rate for Y, U, and V components compared with using single NM in the state-of-The-Art works.

    DOI

  • HEVC video coding with deep learning based frame interpolation

    Joi Shimizu, Zhengxue Cheng, Heming Sun, Masaru Takeuchi, Jiro Katto

    2020 IEEE 9th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics, GCCE 2020     433 - 434  2020.10

     View Summary

    Recent researches in video frame interpolation show great progress. In this paper, we propose a novel video compression method which incorporates deep learning based frame interpolation into HEVC which is the current video compression standard. Experimental results show that our approach can outperform HEVC in some scenarios.

    DOI

  • Road Crack Detection Using U-Net

    Naoki Wada, Kenji Kanai, Masaru Takeuchi, Jiro Katto

    2020 IEEE 9th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics, GCCE 2020     301 - 302  2020.10

     View Summary

    Recently, an efficient and automatic infrastructure maintenance service is mandatory. To address this demand, in this paper, we introduce a segmentation-based road damage detection method by using U-Net. To train the model, we collect 4K images by using a smartphone mounted on a bicycle and build our own road damage dataset. In addition, to improve detection accuracy, we apply focal loss and image patch for loss function and input image, respectively. From the evaluation, the result confirms that the method demonstrates to extract road damages with acceptable accuracy.

    DOI

  • Deep Pedestrian Distance Estimation from Single-shot Image

    Kazuki Murayama, Kenji Kanai, Masaru Takeuchi, Jiro Katto

    2020 IEEE 9th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics, GCCE 2020     276 - 277  2020.10

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a deep learning-based distance estimation method from a single-shot image. In the proposal, we model the estimation as a regression problem, and estimate the distance between a pedestrian and a camera by using three main features; size of bounding box, image blur and image features. By using KITTI dataset, we evaluate the accuracy of the proposed model.

    DOI

  • Accuracy evaluation of corridor width estimation using RGB-D camera

    Daiki Maruyama, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto

    2020 IEEE 9th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics, GCCE 2020     297 - 298  2020.10

     View Summary

    Recently, in order to build barrier-free smart cities, Japanese government is actively promoting to construct open data regarding roads and buildings, including existence of bumps, road slope and corridor width. To contribute this activity, in this paper, we introduce a corridor width estimation method by using an RGB-D camera. In this method, we assume that the RGB-D camera is mounted on the electric wheelchairs for a mobile sensing platform. The corridor width estimation is mainly operated by three steps: planes extraction, side walls extraction and distance calculation. We evaluate the accuracy of this method at eight corridors in Waseda University.

    DOI

  • Curb height estimation using 2DLiDAR mounted on e-bike

    Kento Yamamoto, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto

    2020 IEEE 9th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics, GCCE 2020     389 - 390  2020.10

     View Summary

    To contribute to publishing pedestrian networks as open data, this paper introduces a curb height estimation method by using 2DLiDAR mounted on e-Bike. We develop a prototype system by using e-Bike, 2DLiDAR and other sensors, and collect actual curb data around Waseda University. From accuracy evaluations, the results confirm that the prototype can estimate road level differences and positions with high accuracy.

    DOI

  • Reinforcement Learning Based Adaptive Video Streaming on Named Data Networking

    Suphakit Awiphan, Jakramate Bootkrajang, Jiro Katto

    2020 IEEE 9th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics, GCCE 2020     405 - 406  2020.10

     View Summary

    Under complex network conditions, adaptive video streaming requires additional state information for optimal quality selection. In this paper, we present the applicability of reinforcement learning techniques on NDN adaptive streaming. Both buffer-based and throughput-based adaptation are studied and observed their characteristics. The Q-learning algorithm is used to learn state-action values. Based on a greedy policy, the simulation results demonstrate that RL agents tend to choose the best possible bitrate which consequently reduces the quality fluctuation in adaptive streaming.

    DOI

  • End-To-End Learned Image Compression with Fixed Point Weight Quantization

    Heming Sun, Zhengxue Cheng, Masaru Takeuchi, Jiro Katto

    Proceedings - International Conference on Image Processing, ICIP   2020-October   3359 - 3363  2020.10

     View Summary

    Learned image compression (LIC) has reached the traditional hand-crafted methods such as JPEG2000 and BPG in terms of the coding gain. However, the large model size of the network prohibits the usage of LIC on resource-limited embedded systems. This paper presents a LIC with 8-bit fixed-point weights. First, we quantize the weights in groups and propose a non-linear memory-free codebook. Second, we explore the optimal grouping and quantization scheme. Finally, we develop a novel weight clipping fine tuning scheme. Experimental results illustrate that the coding loss caused by the quantization is small, while around 75% model size can be reduced compared with the 32-bit floating-point anchor. As far as we know, this is the first work to explore and evaluate the LIC fully with fixed-point weights, and our proposed quantized LIC is able to outperform BPG in terms of MS-SSIM.

    DOI

  • Scalable Learned Image Compression with A Recurrent Neural Networks-Based Hyperprior

    Rige Su, Zhengxue Cheng, Heming Sun, Jiro Katto

    Proceedings - International Conference on Image Processing, ICIP   2020-October   3369 - 3373  2020.10

     View Summary

    Recently learned image compression has achieved many great progresses, such as representative hyperprior and its variants based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs). However, CNNs are not fit for scalable coding and multiple models need to be trained separately to achieve variable rates. In this paper, we incorporate differentiable quantization and accurate entropy models into recurrent neural networks (RNNs) architectures to achieve a scalable learned image compression. First, we present an RNN architecture with quantization and entropy coding. To realize the scalable coding, we allocate the bits to multiple layers, by adjusting the layer-wise lambda values in Lagrangian multiplier-based rate-distortion optimization function. Second, we add an RNN-based hyperprior to improve the accuracy of entropy models for multiple-layer residual representations. Experimental results demonstrate that our performance can be comparable with recent CNN-based hyperprior methods on Kodak dataset. Besides, our method is a scalable and flexible coding approach, to achieve multiple rates using one single model, which is very appealing.

    DOI

  • A Pipelined 2D Transform Architecture Supporting Mixed Block Sizes for the VVC Standard

    Yibo Fan, Yixuan Zeng, Heming Sun, Jiro Katto, Xiaoyang Zeng

    IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology   30 ( 9 ) 3289 - 3295  2020.09

     View Summary

    For the next-generation video coding standard Versatile Video Coding (VVC), several new contributions have been proposed to improve the coding efficiency, especially in the transformation operations. This paper proposes a unified 32× 32 block-based transform architecture for the VVC standard that enables 2D Discrete Sine Transform-VII (DST-VII) and Discrete Cosine Transform-VIII (DCT-VIII) of all sizes. It mainly gives three contributions: 1) The N-Dimensional Reduced Adder Graph (RAG-n) algorithm is adopted to design the minimal adder-oriented computational units. 2) The storage of the asymmetric transform units can be realized in the dual-port SRAM-based transpose memory. 3) The pipelined 2D transformations of mixed block sizes are achieved with the throughput rate of 32 samples per cycle. The synthesis results indicate that this architecture can reduce area by up to 73.1% compared with other state-of-the-art works. Moreover, power saving ranging from 4.9% to 9.9% can be achieved. Regarding the transpose memory, at least 21.9% of the area can be saved by using SRAM.

    DOI

  • A learning-based low complexity in-loop filter for video coding

    Chao Liu, Heming Sun, Jiro Katto, Xiaoyang Zeng, Yibo Fan

    2020 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo Workshops, ICMEW 2020    2020.07

     View Summary

    With the continuous development of mobile devices, it becomes possible for people to demand higher definition videos. To alleviate the pressure of deploying the video codec in mobile multimedia, a learning-based low complexity in-loop filter is proposed in this paper. Depthwise separable convolution is combined with batch normalization to construct this model. To enhance its performance, the knowledge from a pre-trained teacher model is transferred to it. However, the over-smoothing problem in the inter frames caused by double enhancing effect remains. To solve this, a Wiener-based filtering algorithm that tries to restore the distortion from the learned residuals is designed and introduces an adequate filtering effect. The experimental results show that our proposed methods achieve considerable BD-rate reduction than HEVC anchor. Compared with the previous state-of-the-art work VR-CNN, our model achieves 1.65% extra BD-rate reduction, 79.1% decrease in FLOPs, 25% decrease in encoding complexity, and 70% decoding complexity decrease.

    DOI

  • An image compression framework with learning-based filter

    Heming Sun, Chao Liu, Jiro Katto, Yibo Fan

    IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops   2020-June   602 - 606  2020.06

     View Summary

    In this paper, a coding framework VIP-ICT-Codec is introduced. Our method is based on the VTM (Versatile Video Coding Test Model). First, we propose a color space conversion from RGB to YUV domain by using a PCA-like operation. A method for the PCA mean calculation is proposed to de-correlate the residual components of YUV channels. Besides, the correlation of UV components is compensated considering that they share the same coding tree in VVC. We also learn a residual mapping to alleviate the over-filtered and under-filtered problem of specific images. Finally, we regard the rate control as an unconstraint Lagrangian problem to reach the target bpp. The results show that we achieve 32.625dB at the validation phase.

    DOI

  • Low bitrate image compression with discretized gaussian mixture likelihoods

    Zhengxue Cheng, Heming Sun, Jiro Katto

    IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops   2020-June   543 - 546  2020.06

     View Summary

    In this paper, we provide a detailed description on our submitted method Kattolab to Workshop and Challenge on Learned Image Compression (CLIC) 2020. Our method mainly incorporates discretized Gaussian Mixture Likeli-hoods to previous state-of-the-art learned compression algorithms. Besides, we also describes the acceleration strategies and bit optimization with the low-rate constraint. Experimental results have demonstrated that our approach Kattolab achieves 0.9761 in terms of MS-SSIM at the rate constraint of 0.15 bpp during the validation phase.

    DOI

  • Learned Lossless Image Compression with A Hyperprior and Discretized Gaussian Mixture Likelihoods

    Zhengxue Cheng, Heming Sun, Masaru Takeuchi, Jiro Katto

    ICASSP, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing - Proceedings   2020-May   2158 - 2162  2020.05

     View Summary

    Lossless image compression is an important task in the field of multimedia communication. Traditional image codecs typically support lossless mode, such as WebP, JPEG2000, FLIF. Recently, deep learning based approaches have started to show the potential at this point. HyperPrior is an effective technique proposed for lossy image compression. This paper generalizes the hyperprior from lossy model to lossless compression, and proposes a L2-norm term into the loss function to speed up training procedure. Besides, this paper also investigated different parameterized models for latent codes, and propose to use Gaussian mixture likelihoods to achieve adaptive and flexible context models. Experimental results validate our method can outperform existing deep learning based lossless compression, and outperform the JPEG2000 and WebP for JPG images.

    DOI

  • Energy Compaction-Based Image Compression Using Convolutional AutoEncoder

    Zhengxue Cheng, Heming Sun, Masaru Takeuchi, Jiro Katto

    IEEE Transactions on Multimedia   22 ( 4 ) 860 - 873  2020.04

     View Summary

    Image compression has been an important research topic for many decades. Recently, deep learning has achieved great success in many computer vision tasks, and its use in image compression has gradually been increasing. In this paper, we present an energy compaction-based image compression architecture using a convolutional autoencoder (CAE) to achieve high coding efficiency. Our main contributions include three aspects: 1) we propose a CAE architecture for image compression by decomposing it into several down(up)sampling operations; 2) for our CAE architecture, we offer a mathematical analysis on the energy compaction property and we are the first work to propose a normalized coding gain metric in neural networks, which can act as a measurement of compression capability; 3) based on the coding gain metric, we propose an energy compaction-based bit allocation method, which adds a regularizer to the loss function during the training stage to help the CAE maximize the coding gain and achieve high compression efficiency. The experimental results demonstrate our proposed method outperforms BPG (HEVC-intra), in terms of the MS-SSIM quality metric. Additionally, we achieve better performance in comparison with existing bit allocation methods, and provide higher coding efficiency compared with state-of-the-art learning compression methods at high bit rates.

    DOI

  • CNN based optimal intra prediction mode estimation in video coding

    Ryota Yokoyama, Masahiko Tahara, Masaru Takeuchi, Heming Sun, Yasutaka Matsuo, Jiro Katto

    Digest of Technical Papers - IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics   2020-January  2020.01

     View Summary

    The amount of video data is so large that efficient video compression is required for the storage and transmission. Intra prediction is one of important components in video compression. In this paper, we examine various Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) structures to estimate optimal intra prediction mode as Most Probable Modes (MPMs). Moreover, we investigate several combinations of the MPMs obtained by the CNN and MPMs derived from High Efficiency Video Coding Test Model (HM). From these experimental results, we find that using 6 MPMs from both CNN and HM with moderate number of channels or kernel size is preferred.

    DOI

  • A Fast QTMT Partition Decision Strategy for VVC Intra Prediction

    Yibo Fan, Jun'An Chen, Heming Sun, Jiro Katto, Ming'E Jing

    IEEE Access   8   107900 - 107911  2020

     View Summary

    Different from the traditional quaternary tree (QT) structure utilized in the previous generation video coding standard H.265/HEVC, a brand new partition structure named quadtree with nested multi-type tree (QTMT) is applied in the latest codec H.266/VVC. The introduction of QTMT brings in superior encoding performance at the cost of great time-consuming. Therefore, a fast intra partition algorithm based on variance and Sobel operator is proposed in this paper. The proposed method settles the novel asymmetrical partition issue in VVC by well balancing the reduction of computational complexity and the loss of encoding quality. To be more concrete, we first terminate further splitting of a coding unit (CU) when the texture of it is judged as smooth. Then, we use Sobel operator to extract gradient features to decide whether to split this CU by QT, thus terminating further MT partitions. Finally, a completely novel method to choose only one partition from five QTMT partitions is applied. Obviously, homogeneous area tends to use a larger CU as a whole to do prediction while CUs with complicated texture are prone to be divided into small sub-CUs and these sub-CUs usually have different textures from each other. We calculate the variance of variance of each sub-CU to decide which partition will distinguish the sub-textures best. Our method is embedded into the latest VVC official reference software VTM-7.0. Comparing to anchor VTM-7.0, our method saves the encoding time by 49.27% on average at the cost of only 1.63% BDBR increase. As a traditional scheme based on variance and gradient to decrease the computational complexity in VVC intra coding, our method outperforms other relative existing state-of-the-art methods, including traditional machine learning and convolution neural network methods.

    DOI

  • Learned image compression with discretized gaussian mixture likelihoods and attention modules

    Zhengxue Cheng, Heming Sun, Masaru Takeuchi, Jiro Katto

    Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition     7936 - 7945  2020

     View Summary

    Image compression is a fundamental research field and many well-known compression standards have been developed for many decades. Recently, learned compression methods exhibit a fast development trend with promising results. However, there is still a performance gap between learned compression algorithms and reigning compression standards, especially in terms of widely used PSNR metric. In this paper, we explore the remaining redundancy of recent learned compression algorithms. We have found accurate entropy models for rate estimation largely affect the optimization of network parameters and thus affect the rate-distortion performance. Therefore, in this paper, we propose to use discretized Gaussian Mixture Likelihoods to parameterize the distributions of latent codes, which can achieve a more accurate and flexible entropy model. Besides, we take advantage of recent attention modules and incorporate them into network architecture to enhance the performance. Experimental results demonstrate our proposed method achieves a state-of-the-art performance compared to existing learned compression methods on both Kodak and high-resolution datasets. To our knowledge our approach is the first work to achieve comparable performance with latest compression standard Versatile Video Coding (VVC) regarding PSNR. More importantly, our approach generates more visually pleasant results when optimized by MS-SSIM.

    DOI

  • Accuracy evaluations of video anomaly detection using human pose estimation

    Kengo Ichihara, Masaru Takeuchi, Jiro Katto

    Digest of Technical Papers - IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics   2020-January  2020.01

     View Summary

    Surveillance cameras are commonly used for security purpose. However, most of them are used for verification after incidents happen. In this paper, we propose a method for proactive video surveillance system using human pose estimation. Our method estimates anomaly scores of human actions using the video descriptors (human pose and bounding box) extracted by pose estimation and tracking methods. We estimate human poses, apply PCA, estimate GMM parameters, and finally calculate anomaly scores based on the GMM. We evaluate our method and compare with higher-level recognition-based method. Experimental results demonstrate effectiveness of human pose for video anomaly detection.

    DOI

  • Video Alignment Using Bi-Directional Attention Flow in a Multi-Stage Learning Model

    Reham Abobeah, Amin Shoukry, Jiro Katto

    IEEE Access   8   18097 - 18109  2020

     View Summary

    Recently, deep learning techniques have contributed to solving a multitude of computer vision tasks. In this paper, we propose a deep-learning approach for video alignment, which involves finding the best correspondences between two overlapping videos. We formulate the video alignment task as a variant of the well-known machine comprehension (MC) task in natural language processing. While MC answers a question about a given paragraph, our technique determines the most relevant frame sequence in the context video to the query video. This is done by representing the individual frames of the two videos by highly discriminative and compact descriptors. Next, the descriptors are fed into a multi-stage network that is able, with the help of the bidirectional attention flow mechanism, to represent the context video at various granularity levels besides estimating the query-aware context part. The proposed model was trained on 10k video-pairs collected from 'YouTube'. The obtained results show that our model outperforms all known state of the art techniques by a considerable margin, confirming its efficacy.

    DOI

  • Fast QTMT Partition Decision Algorithm in VVC Intra Coding based on Variance and Gradient

    Junan Chen, Heming Sun, Jiro Katto, Xiaoyang Zeng, Yibo Fan

    2019 IEEE International Conference on Visual Communications and Image Processing, VCIP 2019    2019.12

     View Summary

    Quadtree with nested multi-Type tree (QTMT) partition structure in Versatile Video Coding (VVC) contributes to superior encoding performance compared to the basic quad-Tree (QT) structure in High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). However, the improvement of performance leads to an un-Avoidable increase of computational complexity. To achieve a balance between coding efficiency and compression quality, we propose a fast intra partition algorithm based on variance and gradient to solve the rectangular partition problem in VVC. First, further splitting of smooth areas is terminated. Then, QT partition is chosen depending on the gradient features extracted by Sobel operator. Finally, one partition from five possible QTMT partitions is directly chosen by computing the variance of variance of sub-CUs. The theoretical basis of our method is that a homogeneous area tends to be predicted with a larger coding unit (CU), and sub-parts of a split CU are prone to have different textures from each other. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to apply traditional method to accelerating the rectangular partition problem in VVC intra prediction. Experimental results show that the proposed method can save averagely 53.17% encoding time with only 1.62% BDBR increase and 0.09dB BDPSNR loss compared to anchor VTM4.0.

    DOI

  • Performance Evaluations of Viewport Movement Prediction and Rate Adaptation for Tile-Based 360-Degree Video Delivery

    Yuya Shinohara, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto

    Proceedings - 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Multimedia, ISM 2019     241 - 242  2019.12

     View Summary

    Recently, the demand for high quality 360-degree video delivery is increasing, however, 360-degree videos require extremely high bitrate and large network capacity. Therefore, an efficient (i.e., higher quality and lower traffic) 360-degree video delivery is mandatory. To address this fact, this paper introduces and evaluates a tile-based 360-degree video delivery system that equips viewport movement prediction and rate adaptation.

    DOI

  • Dual Learning-based Video Coding with Inception Dense Blocks

    Chao Liu, Heming Sun, Jun'An Chen, Zhengxue Cheng, Masaru Takeuchi, Jiro Katto, Xiaoyang Zeng, Yibo Fan

    2019 Picture Coding Symposium, PCS 2019    2019.11

     View Summary

    In this paper, a dual learning-based method in intra coding is introduced for PCS Grand Challenge. This method is mainly composed of two parts: intra prediction and reconstruction filtering. They use different network structures, the neural network-based intra prediction uses the full-connected network to predict the block while the neural network-based reconstruction filtering utilizes the convolutional networks. Different with the previous filtering works, we use a network with more powerful feature extraction capabilities in our reconstruction filtering network. And the filtering unit is the block-level so as to achieve a more accurate filtering compensation. To our best knowledge, among all the learning-based methods, this is the first attempt to combine two different networks in one application, and we achieve the state-of-the-art performance for AI configuration on the HEVC Test sequences. The experimental result shows that our method leads to significant BD-rate saving for provided 8 sequences compared to HM-16.20 baseline (average 10.24% and 3.57% bitrate reductions for all-intra and random-access coding, respectively). For HEVC test sequences, our model also achieved a 9.70% BD-rate saving compared to HM-16.20 baseline for allintra configuration.

    DOI

  • Road Infrastructure Monitoring System using E-Bikes and Its Extensions for Smart Community

    Jiro Katto, Masaru Takeuchi, Kenji Kanai, Heming Sun

    Proceedings of the Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, MOBICOM     43 - 44  2019.10

     View Summary

    In this paper, we present a road infrastructure monitoring system using e-bikes to support smart community. Smartphone and IoT (Internet of Things) devices are attached to e-bikes, and electric power is supplied from the batteries of e-bikes. Image processing techniques based on deep learning are applied and run on IoT devices or cloud backbone. A prototype system is implemented, which performs from image capturing to web browsing of the processed images.

    DOI

  • Proxy-assisted rate adaptation for 4K video streaming on named data networking

    Suphakit Awiphan, Kanin Poobai, Jiro Katto

    2019 IEEE 8th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics, GCCE 2019     181 - 183  2019.10

     View Summary

    Adaptive streaming on Named Data Networking appears to be a challenging task since the provider is unknown to the consumer. In this paper, we present an approach to efficiently adjust the streaming bit-rate by deploying IoT devices. Each NDN node is designed to send IoT devices the information of available bandwidth. The IoT devices then assist the consumers if the current network can deliver 4K video segments. The experiments using NDNx and NDN-JS show that the consumer in the proposed approach could select representation bit-rate more accurately than the traditional rate adaptation method.

    DOI

  • A Gamut-Extension Method Considering Color Information Restoration using Convolutional Neural Networks

    Masaru Takeuchi, Yusuke Sakamoto, Ryota Yokoyama, Heming Sun, Yasutaka Matsuo, Jiro Katto

    Proceedings - International Conference on Image Processing, ICIP   2019-September   774 - 778  2019.09

     View Summary

    Recently, Ultra HDTV (UHDTV) services become popular over satellite and on the internet. On the contrary, there are tremendously huge volume of High Definition Television (HDTV) and Standard Definition Television (SDTV) contents stored in broadcasting companies and storage devices. In this paper, we propose a color space conversion (also known as gamut mapping) method from BT. 709 (used for current HDTV broadcast) to BT. 2020 (used for UHDTV broadcast), which estimates and restores lost color information. It learns an end-to-end conversion method from BT. 709 image to BT. 2020 image with restoring lost color information using Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). By experiments, we confirm that our method can achieve 2.31dB gain against the conventional method on average.

    DOI

  • A Minimal Adder-oriented 1D DST-VII/DCT-VIII Hardware Implementation for VVC Standard

    Fan Yibo, Katto Jiro, Sun Heming, Zeng Xiaoyang, Zeng Yixuan

    International System on Chip Conference   2019-September   176 - 180  2019.09

     View Summary

    Intelligent sensing is an important application field of video coding. For the next generation video coding standard Versatile Video Coding (VVC), several new contributions have been proposed to improve the coding efficiency, especially in the transformation operations. This paper proposes a unified transform architecture for VVC standard that enables 1D Discrete Sine Transform-VII (DST-VII) and Discrete Cosine Transform-VIII (DCT-VIII) of all sizes. In order to minimize the number of adders, the N-Dimensional Reduced Adder Graph (RAG-n) algorithm is adopted to design the logical computation of the VVC transforms. In addition, a pipeline operation is employed to achieve a high throughput rate of 32 samples per cycle. The experimental and synthesis results show that our proposal can save 16.96% area and 9.89% power consumption than the direct implementation by the multipliers. Moreover, this design can reduce the normalized area (NA) by at least 57.53% compared with other advanced works.

    DOI

  • A function clustering algorithm for resource utilization in service function chaining

    Hidehiro Kanemitsu, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto, Hidenori Nakazato

    IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing, CLOUD   2019-July   193 - 195  2019.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Abstract-Virtualized service and network functions are deployed on virtual machines (VMs) to realize essential processing to realize service function chaining (SFC). Issues on SFC is SF allocation to a VM and to minimize the response time and number of function instances. In this paper, we propose an SF clustering-based scheduling algorithm, called 'SF-clustering for utilizing virtual CPUs' (SFCUV), to solve the SF allocation and SF selection problems simultaneously. Experimental results show that SF-CUV can utilize vCPUs to minimize the response time.

    DOI

  • Performance evaluations of iot device virtualization for efficient resource utilization

    Keigo Ogawa, Hibiki Sekine, Kenji Kanai, Kenichi Nakamura, Hidehiro Kanemitsu, Jiro Katto, Hidenori Nakazato

    Global IoT Summit, GIoTS 2019 - Proceedings    2019.06

     View Summary

    To develop and interoperate smart city applications efficiently, smart city IoT platforms require efficient handling of various types of sensor devices, networking and computing resources, and different domain applications. To address this fact, the authors of this paper proposed a research project named 'Fed4IoT', which is an acronym for federation of IoT and cloud infrastructures, to provide scalable and interoperable smart city applications. The project primarily proposes two key technologies: IoT device virtualization and context-information sharing. In this paper, we introduce the IoT device virtualization (one of key technology in Fed4IoT) that enables efficient utilization of networking and computing resources by applying a micro-service sharing and dynamic resource scaling. In the performance evaluations, we implement three micro services, such as object detection, garbage detection and road damage detection, as smart city applications and dynamically and flexibly allocate computing resources to three micro services by using Docker and Kubernetes. Through the evaluations we validate that the proposed IoT device virtualization achieves the efficient computing resource utilization and reduction of networking resources.

    DOI

  • Performance Evaluations of Tile-based 360-degree DASH Streaming with Clustering-based Viewport Prediction

    Yuya Shinohara, Satomi Shirasaki, Yiyan Wu, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto

    2019 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics - Taiwan, ICCE-TW 2019    2019.05

     View Summary

    Recently, the demand for immersive VR (360-degree) video delivery is increasing, and an efficient (high quality and low traffic) 360-degree video streaming methodology is mandatory. To address this fact, in this paper, we introduce a tile-based 360-degree DASH streaming with viewport prediction. We evaluate the prediction accuracy of future viewport movement patterns by using clustering and image and audio information. In addition, we perform rate adaptation based on viewport prediction results. Through evaluations, we confirm the tile-based 360-degree DASH streaming achieves higher objective image quality and lower total video traffic volume.

    DOI

  • Performance Evaluations of IEEE 802.11ad and Human Pose Detection towards Intelligent Video Surveillance System

    Mayuko Okano, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto

    2019 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics - Taiwan, ICCE-TW 2019    2019.05

     View Summary

    Towards an intelligent video surveillance system (high throughput and high detection accuracy), in this paper, we quantitatively validate the network performance of 60GHz IEEE 802.11ad and the contribution of 4K resolution to image-based human pose detection. In the performance evaluation of 11ad, we evaluate TCP throughputs by changing the communication distances (up-to 6m). In the performance evaluation of human pose detection, we evaluate the detection accuracy of human pose detection by changing a distance between a camera and a subject (up-to 100 m) and input image resolutions.

    DOI

  • TCP throughput characteristics over 5G millimeterwave network in indoor train station

    Mayuko Okano, Yohei Hasegawa, Kenji Kanai, Bo Wei, Jiro Katto

    IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC   2019-April  2019.04

     View Summary

    To realize highly reliable video surveillance and provide ultrahigh-definition/immersive video streaming, it is planned to adopt the 5G cellular system using millimeter-wave (mmWave) as the wireless-network infrastructure. However, mmWave communication has a challenging issue: mmWave communication is extremely sensitive to obstacles, such as walls, pillars, and even human bodies, and this issue easily increases the packet loss rates and round trip time (RTT) (or disconnection from the base station) due to a no line of sight (NLOS) environment. Therefore, in this work, 5G throughput performances were evaluates in an indoor train station by considering the effect of an NLOS environment caused by blockage by human bodies. In addition, to improve the robustness of TCP transmission in a high-RTT and high-packet-loss environment (e.g., an NLOS environment), a state-of-the-art TCP, TCP-FSO, was used. In the evaluations, the MATLAB 5G library was used to simulate the 5G environment, and a Linux software-based network emulator, Traffic Control, was used to emulate the 5G network. From the evaluations, it the 5G mobile throughput characteristics were confirmed in three different crowded patterns (low, middle, and high density), and the TCP-FSO advantage against CUBIC-TCP was validated.

    DOI

  • A highly accurate transportation mode recognition using mobile communication quality

    Wataru Kawakami, Kenji Kanai, Bo Wei, Jiro Katto

    IEICE Transactions on Communications   E102B ( 4 ) 741 - 750  2019.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    To recognize transportation modes without any additional sensor devices, we demonstrate that the transportation modes can be recognized from communication quality factors. In the demonstration, instead of using global positioning system (GPS) and accelerometer sensors, we collect mobile TCP throughputs, received-signal strength indicators (RSSIs), and cellular base-station IDs (Cell IDs) through in-line network measurement when the user enjoys mobile services, such as video streaming. In accuracy evaluations, we conduct two different field experiments to collect the data in six typical transportation modes (static, walking, riding a bicycle, riding a bus, riding a train and riding a subway), and then construct the classifiers by applying a support-vector machine (SVM), k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), random forest (RF), and convolutional neural network (CNN). Our results show that these transportation modes can be recognized with high accuracy by using communication quality factors as well as the use of accelerometer sensors.

    DOI

  • Improvement of H.265/HEVC Encoding for 8K UHDTV by GOP Size and Prediction Mode Selection

    Yusuke Sakamoto, Ryota Yokoyama, Masaru Takeuchi, Yasutaka Matsuo, Jiro Katto

    2019 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics, ICCE 2019    2019.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    New video coding standards bring high coding efficiency at the cost of large computational complexity. Especially, in 8K sequence, computation cost becomes much larger due to its super high spatial resolution. In this paper, we propose a method to improve 8K UHDTV coding performance of H.265/HEVC. Our proposed method pre-analyzes spatial and motion complexity, and selects an optimal GOP size or intra/inter prediction mode. Experimental results suggest that the proposed method can improve coding efficiency and reduce computational cost.

    DOI

  • Convolutional Neural Network based Inverse Tone Mapping for High Dynamic Range Display using LUCORE

    Katsuhiko Hirao, Zhengxue Cheng, Masaru Takeuchi, Jiro Katto

    2019 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics, ICCE 2019    2019.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The popularity of high dynamic range (HDR) makes the inverse tone mapping become an important technique for HDR display. In this paper, we propose a convolutional neural network (CNN)-based inverse tone mapping method to generate a high-quality HDR image from one single standard dynamic range (SDR) image. First, we present a CNN design with a three- channel input, which considers both luminance and chrominance. Second, we propose to use overlapped inputs to remove the boundary artifacts, caused by zero paddings in CNN. Experimental results demonstrate the high quality of our generated HDR images compared to the ground truth.

    DOI

  • Accuracy evaluations of contact-free heart rate measurement mehods using 4K facial images

    Masaki Yasumaru, Zhengxue Cheng, Ryota Yoloyama, Kenji Knai, Jiro Katto

    2019 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics, ICCE 2019    2019.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Recently, with the spread of Internet of Things (IoT), video surveillance system is widely used to detect abnormal activity using cameras and sensors. In such video surveillance system, contact-free heart rate measurement is a highly required technology to predict the occurrence of abnormal activities and suspicious humans. In this paper, our main contributions can be summarized by two aspects. First, we compare the accuracy performance of heart rate measurement using six heart beat waveform acquisition methods and two heart rate calculation methods. Second, we discuss the influence of image resolutions of RGB cameras on accurate performance, to investigate the requirement of surveillance cameras in actual scenarios.

    DOI

  • IoT Device Virtualization for Efficient Resource Utilization in Smart City IoT Platform

    Keigo Ogawa, Kenji Kanai, Kenichi Nakamura, Hidehiro Kanemitsu, Jiro Katto, Hidenori Nakazato

    2019 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops, PerCom Workshops 2019     419 - 422  2019.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    To develop and interoperate smart city applications efficiently, smart city IoT platforms require efficient handling of various types of sensor devices, networking and computing resources, and different domain applications. To address this fact, in this paper, we introduce an IoT device virtualization that enables efficient utilization of computing resources. The proposal applies a micro-service sharing and dynamic resource scaling. In the performance validations, we implement an early prototype using Docker, Kubernetes, and Apache Kafka. Through the preliminary experiment, we confirm that the proposal can improve the application processing time by appropriately sharing and scaling micro services.

    DOI

  • Light-weight video coding based on perceptual video quality for live streaming

    Yusuke Sakamoto, Shintaro Saika, Masaru Takeuchi, Tatsuya Nagashima, Zhengxue Cheng, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto, Kaijin Wei, Ju Zengwei, Xu Wei

    Proceedings - 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Multimedia, ISM 2018     139 - 142  2019.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In video streaming on the internet, effective encoding recipes (i.e. bitrate-resolution pairs) are a main obstacle to deliver high-quality video streams. We developed a method to generate an encoding recipe that considers subjective visual quality with one just-noticeable difference (JND) distance. However, this method requires excessive computation time, which is not directly applicable for live streaming. In this paper, in order to provide a light-weight method for live streaming, we developed three acceleration techniques: resolution extrapolation, VMAF skipping and sampled objective measure calculation. These techniques are heuristic, but greatly contribute to reducing computational cost. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves a significant reduction in computation time without significant effects on rate-JND characteristics.

    DOI

  • Gamut-Extension Methods Considering Color Information Restoration

    Masaru Takeuchi, Yusuke Sakamoto, Ryota Yokoyama, Heming Sun, Yasutaka Matsuo, Jiro Katto

    IEEE Access   7   80146 - 80158  2019  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Recently, ultra high definition television (UHDTV) services have become popular using satellites and the Internet. However, there are expansive volumes of high definition television (HDTV) and standard definition television (SDTV) contents held by broadcasting companies and in storage devices. Herein we propose two color space conversion (also known as gamut mapping) methods from BT.709 (used for current HDTV broadcast) to BT.2020 (used for UHDTV broadcast) that restore or estimate lost color information. One of our methods anisotropically diffuses the BT.709 chromaticities with regard to the direction of the original chromaticities in the BT.2020 color space, generating chromaticities out of BT.709 gamut. The other learns an end-to-end conversion method from a BT.709 image to a BT.2020 image and restores lost color information using convolutional neural network (CNN). Using these methods along with BT.709 images, we obtain BT.2020 images with chromaticities from the BT.709 color gamut.

    DOI

  • Evaluation of throughput prediction for adaptive bitrate control using trace-based emulation

    Bo Wei, Hang Song, Shangguang Wang, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto

    IEEE Access   7   51346 - 51356  2019  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Dynamic adaptive video streaming over HTTP (DASH) is widely studied and has been adopted in modern video players to ensure user quality of experience (QoE). In DASH, adaptive bitrate control is a key part whose ultimate goal is to maximize video bitrate while minimizing rebuffering. Throughput prediction plays an important role in helping select the proper video bitrate dynamically. In this paper, we studied the influence of throughput prediction on adaptive video streaming. Because the real-world network is dynamic, different methods need to be tested with large-scale deployments and analyzed statistically. However, this is difficult in academic research. Therefore, we established a reproducible trace-based emulation environment, which enables us to compare different methods quantitatively under the artificially same condition, with limited experiments. The throughput prediction methods are implemented into DASH to evaluate the effect on QoE for video streaming. The results indicate that the prediction method using long short-term memory (LSTM) performs better than the other methods. However, throughput prediction alone is not enough to ensure high QoE. To further improve the QoE, we proposed the decision map method (DMM), where the buffer occupancy is also incorporated to make a selection. By using this decision map, the choice of bitrate can be smarter than that when only prediction information is used. The total QoE is further improved by 32.1% in the ferry trace, which shows the effectiveness of DMM in further improving the performance of throughput prediction in adaptive bitrate control.

    DOI

  • Bi-directional attention flow for video alignment

    Reham Abobeah, Marwan Torki, Amin Shoukry, Jiro Katto

    VISIGRAPP 2019 - Proceedings of the 14th International Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications   5   583 - 589  2019  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this paper, a novel technique is introduced to address the video alignment task which is one of the hot topics in computer vision. Specifically, we aim at finding the best possible correspondences between two overlapping videos without the restrictions imposed by previous techniques. The novelty of this work is that the video alignment problem is solved by drawing an analogy between it and the machine comprehension (MC) task in natural language processing (NLP). Simply, MC seeks to give the best answer to a question about a given paragraph. In our work, one of the two videos is considered as a query, while the other as a context. First, a pre-trained CNN is used to obtain high-level features from the frames of both the query and context videos. Then, the bidirectional attention flow mechanism; that has achieved considerable success in MC; is used to compute the query-context interactions in order to find the best mapping between the two input videos. The proposed model has been trained using 10k of collected video pairs from”YouTube”. The initial experimental results show that it is a promising solution for the video alignment task when compared to the state of the art techniques.

  • Proactive Interest Adaptation and Content Caching for Adaptive Bit-Rate Video Streaming over NDN

    Suphakit Awiphan, Kanin Poobai, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto

    2018 3rd International Conference on Computer and Communication Systems, ICCCS 2018     187 - 191  2018.09

     View Summary

    Named Data Networking (NDN) has been recently introduced as a new network architecture. The implementation of adaptive bit-rate video streaming on NDN is one of the most challenging tasks. The in-network caching feature of NDN could mislead a consumer to overestimate the end-to-end throughput for the next video segment. In this paper, we propose a strategy for more efficient rate adaptation by allowing Interest message adaptation in a hop-by-hop fashion. Moreover, the proactive content caching is designed to be utilized on the related router when a bottleneck on the transmission path was detected. The experiments using NDN-JS and DASH-JS demonstrate that our proposed solution provides better average stream bit-rate than the traditional rate adaptation method. Also, the link bandwidth consumption for video data transmission using the proposed scheme could be reduced efficiently.

    DOI

  • Perceptual Quality Driven Adaptive Video Coding Using JND Estimation

    Masaru Takeuchi, Shintaro Saika, Yusuke Sakamoto, Tatsuya Nagashima, Zhengxue Cheng, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto, Kaijin Wei, Ju Zengwei, Xu Wei

    2018 Picture Coding Symposium, PCS 2018 - Proceedings     179 - 183  2018.09

     View Summary

    We introduce a perceptual video quality driven video encoding solution for optimized adaptive streaming. By using multiple bitrate/resolution encoding like MPEG-DASH, video streaming services can deliver the best video stream to a client, under the conditions of the client's available bandwidth and viewing device capability. However, conventional fixed encoding recipes (i.e., resolution-bitrate pairs) suffer from many problems, such as improper resolution selection and stream redundancy. To avoid these problems, we propose a novel video coding method, which generates multiple representations with constant JustNoticeable Difference (JND) interval. For this purpose, we developed a JND scale estimator using Support Vector Regression (SVR), and designed a pre-encoder which outputs an encoding recipe with constant JND interval in an adaptive manner to input video.

    DOI

  • Deep Convolutional AutoEncoder-based Lossy Image Compression

    Zhengxue Cheng, Heming Sun, Masaru Takeuchi, Jiro Katto

    2018 Picture Coding Symposium, PCS 2018 - Proceedings     253 - 257  2018.09

     View Summary

    Image compression has been investigated as a fundamental research topic for many decades. Recently, deep learning has achieved great success in many computer vision tasks, and is gradually being used in image compression. In this paper, we present a lossy image compression architecture, which utilizes the advantages of convolutional autoencoder (CAE) to achieve a high coding efficiency. First, we design a novel CAE architecture to replace the conventional transforms and train this CAE using a rate-distortion loss function. Second, to generate a more energy-compact representation, we utilize the principal components analysis (PCA) to rotate the feature maps produced by the CAE, and then apply the quantization and entropy coder to generate the codes. Experimental results demonstrate that our method outperforms traditional image coding algorithms, by achieving a 13.7% BD-rate decrement on the Kodak database images compared to JPEG2000. Besides, our method maintains a moderate complexity similar to JPEG2000.

    DOI

  • A fully-blind and fast image quality predictor with convolutional neural networks

    Zhengxue Cheng, Masaru Takeuchi, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto

    IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   E101A ( 9 ) 1557 - 1566  2018.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Image quality assessment (IQA) is an inherent problem in the field of image processing. Recently, deep learning-based image quality assessment has attracted increased attention, owing to its high prediction accuracy. In this paper, we propose a fully-blind and fast image quality predictor (FFIQP) using convolutional neural networks including two strategies. First, we propose a distortion clustering strategy based on the distribution function of intermediate-layer results in the convolutional neural network (CNN) to make IQA fully blind. Second, by analyzing the relationship between image saliency information and CNN prediction error, we utilize a pre-saliency map to skip the non-salient patches for IQA acceleration. Experimental results verify that our method can achieve the high accuracy (0.978) with subjective quality scores, outperforming existing IQA methods. Moreover, the proposed method is highly computationally appealing, achieving flexible complexity performance by assigning different thresholds in the saliency map.

    DOI

  • Energy-efficient mobile video delivery utilizing moving route navigation and video playout buffer control

    Kenji Kanai, Sakiko Takenaka, Jiro Katto, Tutomu Murase

    IEICE Transactions on Communications   E101B ( 7 ) 1635 - 1644  2018.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Because mobile users demand a high quality and energyfriendly video delivery service that efficiently uses wireless resources, we introduce an energy-efficient video delivery system by applying moving route navigation and playout buffer control based on the mobile throughput history data. The proposed system first determines the optimal travel route to achieve high-speed and energy-efficient communications. Then when a user enters a high throughput area, our system temporarily extends the video playout buffer size, and the user aggressively downloads video segments via a high-speed and energy-efficient wireless connection until the extended buffer is filled. After leaving this area, the user consumes video segments from the extended buffer in order to keep smooth video playback without wireless communications. We carry out computer simulations, laboratory and field experiments and confirm that the proposed system can achieve energy-efficient mobile video delivery.

    DOI

  • HOAH: A hybrid TCP throughput prediction with Autoregressive Model and Hidden Markov Model for mobile networks

    Bo Wei, Kenji Kanai, Wataru Kawakami, Jiro Katto

    IEICE Transactions on Communications   E101B ( 7 ) 1612 - 1624  2018.07

     View Summary

    Throughput prediction is one of the promising techniques to improve the quality of service (QoS) and quality of experience (QoE) of mobile applications. To address the problem of predicting future throughput distribution accurately during the whole session, which can exhibit large throughput fluctuations in different scenarios (especially scenarios of moving user), we propose a history-based throughput prediction method that utilizes time series analysis and machine learning techniques for mobile network communication. This method is called the Hybrid Prediction with the Autoregressive Model and Hidden Markov Model (HOAH). Different from existing methods, HOAH uses Support Vector Machine (SVM) to classify the throughput transition into two classes, and predicts the transmission control protocol (TCP) throughput by switching between the Autoregressive Model (AR Model) and the Gaussian Mixture Model-Hidden Markov Model (GMM-HMM). We conduct field experiments to evaluate the proposed method in seven different scenarios. The results show that HOAH can predict future throughput effectively and decreases the prediction error by a maximum of 55.95% compared with other methods.

    DOI

  • Performance Comparison of Convolutional AutoEncoders, Generative Adversarial Networks and Super-Resolution for Image Compression

    Zhengxue Cheng, Heming Sun, Masaru Takeuchi, Jiro Katto

       2018.07

     View Summary

    Image compression has been investigated for many decades. Recently, deep<br />
    learning approaches have achieved a great success in many computer vision<br />
    tasks, and are gradually used in image compression. In this paper, we develop<br />
    three overall compression architectures based on convolutional autoencoders<br />
    (CAEs), generative adversarial networks (GANs) as well as super-resolution<br />
    (SR), and present a comprehensive performance comparison. According to<br />
    experimental results, CAEs achieve better coding efficiency than JPEG by<br />
    extracting compact features. GANs show potential advantages on large<br />
    compression ratio and high subjective quality reconstruction. Super-resolution<br />
    achieves the best rate-distortion (RD) performance among them, which is<br />
    comparable to BPG.

  • Performance evaluations of software-defined acoustic MIMO-OFDM transmission

    Airi Sakaushi, Mayuko Okano, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto

    IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC   2018-April   1 - 6  2018.06

     View Summary

    In recent years, the system using acoustic communication is increasing. However, because acoustic communication uses low frequency, transmission rate is lower than radio wave communication. In wireless communication, MIMO-OFDM is proposed for improvement quality and transmission rate. In this paper, we introduce a software-defined acoustic communication platform by using MATLAB and implement acoustic MIMO-OFDM transmission into the platform. Also, we evaluate BER characteristics in various experimental parameters in MATLAB simulation and real environment. Moreover, we evaluate image quality in actual acoustic image transmission by using the acoustic communication platform and we can successfully transmit the image via acoustic MIMO-OFDM.

    DOI

  • Deep Convolutional AutoEncoder-based Lossy Image Compression

    Zhengxue Cheng, Heming Sun, Masaru Takeuchi, Jiro Katto

       2018.04

     View Summary

    Image compression has been investigated as a fundamental research topic for<br />
    many decades. Recently, deep learning has achieved great success in many<br />
    computer vision tasks, and is gradually being used in image compression. In<br />
    this paper, we present a lossy image compression architecture, which utilizes<br />
    the advantages of convolutional autoencoder (CAE) to achieve a high coding<br />
    efficiency. First, we design a novel CAE architecture to replace the<br />
    conventional transforms and train this CAE using a rate-distortion loss<br />
    function. Second, to generate a more energy-compact representation, we utilize<br />
    the principal components analysis (PCA) to rotate the feature maps produced by<br />
    the CAE, and then apply the quantization and entropy coder to generate the<br />
    codes. Experimental results demonstrate that our method outperforms traditional<br />
    image coding algorithms, by achieving a 13.7% BD-rate decrement on the Kodak<br />
    database images compared to JPEG2000. Besides, our method maintains a moderate<br />
    complexity similar to JPEG2000.

  • A transmission control protocol for long distance high-speed wireless communications

    Yohei Hasegawa, Jiro Katto

    IEICE Transactions on Communications   E101B ( 4 ) 1045 - 1054  2018.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a transmission control protocol (TCP) for long distance high-speed wireless communications, including free-space optical communications (FSOC). Extreme high frequency of wireless com- munications enables high-speed bit rate, but frequent signal error, including burst error, can be a quite severe problem for ordinary high-speed TCPs. To achieve 10 Gbps or higher data transfer throughput on FSOC, the proposed TCP (designated "TCP-FSO") has improved and new features including multi-layer congestion control, retransmission control with packet loss point estimation, delay-based ACK congestion control, and ACK retransmission control. We evaluated data transfer throughput of TCP-FSO and the other TCPs, by throughput model analysis and experiment on real implementa-Tion. Obtained results show that TCP-FSO achieves far higher data transfer throughput than other high-speed TCPs. For example, it achieved a thou- sand times higher throughput than the other high-speed TCPs in a real FSOC environment.

    DOI

  • A study on color-space conversion method considering color information restoration

    Masaru Takeuchi, Shintaro Saika, Yusuke Sakamoto, Yasutaka Matsuo, Jiro Katto

    2018 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics, ICCE 2018   2018-January   1 - 2  2018.03

     View Summary

    In this paper, we consider a color space conversion method from BT.709 used for current HDTV (High Definition Television) broadcast to BT.2020 that will be used for UHDTV (Ultra HDTV) broadcast, with lost color information restoration. Our method anisotropically diffuses BT.709 chromaticities considering the direction to the original chromaticities in BT.2020 color space. With this method and BT.709 images, we obtained BT.2020 images that had chromaticities out of BT.709 color gamut.

    DOI

  • Improvement of H.265/HEVC encoding for 8K UHDTV by CU size expansion and inter/intra prediction mode selection

    Shintaro Saika, Masaru Takeuchi, Yasutaka Matsuo, Jiro Katto

    2018 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics, ICCE 2018   2018-January   1 - 2  2018.03

     View Summary

    For 8K UHDTV video, which has high spatial resolution, CU size has large influence to encoding efficiency. In addition, a moving object with random motion has also a large impact on encoding efficiency of inter prediction. In this paper, we therefore propose a method to improve H.265/HEVC encoding efficiency by CU size expansion and inter/intra prediction mode selection. Moreover, we evaluated encoding efficiency and complexity by chancing max CU sizes and inter/intra prediction modes. From these evaluation results, the proposed method achieved high efficiency and low computational cost.

    DOI

  • Performance evaluations of multimedia service function chaining in edge clouds

    Kentaro Imagane, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto, Toshitaka Tsuda, Hidenori Nakazato

    CCNC 2018 - 2018 15th IEEE Annual Consumer Communications and Networking Conference   2018-January   1 - 4  2018.03

     View Summary

    As mobile multimedia services have significantly evolved and diversified with the spread of smartphones and Internet of Things (IoT) devices, low-delay multimedia cloud computing is the need of the hour. To address this demand, in this study, we introduce an edge cloud system that equips a multimedia service function chaining capability. A prototype implementation of the proposed edge cloud system has three main features: 1) edge computing deployment by using OpenStack, 2) multimedia service slicing and chaining, and 3) efficient resource management in edge networks. Based on these features, the proposed system achieves lower multimedia processing delay compared to a conventional cloud computing platform. We deploy the proposed system in our laboratory and validate the system performance by using typical multimedia application, such as human detection in video surveillance.

    DOI

  • Edge-centric field monitoring system for energy-efficient and network-friendly field sensing

    Keigo Ogawa, Kenji Kanai, Masaru Takeuchi, Jiro Katto, Toshitaka Tsuda

    CCNC 2018 - 2018 15th IEEE Annual Consumer Communications and Networking Conference   2018-January   1 - 6  2018.03

     View Summary

    To provide energy-efficient (i.e., longer lifetime of sensors) and network-friendly (i.e., reducing network traffic) field sensing, we propose an edge-centric field monitoring system which applies efficient sensors and camera control. The proposed system detects conditions in a monitoring area and controls sensing frequency (sampling rate) of sensors, and capture rate and encoding rate of surveillance cameras, according to the detected conditions. In addition, the system applies a Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC) platform to provide fast feedback control to the sensors and cameras. In performance evaluations, we assume that the monitoring target is landslide detection and create a miniature 'artificial landslide generation' environment in our laboratory. By using the environment, we evaluate the system performance, and evaluation results indicate that the proposed system can reduce network traffic and save energy consumption efficiently.

    DOI

  • Intelligent video surveillance system based on event detection and rate adaptation by using multiple sensors

    Kenji Kanai, Keigo Ogawa, Masaru Takeuchi, Jiro Katto, Toshitaka Tsuda

    IEICE Transactions on Communications   E101B ( 3 ) 688 - 697  2018.03

     View Summary

    To reduce the backbone video traffic generated by video surveillance, we propose an intelligent video surveillance system that offers multi-modal sensor-based event detection and event-driven video rate adaptation. Our proposed system can detect pedestrian existence and movements in the monitoring area by using multi-modal sensors (camera, laser scanner and infrared distance sensor) and control surveillance video quality according to the detected events. We evaluate event detection accuracy and video traffic volume in the experiment scenarios where up to six pedestrians pass through and/or stop at the monitoring area. Evaluation results conclude that our system can significantly reduce video traffic while ensuring high-quality surveillance.

    DOI

  • Overview of multimedia mobile edge computing

    Kenji Kanai, Kentaro Imagane, Jiro Katto

    ITE Transactions on Media Technology and Applications   6 ( 1 ) 46 - 52  2018

     View Summary

    Recently, to provide a low-latency mobile computing platform, Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) is proposed. In this paper, we first summarized the feature capabilities of MEC, such as content distribution and caching, computational offloading and multimedia Internet of Things (IoT). Then, to understand recent research efforts of multimedia MEC, we briefly highlight the research efforts in terms of above three capabilities: how to achieve edge caching in video distribution, how to schedule computational offloading to the cloud and how the communication quality degradation affects to the user experience of multimedia IoT. Finally, we addressed the emerging research issues of multimedia MEC to improve reliability and robustness of multimedia MEC.

    DOI

  • A History-Based TCP Throughput Prediction Incorporating Communication Quality Features by Support Vector Regression for Mobile Network

    Bo Wei, Wataru Kawakami, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto

    Proceedings - 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Multimedia, ISM 2017   2017-January   374 - 375  2017.12

     View Summary

    Throughput prediction is one of good solutions to improve quality of mobile applications (e.g., YouTube or Netflix) for video streaming delivery services in mobile networks. This is because such applications require monitoring the network performances to control content quality, thus guarantee quality of service (QoS) and quality of experience (QoE). In this paper, we propose a history-based TCP throughput prediction method incorporating communication quality features using SVR (Support Vector Regression). By taking history of communication quality features such as historical throughput and Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) into consideration, the throughput prediction error can be decreased. We conduct experiments with the proposed method and compare the prediction accuracy with a variety of methods in different scenarios of various moving modes of users. Results show that the proposed model could predict throughput effectively in various scenarios and decrease throughput prediction errors by a maximum of 26.47% compared with other methods.

    DOI

  • QoS and QoE Evaluations of 2K and 4K DASH Contents Distributions

    Tatsuya Nagashima, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto

    Proceedings - 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Multimedia, ISM 2017   2017-January   453 - 458  2017.12

     View Summary

    The increasing demand of mobile applications has brought large amount of mobile traffic. To meet users' requirements for high-quality video delivery, it is an urgent task to provide fair-quality video delivery for various users and situations. In this paper, we evaluate QoS and QoE characteristics and validate QoE unfriendliness in heterogeneous DASH contents distributions to provide QoE-fair video delivery,. In the evaluations, we employ multiple contents with different resolutions, frame rates, and rate-distortion characteristics. By using heterogeneous DASH contents, we evaluate the effect of playout buffer size on QoS and QoE performances. Evaluation results show that smaller playout buffer size contributes to QoE improvement under network congestion. In addition, we confirm that suppression of playback stall is a particularly important factor to achieve QoE fairness compared to other QoS metrics such as initial delay and representation.

    DOI

  • A Pre-Saliency Map Based Blind Image Quality Assessment via Convolutional Neural Networks

    Zhengxue Cheng, Masaru Takeuchi, Jiro Katto

    Proceedings - 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Multimedia, ISM 2017   2017-January   77 - 82  2017.12

     View Summary

    In recent years, various approaches have been investigated towards blind image quality assessment (IQA) with high accuracy and low complexity. In this paper we develop a pre-saliency map based blind IQA method, which takes advantage of saliency information in prior of quality prediction for performance enhancement by two steps. 1) We split the image into patches and design a convolution neural network (CNN) to predict the patch-wise quality score. Then we explore the relation between image saliency information and CNN prediction error to present a statistical analysis. 2) Based on the analysis, we propose a patch quality aggregation algorithm by removing non-salient patches which are likely to bring large prediction error and assigning large weights for salient patches. Experimental results validate that our method can achieve high accuracy (0.978) with subjective quality scores, which outperforms existing IQA methods. Meanwhile, the proposed method can reduce 52.7% computational time than the IQA without pre-saliency map.

    DOI

  • Accuracy evaluations of human moving pattern using communication quality based on machine learning

    Wataru Kawakami, Kenji Kanai, Bo Wei, Jiro Katto

    2017 IEEE 6th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics, GCCE 2017   2017-January   1 - 2  2017.12

     View Summary

    In this paper, we performed human moving pattern recognition using communication quality: cellular download throughputs, Received Signal Strength Indicators (RSSIs) and cellular base station IDs. We apply three machine learning algorithms, such as Support Vector Machine (SVM), K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and Random Forest (RF) and evaluate recognition accuracy of human moving patterns. Results conclude that the communication quality can recognize moving patterns with high accuracy.

    DOI

  • Image quality evaluations of image enhancement under various encoding rates for video surveillance system

    Airi Sakaushi, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto, Toshitaka Tsuda

    2017 IEEE 6th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics, GCCE 2017   2017-January   1 - 2  2017.12

     View Summary

    In this paper, to provide high-quality and high-visibility surveillance, we introduce video surveillance system equipped image enhancement system. Because quality of enhanced image heavily depends on encoding characteristic, we evaluate the subjective and objective image quality of image enhancement under various video encoding rates by using night and day sequences.

    DOI

  • QoS and QoE evaluations of 2K and 4K video distribution using MPEG-DASH

    Tatsuya Nagashima, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto

    2017 IEEE 6th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics, GCCE 2017   2017-January   1 - 2  2017.12

     View Summary

    In this paper, we evaluate QoS (Quality of Service) and QoE (Quality of Experience) characteristics of 2K and 4K video distribution using MPEG-DASH (Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP). Evaluation results conclude that smaller playout buffer size contributes to QoE improvement.

    DOI

  • Green video delivery system using moving route navigation and playout buffer control

    Sakiko Takenaka, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto, Tsutomu Murase

    2017 14th IEEE Annual Consumer Communications and Networking Conference, CCNC 2017   2017-January   1 - 4  2017.07

     View Summary

    Because mobile users demand high quality and energy-friendly video delivery service that efficiently uses wireless resources, we introduce a green video delivery system using moving route navigation and playout buffer control based on the mobile throughput history data. Our system first determines the optimal travel route to realize high-speed and energy-efficient communications. Then when a user enters a high throughput area, our system temporarily extends the video playout buffer size, and if allowed, the user remains in the high throughput area and aggressively downloads video segments until filling the extended buffer via a high-speed and energyefficient wireless connection. After leaving this area, the user consumes video segments from the extended buffer in order to keep smooth video playback without wireless communications. Computer simulations along with laboratory and field experiments on the system performance confirm that our system can achieve green mobile video delivery.

    DOI

  • [奨励講演]通信速度変動を考慮した省電力配信のための消費電力推定モデルの特性評価

    竹中幸子, 金井謙治, 甲藤二郎, 村瀬勉

    電子情報通信学会ICM研究会   ICM2016-63 ( 507 ) 57-62  2017.03

  • Quality evaluations of 8K/60P UHDTV retransmission for a broadcasting and communication integrated platform

    Rintaro Harada, Shintaro Saika, Masaru Takeuchi, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto, Yasutaka Matsuo

    Proceedings - 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Multimedia, ISM 2016     111 - 112  2017.01

     View Summary

    In this study, we propose a broadcasting and communication integrated platform that can retransmit 8K broadcasting contents from a TV receiving set to mobile devices. We then evaluate the QoS characteristics and the qualities of 8K contents in this platform. Evaluation results conclude that 8K broadcasting contents can be retransmitted to mobile devices smoothly and their qualities are nearly as high as those of assumed 8K broadcasting service in Japan.

    DOI

  • Accuracy improvement in human detection using HOG features on train-mounted camera

    Shintaro Saika, Saki Takahashi, Masara Takeuchi, Jiro Katto

    2016 IEEE 5th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics, GCCE 2016    2016.12

     View Summary

    Nowadays, researches on accident prevention using train-mounted cameras had been progressing. Our proposed method considers temporal continuity between frames by using motion vectors in addition to conventional thresholding on similarity values obtained by a human detection method using HOG features. Experiments show the effectiveness of our method as compared with a previous method using only HOG features.

    DOI

  • Evaluation and analysis of system latency of edge computing for multimedia data processing

    Kentaro Imagane, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto, Toshitaka Tsuda

    2016 IEEE 5th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics, GCCE 2016    2016.12

     View Summary

    In order to analyze system latency of edge computing for multimedia data processing, we propose a model of system latency of two different distributed processing scenarios: pipeline and parallel processing. We validate the model by using actual cloud services and human detection processing.

    DOI

  • Content Oriented Surveillance System Based on Information-Centric Network

    Xin Qi, Zheng Wen, Toshitaka Tsuda, Wataru Kameyama, Jiro Katto, Takuro Sato, Kouichi Shibata

    2016 IEEE GLOBECOM WORKSHOPS (GC WKSHPS)    2016

     View Summary

    Urban surveillance systems are being applied in a rapid pace with mature but inefficient solutions. The inefficiency is revealed with two aspects, too concentrated bandwidth and processing requirement. To solve this problem, we proposed a content oriented surveillance system based on Information-Centric Network. However, we can't simply replace TCP/IP streaming structure with named contents streaming structure because it can't improve the surveillance system's efficiency enough. In this paper, we took the ICN network's profits even further with the named contents. Instead of streaming live video to the central data center and processing multiple data stream in the same time, we have designed the nodes to process the captured raw data and produce objective contents for the central data center. With the extremely size difference in raw data and actual valued contents from it, we could apply the method in investigating area people traffic conditions and even in disaster and anti-terrorism scenarios. There was a field experiment performed to evaluate tourists' densities and dressing habits during winter season of March. The experiment expressed the benefits of our system and compared our method with traditional surveillance systems in saving network bandwidth and functionalities.

    DOI

  • Interview with ASTRODESIGN President Shigeaki Suzuki

    Katto Jiro

    The Journal of the Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers   69 ( 1 ) k1 - k7  2015

    DOI CiNii

  • Message from the 2013 ITE Awards Winners and New Fellow Members

    Katto Jiro

    The Journal of the Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers   68 ( 8 ) 596 - 600  2014

    DOI CiNii

  • Improvement of 2-D Picture Quality for H.265/HEVC by Occluded Region Detection using 3-D Depth Map

    Shinya Iwasaki, Ryoki Takada, Yasutaka Matsuo, Jiro Katto

    2014 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CONSUMER ELECTRONICS (ICCE)     107 - 108  2014  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In recent years, video sequence with a depth map can be taken by a camera with RGB-D (depth) sensor like Kinect. On the other hand, quality degradation at occluded regions is inevitable when conventional 2-D video coding is applied. In this paper, we propose usage of an occluded region detection supported by the depth map for improvement of 2-D image coding quality. Experiments show that further improvement of picture quality at the whole of frame and occluded regions is addressed for H.265/HEVC compressed streams.

  • Welcome to the Special Section on Multimedia Transmission System and Services

    Katto, J.

    ITE Transactions on Media Technology and Applications   2 ( 4 ) 298  2014

    DOI

  • Image super-resolution method using registration of multi-scale wavelet components with consideration of digital cinema noise

    Matsuo, Y., Takada, R., Iwasaki, S., Katto, J.

    Kyokai Joho Imeji Zasshi/Journal of the Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers   68 ( 2 ) J92 - J98  2014

     View Summary

    Image super-resolution quality is degraded by the noise component of an image. However the noise should not be eliminated because of its importance in high-definition impression for digital cinema. We therefore propose an image super-resolution method using the synthesis of the super-resolution signal and noise components respectively after dividing an original image into signal and noise components. The signal component's resolution is enhanced using registration between the signal component and its multi-scale Wavelet components with resolution-enhanced parameter optimization.

    DOI

  • Evaluation of secular changes in statistical features of traffic for the purpose of malware detection

    Kawamoto, K., Ichino, M., Hatada, M., Otsuki, Y., Yoshiura, H., Katto, J.

    Studies in Computational Intelligence   443   1 - 11  2013

     View Summary

    Applications and malware affecting them are dramatically changing. It isn't certain whether the currently used features can classify normal traffic or malware traffic correctly. In this paper, we evaluated the features used in previous studies while taking into account secular changes to classify normal traffic into the normal category and anomalous traffic into the anomalous category correctly. A secular change in this study is a difference in a feature between the date the training data were caputred and the date the test data were captured in the same circumstance. The evaluation is based on the Euclidean distance between the normal codebook or anomalous codebook made by vector quantization and the test data. We report on what causes these secular changes and which features with little or no secular change are effective for malware detection. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

    DOI

  • A contribution-aware multiple parent hierarchical overlay network for P2P media streaming

    Awiphan, S., Su, Z., Katto, J.

    ITE Transactions on Media Technology and Applications   1 ( 1 ) 70 - 80  2013

     View Summary

    Application-layer multicast has been considered as a promising method for streaming live media to users in P2P networks. However, the inefficient bandwidth utilization and the vulnerability to peer dynamics remain important issues. In this paper, we introduce a new approach to constructing an efficient overlay leveraging the strong features of tree and mesh methods. A core overlay is built in a fashion of multiple sub-trees, which allows each peer to receive data from other peers located in any different sub-trees. We propose a set of auxiliary connections, which connect between two nodes that do not have permanent parent/child relationship, to achieve a push-based data transmission from multiple parents without redundancy. Simulations through ns2 demonstrate that our scheme provides a good streaming quality with low end-to-end delay. Also, the proposed auxiliary links is beneficial in improving the resiliency of the overlay and utilizing the bandwidth of peers.

    DOI

  • A Study on Gait Recognition using LPC Cepstrum for Mobile Terminal

    Masatsugu Ichino, Hiroki Kasahara, Hideki Yoshii, Kazuhiro Tsurumaru, Naohisa Komatsu, Jiro Katto

    2013 IEEE/ACIS 12TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER AND INFORMATION SCIENCE (ICIS)     11 - 16  2013

     View Summary

    The use of mobile terminals has been expanding dramatically in recent years as they evolve from a means of dispatching and gathering information to a highly functional tool that supports personal lifestyles and behavior. A mobile terminal is likely to store various kinds of personal information such as a calendar and contact information as well as key data to carry out online transactions. Losing one's mobile terminal therefore creates the possibility that one's personal information may fall into the wrong hands and be used for malicious purposes.
    We therefore propose a method of personal authentication using sensor data in a mobile terminal. First, we applied the LPC cepstrum to this authentication and checked for validity. We also evaluated the effectiveness of gait authentication using several frames.

    DOI

  • Image super-resolution using registration of wavelet multi-scale components with affine transformation

    Yasutaka Matsuo, Ryoki Takada, Shinya Iwasaki, Jiro Katto

    Proceedings - 2013 IEEE International Symposium on Multimedia, ISM 2013     279 - 282  2013

     View Summary

    We propose a novel image super-resolution method from digital cinema to 8K ultra high-definition television using registration of wavelet multi-scale components with affine transformation. The proposed method features that an original image is divided into signal and noise components by the wavelet soft-shrinkage with detection of white noise level. The signal component enhances resolution by registration between a signal component and its wavelet multi-scale components with affine transformation and parameters optimization. The affine transformation enhances super-resolution image quality because it increases registration candidates. The noise component enhances resolution with power control considering cinema noise representation. Super-resolution image outputs by synthesis of super-resolved signal and noise components. Experiments show that the proposed method has objectively better PSNR measurement and subjectively better appearance in comparison with conventional super-resolution methods. © 2013 IEEE.

    DOI

  • 開講にあたって

    甲藤 二郎

    映像情報メディア学会誌   66 ( 1 ) 52 - 52  2012

    DOI CiNii

  • 1-4 Image Super-resolution from Digital Cinema to Ultrahigh Definition Television

    MATSUO Yasutaka, YAMAMURA Yuta, TAKEUCHI Masaru, KATTO Jiro

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE ITE WINTER ANNUAL CONVENTION   2011   1 - 4-1  2011

     View Summary

    In this paper, an image noise in the digital cinema is analyzed at first. Based on this analysis, we propose the image super-resolution method from digital cinema to ultrahigh definition television. The proposed method separates the digital cinema into signal and noise components by the spatio-temporal Wavelet analysis, super-resolves these components respectively and synthesize them.

    DOI CiNii

  • Automated music slideshow generation using web images based on lyrics

    Shintaro Funasawa, Hiromi Ishizaki, Keiichiro Hoashi, Yasuhiro Takishima, Jiro Katto

    Proceedings of the 11th International Society for Music Information Retrieval Conference, ISMIR 2010     63 - 68  2010.12

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a system which automatically generates slideshows for music, by utilizing images retrieved from photo sharing web sites, based on query words extracted from song lyrics. The proposed system consists of two major steps: (1) query extraction from song lyrics, (2) image selection from web image search results. Moreover, in order to improve the display duration of each image in the slideshow, we adjust image transition timing by analyzing the duration of each lyric line in the input song. We have conducted subjective evaluation experiments, which prove that the proposal can generate impressive music slideshows for any input song. © 2010 International Society for Music Information Retrieval.

  • A No-Reference Type PSNR/SSIM Estimation Method applied to H.264/AVC Bitstream

    MUTO Keigo, TAKEUCHI Masaru, KATTO Jiro, SAKAIDA Shinichi, IGUCHI Kazuhisa

    ITE Technical Report   34   77 - 81  2010

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a no-reference type PSNR/SSIM estimation method applied to compressed image sequences. The proposal transforms the SSIM formula into a form without reference signals (i.e. original images), which consists of two parameters to be estimated from the bitstream. One is quantization error variance contributing to existing no-reference PSNR estimation, and the other is signal energy reduction caused by quantization which is unique to SSIM estimation. Experiments using actual images are then carried out and possible improvement methods are discussed.

    DOI CiNii

  • Performance Improvement of the Distortion Reduction Method using Frame Mixture of Intra-Coded Moving Pictures

    ARAI Yusuke, MUTO Keigo, KATTO Jiro, SAKAIDA Shinichi, IGUCHI Kazuhisa

    ITE Technical Report   34   137 - 140  2010

     View Summary

    This paper presents denoising methods which use motion estimation and quantization range restriction for Motion JPEG. In order to overlap the same areas of several frames precisely, we investigate improvement of motion estimation. Moreover, after we explain the problem of frame mixture iteration, we propose a method to limit the number of corrected DCT coefficients and show experimental results.

    DOI CiNii

  • Usability evaluation of visualization interfaces for content-based music retrieval systems

    Keiichiro Hoashi, Shuhei Hamawaki, Hiromi Ishizaki, Yasuhiro Takishima, Jiro Katto

    Proceedings of the 10th International Society for Music Information Retrieval Conference, ISMIR 2009     207 - 212  2009.12

     View Summary

    This research presents a formal user evaluation of a typical visualization method for content-based music information retrieval (MIR) systems, and also proposes a novel interface to improve MIR usability. Numerous interfaces to visualize content-based MIR systems have been proposed, but reports on user evaluations of such proposed GUIs are scarce. This research aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a typical 2-D visualization method for content-based MIR systems, by conducting comparative user evaluations against the traditional list-based format to present MIR results to the user. Based on the observations of the experimental results, we next propose a 3-D visualization system, which features a function to specify sub-regions of the feature space based on genre classification results, and a function which allows users to select features that are assigned to the axes of the 3-D space. Evaluation of this GUI conclude that the functions of the 3-D system can significantly improve both the efficiency and usability of MIR systems. © 2009 International Society for Music Information Retrieval.

  • Mesh-based Data Delivery over Multiple Tree-Shaped Routes in P2P Overlay Network

    Suphakit Awiphan, Su Zhou, Jiro Katto

    ICOIN: 2009 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INFORMATION NETWORKING     205 - 209  2009  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this paper, we introduce a new mesh-based approach for data delivery which is organized over multiple tree-shaped core routes. Given that both tree and mesh approaches have their own strong points, we simply combine them together. We evaluate the proposal through ns-2 simulator. The simulation results demonstrate that our approach can provide higher average received quality and has acceptable data delivery delay when compared with a single tree method. We also show that, over a static overlay, the push-based data delivery on mesh can provide the received quality close to pull-based data delivery method with less latency. As well, it has lower control overhead than the pull-based method when the peer number is large.

  • Analysis of an efficient pre-fetching algorithm for scalable contents over content delivery networks

    Su, Z., Katto, J., Yasuda, Y.

    International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control   5 ( 3 ) 821 - 828  2009

     View Summary

    Recently it has been shown that scalable (layered) image is appropriate for the Internet because of its better flexibility and functionality. At the same time, the pre-fetching technology also proves to be an efficient method to improve the performance of image-delivery with the low delay and adjustable quality. However, how to deploy the pre-fetching to deliver scalable contents has not been mentioned. Therefore, this paper presents an analysis of the pre-fetching algorithm to deliver layered image contents over the Internet. Based on the analysis of web request probability and the relations between different layers in the scalable imaging delivering system, a new pre-fetching algorithm is proposed to drastically improve cache performance. This proposal is a request frequency-based approach, in which a progressive image format can be used.

  • A robust pre-fetching algorithm for scalable web contents and its performance evaluation

    Su, Z., Katto, J., Yasuda, Y.

    International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control   5 ( 11 ) 4275 - 4282  2009

     View Summary

    In order to deliver multimedia contents to the end-users with low delay and acceptable quality, the pre-fetching technologies have been shown the efficiency if we can predict user&apos;s future requests and prefetch the data needed previously. However, because both the network topology and Web access are changed dynamically, whether the pre-fetching can get the stable performance under dynamic environment becomes an important issue. Therefore, this paper talks about the robustness of the pre-fetching algorithm, which has been proposed by us to deliver layered image contents over the Internet. Based on the web access distribution, the request pattern in the scalable imaging delivering system is analyzed in this paper. Furthermore, we check the robustness of our proposal by changing related parameters. Simulation results show that Our proposal is stable against variable conditions even if access patterns are dynamically changed.

  • A Scalable Monitoring System for Distributed Environments

    Sayaka Akioka, Junichi Ikeda, Takanori Ueda, Yuki Ohno, Midori Sugaya, Yu Hirate, Jiro Katto, Shigeki Goto, Yoichi Muraoka, Hayato Yamana, Tatsuo Nakajima

    FIRST INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGIES FOR FUTURE DEPENDABLE DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS, PROCEEDINGS     32 - +  2009

     View Summary

    The total amount of information to process or analyze is jumping sharply with the quick spread of computers and networks. Our project, «Highly scalable monitoring architecture for information explosion», develops a monitoring system allows observing systems, merging the system logs, and discovering intelligence to share. More concretely, the project builds the total system to maintain, optimize, and protect autonomically. This paper reports the outcomes of the project after first-half of the development period.The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the concept and details of the monitoring system on a single node, and Section 3 addresses the aggregation of the collected information in distributed environments. Section 4 and Section 5 introduce applications of the monitoring systems. Section 6 summarizes the project and mentions future plans. © 2009 IEEE.

    DOI

  • Robust Mesh-based Data Delivery over Multiple Tree-Shaped Routes in P2P Overlay Network

    Suphakit Awiphan, Su Zhou, Jiro Katto

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE 12TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON OBJECT/COMPONENT/SERVICE-ORIENTED REAL-TIME DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING     181 - 187  2009

     View Summary

    In this paper, we introduce a new mesh-based approach for data delivery which is organized over multiple tree-shaped core routes. Given that both tree and mesh approaches for multicast overlay construction have their own strong points, we simply combine them. During session, the mesh connections are formed dynamically to facilitate the data delivery on tree-shaped core routes which may experience bandwidth bottlenecks. Unlike existing mesh-based approaches, our proposal employs push-based data delivery along mesh connection. A well-organized mesh construction scheme is defined to avoid data redundancies. We evaluated the proposal through ns-2 simulator. The simulation results demonstrate that our approach can provide higher average received quality and has acceptable control overhead when compared to a single tree method. We also show that, over a static overlay, the push-based data delivery on mesh can provide the received quality close to supposed pull-based data delivery method with less latency. Moreover, it has lower control overhead than the pull-based method when the peer number is large.

    DOI

  • A study on the hybrid composition of omni images and normal images

    SATO Motoaki, KATTO Jiro

    ITE Technical Report   32   33 - 38  2008

     View Summary

    A panoramic image is the image that captures a wide scope scene in horizontal direction. Various techniques had been studied to acquire this panorama image; a method to use a calibrated multi-camera system, a method to stitch multiple images, and a method to use a curved surface mirror and a wide-angle lens (omni-camera). However, there are problems in each method. In case of the multi-camera system, high precision calibration among multiple cameras is necessary and the system becomes complicated. In the stitching method case, we can use a normal digital camera, but overlapping areas between images cause discomfort at the stitched regions due to differences of brightness and colors between images caused by lighting condition and exposure change. In case of the omni-camera, we can capture panoramic images easily and directly, but we suffer from uneven resolution in the eye direction and overall low resolution of the captured images. Therefore in this paper, we propose a hybrid method which calibrates brightness and color and keeps high resolution by composing omni-camera images and normal-camera images. In addition, we study about registration techniques between a panorama image and a normal image.

    DOI CiNii

  • The performance improvement by user support for automatic transcription

    KITAICHI Kentaro, KATTO Jiro

    ITE Technical Report   32   45 - 50  2008

     View Summary

    Regarding the automatic transcription, studies on multi-pitch estimation have been pursued for a long time. However, most studies have not implemented a system that can endure practical use at present. It is not solved by the performance gain of the computer because its difficulty is not only the problem of computational complexity. Therefore we propose a transcription-aid system that cooperates with a user without entrusting all. In this paper, the user inputs the highest note in the harmony, and the system cuts the bandwidth over its fundamental frequency. Moreover, higher accuracy is achieved by using the music knowledge of the chord progression. We experimented on estimating the fundamental frequencies of MIDI and actual audio signals and confirmed the effectiveness of these methods.

    DOI CiNii

  • Denoising Method Using Motion Estimation and Quantization Restriction for Motion JPEG

    ARAI Yusuke, ITAGAKI Shusei, KATTO Jiro, SAKAIDA Shinichi, IGUCHI Kazuhisa, GOHSHI Seiichi

    ITE Technical Report   32   87 - 91  2008

     View Summary

    This paper presents a new denoising method which uses motion estimation and quantization restriction for Motion JPEG After describing two denoising methods, mixing multiple frames using motion estimation and correction of DCT coefficients using quantization restriction, we explain our proposal which combines the both. We show several experimental results using Motion JPEG sequences and compare performances of our proposal with the existing methods.

    DOI CiNii

  • A Study on Picture Quality Improvement by using Multiply Encoded Intra-coded Video

    ITAGAKI Shusei, ARAI Yusuke, SAKAIDA Shinichi, IGUCHI Kazuhisa, GHOSHI Seiichi, KATTO Jiro

    ITE Technical Report   32   93 - 98  2008

     View Summary

    In this paper, we apply the fact that the image quality can be improved by synthesizing images to design of a new video coding technique. In intra-coded video, we can expect improvement of the image quality by referring to neighborhood frames at a decoder. Moreover, even for an area where the motion estimation effect is not achieved, applying two or more intra-coding methods in a periodical manner brings image quality improvement.

    DOI CiNii

  • Resolution enhancement of compressed video using IM-GPDCT and motion estimation

    INOUE Yoshitaka, KATTO Jiro

    ITE Technical Report   32   47 - 52  2008

     View Summary

    By the popularization of HDTV, opportunities of watching high-resolution images on large-screen are increasing. For enlarging images, bicubic interpolation is widely used, but blur occurs. In this paper, we proposed super-resolution using IM-GPDCT applied to the compressed video. First, we considered the effect of padding the extended area in the process of IM-GPDCT. Second, IM-GPDCT was improved by using the difference of frequency distribution between magnification methods. The occurence of ringing was also suppressed. Finally, in addition to the IM-GPDCT applied to compressed video frames, using motion detection and multiple frames improved image quality.

    DOI CiNii

  • Scalable maintenance for strong Web consistency in dynamic Content Delivery Overlays

    Zhou Su, Jiro Katto, Yasuhiko Yasuda

    2007 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOLS 1-14     1728 - 1733  2007  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Content Delivery Overlays improves end-user performance by replicating Web contents on a group of geographically distributed sites interconnected over the Internet. However, with the development whereby overlay systems can manage dynamically changing files, an important issue to be resolved is consistency management, which means the cached replicas on different sites must be updated if the originals change. In this paper, based on the analytical formulation of object freshness, web access distribution and network topology, we derive a novel algorithm as follows: (1) For a given content which has been changed on its original server, only a limited number of its replicas instead of all replicas are updated. (2) After a replica has been selected for update, the latest version will be sent from an algorithm-decided site instead of from its original server. Simulation results verify that the proposed algorithm provides much better consistency management than conventional methods with the reduced the old hit ratio and network traffic.

  • Proactive route maintenance for tree-based application layer multicast and its implementations

    Tetsuya Kusumoto, Jiro Katto, Sakae Okubo

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION AND SYSTEMS   E89D ( 12 ) 2856 - 2866  2006.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study is to maintain efficient backup routes for reconstructing overlay trees quickly. In most conventional methods, after a node leaves the trees, its child nodes start searching for the new parents. In this reactive approach, it takes a lot of time to find a new parent. In this paper, we propose a proactive approach to finding a next parent as the backup route node over the overlay tree before the current parent leaves. A proactive approach allows a node to find its new parent node immediately and switch to the backup route node smoothly. In our proposal, the structure of the overlay tree using a redundant degree can decide a backup route node without so much overhead. Simulations demonstrate our proactive approach can recover from node departures 2 times faster than reactive approaches, and can construct overlay trees with lower overheads than another proactive method. Additionally we carried out experiments over actual networks and their results support the effectiveness of our approach. We confirmed that our proposal achieved better streaming quality than conventional approaches.

    DOI

  • Feature space modification for content-based music retrieval based on user preferences

    Keiichiro Hoashi, Kazunori Matsumoto, Fumiaki Sugaya, Hiromi Ishizaki, Jiro Katto

    2006 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ACOUSTICS, SPEECH, AND SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL V, PROCEEDINGS     517 - +  2006  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a feature space modification method for feature extraction of music, which is effective for the development of a content-based music information retrieval (MIR) system based on user preferences. The proposed method conducts clustering of all songs in the music collection, and utilizes the resulting cluster IDs as training data for feature space modification. and is capable to automatically generate a feature space which is suitable to the content of any music collection. Experiment results prove that the proposed method improves accuracy of user preference based MIR.

  • Scalable consistency management in dynamic content distribution overlays

    Zhou Su, Jiro Katto, Yasuda Yasuhiko

    2005 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CLUSTER COMPUTING (CLUSTER)     455 - 455  2006  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Content Distribution Overlays improves end-user performance by replicating Web contents on a group of geographically distributed sites interconnected over the Internet. However, with the development whereby overlay systems can manage dynamically [2] changing files, an important issue to be resolved is consistency management, which means the cached replicas on different sites must be updated if the originals change. In this paper, based on the analytical formulation of object freshness time, web access distribution and network topology, we derive a novel algorithm as follows: (1) For a given content which has been changed at its original server, only a limited number of its replicas instead of all replicas are updated. (2) After a replica has been selected for update, the latest version will be sent from an algorithm-decided site instead of from its original server. Simulation results verify that the proposed algorithm provides much better consistency management than conventional methods with the reduced update overhead and network traffic.

  • Internet Broadcasting

    Katto, J.

    Kyokai Joho Imeji Zasshi/Journal of the Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers   60 ( 1 ) 47 - 49  2006

    DOI

  • IP Telephony

    Katto, J.

    Kyokai Joho Imeji Zasshi/Journal of the Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers   60 ( 2 ) 163 - 164  2006

    DOI

  • Feature space modification for content-based music retrieval based on user preferences

    Keiichiro Hoashi, Kazunori Matsumoto, Fumiaki Sugaya, Hiromi Ishizaki, Jiro Katto

    2006 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, Vols 1-13   5   5375 - 5378  2006

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a feature space modification method for feature extraction of music, which is effective for the development of a content-based music information retrieval (MIR) system based on user preferences. The proposed method conducts clustering of all songs in the music collection, and utilizes the resulting cluster IDs as training data for feature space modification, and is capable to automatically generate a feature space which is suitable to the content of any music collection. Experiment results prove that the proposed method improves accuracy of user preference based MIR.

  • Wired access technologies

    Katto, J.

    Kyokai Joho Imeji Zasshi/Journal of the Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers   59 ( 5 )  2005

  • Proactive route maintenance and overhead reduction for application layer multicast

    T Kusumoto, Y Kunichika, J Katto, S Okubo

    2005 Joint International Conference on Autonomic and Autonomous Systems and International Conference on Networking and Services (ICAS/ICNS)   2005   97 - 102  2005

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study is to maintain efficient backup routes for restoring overlay trees. In most conventional methods, after a node leaves the trees, its children start searching for a new parent. In this reactive approach, it takes a lot of time to find a new parent. In this paper, we propose a proactive approach to find a new parent over the overlay trees before the current parent leaves. A proactive approach can find respective new parents immediately and switch to the backup route smoothly. In our proposal, the structure of the overlay tree using a redundant degree enables to decide a new parent without so much overhead information. Simulations demonstrate our proactive approach can recover from node departures 2 times faster than reactive approaches, and can construct overlay trees with lower overheads than another proactive method. Additionally we carried out experiments over actual networks and their results support the effectiveness of our approach. We confirmed that our proposal achieved better streaming quality than conventional approaches.

    DOI

  • AODV multipath extension using source route lists with optimized route establishment

    Y Sakurai, J Katto

    2004 International Workshop on Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks     63 - 67  2005

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a novel on-demand multipath routing protocol for a mobile ad hoe network. By applying a newly developed route update procedure with combined metrics of delay, hop count and disjointness, each intermediate node deliberately selects multipath candidates while contributing to suppression of unnecessary routing packets. Extension of RREQ/RREP packets with a source route list is also incorporated, not only to alleviate limitation of the hop-count based approaches but rather to provide more efficient multiple routes. Computer simulations using ns-2 simulator are performed with comparison to conventional methods and effectiveness of the proposed methods is quantitatively validated.

  • Optimal replication algorithm for scalable streaming media in content delivery networks

    Z Su, J Katto, Y Yasuda

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION AND SYSTEMS   E87D ( 12 ) 2723 - 2732  2004.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    CDN (Content Delivery Networks) improves end-user performance by replicating web contents on a group of geographically distributed servers. However, repeatedly keeping the entire replica of the original objects into many content servers consumes too much server resource. This problem becomes more serious for the large-sized objects such as streaming media, e.g. high quality video. In this paper, we therefore propose an efficient replication method for layered video streams in CDN, which can reduce user response delays and storage costs simultaneously. Based on an analytical formulation of the cooperative replication of layers and segments of each video stream, we derive a replication algorithm which solves next three problems quantitatively. (1) How many servers should be selected to replicate a given video stream? (2) For a single video stream, how many layers and segments should be stored in a given server? (3) After selecting a group of servers for each video stream, how do we allocate the replication priority (i.e. order) to each server? Simulation results verify that the proposed algorithm efficiently resolves the above problems and provides much better performance than conventional methods.

  • Optimal replication algorithm for scalable streaming media in content delivery networks

    Su, Z., Katto, J., Yasuda, Y.

    IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems   E87-D ( 12 ) 2723 - 2732  2004

     View Summary

    CDN (Content Delivery Networks) improves end-user performance by replicating web contents on a group of geographically distributed servers. However, repeatedly keeping the entire replica of the original objects into many content servers consumes too much server resource. This problem becomes more serious for the large-sized objects such as streaming media, e.g. high quality video. In this paper, we therefore propose an efficient replication method for layered video streams in CDN, which can reduce user response delays and storage costs simultaneously. Based on an analytical formulation of the cooperative replication of layers and segments of each video stream, we derive a replication algorithm which solves next three problems quantitatively. (1) How many servers should be selected to replicate a given video stream? (2) For a single video stream, how many layers and segments should be stored in a given server? (3) After selecting a group of servers for each video stream, how do we allocate the replication priority (i.e. order) to each server? Simulation results verify that the proposed algorithm efficiently resolves the above problems and provides much better performance than conventional methods.

  • An efficient TCP with explicit handover notification for mobile networks

    Izumikawa, H., Yamaguchi, I., Katto, J.

    2004 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC 2004   2   647 - 652  2004

     View Summary

    TCP is a popular internet protocol for reliable end-to-end data delivery, but it cannot be directly applied to wireless networks in which packet loss may be induced by higher BER or handover than congestion. TCP assumes that such packet loss is caused by network congestion and initiates congestion control procedures. In this paper, we present a novel protocol using Explicit Handover Notification to improve TCP performance over wireless links. Additionally, we execute computer simulations using network simulator and compare with other various protocols.

  • A method of gender classification by integrating facial, hairstyle, and clothing images

    K Ueki, H Komatsu, S Imaizumi, K Kaneko, S Imaizumi, N Sekine, J Katto, T Kobayashi

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE 17TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PATTERN RECOGNITION, VOL 4   4   446 - 449  2004

     View Summary

    This paper presents a method of gender classification by integrating facial, hairstyle, and clothing images. Initially, input images are separated into facial, hairstyle and clothing regions, and independently learned PCAs and GMMs based on thousands of sample images are applied to each region. The classification results are then integrated into a single score using some known priors based on the Bayes rule. Experimental results showed that our integration strategy significantly reduced error rate in gender classification compared with the conventional facial only approach.

    DOI

  • A study on motion compensated prediction in DCT domain with multiple mode selection

    Kazuhisa Yamagisi, Jiro Katto, Yasuhiko Yasuda

    Picture Coding Symposium     87 - 91  2003.12

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a motion vector search algorithm that employs the Sum of Absolute Difference (SAD) minimization in DCT domain as a distortion measure. In addition, block based motion estimation is carried out with multiple modes in this frequency domain, and a mode is selected according to the Lagrangian cost function [1, 2, 3]. Four modes are designed. The first two modes are a mode with 1 motion vector (INTER1V) and a mode with 4 motion vectors (INTER4V) per macroblock that are similar to the H.263 [4]. The last two modes use 4 motion vectors per macroblock (INTER1V+) or per block (INTER4V+), where the 8×8 DCT coefficients are firstly separated into 4 groups and a motion vector is independently assigned to each group. The average SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) gains between 0.3 and 1.0dB are obtained for tested sequences when compared with TMN. Our proposal method provides true motion vectors for low frequency and minimizes distortion for higher frequency. Therefore our proposed method also reduces subjective visual degradation.

  • Replication algorithms to retrieve scalable streaming media over content delivery networks

    Zhou Su, Jiro Katto, Yasuhiko Yasuda

    Proceedings of the 5th ACM SIGMM International Workshop on Multimedia Information Retrieval, MIR 2003     255 - 261  2003.11

     View Summary

    CDN (Content Delivery Networks) improves end-user performance by replicating web contents on a group of geographically distributed content servers. Replication Algorithm plays an important role in helping users to retrieve Web objects from the content servers. If a user can directly get the requested objects from the content server, he need not to contact the remote origin server and the user delay can be reduced. However, current replica strategies in CDN are to simply and repeatedly keep the complete replica of the original object on many content servers. This method has some disadvantages, including too much consumed server space and a waste of the storage cost. It is more serious for replicating some large-sized objects such as streaming media, which are being distributed over the Internet more and more. In this paper, we discuss a replication strategy for scalable video streaming in CDN to reduce user response and storage cost. Based on theoretical analysis, assuming layered video coding, we propose a novel replication algorithm which deals with following three problems. (1) How many content servers should be selected to replicate a given video content? (2) For a single video content, how many layers should be kept in a given content server? (3) After selecting a group of content servers for each video content, how do we decide the replication priority for each content server? Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can efficiently resolve the above problems, and provide much better performance than the conventional methods.

    DOI

  • Stream Caching Using Hierarchically Distributed Proxies with Adaptive Segments Assignment

    Su, Z., Katto, J., Nishikawa, T., Murakami, M., Yasuda, Y.

    IEICE Transactions on Communications   E86-B ( 6 ) 1859 - 1869  2003

     View Summary

    With the advance of high-speed network technologies, availability and popularity of streaming media contents over the Internet has grown rapidly in recent years. Because of their distinct statistical properties and user viewing patterns, traditional delivery and caching schemes for normal web objects such as HTML files or images can not be efficiently applied to streaming media such as audio and video. In this paper, we therefore propose an integrated caching scheme for streaming media with segment-based caching and hierarchically distributed proxies. Firstly, each stream is divided into segments and their caching algorithms are considered to determine how to distribute the segments into different level proxies efficiently. Secondly, by introducing two kinds of segment priorities, segment replacing algorithms are proposed to determine which stream and which segments should be replaced when the cache is full. Finally, a Web-friendly caching scheme is proposed to integrate the streaming caching with the conventional caching of normal web objects. Performance of the proposed algorithms is verified by carrying out simulations.

  • Integrated Pre-Fetching and Replacing Algorithm for Graceful Image Caching

    Su, Z., Washizawa, T., Katto, J., Yasuda, Y.

    IEICE Transactions on Communications   E86-B ( 9 ) 2753 - 2763  2003

     View Summary

    The efficient distribution of stored information has become a major concern in the Internet. Since the web workload characteristics show that more than 60% of network traffic is caused by image documents, how to efficiently distribute image documents from servers to end clients is an important issue. Proxy cache is an efficient solution to reduce network traffic. And it has been shown that an image caching method (Graceful Caching) based on hierarchical coding format performs better than conventional caching schemes in recent years. However, as the capacity of the cache is limited, how to efficiently allocate the cache memory to achieve a minimum expected delay time is still a problem to be resolved. This paper presents an integrated caching algorithm to deal with the above problem for image databases, web browsers, proxies and other similar applications in the Internet. By analyzing the web request distribution of the Graceful Caching, both replacing and pre-fetching algorithms are proposed. We also show that our proposal can be carried out based on information readily available in the proxy server; it flexibly adapts its parameters to the hit rates and access pattern of users&#039; requesting documents in the Graceful Caching. Finally we verify the performance of this algorithm by simulations.

  • An integrated Scheme to Distribute Segmented Streaming Media over Hierarchical Caches

    Zhou Su, Jiro Katto, Takayuki Nishikawa, Munetugu Murakami, Teruyoshi Washizawa, Yasuhiko Yasuda

    Proceedings of the First International Conference on Information Technology and Applications (ICITA 2002)     693 - 698  2002.12

     View Summary

    The emergence of the Internet as a pervasive communication medium has led to the rise of many applications of streaming media. However, because of their distinct statistical properties and user viewing patterns, traditional delivery and caching schemes for web objects such as HTML files or images can not be efficiently applied to streaming media such as audio and video. In this paper, we therefore propose an integrated caching scheme for streaming media with segment-based caching and with hierarchically distributed proxies. Firstly, each stream is divided into segments and their caching algorithms are considered to determine how to distribute the segments into different level proxies efficiently. Then, by introducing two kinds of segment priorities, segments replacing algorithms are proposed to determine which stream and which segments should be replaced when the cache is full. Finally, a web friendly caching scheme is proposed to integrate the streaming caching with the conventional caching of normal web objects. Performance of the proposed algorithms is verified by carrying out simulations.

  • Hierarchical image caching in content distribution networks

    S Zhou, T Washizawa, J Katto, Y Yasuda

    2002 IEEE REGION 10 CONFERENCE ON COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND POWER ENGINEERING, VOLS I-III, PROCEEDINGS   2   786 - 790  2002

     View Summary

    The efficient distribution of stored information has become a major concern in the Internet. Since the web workload characteristics shows that more than 60% of network traffic is caused by image, documents, how to efficiently distribute image documents from servers to end clients is an important issue. Proxy cache is an efficient solution to reduce network traffic. An it has been shown that an image caching method (Graceful Caching) based on hierarchical coding format showed better performance than conventional. caching schemes in recent years. However, as the capacity of the cache is limited, how to efficiently allocate the cache memory to achieve a minimum expected delay time is still a problem to be resolved.
    This paper presents an integrated caching algorithm to deal with the above problem in the Internet. By analyzing the web request distribution of Graceful Caching, both replacement and pre-fetching algorithms are proposed. We also show that our proposal can be carried out based on information readily available in the proxy server and it flexibly adapts its parameters to the hit rates and access pattern of users' requesting documents in the Graceful Caching. We finally verify the performance of this algorithm by simulations.

  • How to open personal broadcasting system on the Internet (1)

    Katto, J.

    Kyokai Joho Imeji Zasshi/Journal of the Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers   55 ( 4 ) 521  2001

  • How to open personal broadcasting system on the Internet (2)

    Katto, J.

    Kyokai Joho Imeji Zasshi/Journal of the Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers   55 ( 5 ) 622  2001

  • How to open personal broadcasting system on the Internet (3)

    Katto, J.

    Kyokai Joho Imeji Zasshi/Journal of the Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers   55 ( 6 ) 810  2001

  • Performance improvement of Graceful image Caching by using request frequency based prefetching algorithms

    Z Su, T Washizawa, J Katto, Y Yasuda

    IEEE REGION 10 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, VOLS 1 AND 2     370 - 376  2001

     View Summary

    This paper presents a cache scheme for image databases, web browsers, proxies and other similar applications in Internet The current cache system employs a hard strategy: either the image Is stored in a cache or not even its data is quite big. We have proposed a caching scheme featuring human memory mechanism (image database system featuring graceful oblivion), which is called Graceful Caching. The previous work shows that Graceful Caching reduces user response time by assigning a variable amount of memory to each image. Several recent studies suggest that prefetching, techniques could be employed to further improve the cache performance, by anticipating and prefetching future client requests. Some approaches based on request frequency have been proposed to the conventional caching (hard system) and got better results. In this paper, we try to apply a request frequency based approach. to Graceful Caching system, in which a progressive image format is used. Based on the analysis of web request probability in Graceful Caching, we go on to propose a new prefetching algorithm that drastically improves cache performance of system. We verify the performance of this algorithm by simulations.

  • “New Techniques in the MPEG-4 Visual Standar ”

    Katata, H., Yagasaki, Y., Watanabe, T., Katto, J.

    Kyokai Joho Imeji Zasshi/Journal of the Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers   53 ( 4 ) 485 - 491  1999

    DOI

  • Runlength-based wavelet coding with adaptive scanning for low bit rate environment

    T Kimoto, J Katto, M Ohta

    1998 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON IMAGE PROCESSING - PROCEEDINGS, VOL 2   2   326 - 330  1998

     View Summary

    A new wavelet coding method is presented to exploit both intra/inter-band correlations. While the traditional zerotree approach can exploit correlation between subbands, a wavelet decomposition has properties more suitable for the runlength coding method, which can exploit spatial correlation. The proposed method classifies wavelet coefficients into groups according to their parents' magnitude. Each group is chosen in order of the magnitude and scanned to keep spatial correlation. It outperforms the zerotree-based coding approach especially at low bit rate.

  • Improved scanning methods for wavelet coefficients of video signals

    Rossetti, F., Katto, J., Ohta, M.

    Signal Processing: Image Communication   8 ( 4 ) 365 - 378  1996

     View Summary

    This paper describes novel methods to improve coding efficiency of the wavelet transform from the viewpoint of scanning techniques. Firstly, statistical properties of the wavelet transform are examined using real image sequences. They indicate energy distribution or correlations of wavelet transformed coefficients. Taking them into account, efficient scanning methods are investigated for two different approaches. The first approach treats transform coefficients, located in spatially neighboring position, in 8 × 8 blocks. This is called block based approach, and its optimum scanning path is examined similar to the zigzag scan for DCT (discrete cosine transform). Furthermore, a new scanning algorithm utilizing correlation between transform coefficients is proposed. The second approach carries out scanning over the entire subimage created by the wavelet transform. This is called subband based approach, in which scanning is applied to each subband. A new scanning algorithm is presented utilizing a block-wise non-linear filter which removes isolated non-zero coefficients. Simulations are carried out, and their results show the effectiveness of the above approaches especially for low bit-rate applications.

    DOI

  • Novel algorithms for object extraction using multiple camera inputs

    J Katto, M Ohta

    INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON IMAGE PROCESSING, PROCEEDINGS - VOL II   2   863 - 866  1996

     View Summary

    This paper presents novel algorithms exploiting multiple camera inputs and segmentation techniques, which can be applied to image fusion, disparity detection and object extraction. Differently focused images, stereo pairs and both of them are used for fusion, disparity detection and object extraction, respectively. Firstly, image fusion is done by segmentation of each image and determination of focused regions per segment. An efficient decision criterion is developed taking a method of auto-focus into consideration. Secondly, disparity detection is executed by recursively applying segmentation and disparity detection per segment. A new clustering criterion is proposed in order to achieve good segmentation and high compression ratio of disparity maps simultaneously. Finally, object extraction is carried out by utilizing both the fusion result and the disparity map. Experiments are carried out, and they show us effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  • Structure recovery from scaled orthographic and perspective views

    A Marugame, J Katto, M Ohta

    INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON IMAGE PROCESSING, PROCEEDINGS - VOL II   2   851 - 854  1996

     View Summary

    This paper presents a novel framework for structure recovery utilizing a scaled orthographic view and perspective views simultaneously. Perspective views lead to precise recovery based on the triangulation principle; however, many parameters such as camera positions, camera poses and focal length, must be measured beforehand. Thus, a scaled orthographic view is introduced as a subsidiary system to achieve them automatically. Camera parameters ate calculated implicitly owing to the scaled orthographic properties, and then the structure recovery is done by the orthogonality of camera coordinate systems and the triangulation principle. The experimental results provide sufficient accuracy of structure recovery.

  • AN ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK FOR OVERLAPPED MOTION COMPENSATION

    J KATTO, M OHTA

    1995 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ACOUSTICS, SPEECH, AND SIGNAL PROCESSING - CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS, VOLS 1-5   4   2189 - 2192  1995

     View Summary

    This paper presents a novel framework which proves the superiority of overlapped motion compensation. Window design problem is revised by introducing a statistical model of motion estimation process. The result clarifies relationship between the optimum window and image characteristics in an explicit formula and quantifies prediction error reduction achieved by overlapped motion compensation. Experimental results using real image sequences support the proposed theory and demonstrate its superiority. Overlapping in warping prediction is also considered and its effectiveness is shown.

  • Mathematical analysis of MPEG compression capability and its application to rate control

    J Katto, M Ohta

    INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON IMAGE PROCESSING - PROCEEDINGS, VOLS I-III   2   B555 - B558  1995

     View Summary

    This paper presents mathematical frameworks on temporal predictive processing in the MPEG video compression standard. Firstly, a coding gain is derived based on traditional prediction theories. The optimum ordering of three different picture types (I,P,B-pictures) is clarified according to image source characteristics. Secondly, a novel framework on the target bit assignment is presented with some experimental backgrounds. The solution consists of simple formulae, but brings drastic SNR gains to the conventional TM5 algorithm.

  • A Wavelet Codec with Overlapped Motion Compensation for Very Low Bit-Rate Environment

    Katto, J., Ohki, J.-I., Nogaki, S., Ohta, M.

    IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology   4 ( 3 ) 328 - 338  1994

     View Summary

    This paper describes theories on overlapped motion compensation and their applications to a wavelet codec aimed for very low bit-rate environment below 64 kb/s. The theories are concerned with the evaluation of prediction efficiency improved by overlapped motion compensation and also its smoothing effect on the discontinuities at block boundaries encountered when motion vectors do not coincide among neighboring blocks. They contribute to determine the optimum window shape for overlapped motion compensation in a developed wavelet codec, which suffers from reduction of coding efficiency when there are such discontinuities in a signal to be transformed. Regarding the wavelet codec, a new scanning method of transform coefficients and alternate use of normal and spatially-reversed basis functions for cascaded wavelet transform are introduced. Finally, the implementation of the codec on a Video Image Signal Processor (VISP) is discussed. © 1994 IEEE

    DOI

  • SHORT-TAP AND LINEAR-PHASE PR FILTER BANKS FOR SUBBAND CODING OF IMAGES

    J KATTO, K KOMATSU, Y YASUDA

    VISUAL COMMUNICATIONS AND IMAGE PROCESSING 92, PTS 1-3   1818   735 - 746  1992

     View Summary

    This paper presents a filter design algorithm in order to realize high efficient image codec system based on subband decomposition, and also describes unified frameworks to interpret various image coding techniques. First, various image coding techniques based on the linear transform are dealt with in an unified manner, where both the matrix representation in time domain and the multirate filter bank concept are introduced. Reconsideration about the DPCM is stressed here because the subband coding and the transform coding have been already formulated in some common frameworks. Neither the filter&#039;s frequency response nor its orthogonality are taken into consideration because they don&#039;t necessarily play an important role in our formulation, particularly in case of the DPCM and the SSKF. Secondly, statistical optimization of short tap and linear phase PR (perfect reconstruction) filter banks is considered. The UCG (unified coding gain) that we proposed at the VSIP &#039;91 as a performance measure of energy compaction properties of the multirate filter bank is expanded to multiple layer cases, and several new examples are presented. The short tap structure leads to low computational complexity, and the linear phase property contributes not only to remove phase distortion but also to solve the so-called border problem. Simulation results are also shown, and the validity of our approach is confirmed.

  • Performance evaluation of subband coding and optimization of its filter coefficients

    Katto, J., Yasuda, Y.

    Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation   2 ( 4 ) 303 - 313  1991

     View Summary

    In this paper, two analytical methods for evaluating the coding efficiency of subband coding are proposed, and optimization of filter coefficients of the perfect reconstruction FIR filter banks is considered, based on a new performance measure called unified coding gain. First, matrix representation of the subband coding in the time domain is considered, and conventional subband filter banks are classified into orthogonal ones such as the QMF and nonorthogonal ones such as the SSKF. For the orthogonal filter banks, the coding gain shown by Jayant and Noll is introduced, and their theoretical performance evaluation is carried out. However, this first method cannot be applied to nonorthogonal filter banks any longer because the coding gain is defined on the assumption of filter orthogonality. Therefore, an optimum bit allocation problem for subband coding is considered, and the unified coding gain, which can be applied to arbitrary subband filter banks, is derived as a new performance measure to take the place of the coding gain. This second method enables us to estimate the coding efficiency of arbitrary transform techniques as well as the subband approaches, and its result suggests that the SSKF(5 × 3) outperforms the QMF as long as the number of subbands is not too large, even though its filter length is much shorter. This result encourages us to find filter coefficients that maximize the unified coding gain according to filter length. In addition, new perfect reconstruction FIR filter banks which have not only low computational complexity but also good energy compaction properties are presented. © 1991.

    DOI

  • Variable bit-rate coding based on human visual system

    Katto, J., Onda, K., Yasuda, Y.

    Signal Processing: Image Communication   3 ( 4 ) 313 - 320  1991

     View Summary

    One of the merits with the introduction of variable bit-rate coding to moving pictures is the constancy of picture quality. However, considering the fact that conventional SNR cannot reflect the result of subjective assessment sufficiently, other quality measures should be considered to design the variable bit-rate coders. In this paper, weighted SNR (WSNR), which is calculated by weighting coding errors with the spatial frequency response of human vision, is introduced as a quality measure in place of SNR, and the variable bit-rate coder based on this measure is considered. Then, subjective assessment is carried out and the effectiveness of our approach is confirmed. © 1991.

    DOI

  • PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SUBBAND CODING AND OPTIMIZATION OF ITS FILTER COEFFICIENTS

    J KATTO, Y YASUDA

    VISUAL COMMUNICATIONS AND IMAGE PROCESSING 91 : VISUAL COMMUNICATIONS, PTS 1 AND 2   1605   95 - 106  1991

     View Summary

    In this paper, two analytical methods to evaluate coding performance of subband coding are proposed, and optimization of its filter coefficients from the viewpoint of energy compaction property is considered. The first method is based on matrix representation of subband coding in time domain, where the coding gain given by Jayant and Noll is introduced as a performance measure for filter banks with orthogonal property. The second method is based on the optimum bit allocation problem for subband coding (multirate filter bank), where the unified coding gain is derived as a new performance measure which can be applied to arbitrary transform techniques. We then try to find filter coefficients which maximize the unified coding gain according to input characteristics. This approach leads to optimization of filter coefficients from the viewpoint of energy compaction property.

  • Cell loss protection using hierarchical coding in video packet communication

    Katto, J., Yasuda, Y.

    Electronics and Communications in Japan (Part I: Communications)   73 ( 10 ) 52 - 62  1990

     View Summary

    As a promising means of realizing broadband ISDN, the ATM (asynchronous transfer mode), which is based on fast packet switching, is considered interesting. In video communication by ATM, the constancy and improvement of picture quality by variable rate coding is expected, while the quality deterioration by cell loss is a serious problem. This paper proposes a video coding method introducing hierarchical coding to cope with the cell loss problem. The proposed hierarchical coding extracts the low‐frequency components of the image by iterating the hierarchical processing based on the spatial filter. Then it is possible to suppress the effect of the quality deterioration caused by cell loss, as long as the low‐frequency components are retained. First, the configuration of the proposed system is discussed. Simulations are executed to observe the effect of the cell loss and the coding characteristics, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed method in coping with the cell loss. Then discussions are made on the optimal number of hierarchical processings to cope with the cell loss and the protection level for hierarchical information. Furthermore, it is shown that a new type of video communication can be realized by introducing hierarchical coding. Copyright © 1990 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company

    DOI

▼display all

Books and Other Publications

  • IT Text: インターネットプロトコル

    分担

    オーム社  2005.10

  • ディジタル放送教科書

    分担

    IDGジャパン  2003.02

  • H.323/MPEG-4教科書

    分担

    IEインスティチュート  2001.04

Misc

  • End-to-End Learned Image Compression with Quantized Weights and Activations

    Heming Sun, Lu Yu, Jiro Katto

       2021.11

     View Summary

    End-to-end Learned image compression (LIC) has reached the traditional
    hand-crafted methods such as BPG (HEVC intra) in terms of the coding gain.
    However, the large network size prohibits the usage of LIC on resource-limited
    embedded systems. This paper reduces the network complexity by quantizing both
    weights and activations. 1) For the weight quantization, we study different
    kinds of grouping and quantization scheme at first. A channel-wise non-linear
    quantization scheme is determined based on the coding gain analysis. After
    that, we propose a fine tuning scheme to clip the weights within a certain
    range so that the quantization error can be reduced. 2) For the activation
    quantization, we first propose multiple non-linear quantization codebooks with
    different maximum dynamic ranges. By selecting an optimal one through a
    multiplexer, the quantization range can be saturated to the greatest extent. In
    addition, we also exploit the mean-removed quantization for the analysis
    transform outputs in order to reduce the bit-width cost for the specific
    channel with the large non-zero mean. By quantizing each weight and activation
    element from 32-bit floating point to 8-bit fixed point, the memory cost for
    both weight and activation can be reduced by 75% with negligible coding
    performance loss. As a result, our quantized LIC can still outperform BPG in
    terms of MS-SSIM. To our best knowledge, this is the first work to give a
    complete analysis on the coding gain and the memory cost for a quantized LIC
    network, which validates the feasibility of the hardware implementation.

  • Adaptive video transmission using QUBO method and Digital Annealer based on Ising machine

    Bo Wei, Hang Song, Jiro Katto

       2021.09

     View Summary

    With the dramatically increasing video streaming in the total network
    traffic, it is critical to develop effective algorithms to promote the content
    delivery service of high quality. Adaptive bitrate (ABR) control is the most
    essential technique which determines the proper bitrate to be chosen based on
    network conditions, thus realize high-quality video streaming. In this paper, a
    novel ABR strategy is proposed based on Ising machine by using the quadratic
    unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) method and Digital Annealer (DA) for
    the first time. The proposed method is evaluated by simulation with the
    real-world measured throughput, and compared with other state-of-the-art
    methods. Experiment results show that the proposed QUBO-based method can
    outperform the existing methods, which demonstrating the superior of the
    proposed QUBO-based method.

  • Learned Video Compression with Residual Prediction and Loop Filter

    Chao Liu, Heming Sun, Jiro Katto, Xiaoyang Zeng, Yibo Fan

       2021.08

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a learned video codec with a residual prediction
    network (RP-Net) and a feature-aided loop filter (LF-Net). For the RP-Net, we
    exploit the residual of previous multiple frames to further eliminate the
    redundancy of the current frame residual. For the LF-Net, the features from
    residual decoding network and the motion compensation network are used to aid
    the reconstruction quality. To reduce the complexity, a light ResNet structure
    is used as the backbone for both RP-Net and LF-Net. Experimental results
    illustrate that we can save about 10% BD-rate compared with previous learned
    video compression frameworks. Moreover, we can achieve faster coding speed due
    to the ResNet backbone. This project is available at
    https://github.com/chaoliu18/RPLVC.

  • A QP-adaptive Mechanism for CNN-based Filter in Video Coding

    Chao Liu, Heming Sun, Jiro Katto, Xiaoyang Zeng, Yibo Fan

       2020.10

     View Summary

    Convolutional neural network (CNN)-based filters have achieved great success
    in video coding. However, in most previous works, individual models are needed
    for each quantization parameter (QP) band. This paper presents a generic method
    to help an arbitrary CNN-filter handle different quantization noise. We model
    the quantization noise problem and implement a feasible solution on CNN, which
    introduces the quantization step (Qstep) into the convolution. When the
    quantization noise increases, the ability of the CNN-filter to suppress noise
    improves accordingly. This method can be used directly to replace the (vanilla)
    convolution layer in any existing CNN-filters. By using only 25% of the
    parameters, the proposed method achieves better performance than using multiple
    models with VTM-6.3 anchor. Besides, an additional BD-rate reduction of 0.2% is
    achieved by our proposed method for chroma components.

  • A Convolutional Neural Network-Based Low Complexity Filter

    Chao Liu, Heming Sun, Jiro Katto, Xiaoyang Zeng, Yibo Fan

       2020.09

     View Summary

    Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)-based filters have achieved significant
    performance in video artifacts reduction. However, the high complexity of
    existing methods makes it difficult to be applied in real usage. In this paper,
    a CNN-based low complexity filter is proposed. We utilize depth separable
    convolution (DSC) merged with the batch normalization (BN) as the backbone of
    our proposed CNN-based network. Besides, a weight initialization method is
    proposed to enhance the training performance. To solve the well known over
    smoothing problem for the inter frames, a frame-level residual mapping (RM) is
    presented. We analyze some of the mainstream methods like frame-level and
    block-level based filters quantitatively and build our CNN-based filter with
    frame-level control to avoid the extra complexity and artificial boundaries
    caused by block-level control. In addition, a novel module called RM is
    designed to restore the distortion from the learned residuals. As a result, we
    can effectively improve the generalization ability of the learning-based filter
    and reach an adaptive filtering effect. Moreover, this module is flexible and
    can be combined with other learning-based filters. The experimental results
    show that our proposed method achieves significant BD-rate reduction than
    H.265/HEVC. It achieves about 1.2% BD-rate reduction and 79.1% decrease in
    FLOPs than VR-CNN. Finally, the measurement on H.266/VVC and ablation studies
    are also conducted to ensure the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  • Perceptual Quality Study on Deep Learning Based Image Compression

    Zhengxue Cheng, Pinar Akyazi, Heming Sun, Jiro Katto, Touradj Ebrahimi

    Proceedings - International Conference on Image Processing, ICIP   2019-September   719 - 723  2019.09

     View Summary

    Recently deep learning based image compression has made rapid advances with promising results based on objective quality metrics. However, a rigorous subjective quality evaluation on such compression schemes have rarely been reported. This paper aims at perceptual quality studies on learned compression. First, we build a general learned compression approach, and optimize the model. In total six compression algorithms are considered for this study. Then, we perform subjective quality tests in a controlled environment using high-resolution images. Results demonstrate learned compression optimized by MS-SSIM yields competitive results that approach the efficiency of state-of-the-art compression. The results obtained can provide a useful benchmark for future developments in learned image compression.

    DOI

  • Deep Residual Learning for Image Compression

    Zhengxue Cheng, Heming Sun, Masaru Takeuchi, Jiro Katto

       2019.06

    Internal/External technical report, pre-print, etc.  

     View Summary

    In this paper, we provide a detailed description on our approach designed for<br />
    CVPR 2019 Workshop and Challenge on Learned Image Compression (CLIC). Our<br />
    approach mainly consists of two proposals, i.e. deep residual learning for<br />
    image compression and sub-pixel convolution as up-sampling operations.<br />
    Experimental results have indicated that our approaches, Kattolab, Kattolabv2<br />
    and KattolabSSIM, achieve 0.972 in MS-SSIM at the rate constraint of 0.15bpp<br />
    with moderate complexity during the validation phase.

  • Learning image and video compression through spatial-temporal energy compaction

    Zhengxue Cheng, Heming Sun, Masaru Takeuchi, Jiro Katto

    Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition   2019-June   10063 - 10072  2019.06

     View Summary

    Compression has been an important research topic for many decades, to produce a significant impact on data transmission and storage. Recent advances have shown a great potential of learning based image and video compression. Inspired from related works, in this paper, we present an image compression architecture using a convolutional autoencoder, and then generalize image compression to video compression, by adding an interpolation loop into both encoder and decoder sides. Our basic idea is to realize spatial-temporal energy compaction in learning image and video compression. Thereby, we propose to add a spatial energy compaction-based penalty into loss function, to achieve higher image compression performance. Furthermore, based on temporal energy distribution, we propose to select the number of frames in one interpolation loop, adapting to the motion characteristics of video contents. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed image compression outperforms the latest image compression standard with MS-SSIM quality metric, and provides higher performance compared with state-of-the-art learning compression methods at high bit rates, which benefits from our spatial energy compaction approach. Meanwhile, our proposed video compression approach with temporal energy compaction can significantly outperform MPEG-4, and is competitive with commonly used H.264. Both our image and video compression can produce more visually pleasant results than traditional standards.

    DOI

  • Methods for adaptive video streaming and picture quality assessment to improve QoS/QoE performances

    Kenji Kanai, Bo Wei, Zhengxue Cheng, Masaru Takeuchi, Jiro Katto

    IEICE Transactions on Communications   E102B ( 7 ) 1240 - 1247  2019

     View Summary

    This paper introduces recent trends in video streaming and four methods proposed by the authors for video streaming. Video traffic dominates the Internet as seen in current trends, and new visual contents such as UHD and 360-degree movies are being delivered. MPEG-DASH has become popular for adaptive video streaming, and machine learning techniques are being introduced in several parts of video streaming. Along with these research trends, the authors also tried four methods: route navigation, throughput prediction, image quality assessment, and perceptual video streaming. These methods contribute to improving QoS/QoE performance and reducing power consumption and storage size.

    DOI

  • Throughput Prediction Using Recurrent Neural Network Model

    Bo Wei, Mayuko Okano, Kenji Kanai, Wataru Kawakami, Jiro Katto

    2018 IEEE 7th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics, GCCE 2018     88 - 89  2018.12

     View Summary

    To ensure good quality of experience for user when transmitting video content, throughput prediction can contribute to the selection of proper bitrate. In this paper, we propose a throughput prediction method with recurrent neural network (RNN) model. Experiments are conducted to evaluate the methods, and the results indicate that proposed method can decrease the prediction error by a maximum of 29.39% compared with traditional methods.

    DOI

  • A fast no-reference screen content image quality prediction using convolutional neural networks

    Zhengxue Cheng, Masaru Takeuchi, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto

    2018 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo Workshops, ICMEW 2018    2018.11

     View Summary

    Image quality assessment (IQA) is an inherent research topic in image processing field for several decades. Recently, machine learning has achieved success in many multimedia tasks and can be applied in IQA. Especially, screen content images (SCIs) is greatly increasing in various applications, but the characteristics of SCIs makes it difficult to directly apply general IQA methods to predict qualities. In this paper, we propose a fast no-reference SCIs quality prediction method. First, we use the convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to predict the quality scores of each patch. Second, we present a SCIs-oriented quality aggregation algorithm for acceleration. Experimental results demonstrate that our method can achieve the high accuracy (0.957) with subjective quality scores, outperforming existing methods. Moreover, our method is computationally appealing, achieving flexible complexity performance by selecting different groups of patches.

    DOI

  • Deep Inverse Tone Mapping Optimized for High Dynamic Range Display

    Katsuhiko Hirao, Zhengxue Cheng, Masaru Takeuchi, Jiro Katto

    9th International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence: ICT Convergence Powered by Smart Intelligence, ICTC 2018     472 - 474  2018.11

     View Summary

    The popularity of high dynamic range (HDR) makes the inverse tone mapping become an important technique for HDR display. In this paper, we propose a convolutional neural network (CNN) based inverse tone mapping method to generate a high-quality HDR image from one single standard dynamic range (SDR) image. First, we present a CNN design with a three-channel input, which considers both luminance and chrominance. Second, we propose to use overlapped inputs to remove the boundary artifacts, caused by zero padding in CNN. Experimental results demonstrate the high quality of our generated HDR images compared to the ground truth and conventional inverse tone mapping methods.

    DOI

  • Machine Learning Based Transportation Modes Recognition Using Mobile Communication Quality

    Wataru Kawakami, Kenii Kanai, Bo Wei, Jiro Katto

    Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo   2018-July  2018.10

     View Summary

    In order to recognize the transportation modes without any additional sensor devices, we propose a recognition method by using communication quality factors. In the proposed method, instead of Global Positioning System (GPS) and accelerometer sensors, we collect mobile TCP throughputs, Received Signal Strength Indicators (RSSIs), and cellular base station IDs (Cell IDs) through in-line network measurement when the user enjoys mobile services, such as video streaming service. In accuracy evaluations, we conduct two different field experiments to collect the data in five typical transportation modes (static, walking, riding a bicycle, a bus and a train,) and then construct the classifiers by applying Support Vector Machine (SVM), k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) and Random Forest (RF). Results conclude that these transportation modes can be recognized by using communication quality factors with high accuracy as well as the use of accelerometer sensors.

    DOI

  • Edge-centric Video Surveillance System Based on Event-driven Rate Adaptation for 24-hour Monitoring

    Airi Sakaushi, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto, Toshitaka Tsuda

    2018 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops, PerCom Workshops 2018     651 - 656  2018.10

     View Summary

    In this paper, to sustain a high-quality 24-hour video surveillance (i.e., high reliability) and reduce redundant video traffic volume (i.e., network friendliness), we propose an edge-centric video surveillance system that provides flexible adaptive control of the image enhancement process and video quality based on an event-driven adaptation. In the proposed system, the video bitrate is adaptively controlled according to the contrast of captured videos and conditions in a monitored area (e.g., 'normal', 'caution', and 'alert'). To confirm the system performance, we evaluate objective image quality, accuracy of human detection and video traffic volume generated by the proposed system. Evaluations conclude that the system can reduce the video traffic while sustaining high-quality visibility.

    DOI

  • Adaptive video streaming on named data networking with iot-assisted content delivery

    Suphakit Awiphan, Kanin Poobai, Jiro Katto

    2018 22nd International Computer Science and Engineering Conference, ICSEC 2018    2018.07

     View Summary

    Adaptive rate video streaming on a novel Internet architecture, called Named Data Networking (NDN), appears to be a promising technology. However, given the source of content on NDN is unknown to the consumer, rate adaptation becomes inefficient. Moreover, the traffic at some nodes holding popular contents still can be congested. In this paper, we utilize the Internet of Things (IoT) device for assisting content delivery at an NDN router that has low bandwidth. The location of IoT devices installation is determined by a metric calculated from link bandwidth, delay, and utilization. We performed the experiments using DASH-NDN-JS on the setup network. The results demonstrate that our proposal could support NDN router to deliver video content to additional consumers efficiently. Thus, the network scalability can be improved with a reasonable cost.

    DOI

  • Adaptive bit-rate video streaming on named data networking with active throughput estimation

    Kanin Poobai, Suphakit Awiphan, Jiro Katto

    ACM International Conference Proceeding Series     75 - 80  2018.04

     View Summary

    Named Data Networking (NDN) has been recently introduced as a new future network architecture. The end-to-end throughput estimation for adaptive bit-rate video streaming on NDN is one of the most challenging topics. Specifically, the end-to-end throughput estimation on NDN appears to be unreliable, since the provider of content is unknown to the consumer. Moreover, partial caching on NDN router's Content Store could temporarily lead to packet loss due to throughput overestimation. In this paper, we present an active Interest adaptation scheme which operates by proactively estimating the throughput in a hop-by-hop fashion. The consumer node is then assisted with the most recent available end-to-end bandwidth. Therefore, the video player can promptly adapt to the change of network condition. The implementation evaluation using NDN-JS and DASH-JS on the setup network demonstrate that our proposed solution provides better average stream bit-rate and consumes less network bandwidth than the traditional system.

    DOI

  • TRUST: A TCP Throughput Prediction Method in Mobile Networks

    Bo Wei, Wataru Kawakami, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto, Shangguang Wang

    2018 IEEE Global Communications Conference, GLOBECOM 2018 - Proceedings    2018

     View Summary

    Throughput prediction is essential for ensuring high quality of service for video streaming transmissions. However, current methods are incapable of accurately predicting throughput in mobile networks, especially for moving user scenarios. Therefore, we propose a TCP throughput prediction method TRUST using machine learning for mobile networks. TRUST has two stages: user movement pattern identification and throughput prediction. In the prediction stage, the long short-term memory (LSTM) model is employed for TCP throughput prediction. TRUST takes all the communication quality factors, sensor data and scenario information into consideration. Field experiments are conducted to evaluate TRUST in various scenarios. The results indicate that TRUST can predict future throughput with higher accuracy than the conventional methods, which decreases the throughput prediction error by maximum 44% under the moving bus scenario.

    DOI

  • Performance Evaluations of Feedback Control Framework Using IoMT Edge Computings (モバイルネットワークとアプリケーション)

    小川 啓吾, 金井 謙治, 竹内 健, 甲藤 二郎, 津田 俊隆

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告 = IEICE technical report : 信学技報   117 ( 308 ) 35 - 40  2017.11

    CiNii

  • CU拡大およびIntra/Inter予測モード切替による8K映像におけるH.265/HEVC符号化画質改善 (集積回路)

    雑賀 新太郎, 竹内 健, 松尾 康孝, 甲藤 二郎

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告 = IEICE technical report : 信学技報   117 ( 276 ) 49 - 52  2017.11

    CiNii

  • History-based throughput prediction with Hidden Markov Model in mobile networks

    Bo Wei, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto

    2016 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo Workshop, ICMEW 2016    2016.09

     View Summary

    Throughput prediction contributes a lot to adaptive bitrate control, adjusting the quality of video streaming accordingly to offer smooth media transmission and save energy at the same time. To solve the problem of throughput prediction for real time communication, this paper puts forward a new history-based throughput prediction method applying Hidden Markov Model in mobile networks. The main purpose of this method is to predict future throughput for real time communication in mobile network. Our novel approach utilizes Hidden Markov Model (HMM) with Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) to deal with history time series of throughput and judge fluctuation factor with total variance when predicting future throughput. By conducting experiments with the new methodology, we compare the accuracy of the proposed method with three other conventional prediction methods. Results show our proposed method could identify data fluctuation effectively and predict future 100s throughput with high accuracy in various situations.

    DOI

  • スループット履歴に基づく高信頼且つ省電力映像配信を実現するバッファ制御

    竹中幸子, 金井謙治, 甲藤二郎, 村瀬 勉

    電子情報通信学会ICM研究会   ICM2016-8   1-6  2016.07

    Research paper, summary (national, other academic conference)  

  • Enhancement of HCCA utilizing capture effect to support high QoS and DCF friendliness

    Masanori Kanda, Jiro Katto, Tutomu Murase

    2016 13th IEEE Annual Consumer Communications and Networking Conference, CCNC 2016     335 - 338  2016.03

     View Summary

    With increase of mobile wireless LAN systems, frequency contamination by the overlapping basic service set (OBSS) becomes a critical issue. In this paper, we focus on HCF controlled channel access (HCCA) to alleviate the OBSS problem. HCCA considers single BSS (SBSS) environment only and suppresses traffic of co-existing DCF (distributed coordination function) based WiFi access points (APs). We propose two methods that utilize capture effects to improve the coexistence capability with DCF networks, that we call DCF friendliness. The first method adjusts transmission timing in HCCA WLAN by applying inter-AP coordination. The second method enables simultaneous communication with surrounding DCF WLANs by changing the frame interval of HCCA to DIFS+1 SlotTime. Simulations show that both the proposed method can achieve higher throughput and better DCF friendliness.

    DOI

  • Energy-Friendly Mobile Video Streaming using High Throughput Transfer and Buffering Strategy

    Sakiko Takenaka, Ishizu Yuya, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto, Murase Tutomu

    IEICE Technical workshop on Communication Quality     CQ2015-141  2016.03

    Research paper, summary (national, other academic conference)  

  • QoS Evaluations of Smart Route Navigation for Efficient Wireless Resource Usage with Multiple Mobile Users

    Kenji Kanai, Sakiko Takenaka, Jiro Katto, Tutomu Murase

    IEICE Technical workshop on Communication Quality     CQ2015-120  2016.03

    Research paper, summary (national, other academic conference)  

  • Energy Consumption Evaluation of ICN Networks

      115 ( 483 ) 213 - 217  2016.03

    CiNii

  • BS-4-3 A Study of Human Detection System on Railways Using Edge Computing

    Takeuchi Masaru, Kanai Kenji, Katto Jiro, Tsuda Toshitaka

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2016 ( 2 ) "S - 102"  2016.03

    CiNii

  • BS-3-36 Throughput prediction based on Hidden Markov Model in mobile network(BS-3. Advanced Networking Technologies for Innovative Information Networks)

    Wei Bo, Kanai Kenji, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2016 ( 2 ) "S - 82"-"S-83"  2016.03

    CiNii

  • BS-4-2 A Study on System Latency Analysis of Edge Cloud Computing

    Imagane Kentaro, Kanai Kenji, Katto Jiro, Tsuda Toshitaka

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2016 ( 2 ) "S - 101"  2016.03

    CiNii

  • D-11-7 Human detection using HOG features and optical flow estimation on train-mounted camera

    Saika Shintaro, Takeuchi Masaru, Orihashi Shota, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2016 ( 2 ) 7 - 7  2016.03

    CiNii

  • D-11-8 Improvement of Human Detection Accuracy by using HOG Features and Thermal Information

    Takahashi Saki, Takeuchi Masaru, Orihashi Shota, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2016 ( 2 ) 8 - 8  2016.03

    CiNii

  • D-11-6 Rail detection for videos by train-mounted camera using edge extraction

    Orihashi Shota, Saika Shintaro, Takahashi Saki, Takeuchi Masaru, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2016 ( 2 ) 6 - 6  2016.03

    CiNii

  • D-11-37 A Guitar Playing Support System using Web Camera Inputs

    Sakauhi Airi, Ue mura, Muraoka Shingo, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2016 ( 2 ) 37 - 37  2016.03

    CiNii

  • B-6-110 Performance Evaluations of 8K Video Streaming over Wi-Fi Networks for a Broadcasting and Communication Integrated Service

    Harada Rintaro, Orihashi Shota, Kanai Kenji, Matsuo Yasutaka, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2016 ( 2 ) 110 - 110  2016.03

    CiNii

  • Improvement of H.265/HEVC Encoding for 8K UHDTV by Detecting Motion Complexity

    Shota Orihashi, Rintaro Harada, Yasutaka Matsuo, Jiro Katto

    2016 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CONSUMER ELECTRONICS (ICCE)     245 - 246  2016

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a method to improve H.265/HEVC encoding performance for 8K UHDTV moving pictures by detecting amount or complexity of object motions. In 8K video, which has high spatial resolution, motion has a big influence on encoding efficiency. The proposed method estimates motion complexity by external process, and selects an optimal prediction mode and search ranges of motion vectors. By this method, we achieved highly efficient and low computation encoding.

    DOI

  • Proactive content caching for mobile video utilizing transportation systems and evaluation through field experiments

    Kanai, K., Muto, T., Katto, J., Yamamura, S., Furutono, T., Saito, T., Mikami, H., Kusachi, K., Tsuda, T., Kameyama, W., Park, Y.-J., Sato, T.

    IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications   34 ( 8 ) 2102 - 2114  2016

     View Summary

    In order to provide high-quality and highly reliable video delivery services for mobile users, especially train passengers, we propose a proactive content caching scheme that uses transportation systems. In our system, we place content servers with cache capability [e.g., content centric networking/named data networking (CCN/NDN)] in every train and station. Video segments encapsulated by MPEG-Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (MPEG-DASH) are distributed and pre-cached by the station servers before the trains arrive at the stations. The trains receive content via high-speed wireless transport, such as wireless LANs or millimeter waves, when they stop at the stations. We developed prototype systems based on hypertext transfer protocol and CCN/NDN protocol, evaluate their performance through two field experiments that uses actual trains, and compare with traditional video streaming over cellular networks. Such evaluations indicate that our system can achieve high-quality video delivery without interruption for up to 50 users simultaneously.

    DOI

  • Mobility Support for Content Oriented Publish/Subscribe System (通信方式)

    Ngo Thang Quang, Yan Zhiwei, Katto Jiro

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告 = IEICE technical report : 信学技報   115 ( 304 ) 31 - 34  2015.11

    CiNii

  • BS-6-16 Performance Analysis of Multimedia Edge Cloud Computing utilizing Transportation Systems(BS-6.Network and service Design, Control and Management)

    Kanai Kenji, Aoki Daiki, Katto Jiro, Tsuda Toshitaka

    Proceedings of the Society Conference of IEICE   2015 ( 2 ) "S - 46"-"S-47"  2015.08

    CiNii

  • BS-6-28 Throughput prediction based on stochastic model of mobile network(BS-6.Network and service Design, Control and Management)

    Wei Bo, Kanai Kenji, Takenaka Sakiko, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the Society Conference of IEICE   2015 ( 2 ) "S - 68"-"S-69"  2015.08

    CiNii

  • BT-2-6 An ICN Use Case in Proactive Video Caching using Transportation Systems

    Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the Society Conference of IEICE   2015 ( 2 ) "SS - 29"-"SS-32"  2015.08

    CiNii

  • Performance Evaluation of Proactive Content Caching for Mobile Video through 50-User Field Experiment (画像工学)

    金井 謙治, 武藤 健史, 甲藤 二郎

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告 = IEICE technical report : 信学技報   115 ( 171 ) 29 - 34  2015.08

    CiNii

  • Performance Evaluation of Proactive Content Caching for Mobile Video through 50-User Field Experiment (メディア工学 コンシューマエレクトロニクス)

    金井 謙治, 武藤 健史, 甲藤 二郎

    映像情報メディア学会技術報告 = ITE technical report   39 ( 29 ) 29 - 34  2015.08

    CiNii

  • Content Offloading Scheme utilizing Transportation Systems for High Speed Content Delivery

    KANAI Kenji, KUROKAWA Sayo, KISARA Hiroto, KATTO Jiro

    IEICE technical report   114 ( 477 ) 445 - 450  2015.03

     View Summary

    In this paper, we introduce a content offload scheme utilizing transportation systems to reduce uploading time. In our proposal, when a mobile user experiences network congestion or communication failure, his/her content data are not uploaded to a content server directly, but are stored by a server located on the transportation systems temporarily and forwarded to the content server after the transportation systems move to other areas where communication quality is high. We employ an analytical model for this scheme and evaluate its performance by using computer simulations and model based analysis. Evaluations conclude that our scheme can drastically reduce uploading time rather than a cellular congestion case as the size if upload data gets larger.

    CiNii

  • A-10-17 Instrument identification of percussion expanding kinds of target instruments

    Oishi Kotaro, Uemura Aiko, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2015   168 - 168  2015.02

    CiNii

  • D-11-4 Rail extraction by edge searching for train-mounted camera

    Orihashi Shota, Iwasaki Haruka, Takada Ryoki, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2015 ( 2 ) 4 - 4  2015.02

    CiNii

  • B-7-65 Improvement of Congestion Control of NDNx

    Ishizu Yuya, Kanai Kenji, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2015 ( 2 ) 215 - 215  2015.02

    CiNii

  • B-6-118 Identification of Train State for Transportation Systems

    Ichino Masatsugu, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2015 ( 2 ) 118 - 118  2015.02

    CiNii

  • B-6-104 Power Consumption Evaluation of ICN toward power-saving video delivery

    Aoki Daiki, Kanai Kenji, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2015 ( 2 ) 104 - 104  2015.02

    CiNii

  • B-6-26 A Proposal on Highly Efficient HCCA utilizing Capture Effect under OBSS Environment

    Kanda Masanori, Kanai Kenji, Katto Jiro, Murase Tutomu

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2015 ( 2 ) 26 - 26  2015.02

    CiNii

  • B-6-126 Evaluations of MPEG-DASH for Multiple Users Using 4K/2K Video

    Harada Rintaro, Kanai Kenji, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2015 ( 2 ) 126 - 126  2015.02

    CiNii

  • B-6-127 Throughput Prediction for Mobile Video Streaming in Mobile Environment

    Konishi Hidenori, Kanai Kenji, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2015 ( 2 ) 127 - 127  2015.02

    CiNii

  • Blind PSNR Estimation of H.264/AVC Compressed Video using Spatio-Temporal Segmentation

    Wakabayashi Masahiro, Katto Jiro, Wada Naofumi

    IEICE technical report. Image engineering   114 ( 460 ) 119 - 124  2015.02

     View Summary

    In video coding, image quality degradation is inevitable due to quantization steps in the encoding process. We had proposed a blind type (no-reference type) PSNR estimation method which uses SVM and natural image statistics. In this paper, we apply a spatio-temporal segmentation method into the conventional method. As a result, we reveal that our method provides more stable results even when the conventional method fails, and can reduce an estimated error of PSNR.

    CiNii

  • Coding control methods of H.265/HEVC for 8K moving pictures considering the amount of movement

    ORIHASHI Shota, TAKADA Ryoki, MATSUO Yasutaka, KATTO Jiro

    IEICE technical report. Image engineering   114 ( 460 ) 131 - 136  2015.02

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a method to control the way of encoding by H.265/HEVC for 8K UHDTV moving pictures. In 8K video, with high resolution, amount of motion is very large. The proposed method estimates the amount of motion by the external process, and sets the search range of motion vectors according to estimated motion amount. At this time, the method expands search ranges per GOP interval to exploit vector interpolation capability by HM. It also selects intra only prediction for movies which have random motion. By this method, we achieve high efficient and low computation encoding.

    CiNii

  • Energy Consumption Evaluation of ICN Toward Power-Saving Video Delivery

    Daiki Aoki, Sakiko Takenaka, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto, Hidenori Nakazato, Marie Hirose

    2015 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON DATA SCIENCE AND DATA INTENSIVE SYSTEMS     390 - 395  2015

     View Summary

    Information Centric Networking (ICN) is a new networking paradigm in which the network provides users with named content, instead of communication channels between hosts. However, many issues, such as naming, routing, resource control, and security, still need to be resolved before it can be realized practically. Further, the energy efficiency of ICNs has not been sufficiently considered. In this study, we evaluate the energy consumption of an ICN network by first measuring the power consumption of actual PCs/smartphones and constructing an energy consumption model. Then, by using the model and the simulator ndnSIM, we calculate the energy consumed by the network. We also evaluate the energy consumed for video delivery, with a view toward power-saving video delivery.

    DOI

  • Content Offloading System on CCN Architecture utilizing Transportation Systems

    Hiroto Kisara, Sayo Kurokawa, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto

    2015 IEEE GLOBECOM WORKSHOPS (GC WKSHPS)    2015

     View Summary

    In order to tackle recent mobile traffic explosion, content offloading using Wifi access points from cellular network is deployed but the Wifi system itself is sometimes heavily congested. In this paper, we propose a content offloading system using transportation systems such as a train. In addition, we aim to incorporate CCN (Content Centric Networking) into our system to exploit its in-network caching capability. We compare three protocol designs, pure IP, IP+CCN hybrid and pure CCN, and show the efficiency of our system using a network simulator.

    DOI

  • Development of Software-Defined Acoustic Communication Platform and its Evaluations

    Ryo Kato, Jiro Katto

    2015 IEEE WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING CONFERENCE (WCNC)     1753 - 1758  2015

     View Summary

    In recent years, researches of underwater sensor networks have continued to investigate environment and resources of the sea. Acoustic waves are used instead of radio waves for wireless communication in underwater. However, dedicated hardware is very expensive, experiments on the sea are very time-consuming, and huge water spaces are necessary to study the underwater acoustic communication. In this paper, we present a cheap and tractable software-defined acoustic communication platform running on PCs using MATLAB, and evaluate its characteristics in a variety of communication methods by changing modulation schemes, error correction codes, transmission power and frequency by using commercial speaker and microphone devices. Our current implementation achieves data rate of up to 4.5 Kbps.

    DOI

  • Transportation Means Identification of Content Delivery System for Consumer Electronic Devices

    Masatsugu Ichino, Hiroshi Yoshiura, Jiro Katto

    2015 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CONSUMER ELECTRONICS (ICCE)     118 - 119  2015

     View Summary

    A system is proposed that uses content-centric networking to deliver content to mobile users. It uses sensor data obtained from the device they are using to identify their means of transport. The content is then delivered in a manner that best matches that means. The means of transport is identified using a combination of features: average magnetic quantity, average value and standard deviation of acceleration, vehicle speed, and maximum power spectrum of acceleration.

    DOI

  • A study on motion estimation using block matching for spatially periodic patterns

    Kimura, J.-I., Komatsu, N., Katto, J., Kodama, M.

    ITE Transactions on Media Technology and Applications   3 ( 1 ) 58 - 66  2015

     View Summary

    An accurate (reliable) motion estimation (ME) algorithm using block matching for sequences including spatially periodic patterns is proposed and evaluated in comparison to conventional algorithms. Mismatch between accurate motion vectors (MVs) and MVs obtained by block matching (BM) which minimizes BM distortion is evaluated. BM distortion caused by MV sampling error (DVSE), which causes ME errors, is discovered. A new ME algorithm which uses the maximum value of DVSE (maxDVSE) is proposed. As for the proposed algorithm, maxDVSE is calculated for each block as a threshold of accurate vector candidates, and all candidate vectors for each block in a frame are stored. Accurate vectors are selected from the candidate vectors by finding so-called "anchor vectors" (namely, vectors at a unique point on spatially periodic patterns). The MVs are selected in a process starting from one block and propagated to neighboring blocks. Simulations are performed and the results show that average precision of the proposed ME algorithm is 98.9%, which is superior to that of other conventional algorithms.

    DOI

  • Implementation Evaluation of Proactive Content Caching using DASH-NDN-JS

    Takeshi Muto, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto

    2015 IEEE WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING CONFERENCE (WCNC)     2239 - 2244  2015

     View Summary

    Proactive content caching scheme utilizing transportation systems, especially on trains, was proposed in order to provide a robust content delivery with efficient wireless resource usage. This system requires content servers with NDN capability to be placed on every station and trains. The mechanism is to pre-cache the contents that users request to the station server before the train arrives, and the train server caches the content during its stoppage time. With this mechanism, users are able to have a continuous playback of videos while riding on trains. In this paper, we have proposed a browser-based implementation, called DASH-NDN-JS, for this proactive content caching scheme. We evaluate this scheme, and experiment with multiple users to see how it will affect the video quality each user will achieve and the bandwidth consumption between the connections. Our evaluations conclude that the increase of users lowers the video quality, but avoids congestion depending on what video content each user will want to request.

    DOI

  • Improvement of 8K UHDTV Picture Quality for H.265/HEVC by Global Zoom Estimation

    Ryoki Takada, Shota Orihashi, Yasutaka Matsuo, Jiro Katto

    2015 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CONSUMER ELECTRONICS (ICCE)     58 - 59  2015

     View Summary

    Block-based Motion Estimation (ME) has been widely used in various video coding standards to remove temporal redundancy. However, this ME has limitation that it can only compensate for a parallel translation. Various methods have been proposed for other motions such as zooming. In recent years, 8K UHDTV (7,680 x 4,320 pixels) has been developed. Since 8K has large motion by zooming that is difficult to be predicted by block matching, it is important to improve zoom motion estimation. In this paper, to handle zooming in 8K video sequences, we propose a method for improving the picture quality by global zoom estimation based on motion vector analysis extracted by block matching.

    DOI

  • Performance Evaluation of Proactive Content Caching for Mobile Video through 50-User Field Experiment

    Kenji Kanai, Takeshi Muto, Jiro Katto, Wataru Kameyama, Yong-Jin Park, Takuro Sato, Shinya Yamamura, Tomoyuki Furutono, Takafumi Saito, Hirohide Mikami, Kaoru Kusachi, Toshitaka Tsuda

    2015 IEEE GLOBECOM WORKSHOPS (GC WKSHPS)    2015

     View Summary

    Providing robust content delivery service, such as Video on Demand, with efficient wireless resource usage is important for mobile users. To achieve this, we have proposed a proactive content caching scheme utilizing transportation systems (e.g., train). Because our previous prototype is immature and has a scalability issue, in this paper, we introduce an efficient transmission mechanism of Interest messages to improve throughput efficiency in mobile NDN, develop two prototypes based on NDN and HTTP, and then evaluate prototype performances by performing larger-scale field experiments on actual commercial railroad line. Evaluations conclude that our system can achieve high efficient content transfer and fully utilize wireless network bandwidth. As a result, our system can provide high-quality video streaming for up to 50 users simultaneously.

    DOI

  • Live version identification with audio scene detection

    Ishikura, K., Uemura, A., Katto, J.

    Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)   8935   408 - 417  2015

     View Summary

    © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. This paper presents a live version music identification system by modifying the conventional cover song identification system. The proposed system includes two stages: a live version identification phase and an audio scenedetection phase. We improve the accuracy of the system by weighting similarity scores in the live version identification phase and discriminating scenes by using RMS, pulse clarity and similarity scores. Results show that the proposed method performs better than the previous method. The final algorithm achieves 70% accuracy on average.

  • A Highly-Reliable Buffer Strategy Based on Long-Term Throughput Prediction for Mobile Video Streaming

    Kenji Kanai, Konishi Hidenori, Yuya Ishizu, Jiro Katto

    2015 12TH ANNUAL IEEE CONSUMER COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING CONFERENCE     677 - 682  2015

     View Summary

    Providing robust video streaming along with efficient wireless resource usage is necessary for mobile users, especially on subway, and mobile carriers. To achieve this, we propose a highly-reliable buffer strategy based on long-term throughput prediction. Our approach has two elements which are called "long-term throughput prediction" and "guaranteed playout buffer filling mechanism." To avoid any video freeze due to network quality degradation, our approach calculates the optimal amount of playout buffer and schedules video download timing in a theoretical manner. We evaluate its performance via experiments in real environment. Evaluations conclude that our approach can provide highly-reliable video streaming and also achieve to reduce the average playout buffer size on the client.

    DOI

  • Energy-Efficient Video Streaming over Named Data Networking using Interest Aggregation and Playout Buffer Control

    Yuya Ishizu, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto, Hidenori Nakazato, Marie Hirose

    2015 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON DATA SCIENCE AND DATA INTENSIVE SYSTEMS     318 - 324  2015

     View Summary

    In wireless networks, it is important to realize energy-efficient video delivery. To do this, we introduce energy-efficient video streaming over named data networking (NDN). In our proposed approach, we focus on two areas, namely, to improve the throughput performance by Interest aggregation, and to reduce the overhead energy using playout buffer-size control. We evaluate the power savings realized by our method using a hardware power-measurement tool. Our results show that Interest aggregation can realize an approximately 50% reduction in energy compared to conventional NDN implementation, and a large playout buffer size can reduce the energy by approximately 37% compared to the case of a small playout buffer size.

    DOI

  • Outbound Face Selection Considering Response Time and Buffer Usage for CCN Adaptive Video Streaming

    Suphakit Awiphan, Takeshi Muto, Zhou Su, Jiro Katto

    2015 IEEE CONFERENCE ON STANDARDS FOR COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING (CSCN)     181 - 186  2015

     View Summary

    Content Centric Networking (CCN) has been emerged as a new networking paradigm. In CCN, adaptive video streaming is one of the most promising technologies. However, rate adaptation and outbound face selection are the primary concern since a node cannot reliably estimate the end-to-end throughput. In this paper, we propose a strategy for outbound face selection considering both response time and bit-rate of lost packets. These two aspects facilitate the node to choose which outbound face offers the best QoE. In a case where bit-rate of lost packets is greater than a half of transmitted bit-rate, the node will re-select outbound faces to avoid intermittent streaming. The experiments performed using CCNx demonstrate that our approach provides better average stream bit-rate than the earlier response time based method.

    DOI

  • Evaluations of 4K/2K Video Streaming Using MPEG-DASH with Buffering Behavior Analysis

    Rintaro Harada, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto

    2015 IEEE 4TH GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON CONSUMER ELECTRONICS (GCCE)     539 - 540  2015

     View Summary

    In this paper, we evaluate performances of 4K/2K video streaming using DASH-JS over 2.4/5GHz WiFi networks. We confirmed that fluctuation of reception quality was mainly caused by the minimum representation rate of MPEG-DASH contents and overlapped ON cycles for packet transmission.

    DOI

  • QoS Improvement of Mobile 4K Video by Using Radio Quality Map

    Sakiko Takenaka, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto

    2015 IEEE 4TH GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON CONSUMER ELECTRONICS (GCCE)     541 - 542  2015

     View Summary

    Effective use of various wireless network interfaces is expected. In this paper, we evaluate Quality of Service characteristics of mobile 4K video using a radio communication quality map. We collect radio communication quality (e.g. throughput) by smartphones and visualize the quality in a heat map. Using this map, we select two routes that are expected to bring the highest and the lowest communication quality. We then evaluate QoS characteristic of 4K video streaming using MPEG-DASH on these two routes. The result shows that a good route user can achieve 1.5 times higher communication quality than a bad route user.

    DOI

  • An Adaptive H.265/HEVC Encoding Control for 8K UHDTV Movies based on Motion Complexity Estimation

    Shota Orihashi, Rintaro Harada, Yasutaka Matsuo, Jiro Katto

    2015 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON MULTIMEDIA (ISM)     343 - 346  2015

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a method to control H.265/HEVC encoding for 8K UHDTV moving pictures by detecting amount or complexity of object motions. In 8K video, which has very high spatial resolution, motion has a big influence on encoding efficiency and processing time. The proposed method estimates motion features by external process which uses local feature points matching between two frames, selects an optimal prediction mode and determines search ranges of motion vectors. Experiments show we can detect motion complexity of 8K movies by using local feature matching between frames and we can select optimal configurations of encoding. By our method, we achieved highly efficient and low computation encoding.

    DOI

  • A Study on Comfort Route Navigation with Proactive Content Delivery and an Offloading Scheme for Mobile Devices

    KANAI Kenji, TAKENAKA Sakiko, KATTO Jiro, MURASE Tutomu

    IEICE technical report   114 ( 297 ) 87 - 92  2014.11

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a "comfort route" navigation system with proactive content delivery and an offloading scheme for mobile users. To search an optimal path for highly reliable video streaming, we apply a delivery scheduling algorithm, which has been proposed for proactive content delivery scheme, to a path-finding problem. In preliminary evaluation, the result concludes that our approach can drastically reduce transmission time rather than a cellular usage case. This is because the mobile user can communicate with only high-speed hot spots. So, we expect that our approach could also save user's mobile battery life.

    CiNii

  • Evaluations of MPEG-DASH over Mobile Wireless Networks Using 4K Video

    TAKENAKA Sakiko, HARADA Rintaro, KUROKAWA Sayo, MUTO Takeshi, KANAI Kenji, KATTO Jiro

    IEICE technical report   114 ( 297 ) 69 - 74  2014.11

     View Summary

    In this paper, we evaluate Quality of Service characteristics of MPEG-DASH using 4K video over various wireless networks. We also evaluate the effects of various environments, such as the number of users who share the same wireless channel or bandwidth and users' behaviors (e.g. still, walking, and moving on subway), over Long Term Evolution (LTE), 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz Wi-Fi networks. The results conclude that, in case of LTE and 5 GHz Wi-Fi networks, mobile users enjoy high quality 4K video without any video playback interruption in any situations, even on subway. However, in case of 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi networks, mobile users are forced to experience very low quality video with long video playback freeze. This is because network quality of 2.4GHz Wi-Fi network is quite low due to interference waves from other access points of which wireless channels are severely overlapped.

    CiNii

  • Proactive Content Caching and Delivery Scheme utilizing Transportation Systems

    Sato Takuro, Park Yong Jin, Tsuda Toshitaka, Goto Shigeki, Tanaka Yoshiaki, Kameyama Wataru, Shimamoto Shigeru, Katto Jiro, Ichino Masatsugu

    IEICE technical report   114 ( 252 ) 93 - 97  2014.10

     View Summary

    In the future, network traffic will be increasing according to demand of big traffic of moving picture on the mobile communication environment. For processing large traffic, virtualized network based on SDN (Software defined Network) has been provided for purpose of cloud networking as CDN (Contents Delivery Network). On the other hand, the ICN (Information Centric Network) has been proposing as IP independent network which isn't based on IP address. And it has been discussing about advantages compared to the IP network. This paper shows the experimental results of Proactive Content Caching and Delivery Scheme utilizing Transportation Systems. This research has been supported by SCOPE organized by Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications.

    CiNii

  • An Adaptive Buffer Control Technique Based on Long-term Throughput Prediction for Robust Video Streaming

    KANAI Kenji, KONISHI Hidenori, ISHIZU Yuya, KATTO Jiro

    IEICE technical report. MoNA, Mobile network and applications   114 ( 210 ) 7 - 12  2014.09

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose an adaptive buffer control technique for robust video streaming. Our approach has two elements which are called "long-term throughput prediction" and "guaranteed playout buffer filling." Since network quality degradation can be detected by using long-term throughput prediction, playout buffer also can be adaptively and proactively controlled. To avoid any video playback interruption due to the network quality degradation, our approach calculates the optimal amount of playout buffer and schedules video download timing in a theoretical manner. We evaluate its performance in real environment and then validate the effectiveness of our proposal.

    CiNii

  • 1-4 Evaluations of MPEG-DASH over Mobile Wireless Networks Using 4K Video

    HARADA Rintaro, KUROKAWA Sayo, TAKENAKA Sakiko, MUTO Takeshi, KANAI Kenji, KATTO Jiro

    Proceedings of the ... ITE annual convention   ( 2014 ) 1 - 4-1"-"1-4-2"  2014.09

     View Summary

    We evaluated various characteristics of 4K video streaming using DASH-JS over LTE, public Wi-Fi services and WiMAX. We did experiments while stopping, walking, and riding the train. We found that a mobile user could enjoy smooth video streaming by using these networks even 4K video.

    CiNii

  • Future of Journal(Focus)

    Katto Jiro

    The journal of the Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers   68 ( 8 ) i  2014.08

    CiNii

  • Performance Validation of Proactive Content Caching utilizing Transportation Systems by Field Experiment

    KANAI Kenji, MUTO Takeshi, KISARA Hiroto, KATTO Jiro, TSUDA Toshitaka, KAMEYAMA Wataru, Park Yong-Jin, SATO Takuro

    IEICE technical report. MoNA, Mobile network and applications   114 ( 31 ) 191 - 196  2014.05

     View Summary

    We propose proactive content caching scheme utilizing transportation systems for robust video streaming with efficient wireless resources usage. In this paper, we develop a prototype system and evaluate its performances by using actual train vehicles and computer simulations. Evaluations conclude that our system can achieve higher-speed and highly-reliable video streaming rather than traditional CDN scenarios using cellular networks.

    CiNii

  • Performance Validation of Proactive Content Caching utilizing Transportation Systems by Field Experiment

    Kenji Kanai, Takeshi Muto, Hiroto Kisara, Jiro Katto, Toshitaka Tsuda, Wataru Kameyama, Yong-Jin Park, Takuro Sato

    IPSJ SIG Notes   2014 ( 30 ) 1 - 6  2014.05

     View Summary

    We propose proactive content caching scheme utilizing transportation systems for robust video streaming with efficient wireless resources usage. In this paper, we develop a prototype system and evaluate its performances by using actual train vehicles and computer simulations. Evaluations conclude that our system can achieve higher-speed and highly-reliable video streaming rather than traditional CDN scenarios using cellular networks.

    CiNii

  • Performance Validation of Proactive Content Caching utilizing Transportation Systems by Field Experiment

    Kenji Kanai, Takeshi Muto, Hiroto Kisara, Jiro Katto, Toshitaka Tsuda, Wataru Kameyama, Yong-Jin Park, Takuro Sato

    IPSJ SIG technical reports   2014 ( 30 ) 1 - 6  2014.05

     View Summary

    We propose proactive content caching scheme utilizing transportation systems for robust video streaming with efficient wireless resources usage. In this paper, we develop a prototype system and evaluate its performances by using actual train vehicles and computer simulations. Evaluations conclude that our system can achieve higher-speed and highly-reliable video streaming rather than traditional CDN scenarios using cellular networks.

    CiNii

  • Performance Evaluation of VLC Streaming using GNU Radio

    MATSUMOTO Mitsuhiro, TAKIYAMA Ryota, KAREI Yuto, KATTO Jiro

    IEICE technical report   113 ( 472 ) 485 - 490  2014.03

     View Summary

    In recent years, opportunities to watch video contents while moving have increased and it is predicted that video contents will cover approximately 70% of the mobile traffic in 2017. We have tried power saving transmission of a mobile video, but it has been difficult to customize physical layer functionalities by existing SDKs on PC. Therefore, in this paper, we utilize GNU Radio, which has been widely used as a development tool of the software radio, and evaluate the performance of VLC streaming while changing modulation, transmission gain, and etc.

    CiNii

  • Performance Analysis and Experimental Validation of Proactive Delivery Scheduling in the Content Delivery System utilizing Transportation Systems

    KANAI Kenji, MUTO Takeshi, KATTO Jiro, TSUDA Toshitaka, KAMEYAMA Wataru

    IEICE technical report   113 ( 472 ) 479 - 484  2014.03

     View Summary

    We have introduced a proactive content delivery system utilizing transportation systems for next generation mobile networks. In this paper, we propose a proactive delivery scheduling, which is called "Smart Scheduler." This scheduler calculates contents quality and quantity and also selects delivery location and timing. To validate and evaluate our method, we experiment in the real environments. Experimental results conduct that our method performs effectively.

    CiNii

  • Analysis and Experimental Validation of Comfort Route Navigation in HetNet

    KANAI Kenji, KATTO Jiro, MURASE Tutomu

    IEICE technical report   113 ( 472 ) 531 - 536  2014.03

     View Summary

    We have already introduced an analytical model for Comfort Route (CR) Navigation providing high communication quality routes to users. In this paper, to estimate CR performance in more realistic environment, we modify the previous analytical model to Heterogeneous Network (HetNet). To validate our model, we employ several scenarios in real experiments. We evaluate throughputs characteristics at ten public Wi-Fi spots in Takadanobaba, which is a city near to our university. We compare the results in real experiments and prove that our model works well with high accuracy.

    CiNii

  • B-6-90 Identification of Person State for Transportation Systems

    Ichino Masatsugu, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2014 ( 2 ) 90 - 90  2014.03

    CiNii

  • B-6-75 A Study on Improvement of Throughput Prediction Accuracy in Mobile Environment

    Konishi Hidenori, Kanai Kenji, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2014 ( 2 ) 75 - 75  2014.03

    CiNii

  • B-6-88 Proactive Content Caching and Delivery Scheme utilizing Transportation Systems

    Sato Takuro, Park Yong Jin, Tsuda Toshitaka, Goto Shigeki, Tanaka Yoshiaki, Kameyama Wataru, Shimamoto Shigeru, Katto Jiro, Ichino Masatsugu

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2014 ( 2 ) 88 - 88  2014.03

    CiNii

  • B-6-86 Mobility Support in ICN Testbed

    Muto Takeshi, Katto Jiro, Tsuda Toshitaka, Kameyama Wataru

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2014 ( 2 ) 86 - 86  2014.03

    CiNii

  • B-6-94 Proactive Delivery Scheduling in the Content Delivery System utilizing Transportation Systems

    Katto Jiro, Kanai Kenji, Tsuda Toshitaka, Kameyama Wataru

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2014 ( 2 ) 94 - 94  2014.03

    CiNii

  • B-6-96 Proactive Content Caching and Delivery Scheme using Hybrid Protocols of CCN and IP utilizing Transportation Systems

    KAMEYAMA Wataru, TSUDA Toshitaka, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2014 ( 2 ) 96 - 96  2014.03

    CiNii

  • B-6-35 Evaluation of Energy Consumption in Video Streaming by Smart-Phones

    Ishizu Yuya, Kanai Kenji, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2014 ( 2 ) 35 - 35  2014.03

    CiNii

  • B-6-89 Simulation Evaluation of the Content Delivery System utilizing Transportation Systems

    Kisara Hiroto, Katto Jiro, Tsuda Toshitaka, Kameyama Wataru

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2014 ( 2 ) 89 - 89  2014.03

    CiNii

  • B-6-39 Performance Evaluation of Proactive Delivery Scheduling and its Multi-channel Extension

    Kanai Kenii, Katto Jiro, Tsuda Tositaka, Kameyama Wataru

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2014 ( 2 ) 39 - 39  2014.03

    CiNii

  • B-6-125 Power Consumption Evaluation of Video Streaming Application Using a Smartphone

    Aoki Daiki, Kanai Kenji, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2014 ( 2 ) 125 - 125  2014.03

    CiNii

  • B-6-109 Performance Evaluation of Overlapped HCCA and CSMA/CA Access Points

    Kanda Masanori, Katto Jiro, Murase Tsutomu

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2014 ( 2 ) 109 - 109  2014.03

    CiNii

  • A-10-9 A Study on Software Acoustic Communication Platform using MATLAB

    Kato Ryo, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2014   150 - 150  2014.03

    CiNii

  • A-10-14 Effect of Training Data and Error Tendency in Music Chord Recognition

    Hagiwara Shuichi, Katto Jiro, Uemura Aiko, Ishikura Kazumasa

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2014   155 - 155  2014.03

    CiNii

  • A-15-31 An Audio Live Version Identification System with Audio Scene Detection

    Ishikura Kazumasa, Uemura Aiko, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2014   202 - 202  2014.03

    CiNii

  • D-11-9 Circular traffic sign recognition by circular deformation

    Takada Ryoki, Orihashi Shota, Hasegawa Hirotoshi, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2014 ( 2 ) 9 - 9  2014.03

    CiNii

  • RoCNet: Spatial Cellular Traffic Offloading over Store-Carry-Forward Paradigm

    IZUMIKAWA Haruki, KATTO Jiro

    The IEICE transactions on information and systems (Japanese edition)   97 ( 3 ) 369 - 380  2014.03

    CiNii

  • PSNR Prediction of H.264/AVC Compressed Video using Image Analysis

    Wakabayashi Masahiro, Kumekawa Takahiro, Katto Jiro, Wada Naofumi

    IEICE technical report. Image engineering   113 ( 434 ) 187 - 192  2014.02

     View Summary

    In video coding, image quality degradation is inevitable due to quantization steps in the encoding process. We had proposed a blind type (no-reference type) PSNR estimation method which uses SVM and natural image statistics. In this paper, as an application of the blind PSNR estimation, we propose a method to predict PSNRs of video sequences before applying video compression by using image features of the original video sequences. As a result, we reveal that we can predict sufficient PSNRs for more than 80% frames within 5dB prediction errors.

    CiNii

  • Improvement of 2-D Picture Quality for H.265/HEVC using Foreground and Boundary Regions Detection by 3-D Depth Map

    IWASAKI Shinya, TAKADA Ryoki, MATSUO Yasutaka, KATTO Jiro

    IEICE technical report. Image engineering   113 ( 434 ) 159 - 164  2014.02

     View Summary

    International standardization of multi-view and 3D video coding formats is now the hot topic at MPEG. For the latter, as an encoder input, video signals and depth maps are utilized simultaneously for efficient compression. Moreover, recently, video sequence with a depth map can be easily taken by an RGB-D (depth) sensor like Kinect. In this paper, we try to improve picture quality of H.265/HEVC compressed streams by using depth map. Concretely, we separate video signals into foreground and background, and detect the position of foreground regions by using this information. Furthermore, we detect boundary regions of video signals by using the depth map, and we achieve quality improvement of H.265/HEVC.

    CiNii

  • Blind PSNR Estimation of Compressed Motion Pictures and Its Fast Implementation

    KUMEKAWA Takahiro, Wakabayashi Masahiro, KATTO Jiro, WADA Naofumi

    IEICE technical report. Image engineering   113 ( 434 ) 193 - 198  2014.02

     View Summary

    Generally, PSNR (Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio) is used as an index of the image quality objective evaluation, and it is necessary to prepare an original image. However, it is usually difficult to prepare the original images in case of CGM (Consumer Generated Media) movies such as YouTube etc. The authors have been working on blind PSNR estimation which estimates PSNRs of compressed and decoded videos without using original images and bit-stream analysis. In our previous study, we have estimated the quality of all frames to investigate its estimation accuracy, but we focus on quasi real-time implementation of our approach in this paper. In contrast with our conventional method, we sample the results of our blind PSNR estimation at a certain interval and interpolate PSNRs of other frames based on their AC power levels.

    CiNii

  • Acceleration of Image Mosaicking for Omnidirectional In-vehicle Camera Images

    HASEGAWA Hirotoshi, TAKADA Ryoki, ORIHASHI Shota, KATTO Jiro

    IEICE technical report. Image engineering   113 ( 434 ) 37 - 42  2014.02

     View Summary

    In this paper, we describe a method to accelerate image mosaicking for omnidirectional in-vehicle camera images. In this research, it is assumed that omnidirectional in-vehicle camera images are taken from six cameras (front, back and each sides) on the car. We want to mosaic images to create an all-around images and, in order to accelerate the procedure, we extract two steps which are independent of each other. One is estimation of a camera matrix from images, and the other is image composition by the camera matrix. By using the camera matrix that was estimated for a previous frame to a current frame, we skip the camera matrix estimation process. Furthermore, by applying a correctly estimated camera matrix for an image pair to a failed pair, we confirmed improvement of the compositing results.

    CiNii

  • Performance Analysis and Validation of High QoS Route Navigation for Mobile Users

    Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto, Tutomu Murase

    2014 16th Asia-Pacific Network Operations and Management Symposium (APNOMS)    2014

     View Summary

    Improving Quality of Service (QoS) in wireless networks is important and necessary for mobile users. We have previously proposed Comfort Route (CR) Navigation, which navigates users to their destinations using high QoS communication areas, such as Wi-Fi APs, rather than the geographical Shortest Route (SR). In this paper, we employ an analytical model to estimate the CR gain in a theoretical manner which assumes that available cellular and Wi-Fi throughputs are uniform within their coverage. The CR gain is computed by using basic parameters, including wireless network bandwidth and transmission time. To validate our model, we compare simulation results and real observation. These results conclude that the CR gain could estimate by using our analytical model.

    DOI

  • Performance Evaluations of Comfort Route Navigation Providing High-QoS Communication for Mobile Users

    Kanai, K., Katto, J., Murase, T.

    ITE Transactions on Media Technology and Applications   2 ( 4 ) 327 - 335  2014

     View Summary

    To improve Quality of Service in wireless networks while mobile users travel, we introduce Comfort Route Navigation (CRN) which is a navigation system based on a user centric mobility management for next generation wireless networks. CRN provides an optimal route that satisfies user needs, such as obtaining maximum wireless resources. To achieve CRN, we construct an access point (AP) map of Shinjuku city. To reflect quality of APs in this map, we evaluate throughputs at seven public Wi-Fi spots. Based on these observations, we evaluate performance of our CRN via computer simulations and in a real environment. These evaluations conduct that a CRN user could obtain higher communication quality rather than a Shortest Route (SR) user. These evaluations also conclude that CRN gain depends heavily on the quality and location of the best broadband spot.

    DOI

  • Improvement of 2-D picture quality for H.265/HEVC by occluded region detection using 3-D depth map

    Shinya Iwasaki, Ryoki Takada, Yasutaka Matsuo, Jiro Katto

    Digest of Technical Papers - IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics     105 - 106  2014

     View Summary

    In recent years, video sequence with a depth map can be taken by a camera with RGB-D (depth) sensor like Kinect. On the other hand, quality degradation at occluded regions is inevitable when conventional 2-D video coding is applied. In this paper, we propose usage of an occluded region detection supported by the depth map for improvement of 2-D image coding quality. Experiments show that further improvement of picture quality at the whole of frame and occluded regions is addressed for H.265/HEVC compressed streams. © 2014 IEEE.

    DOI

  • Selecting higher wireless connection capacity routes with/without predicting congestion in access networks

    Murase, T., Motoyoshi, G., Sonoda, K., Katto, J.

    ITE Transactions on Media Technology and Applications   2 ( 4 ) 345 - 352  2014

     View Summary

    It is important for multimedia mobile users to obtain sufficient resources and a stable capacity of resources. Network resources such as available bandwidth for mobile users, however, fluctuate depending on the level of background traffic. The deployment of several access points enables mobile users to access more network resources on the way to their destination by taking the longcut route rather than the shortcut route. These users pay an extra cost to take the longcut route but obtain greater gains in throughput over the shortcut route. Previous research has shown that the gain-to-cost ratio can be more than double for the longcut route. No considerations, however, have been made for the case in which resource fluctuation is due to network congestion. This paper investigates the quality of service (QoS) for a longcut route with fewer resources (real resources) compared with that for one with the total resources (ideal resources) in the longcut route calculation. The results show that on average, users have gains of approximately double in real resources than their gains in ideal resources. This finding indicates that users can greatly improve their gains if they can accurately predict the resource fluctuation.

    DOI

  • Blind PSNR Estimation of Compressed Video Sequences Supported by Machine Learning

    Kumekawa, T., Wakabayashi, M., Katto, J., Wada, N.

    ITE Transactions on Media Technology and Applications   2 ( 4 ) 353 - 361  2014

     View Summary

    The peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) used as an index of image quality usually requires original images, but this is difficult for consumer generated content such as videos on YouTube. Therefore, we developed two blind PSNR estimation methods without bit-stream analysis in which multiple support vector machines are prepared to learn differently encoded images in PSNR
    using an entire frame and dividing the frame into two areas. We confirmed that higher estimation accuracy is possible for the latter method against that using the entire frame.

    DOI

  • Improvement of Throughput Prediction Accuracy for Video Streaming in Mobile Environment

    Hidenori Konishi, Kenji Kanai, Jiro Katto

    2014 IEEE 3RD GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON CONSUMER ELECTRONICS (GCCE)     749 - 750  2014

     View Summary

    With the increasing demand for video streaming in mobile environment, we have been tackling a research on throughput prediction based on the measurement history data in order to improve service quality[1][2]. Since throughput fluctuation occurs sharply in mobile environment, useless packet loss or congestion occurs when available network bandwidth is insufficient compared to the bit rate of video contents. Hence, it is possible to improve the quality of service by deducing the available throughput and selecting appropriate bit rate for the video contents. In this paper, we propose a throughput prediction method that considers mobile locations of a train and their throughput history and show promising experimental results.

    DOI

  • Comfort Route Navigation Providing High Communication Quality and Energy Saving for Mobile Devices

    Kenji Kanai, Hidenori Konishi, Jiro Katto, Tutomu Murase

    2014 IEEE 3RD GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON CONSUMER ELECTRONICS (GCCE)     547 - 548  2014

     View Summary

    Extending battery life for smartphones while using wireless networks is important. In this paper, we propose Comfort Route for Energy Saving (CRFES), which helps users extend the battery life of their smartphones by navigating to their destinations via Quality of Service (QoS)-compliant energy-efficient spots such as Wi-Fi spots. To create CRFES, we construct maps of Wi-Fi spots using logging software we developed for Android phones. In addition to locations, we record actual throughput and energy consumption observed in cellular/Wi-Fi networks. So comfort route navigation is done by choosing a route which minimizes energy consumption instead of choosing the shortest path. Evaluations are carried out by computer simulation and one real city map. The results conclude that CRFES can save the battery life by approximately 50% by spending 1.6 times time cost to reach their destinations on average.

    DOI

  • Traffic Sign Recognition by Distorted Template Matching

    Ryoki Takada, Jiro Katto

    2014 IEEE 3RD GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON CONSUMER ELECTRONICS (GCCE)     416 - 418  2014

     View Summary

    Traffic sign recognition contributes to the safety of drivers and people around the car. The system analyzes the road ahead images taken by on-vehicle camera, but blurred and distorted images make it difficult to recognize correct traffic sign. In this paper, we propose a method that deforms from ellipses to perfect circles and applies template matching with distorted sign templates.

    DOI

  • Improvement of Height Estimation of Low Birth Weight Infants, Newborns and Infants Image Processing System Using Kinect

    Chihiro Noguchi, Jiro Katto, Kenji Ohyama

    2014 IEEE 3RD GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON CONSUMER ELECTRONICS (GCCE)     221 - 222  2014

     View Summary

    Height data is very important not only as an indicator of growth in low birth weight infants, newborn, infants (infants below), but also for early detection of disease such as dwarfism. In this paper, we consider height estimation by image processing that targets lying infants for the purpose of reducing the burden of infants, doctors and parents. Furthermore, we compare results of using a single image and multiple images obtained by moving pictures, and show the latter contributes to improvement.

    DOI

  • Effects of audio compression on chord recognition

    Uemura, A., Ishikura, K., Katto, J.

    Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)   8326 LNCS ( PART 2 ) 345 - 352  2014

     View Summary

    Feature analysis of audio compression is necessary to achieve high accuracy in musical content recognition and content-based music information retrieval (MIR). Bit rate differences are expected to adversely affect musical content analysis and content-based MIR results because the frequency response might be changed by the encoding. In this paper, we specifically examine its effect on the chroma vector, which is a commonly used feature vector for music signal processing. We analyze sound qualities extracted from encoded music files with different bit rates and compare them with the chroma features of original songs obtained using datasets for chord recognition. © 2014 Springer International Publishing.

    DOI

  • Proactive Content Caching utilizing Transportation Systems and its Evaluation by Field Experiment

    Kenji Kanai, Takeshi Muto, Hiroto Kisara, Jiro Katto, Toshitaka Tsuda, Wataru Kameyama, Yong-Jin Park, Takuro Sato

    2014 IEEE GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONS CONFERENCE (GLOBECOM 2014)     1382 - 1387  2014

     View Summary

    Providing robust content delivery along with efficient wireless resource usage is important for next generation wireless networks. To achieve this, we propose a proactive content caching scheme utilizing transportation systems, especially trains. In our system, we place content servers with CCN capability to every train and station. Segments of video contents are pre-cached by the station servers before trains arrive at stations. Trains receive the contents via high-speed wireless transport while they stop at the stations. We develop a prototype system based on IP and CCN Hybrid protocols. We evaluate its performance by field experiment and compare with traditional CDN scenarios using cellular networks. Evaluations conclude that our system can achieve high-speed and high-reliable video delivery without freezing.

    DOI

  • GMM-UBMに基づく話者認識方式のウルフ安全性評価

    大木哲史, 大塚玲, 甲藤二郎

    電子情報通信学会論文誌 A(Web)   J97-A ( 12 )  2014

    J-GLOBAL

  • Performance Analysis of Comfort Route Navigation with Energy Saving for Mobile Devices

    KANAI Kenji, KATTO Jiro, MURASE Tutomu

    IEICE technical report   113 ( 292 ) 97 - 102  2013.11

     View Summary

    Recently, extending battery life of mobile devices is important for mobile users. We have already introduced Comfort Route (CR) Navigation with energy saving. In this paper, to estimate energy saving effect in a theoretical manner, we employ the analytical model for this route. We find that the effect depends on four basic parameters, such as cellular and Wi-Fi throughput, energy consumption for cellular, Wi-Fi, and idle states, CR and Shortest route cellular usage ratio, and CR longcut ratio. To validate our model, we compare to simulated results and prove that our model works well with high accuracy.

    CiNii

  • A Study of Mobile Performance Prediction to Control Wasteful Video Delivery toward GreenICN

    Izumikawa Haruki, Konishi Hidenori, Katto Jiro

    IEICE technical report   113 ( 292 ) 87 - 90  2013.11

     View Summary

    With the increasing demand for the energy-efficient communications, we have been tackling the research on the efficient video delivery and caching technologies over ICN (Information Centric Network) as one of the research items of the GreenlCN (Architecture and Applications of Green Information Centric Networking) project. One way to make the video delivery more efficient would be to cut down on the packet losses during the delivery. Since the actual available throughput that is lower than the video delivery rate causes the packet losses, the efficient video delivery can be realized by deducing the actual throughput. In this paper, we propose the mobile performance prediction method where the throughput is predicted based on the two criteria. One is the throughput that is estimated based on the observed radio signal quality. The other is the estimated throughput based on the history of the connected base station and time to access. In addition, we show some results of the two months-long experiment measuring hourly fluctuation in throughput.

    CiNii

  • Performance Analysis of Comfort Route Navigation Providing High Communication Quality for Mobile Devices

    KANAI Kenji, KATTO Jiro, MURASE Tutomu

    IEICE technical report   113 ( 244 ) 43 - 48  2013.10

     View Summary

    Recently, improving Quality of Service (QoS) in wireless networks is important for mobile users. We have already introduced Comfort Route (CR) Navigation providing high communication quality. In this paper, to estimate CR performance in a theoretical manner, we employ the analytical model for CR. To validate our model, we compare to simulated results and prove that our model works well with high accuracy. We find that the CR gain depends on four basic parameters, such as the cellular and Wi-Fi throughput ratio, the shortest route Wi-Fi coverage area, the CR cellular usage ratio, and user cost which specifies longcut margin. We also find that the best CR gain strongly depends on the cellular and Wi-Fi throughput ratio.

    CiNii

  • BS-7-38 Content Caching using Parked Vehicles in Vehicular Networks

    Su Zhou, Wang Yu, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the Society Conference of IEICE   2013 ( 2 ) "S - 107"  2013.09

    CiNii

  • BS-7-16 Performance Analysis of Comfort Route Navigation Providing High Communication Quality for Mobile Devices

    Kanai Kenji, Katto Jiro, Murase Tutomu

    Proceedings of the Society Conference of IEICE   2013 ( 2 ) "S - 63"-"S-64"  2013.09

    CiNii

  • BS-7-4 A Simulation Study for Video Streaming over Content-Centric Networking

    Kisara Hiroto, Kanai Kenji, Awiphan Suphakit, Wang Yu, Muto Takeshi, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the Society Conference of IEICE   2013 ( 2 ) "S - 39"-"S-40"  2013.09

    CiNii

  • Improvement of Coded Picture Quality Using Occluded Region Detection by Disparity Map

    IWASAKI Shinya, YAMAMURA Yuta, MATSUO Yasutaka, KATTO Jiro

    The IEICE transactions on information and systems (Japanese edition)   96 ( 9 ) 1975 - 1977  2013.09

    CiNii

  • クラウドサーバーを用いた携帯端末におけるリソースの最適化

    神田正則, 金井謙治, 大木哲史, 甲藤二郎

    マルチメディア、分散協調とモバイルシンポジウム2013論文集   2013   2014 - 2018  2013.07

    CiNii

  • DTNとMPEG-DASHを用いた無線LAN Streamingの特性評価

    松本光広, 大木哲史, 甲藤二郎

    マルチメディア、分散協調とモバイルシンポジウム2013論文集   2013   918 - 922  2013.07

    CiNii

  • 無線環境における異なるTCP上のMPEG-DASH / HTTP Live Streamingの性能比較

    武藤健史, 野崎寛也, 金井謙治, 大木哲史, 甲藤二郎

    マルチメディア、分散協調とモバイルシンポジウム2013論文集   2013   923 - 927  2013.07

    CiNii

  • A Study on Malware Traffic Detection by Using N-gram Probability Density

    KAWAMOTO Kenji, ICHINO Masatsugu, OTSUKI Yusuke, HATADA Mitsuhiro, YOSHIURA Hiroshi, KATTO Jiro

    IEICE technical report. Life intelligence and office information systems   112 ( 466 ) 191 - 196  2013.03

     View Summary

    The threat of malware is increasing. Malware detection has thus become important for the safety of the Internet usage. In this paper, our goal is to classify Internet traffic into normal or anomalous class correctly to prevent malware from spreading through the Internet. To stop malware, we are focusing on the time series changes between normal and malware traffic. We propose a malware detection method by using N-gram to handle time series changes. Classification of Internet traffic into normal or anomoalous class is done by using posterior probability calculated by nearest neighbor density estimation. We use CCCDATAset2010,2011 as malware traffic, and application traffic captured dby a PC as normal traffic.

    CiNii

  • Video Streaming over Content Centric Networking : Experimental Studies on PlanetLab

    AWIPHAN Suphakit, MUTO Takeshi, WANG Yu, su Zhou, KATTO Jiro

    IEICE technical report   112 ( 463 ) 409 - 414  2013.03

     View Summary

    Video streaming is one of the most popular Internet applications for years. To improve content availability and scalability, CDN and P2P networking have been widely used. However, the current Internet architecture, which relies on a host-based communication, has no ability to leverage caching at the network level. Recently, Content Centric Networking (CCN)has been emerged as a new networking paradigm. The communication of CCN focuses on the named contents instead of the IP addresses. This paper provides a framework for enabling video streaming over CCN. We performed experiments using CCNx on the PlanetLab to explore how an overlay path and a chunk size affect the streaming quality. Furthermore, we study the deployment of MPEG-DASH to achieve adaptive bit-rate streaming over CCN, which reveals additional challenge.

    CiNii

  • Performance Evaluation of HTTP Streaming under Handover Events in LTE Networks

    Nozaki Tomoya, Katto Jiro

    IEICE technical report   112 ( 463 ) 243 - 248  2013.03

     View Summary

    Previously, multimedia streaming was mainly operated by RTP/UDP and RTSP, and HTTP streaming was used only to pass through the firewall. However, with rapid growth of broadband network and CDN, HTTP streaming becomes much popular recently as represented by YouTube. Furthermore, HTTP Live Streaming by Apple had attracted a lot of attention, and then MPEG-DASH has been specified as an international standard for the HTTP streaming. On the other hand, LTE (4G) networks emerge and deploy in a rapid pace all over the world. Therefore, in this paper, we evaluate performances of HTTP Live Streaming and MPEG-DASH under handover events in LTE networks.

    CiNii

  • A Study on DTN routing in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    YAMAZAKI Tadashi, TAKANO Atsuhiro, KATTO Jiro, KONDO Hayato

    IEICE technical report   112 ( 463 ) 523 - 528  2013.03

     View Summary

    Underwater Sensor Networks have received growing interests recently, which can monitor and collect underwater environments. However, it is difficult to transmit data in underwater environments because of some effects such as high propagation delay. noises. Underwater Sensor Networks need routing protocols similar to radio propagation in terrestrial. However, existing routing protocols are not effective in Underwater Sensor Networks because of various influences listed above. We focus on routing protocols to improve network performance.DTN (delay/disruption tolerant network)assumes high propagation delay and intermittent link. In this paper, Epidemic Routing [2], which was proposed for DTN, is used as a routing protocol for Underwater Sensor Networks and its effectiveness against AODV is investigated.

    CiNii

  • Decreasing Energy Consumption by Acoustic Data Transmissions and AUV Data Delivery in Underwater Sensor Networks

    Takano Atsuhiro, Katto Jiro, Kondo Hayato

    IEICE technical report   112 ( 463 ) 529 - 534  2013.03

     View Summary

    Underwater sensor networks constructed in ocean are attracting many researchers' interests as an effective method to collect underwater environmental information. In these networks, Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV)equipped with sensor devices and acoustic modems are used, and many attentions have to be paid to decrease their energy consumptions. In this paper, we make formulas of energy consumptions for next two scenarios, sending data by acoustic waves and moving AUVs, by referring to related works. Moreover, we carry out some simulation experiments by using network simulator NS-3, and clarify methods to decrease energy consumptions in an efficient manner.

    CiNii

  • A Study on the Actual Environment Evaluation of the Approximation Formula for the Variance of Waiting Time in a GI/GI/1

    TAMURA Takenori, HOSHI Kentaro, KATTO Jiro

    IEICE technical report. Information networks   112 ( 464 ) 233 - 237  2013.03

     View Summary

    Along with evolution of the broadband network, various services appear on the Internet. However quality of services (QoS) often gets worse because increasing users place heavy load on the network and servers. To solve this problem, it is necessary to build the high performance and stable network. But, it is difficult to analyze jitters because there is no approximation formula for the variance of waiting time in queuing systems of the network. In this paper, we consider the approximation formula in a FIFO(First-In-First-Out)GI/GI/1 queuing system and evaluate its approximation in accuracy in the actual environment. We do comparison verification of our approximation formula by a simulation and measured traffic.

    CiNii

  • A Study on Visualization of Congestion Levels of Wireless LAN APs

    KANAI Kenji, KATTO Jiro, MURASE Tutomu

    IEICE technical report   112 ( 463 ) 37 - 42  2013.03

     View Summary

    Recently, the demand for visualizing congestion levels of Wi-Fi spots is increasing because Wi-Fi spots are said to be quite congested. In this paper. for this purpose, we employ a simple approximation formula about the relationship between throughputs and the number of active users associated with the access point. In addition, we try to estimate fiiture throughput variation which depends on fluctuation of the associated users using a state transition model. Then, we classify the congestion level into four categories depending on the current and future expected throughputs and evaluate the accuracy of our proposal. We found that our proposal shows acceptable accuracy rate of 70〜90% in our experimental conditions.

    CiNii

  • DP-1-3 Personal Expectations for Future Image Engineering

    Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2013 ( 2 ) "SS - 4"-"SS-5"  2013.03

    CiNii

  • D-12-37 3D Registration using position modified NARF interest points and surrounding planes

    Takada Ryoki, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2013 ( 2 ) 130 - 130  2013.03

    CiNii

  • B-6-142 A Study on Accuracy of lndoor Fingenyrint Localization using WiFi

    KONISHI Hidenori, KANAI Kenji, KATTO Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2013 ( 2 ) 142 - 142  2013.03

    CiNii

  • B-6-115 Performance Evaluation of Wireless LAN Video Streaming using DTN and MPEG-DASH

    Matsumoto Mitsuhiro, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2013 ( 2 ) 115 - 115  2013.03

    CiNii

  • B-6-91 Resource Optimization in the Mobile Terminal using Cloud

    Kanda Masanori, Kanai Kenji, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2013 ( 2 ) 91 - 91  2013.03

    CiNii

  • B-6-144 Performance Comparison ofMPEG-DASH/HTTP Live Streaming over different TCPs in wjreless networks

    Muto Takeshi, Nozaki Tomoya, Kanai Kenji, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2013 ( 2 ) 144 - 144  2013.03

    CiNii

  • B-6-60 AStudy on Geographical Routing for Underwater Sensor Networks

    Kato Ryo, Takano Atsuhiro, Yamazaki Tadashi, Nakano Shota, Katto Jiro, Kondo Hayato

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2013 ( 2 ) 60 - 60  2013.03

    CiNii

  • B-6-24 A Study on Visualization of Congestion Level of Wireless LAN APs

    Kanai Kenji, Katto Jiro, Murase Tutomu

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2013 ( 2 ) 24 - 24  2013.03

    CiNii

  • AS-4-4 Wolf attack while LPC was zero value at the time of speech synthesis

    Hayashi Shohei, Ohki Tetsushi, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2013   "S - 44"-"S-45"  2013.03

    CiNii

  • Region Adaptive Blind PSNR Estimation based on Spatial Frequency Characteristics

    KUMEKAWA Takahiro, KATTO Jiro, WADA Naofumi

    IEICE technical report. Image engineering   112 ( 434 ) 321 - 326  2013.02

     View Summary

    PSNR needs original pictures, but this is difficult for CGM contents like YouTube. Therefore, we had developed a blind PSNR estimation method in which multiple SVMs are prepared to learn differently encoded images in PSNR. We also tried a method which divides a frame into two regions by using. Saliency Map to estimate PSNR per region. However, this approach sometimes fails because it always tries to extract salient regions in a relative manner even if images are totally flat. Therefore, in this paper, we consider a method which uses AC levels of local small regions to separate input images instead of Saliency Map. Then, we confirm our method provides more stable results even when the previous method fails.

    CiNii

  • Blind estimation of blocking artifacts based on correlation between image features and subjective evaluation

    WAKABAYASHI Masahiro, KATTO Jiro, WADA Naofumi

    IEICE technical report. Image engineering   112 ( 434 ) 327 - 332  2013.02

     View Summary

    In video coding using block transforms, blocking artifacts often occur in compressed images especially at low bit rates. Although PSNR and SSIM are often used as objective quality measures of compressed images, they cannot fully evaluate degradation of image quality affected by the blocking artifacts. In this paper, based on the results of a number of subjective evaluations collected for MPEG-2 compressed image sequences, we evaluate the correlation between image features and subjective evaluations of blocking artifacts. We also investigate an NR-type evaluation method of the blocking artifacts as an application of the above results.

    CiNii

  • Image Super-resolution using Registration of Wavelet Multi-scale Components considering Digital Cinema Noise

    MATSUO Yasutaka, IWASAKI Shinya, YAMAMURA Yuta, KATTO Jiro

    ITE Technical Report   37 ( 10 ) 11 - 14  2013.02

     View Summary

    Image super-resolution quality degrades by noise component. However it should not be eliminated because important for high definition impression for digital cinema. Therefore we propose an image super-resolution method by synthesis of super-resolution signal and noise components respectively after dividing an original image into signal and noise components. The signal component is resolution-enhanced using registration between the signal component and its wavelet multi-scale components with resolution-enhanced parameter optimization.

    CiNii

  • A Study on the Estimation of Person Mobility Patterns Using Sensor Data of a Mobile Terminal

    UEHARA Satoyuki, ICHINO Masatsugu, YOSHII Hideki, TSURUMARU Kazuhiro, KATTO Jiro, KOMATSU Naohisa

    IEICE technical report. Information and communication management   112 ( 378 ) 103 - 108  2013.01

     View Summary

    In this paper, we show characteristics of geomagnetic data and acceleration data captured by a three-axis geomagnetic sensor and a three-axis acceleration sensor in a mobile terminal, and suggest effectiveness of sensor data of the mobile terminal to estimate person mobility. Person mobility means how a person moves from one point to another, and we check four types of person mobility, walking, by train, by bus and by car. As a result of investigation, magnetism in the train and accelerations for each driving situation in the bus or in the car will be characterized. We also investigate effectiveness of statistical features, average and standard deviation, and power spectrum for human behavior classification like walk, run, stop, sit and stand.

    CiNii

  • A Study on the Estimation of Person Mobility Patterns Using Sensor Data of a Mobile Terminal

    UEHARA Satoyuki, ICHINO Masatsugu, YOSHII Hideki, TSURUMARU Kazuhiro, KATTO Jiro, KOMATSU Naohisa

    IEICE technical report. Life intelligence and office information systems   112 ( 379 ) 103 - 108  2013.01

     View Summary

    In this paper, we show characteristics of geomagnetic data and acceleration data captured by a three-axis geomagnetic sensor and a three-axis acceleration sensor in a mobile terminal, and suggest effectiveness of sensor data of the mobile terminal to estimate person mobility. Person mobility means how a person moves from one point to another, and we check four types of person mobility, walking, by train, by bus and by car. As a result of investigation, magnetism in the train and accelerations for each driving situation in the bus or in the car will be characterized. We also investigate effectiveness of statistical features, average and standard deviation, and power spectrum for human behavior classification like walk, run, stop, sit and stand.

    CiNii

  • Subjective quality metric for 3D video services

    Yamagishi, K., Kawano, T., Hayashi, T., Katto, J.

    IEICE Transactions on Communications   E96-B ( 2 ) 410 - 418  2013

     View Summary

    Three-dimensional (3D) video service is expected to be introduced as a next-generation television service. Stereoscopic video is composed of two 2D video signals for the left and right views, and these 2D video signals are encoded. Video quality between the left and right views is not always consistent because, for example, each view is encoded at a different bit rate. As a result, the video quality difference between the left and right views degrades the quality of stereoscopic video. However, these characteristics have not been thoroughly studied or modeled. Therefore, it is necessary to better understand how the video quality difference affects stereoscopic video quality and to model the video quality characteristics. To do that, we conducted subjective quality assessments to derive subjective video quality characteristics. The characteristics showed that 3D video quality was affected by the difference in video quality between the left and right views, and that when the difference was small, 3D video quality correlated with the highest 2D video quality of the two views. We modeled these characteristics as a subjective quality metric using a training data set. Finally, we verified the performance of our proposed model by applying it to unknown data sets.

    DOI

  • Service differentiation based incentive mechanism for P2P streaming in hybrid overlay network

    Awiphan, S., Su, Z., Katto, J.

    ITE Transactions on Media Technology and Applications   1 ( 2 ) 167 - 177  2013

     View Summary

    In Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks, an incentive mechanism is a necessary component to deal with the free-riding behavior. The challenge is that direct reciprocal incentives
    e.g., tit-for-tat, which consider the cooperation of peers in a pair-wise manner, are not suited with P2P streaming. In this paper, we propose a new service differentiation mechanism to provide a redistribution incentive for P2P streaming in a hybrid overlay network. The contribution of a peer can be measured from the number of video sub-streams that it uploads to other peers. By sending one request message, the number of sub-streams that each peer can retrieve is varied by its contribution level. An altruistic peer thus has to send less request messages and will experience smoother video quality than a selfish peer. Through simulations, we demonstrate that our solution can provide service differentiation among peers with better streaming quality than the tit-for-tat scheme.

    DOI

  • Quality of service of mobile users for longcut routes with congested access points

    Tutomu Murase, Gen Motoyoshi, Kzuhide Sonoda, Jiro Katto

    Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Ubiquitous Information Management and Communication, ICUIMC 2013    2013

     View Summary

    Network resources for mobile users such as available bandwidth fluctuate depending on the level of background traffic. The deployment of many access points enables mobile users to access more network resources on their way to their destination by taking the longcut route rather than the shortcut route. These users pay some extra cost to take the longcut but obtain greater gains, such as in throughput, over the shortcut route. Previous research has shown that the gain-to-cost ratio can be more than double for the longcut route. No considerations, however, have been made for the case in which resource fluctuation is due to network congestion. This paper investigates the Quality of Service (QoS) for a longcut route with fewer resources (real resources) compared with that for one with the total resources (ideal resources) in the longcut route calculation. The results show that, on average, users have gains of approximately twice in real resources of their gains in ideal resources. This finding indicates that users can greatly improve their gains if they could accurately predict the resource fluctuation. Copyright © 2013 ACM.

    DOI

  • An Adaptive TCP Congestion Control having RTT-Fairness and Inter-Protocol Friendliness

    Yohei Nemoto, Kazumine Ogura, Jiro Katto

    2013 IEEE CONSUMER COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING CONFERENCE (CCNC)     178 - 183  2013

     View Summary

    This paper presents an RTT-fair TCP congestion control using ACK interval measurement and extends the approach to have inter-protocol friendliness, especially with CUBIC TCP. In the previous RTT-fair TCP congestion control, including ours, estimation of RTTs of a competing flow had been a problem. We try to solve this problem by measuring ACK arrival intervals, which are observable parameters by an end host. This approach enables estimation of congestion window behaviors, in addition to RTTs, of a competing flow. We then extend our congestion control to have friendliness to CUBIC-TCP, in addition to classical TCP-Reno, in an adaptive manner. Extensive experiment results are shown for simulations and implementations and effectiveness of our approach is confirmed.

    DOI

  • TCP differentiation using version identification and EDCA for low-delay multimedia streaming

    Kazuhide Sonoda, Kazumine Ogura, Jiro Katto

    2013 IEEE 10th Consumer Communications and Networking Conference, CCNC 2013     753 - 756  2013

     View Summary

    This paper presents a TCP differentiation based on TCP version identification and IEEE 802.11e EDCA for low delay multimedia streaming over wireless LAN. It has been known that delay-based TCP can achieve low delay transport as long as it does not compete with loss-based TCP. However, when competition happens, it seriously decreases its rate by itself due to RTT increase. In order to alleviate this problem, we consider combination of TCP version identification and prioritized transport of delay-based TCP by EDCA at an access point. We evaluate this approach by simulations and implementations, and confirm its effectiveness. © 2013 IEEE.

    DOI

  • 7 BRAEVE: Stable and adaptive BSM rate control over IEEE802.11p vehicular networks

    Kazumine Ogura, Jiro Katto, Mineo Takai

    2013 IEEE CONSUMER COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING CONFERENCE (CCNC)     745 - 748  2013

     View Summary

    In vehicle-to-vehicle communication, a message named BSM (Basic Safety Message) has a major role to inform a driver about surrounding condition. A vehicle periodically sends the BSM which includes the information of itself. Traffic load issues caused by BSMs would often be raised on heavily congested roads. Therefore, BSM congestion controls to avoid traffic congestion are challenging. This paper proposes a new BSM congestion control named BRAEVE. BRAEVE adapts its BSM generation rate according to the number of neighbor vehicles in communication range and then controls overall network traffic load. Our simulation evaluation shows that BRAEVE provides more uniform recognition of surrounding vehicles than an existing method, which brings much better safety assurance to a driver.

    DOI

  • Quality Assessment of Compressed Video Sequences Having Blocking Artifacts by Cepstrum Analysis

    Yuta Yamamura, Shinya Iwasaki, Yasutaka Matsuo, Jiro Katto

    2013 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CONSUMER ELECTRONICS (ICCE)     494 - 495  2013

     View Summary

    Objective picture quality measures cannot estimate the effect of blocking artifacts caused by video compression sufficiently. In this paper, we apply cepstrum analysis to quantify the blocking artifacts. We show experimental results for some test sequences using different coding schemes and prove effectiveness of our approach.

    DOI

  • Super-resolution from digital cinema to ultra high definition television using image registration of wavelet multi-scale components

    Yasutaka Matsuo, Shinya Iwasaki, Yuta Yamamura, Jiro Katto

    Digest of Technical Papers - IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics     159 - 160  2013

     View Summary

    Quality of image super-resolution (SR) degrades by noise component. However it should not be eliminated because it is important for high definition impression for digital cinema. Therefore we propose an image SR method by synthesis of resolution-enhanced signal and noise components respectively after dividing an original image into signal and noise components. The signal component is resolution-enhanced using image registration between the signal component and its wavelet multi-scale components with resolution-enhanced parameter optimization. © 2013 IEEE.

    DOI

  • Video streaming over content centric networking: Experimental studies on PlanetLab

    Suphakit Awiphan, Takeshi Muto, Yu Wang, Zhou Su, Jiro Katto

    2013 Computing, Communications and IT Applications Conference, ComComAp 2013     19 - 24  2013

     View Summary

    Most network applications nowadays are related to the distribution of contents from a source to a number of users. Several developments such as CDN and P2P networking have been used to provide access to contents at the network edges. However, they have no ability to leverage caching at the network level and still rely on a host-based communication model. Recently, Content Centric Networking (CCN) has been emerged as a new networking paradigm. In CCN, the communication focuses on the named content instead of the IP address. This paper provides a framework for enabling video streaming over CCN. We performed experiments using CCNx on the PlanetLab to explore the effects of an overlay delivery path and a chunk size to the streaming quality. Furthermore, we study the deployment of MPEG-DASH to achieve adaptive bit-rate streaming over CCN, which reveals additional challenge. © 2013 IEEE.

    DOI

  • RoCNet: Spatial Mobile Data Offload with User-behavior Prediction through Delay Tolerant Networks

    Haruki Izumikawa, Jiro Katto

    2013 IEEE WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING CONFERENCE (WCNC)     2196 - 2201  2013

     View Summary

    We present a robust cellular network (RoCNet) that combines a cellular and an opportunistic networks for spatial uplink mobile data offloading, which focuses on the spatial difference of the traffic load among areas (e. g., business district and residential area in the daytime). RoCNet realizes the spatial data offload by leveraging the store-carry-forward routing mechanism. In the area where traffic load is high, delay-tolerant data originated from a mobile terminal is directly forwarded to a nearby terminal using Bluetooth or wireless LAN instead of being transmitted to a congested cellular base station. When the data is carried by the nearby terminal to other area where the traffic load is low, the data is forwarded to a cellular base station. To enhance the offload effect, it is necessary for data to be forwarded to a terminal that moves to a low traffic load area. In this paper, we use the particle filter to predict user behavior. Before forwarding data between mobile terminals, the terminals exchange prediction results and decide whether or not the data should be forwarded. We conducted a computer simulation whose result shows RoCNet can spatially offload uplink traffic in a traffic concentration area to non-congested areas. As a result, RoCNet can suppress peak traffic by about 20 percent in a traffic-congested base station by distributing traffic to vicinity base stations.

    DOI

  • Underwater Sensor Networkにおけるルーティングプロトコルの性能比較

    加藤凌, 高野敦弘, 大木哲史, 甲藤二郎

    情報処理学会シンポジウムシリーズ(CD-ROM)   2013 ( 2 )  2013

    J-GLOBAL

  • Wi-Fiを用いたIndoor Fingerprint Localizationにおける精度の検討

    小西秀典, 大木哲史, 金井謙治, 甲藤二郎

    情報処理学会シンポジウムシリーズ(CD-ROM)   2013 ( 2 )  2013

    J-GLOBAL

  • Comfort Route Navigation with Energy Saving for Your Mobile Devices

    KANAI Kenji, KATTO Jiro, MURASE Tutomu

    IEICE technical report   112 ( 350 ) 121 - 126  2012.12

     View Summary

    Recently, Internet services and wireless infrastructures have grown widely and diversely, and people can easily access Internet anytime and anywhere. Smartphones have become an indispensable part for this purpose, so people are very nervous about smartphone's battery life. In this paper, we therefore propose Comfort Route for Energy Saving (CRFES) which helps users reach their destinations while stopping by Quality of Service (QoS) fulfilled low-power communication places such as Wi-Fi spots. We evaluate the performance of CRFES in a computer simulation and a real environment. We find that CRFES can save mobile device batteries drastically by using Wi-Fi rather than cellulars with small extra time cost to visit hot spots.

    CiNii

  • A Study on Method for Estimating Network Traffic using Logistic Regression

    AKIZUKI Toshihiro, ICHINO Masatsugu, KATTO Jiro, KOMATSU Naohisa

    Technical report of IEICE. CQ   112 ( 288 ) 7 - 12  2012.11

     View Summary

    Network traffic volumes continue to increase rapidly with spread of the broadband access and increase of Internet backbone capacities. Moreover, services provided over the Internet become more diverse. In order to prevent network traffic congestion, it is necessary to estimate network traffic volumes so that network administrators can prevent deterioration of quality of services by estimating and regulating traffic in advance. Therefore, we study a method to estimate network traffic volumes with external factors, for example, calender, weather data, and so on. In this paper, we suggest a method for estimating network traffic using logistic regression, and prove its effectiveness by comparing existing method with ours.

    CiNii

  • RI-001 Image Super-resolution from Digital Cinema to Ultrahigh Definition Video using Registration of Wavelet Multi-scale Components

    Matsuo Yasutaka, Iwasaki Shinya, Yamamura Yuta, Katto Jiro

      11 ( 3 ) 1 - 6  2012.09

    CiNii

  • E-006 An Examination and Improvement of a Way to Get Beat Information in Audio Live Version Identification

    Ishikura Kazumasa, Katto Jiro

      11 ( 2 ) 163 - 164  2012.09

    CiNii

  • Improving the Performance of SIFT Using Bilateral Filter and Its Application to General Object Recognition

    YAMAZAKI Tomoaki, FUJIKAWA Tetsuya, KATTO Jiro

    The IEICE transactions on information and systems (Japanese edetion)   95 ( 9 ) 1688 - 1689  2012.09

    CiNii

  • A Study on Bit-depth Scalable Video Coding Method Using Gradation Restoration

    TAKEUCHI Masaru, YAMAMURA Yuta, MATSUO Yasutaka, KATTO Jiro, IGUCHI Kazuhisa

    The IEICE transactions on information and systems (Japanese edetion)   95 ( 9 ) 1669 - 1671  2012.09

    CiNii

  • BS-4-2 A Proposal and Evaluation of Comfort Route Navigation for Energy Saving

    Kanai Kenji, Katto Jiro, Murase Tutomu

    Proceedings of the Society Conference of IEICE   2012 ( 2 ) "S - 18"-"S-19"  2012.08

    CiNii

  • D-11-41 A study of evaluating Blocking Artifacts by Cepstrum Analysis

    Yamamura Yuta, Takeuchi Masaru, Matsuo Yasutaka, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2012 ( 2 ) 41 - 41  2012.03

    CiNii

  • D-11-43 No-reference PSNR Estimation of H.264/AVC Compressed Video using Support Vector Machine

    Kumekawa Takahiro, Katto Jiro, Wada Naofumi

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2012 ( 2 ) 43 - 43  2012.03

    CiNii

  • D-11-19 Image Super-resolution from Digital Cinema to UHDTV with Adaptive Parameter Optimization

    Matsuo Yasutaka, Yamamura Yuta, Takeuchi Masaru, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2012 ( 2 ) 19 - 19  2012.03

    CiNii

  • D-12-66 A Study on Face-Recognition Applications exploiting Social Networking Services

    Hasegawa Hirotoshi, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2012 ( 2 ) 160 - 160  2012.03

    CiNii

  • D-12-90 Improving the SFM Performance using Enhanced SIFT

    Iwasaki Shin-ya, Yamazaki Tomoaki, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2012 ( 2 ) 184 - 184  2012.03

    CiNii

  • D-12-81 A Study towards Robust Image Marker based AR

    Ishizuka Sho, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2012 ( 2 ) 175 - 175  2012.03

    CiNii

  • B-6-146 An Identification Method of Competing TCP Congestion Control Algorithms by Measuring ACK Intervals

    Nemoto Yohei, Ogura Kazumine, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2012 ( 2 ) 146 - 146  2012.03

    CiNii

  • B-6-145 TCP Differentiation combining TCP Version Identification and EDCA Control

    Sonoda Kazuhide, Ogura Kazumine, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2012 ( 2 ) 145 - 145  2012.03

    CiNii

  • B-6-140 A Low-Delay Based Congestion Control Method for Wirelss Multi-hop Ad-Hoc Networks

    Ichimura Yuuki, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2012 ( 2 ) 140 - 140  2012.03

    CiNii

  • B-6-22 Evaluation of Longcut Route Navigation based on Actual Throughput Performances of Wireless LANs

    Kanai Kenji, Akamatsu Yuri, Katto Jiro, Murase Tutomu

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2012 ( 2 ) 22 - 22  2012.03

    CiNii

  • B-6-106 Analysis of MAC protocol with Continuous and Selective ARQ for Underwater Sensor Networks

    Yoshinaga Masato, Ogura Kazumine, Katto Jiro, Kondo Hayato

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2012 ( 2 ) 106 - 106  2012.03

    CiNii

  • B-6-102 Visualization of Free WiFi Spots by a Sensor-Cloud of Smart Phones

    Iwase Yurika, Ogura Kazumine, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2012 ( 2 ) 102 - 102  2012.03

    CiNii

  • B-6-105 A Study to Decrease Energy Consumption in Underwater Sensor Networks

    Takano Atsuhiro, Nakano Shota, Yoshinaga Masato, Katto Jiro, Kondo Hayato

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2012 ( 2 ) 105 - 105  2012.03

    CiNii

  • A-15-18 Highlights Detection from Musical Performance Video Using Motion Vectors

    Koyama Kenichi, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2012   238 - 238  2012.03

    CiNii

  • A-10-15 Audio Live Version Identification in Real Environment

    Ishikura Kazumasa, Uemura Aiko, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2012   200 - 200  2012.03

    CiNii

  • A-15-17 Improvement of Sound Output Timing in Percussion Interface using Gyro Sensor

    Ogawa Tomohisa, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2012   237 - 237  2012.03

    CiNii

  • Evaluation of Longcut Route Navigation based on Actual Throughput Performance of Wireless LANs

    KANAI Kenji, AKAMATSU Yuri, KATTO Jiro, MURASE Tutomu

    IEICE technical report   111 ( 468 ) 487 - 492  2012.03

     View Summary

    The demand for access to communication while in transit is increasing, especially among mobile device users. Previous our research has introduced an optimal route problem and a number of solutions to this problem. However, to date, the literature has only presented evaluations based on a theoretical model. In this paper, to validate and enhance the previous work, we observe actual throughput characteristics in public wireless LAN services such as FreeSpot and DOCOMO 's Mzone. We evaluate an optimal longcut route navigation using the results of these observations and show its effectiveness in computer simulations and experiments in actual environment. In both experiments, the optimal longcut route can gain data amount approximately 15 times greater than that of a short cut route.

    CiNii

  • A Low-Delay TCP Congestion Control for Wireless Multi-hop Ad-Hoc Networks

    ICHIMURA Yuuki, KATTO Jiro

    IEICE technical report   111 ( 468 ) 307 - 312  2012.03

     View Summary

    Conventional TCP protocols were initially designed for wired networks and increase their window sizes aggressively. Therefore, they cause heavy contentions and packet collisions in MAC layer over wireless multi-hop ad-hoc networks. A congestion control method extending TCP Vegas was proposed for such networks. This method has low-delay property and works effectively in simple environments. However, this method does not work effectively in realistic and complicated environments. In order to improve its throughput performance, we adjust its packet loss handling and prove its effectiveness by simulations along with upper bound of TCP throughput over wireless multi-hop ad-hoc networks.

    CiNii

  • A TCP Differentiation combining TCP Version Identification and EDCA Control

    SONODA Kazuhide, OGURA Kazumine, KATTO Jiro

    IEICE technical report   111 ( 468 ) 57 - 62  2012.03

     View Summary

    This paper presents a TCP differentiation combining TCP version identification and EDCA control . In current proposed TCP congestion controls, TCP Vegas controls congestion window (cwnd) based on round trip time (RTT), and it can suppress RTT. Therefore, TCP Vegas can do efficient communication alone. However, TCP Vegas decreases its throughput when it competes with other TCP versions. To solve this problem, in our previous paper, we proposed the TCP differentiation and it brings much better throughput in simulation experiments. In this paper, we present the advantages of this TCP differentiation in both implementation and simulation experiments assuming real environment.

    CiNii

  • A Study on Decreasing Energy Consumption in Underwater Sensor Networks

    TAKANO Atsuhiro, NAKANO Shota, YOSHINAGA Masato, KATTO Jiro, KONDO Hayato

    IEICE technical report   111 ( 468 ) 505 - 510  2012.03

     View Summary

    Underwater sensor networks constructed in the ocean have attracted many researchers' interests these days. In these networks, Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) with sensor devices and modems equipped are used to collect underwater information. In such an environment, to reduce energy consumption is very important. In this paper, two different types of energy consumption, data transmission and AUV movement, are compared by calculating formulas and carrying out simulations.

    CiNii

  • Analysis of MAC protocol with Continuous and Selective ARQ for Underwater Sensor Networks

    YOSHINAGA Masato, OGURA Kazumine, KATTO Jiro, KONDO Hayato

    IEICE technical report   111 ( 468 ) 499 - 504  2012.03

     View Summary

    Recently, many papers focus on Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UWASNs) to collect the data in underwater environments. However, the data transmission in these underwater environments suffers from various influences such as bandwidth usage limitation, surrounding noise, and large acoustic propagation delays. Therefore, the communication over UWASNs is more difficult than radio propagation in terrestrial. In many researches, protocols at the link layer and the network layer for UWASNs have been proposed for decades. We focus on an automatic repeat-request (ARQ) and IEEE 802.11 CSMA/CA to reduce contention for transmission over UWASNs. In this paper, we propose a MAC protocol with Continuous and Selective ARQ and define a new rule of NAV/CW for UWASNs, which is called Synchronous NAV and Linear CW. Through ns-2 based simulator, we show effects and differences of the network performances by using our MAC protocol.

    CiNii

  • An investigation for BSM rate control over IEEE 802.11p

    OGURA Kazumine, TAKAI Mineo, KATTO Jiro

    IEICE technical report   111 ( 468 ) 133 - 136  2012.03

     View Summary

    Recently, ITS (Intelligent Transportation System) technology has developed significantly. In vehicle-to-vehicle communication of ITS, a message named BSM (Basic Safety Message) has a major role to inform a driver about dangerous situation before accidents happen. A vehicle periodically sends the BSM which includes the information of itself. Traffic loads caused by BSMs are raised on heavily congested roads, for example on a highway. Therefore, in order to avoid traffic congestion by BSMs, methods to change generation rates or transmission powers of BSMs are discussed in recent study. This paper focuses on the rate control of BSM and points out shortcoming of conventional methods in more realistic environment. We propose a solution to the issue and show simulation experiments.

    CiNii

  • TCP Congestion Control using Estimation of Network Conditions Based on Measuring ACK Intervals

    NEMOTO Yohei, OGURA Kazumine, KATTO Jiro

    IEICE technical report   111 ( 468 ) 63 - 68  2012.03

     View Summary

    When we try to improve fairness between TCP connections, estimating network conditions is effective. For example, we can collect network information through relay hosts. But TCP congestion control mechanism is autonomously distributed control in current networks like Internet. So we should use information which terminals can measure. In this paper, we estimate network conditions by measuring ACK intervals and propose congestion control methods which have RTT fairness and friendliness to new standard TCP by using the information.

    CiNii

  • RoCNet : Robust Cellular Network for Disaster Communication and Traffic Offloading

    Izumikawa Haruki, Awiphan Suphakit, Katto Jiro

    IEICE technical report   111 ( 408 ) 179 - 184  2012.01

     View Summary

    We have started designing a robust cellular network (RoCNet) that combines infrastructure-based (e.g., cellular) and opportunistic networking for disaster controlling and spatial data offloading. The RoCNet provides communication means without an infrastructure network in some cases such as at the time of disaster by using a store-carry-forward fashion as in the Delay Tolerant Network (DTN). When the infrastructure network is available, the RoCNet facilitates the traffic offloading leveraging the store-carry-forward feature considering a degree of traffic congestion, traffic direction, etc. In this paper, we give an overview of the RoCNet concept and show a simulation result as a proof-of-concept work. The result shows RoCNet can spatially offload uplink traffic in the traffic concentration district to the non-congested area.

    CiNii

  • A Study on the Effectiveness of Cepstrum Analysis using Acceleration Sensor in Walking States Classification

    ITO Tomonori, UEHARA Satoyuki, KASAHARA Hiroki, ICHINO Masatsugu, YOSHII Hideki, TSURUMARU Kazuhiro, KATTO Jiro, KOMATSU Naohisa

    IEICE technical report. Life intelligence and office information systems   111 ( 383 ) 39 - 44  2012.01

     View Summary

    We will apply cepstrum analysis, which is often used as a voice recognition method, to classify walking states (gait) using three dimensional acceleration sensor and examine this validity. Then we will show that cepstrum gives us better recognition and is less susceptible data than basic statistics such as average and variance against the data acquisition condition. Also we will study characteristics of spectral envelope of walking states.

    CiNii

  • A new TCP congestion control supporting RTT-fairness

    Ogura, K., Nemoto, Y., Su, Z., Katto, J.

    IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems   E95-D ( 2 ) 523 - 531  2012

     View Summary

    This paper focuses on RTT-fairness of multiple TCP flows over the Internet, and proposes a new TCP congestion control named "HRF (Hybrid RTT-Fair)-TCP". Today, it is a serious problem that the flows having smaller RTT utilize more bandwidth than others when multiple flows having different RTT values compete in the same network. This means that a user with longer RTT may not be able to obtain sufficient bandwidth by the current methods. This RTT fairness issue has been discussed in many TCP papers. An example is CR (Constant Rate) algorithm, which achieves RTT-fairness by multiplying the square of RTT value in its window increment phase against TCP-Reno. However, the method halves its windows size same as TCP-Reno when a packet loss is detected. This makes worse its efficiency in certain network cases. On the other hand, recent proposed TCP versions essentially require throughput efficiency and TCP-friendliness with TCP-Reno. Therefore, we try to keep these advantages in our TCP design in addition to RTT-fairness. In this paper, we make intuitive analytical models in which we separate resource utilization processes into two cases: utilization of bottleneck link capacity and that of buffer space at the bottleneck link router. These models take into account three characteristic algorithms (Reno, Constant Rate, Constant Increase) in window increment phase where a sender receives an acknowledgement successfully. Their validity is proved by both simulations and implementations. From these analyses, we propose HRF-TCP which switches two modes according to observed RTT values and achieves RTT fairness. Experiments are carried out to validate the proposed method. Finally, HRF-TCP outperforms conventional methods in RTT-fairness, efficiency and friendliness with TCP-Reno.

    DOI

  • QoS characteristics on a longcut route with various radio resource models

    Kenji Kanai, Yuri Akamatsu, Jiro Katto, Tutomu Murase

    2012 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops, PERCOM Workshops 2012     419 - 422  2012

     View Summary

    Previous our research has introduced an optimal longcut route problem and a number of solutions to this problem. However, to date, the literature has only presented evaluations based on a single theoretical radio propagation model. Because throughput characteristics derived from radio propagation models significantly affects longcut route performance, this study introduces three simple models by referring to actual measurement values. The results of our evaluation show that there are large differences in performance between the three models. The Non-Line-of-Sight model can have an improvement ratio approximately five times greater than that of the Line-of-Sight Indoor model and six times greater than that of the previous theoretical model. © 2012 IEEE.

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  • Providing service differentiation for video streaming in hybrid P2P overlay network

    Suphakit Awiphan, Zhou Su, Jiro Katto

    2012 19th International Packet Video Workshop, PV 2012     13 - 18  2012

     View Summary

    In Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks, a great number of peers are reluctant to contribute to the system. An incentive mechanism thus becomes a necessary component to motivate the cooperation of peers. Moreover, due to the continuous nature of data transmission, the P2P media streaming requires different incentive strategies from the P2P file-sharing. In this paper, we propose a new service differentiation mechanism to provide a redistribution incentive for P2P streaming in a hybrid overlay network. The contribution amount of a peer can be measured from the number of video sub-streams it transmits, instead of the quantity of transferred data. By sending one request message, the number of sub-streams that each peer can retrieve is varied by its contribution amount. An altruistic peer thus has to send less request messages and experiences smoother video quality than a selfish peer. Through simulations, we demonstrate that the proposed mechanism can provide service differentiation among peers according to their contribution amount. © 2012 IEEE.

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  • Spatial uplink mobile data offloading leveraging storecarry- Forward paradigm

    Haruki Izumikawa, Suphakit Awiphan, Jiro Katto

    Proceedings of the Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, MOBICOM     33 - 38  2012

     View Summary

    The growing popularity of mobile data communication has been leading a growing lack of radio resource on a cellular network. Therefore, to avoid the data traffic from exceeding the capacity limit of a cellular base station (BS), cellular operators have been trying to install cellular femto cells (local BSs) or wireless LAN access points (APs) in restaurants, cafes, user's houses, etc., to divert data traffic from the cellular radio access link to the fixedline such as x-DSL and FTTH. However, the traffic levels extremely change in a day, even locally, due to the mobility of users. While peak data traffic at certain times of a day appears locally, cellular BSs as well as the femto cells and the APs would sit underutilized for the rest of the day. Thus, we have started designing a robust cellular network (RoCNet) that combines infrastructure-based network (e.g., cellular network) and opportunistic networking for spatial mobile data offloading, which focuses on the difference of the data traffic level among areas (e.g., business district and residential area). The RoCNet facilitates the data traffic offloading leveraging the storecarry-forward feature considering a degree of traffic congestion. In this paper, we give an overview of the RoCNet and show a simulation result. The result shows RoCNet can spatially offload uplink traffic in a traffic concentration area to non-congested areas. In other words, RoCNet can suppress peak traffic in a traffic-congested base station by distributing traffic to vicinity base stations. Copyright © 2012 ACM.

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  • A BIT-DEPTH SCALABLE VIDEO CODING APPROACH CONSIDERING SPATIAL GRADATION RESTORATION

    Masaru Takeuchi, Yasutaka Matsuo, Yuta Yamamura, Jiro Katto, Kazuhisa Iguchi

    2012 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ACOUSTICS, SPEECH AND SIGNAL PROCESSING (ICASSP)     1373 - 1376  2012

     View Summary

    Bit-depth scalable coding method is an approach that generates multiplexed bit-streams that can be decoded to two video sequences, for Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) environment and for High Dynamic Range (HDR) environment. This paper presents a bit-depth scalable coding method that is considered as gradation restoration in inter-layer prediction process. Our proposed inter-layer prediction uses a histogram interpolation method that enables to generate more mid-gray brightness levels than traditional inverse tone mapping methods with one-to-one correspondence.

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  • CHORD RECOGNITION USING DOUBLY NESTED CIRCLE OF FIFTHS

    Aiko Uemura, Jiro Katto

    2012 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ACOUSTICS, SPEECH AND SIGNAL PROCESSING (ICASSP)     449 - 452  2012

     View Summary

    This paper presents a chord recognition method from music signals using chroma vectors and musical knowledge known as Doubly Nested Circle of Fifths (DNCOF). DNCOF represents the relationships of major and minor chords where the neighboring two triads are similar. We obtain a novel feature from chroma vectors by mapping them onto two-dimensional DNCOF coordinate, which we call DNCOF vectors. We expect that the DNCOF vectors can contribute to correcting false recognition obtained by the chroma vectors when their mapped positions are apart from one another in the DNCOF coordinate. In this research, we evaluated our proposal using the Beatles' datasets and showed its effectiveness.

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  • IMPROVING THE PERFORMANCE OF SIFT USING BILATERAL FILTER AND ITS APPLICATION TO GENERIC OBJECT RECOGNITION

    Tomoaki Yamazaki, Tetsuya Fujikawa, Jiro Katto

    2012 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ACOUSTICS, SPEECH AND SIGNAL PROCESSING (ICASSP)     945 - 948  2012

     View Summary

    Feature extraction of images can be applied to image matching, image searching, object recognition, image tracking etc. One of the effective methods to extract features of images is Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) [1]. In this paper, we indicate problems of SIFT and propose a method to improve its performance by applying Bilateral Filter [2]. In addition, we implement is acceleration by GPGPU (general purpose GPU), apply this method to generic object recognition and perform a comparison experiment. We compare the proposed method with the original method using SIFT and confirm improvement of the identification rate by the proposed method.

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  • WAVELET DOMAIN IMAGE SUPER-RESOLUTION FROM DIGITAL CINEMA TO ULTRAHIGH DEFINITION TELEVISION BY DIVIDING NOISE COMPONENT

    Yasutaka Matsuo, Shinya Iwasaki, Yuta Yamamura, Jiro Katto

    2012 IEEE VISUAL COMMUNICATIONS AND IMAGE PROCESSING (VCIP)    2012

     View Summary

    We propose a novel wavelet domain image super-resolution method from digital cinema to ultrahigh definition television considering cinema noise component. The proposed method features that spatial resolution of an original image is expanded by synthesis of super-resolved signal and noise components respectively after dividing an original image into signal and noise components. Dividing noise component uses spatio-temporal wavelet decomposition based on frequency spectrum analysis of cinema noise. And super-resolution parameters are optimized by comparing size-reduced super-resolution images with an original image. Experimental results showed that a super-resolution image using the proposed method has a subjectively better appearance and an objectively better peak signal-to-noise ratio measurement than conventional methods.

    DOI

  • Music Part Segmentation in Music TV Programs based on Chroma Vector Analysis

    Aiko Uemura, Jiro Katto, Kyota Higa, Masumi Ishikawa, Toshiyuki Nomura

    2012 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON MULTIMEDIA (ISM)     32 - 35  2012

     View Summary

    This paper presents a music part detection method incorporating chroma vector analysis for use with music TV programs. Results show that envelopes of chroma components of music signals tend to have horizontal (i.e. temporal) correlation in time-frequency representation because music signals have a periodic chord sequences. Based on this fact, we analyze time series of chroma components and attempt to segment music parts in music TV programs from other parts. Experimental results show an F-measure of 0.78, which is better than that obtained using the previous method.

    DOI

  • E-041 A Study on Feature Extraction for Highlights Detection from Musical Performance Videos

    Koyama Kenichi, Ishizaki Hiromi, Hoashi Keiichiro, Ono Chihiro, Katto Jiro

      10 ( 2 ) 305 - 306  2011.09

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  • E-042 Percussion Instrument Interface Using Sensor Fusion

    Ogawa Tomohisa, Katto Jiro

      10 ( 2 ) 307 - 308  2011.09

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  • BS-7-11 Constructing a Push-based Overlay Network with Contribution-awareness for P2P Live Streaming(BS-7. Network Planning, Control and Management)

    Awiphan Suphakit, Su Zhou, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the Society Conference of IEICE   2010 ( 2 ) "S - 65"-"S-66"  2010.08

     View Summary

    The presence of free-riding peers has been known as a serious threat in the peer-to-peer networks as it may lead to the degradation of overall service quality. In this paper, we study a method to construct the push-based multicast overlay in a contribution-aware manner for P2P streaming. The idea is to construct the tree-shaped core overlay and define a set of auxiliary links to improve its resiliency. The auxiliary connections, which are constructed based on the service capacity and contribution, also alleviate the peers to deliver data using a multi-parent streaming approach. Simulations through ns2 demonstrate the efficiency of our solution.

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  • ToMo : Two-layer Tree/Mesh Overlay Structure for P2P Live Streaming and Its Application

    AWIPHAN Suphakit, SU Zhou, KATTO Jiro

    全国大会講演論文集   72 ( 0 ) 103 - 104  2010.03

     View Summary

    In this paper, we introduce a hybrid approach for overlay construction in an application-layer multicast and its application to a distributed data center management. We combine the good features of a tree-based structure and a mesh-based data delivery to form ToMo, a two-layer hybrid overlay. Different from other approaches, the overlay is constructed in the fashion of a mesh layer over a tree layer. This structure helps to reduce the number of replicated packets at a source by allocating the source to multicast each packet to a specific group of child peers only. We also consider a simple application of our overlay structure to the failover for data centers. That is, the servers of distributed data centers are connected by a mesh, and the clients are hanging on the servers in a tree structure. Upon failure, the server can be switched over to a redundant server follows the defined mesh routes automatically. Simulations through ns2 demonstrate the efficiency of this solution.

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  • B-6-56 An Experiment of Video Transfer using VIC on Wired and Wireless Combined Networks

    KANAI Kenji, KATTO Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2010 ( 2 ) 56 - 56  2010.03

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  • B-6-137 A Clustering Method for Low and Uniform Energy Consumption in Wireless Sensor Networks

    YOSHINAGA Masato, KATTO Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2010 ( 2 ) 137 - 137  2010.03

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  • B-6-145 Performance Improvement of TCP-Vegas Using the 802.11e and Window Control over Wireless LAN

    SONODA Kazuhide, IIKUBO Naoya, KATTO Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2010 ( 2 ) 145 - 145  2010.03

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  • B-6-134 A Proposal of the hybrid MAC for Sensor Networks

    Suzuki Takamasa, Ogino Takafumi, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2010 ( 2 ) 134 - 134  2010.03

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  • Consistency Control for Vehicular Communication Networks

    SU Zhou, AWIPHAN Suphakit, KATTO Jiro, YASUDA Yasuhiko

    IEICE technical report   109 ( 448 ) 497 - 500  2010.02

     View Summary

    To improve driving comfort and provide entertainment services, vehicular communication networks (VCDNs) have appeared as an emerging solution, which consists of road-side units (RSUs) and on-board units (OBUs) to distribute multimedia contents. However, as most of OBUs always request the stored contents in the RSUs, how to update the contents in these RSUs when the original changes at its original servers has become an important issue to be dealt with. This paper proposes a novel method to resolve the above problem. Firstly, based on the characteristics of peers and geographical information, we decide which replica of which content in RSUs should be updated when its original changes. Secondly, by comparing the delivery cost of wired and wireless transmission, we decide whether the updated content should be delivered from a fixed peer or other mobile peers. Lastly, the detailed algorithm is presented and summarized.

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  • A Clustering Method for Low and Uniform Energy Consumption in Wireless Sensor Networks

    YOSHINAGA Masato, KATTO Jiro

    IEICE technical report   109 ( 448 ) 235 - 240  2010.02

     View Summary

    It is difficult to charge battery of sensor nodes, considering the deployed places and the number of nodes, in wireless sensor networks. Therefore, it is desirable to collect the sensed data to base stations as energy-efficiently as possible under the energy consumption limitation. LEACH is a self-organized clustering based protocol, which is able to save the node energy and distribute energy consumption among the sensors in the network. In LEACH, by introducing clusters, local cluster-heads (CH) send the base station the aggregated data which is gathered from cluster-members. LEACH also uses randomized rotation of CH which consumes large energy. However, this protocol suffers from next two issues. First, CH selection doesn't consider residual energy of sensors. Second, cluster size is unbalanced among the clusters in the network. In this paper, we therefore propose a clustering method by improving LEACH's clustering mechanism. As a result, network lifetime of the proposal is extended to realize low-energy consumption and better load balance is achieved than LEACH.

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  • An Experiment of Video Streaming using VIC over Wired and Wireless Combined Networks

    KANAI Kenji, KATTO Jiro

    IEICE technical report   109 ( 448 ) 445 - 450  2010.02

     View Summary

    In recent years, wireless terminals have grown widely and diversely along with evolution of video coding technologies. Accordingly, many people get a chance to enjoy video streaming services anywhere and easily. Therefore, we need to focus on specific researches on video streaming over wireless networks. In this paper, we carry out video delivery experiments using VIC (Videoconferencing Tool), which has been a reference software of video streaming since the mbone experiment, over wired and wireless combined networks. We also try various TCP protocols (TCP-Reno, CUBIC, TCP-Vegas, TCP-Fusion, and its improved version) using iperf on the shared network. We observe receiving rate of VIC's RTP packets and various properties (e.g. cwnd and RTT) of competing TCP packets.

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  • Performance Comparisons of CUBIC-TCP and Hybrid-TCPs

    NEMOTO Yohei, OGURA Kazumine, KATTO Jiro

    IEICE technical report   109 ( 448 ) 89 - 94  2010.02

     View Summary

    In recent years, various TCP congestion control mechanisms have been proposed because Standard TCP(e.g. TCP-Reno) is not efficient in high bandwidth and delay networks. Today, CUBIC-TCP, which is said to have scalability and stability, is implemented and used on Linux. Our laboratory has also proposed TCP-Fusion which has hybrid congestion control mechanism and its improved version (Proposal) which achieves RTT fairness. In this paper, we evaluate the performances of CUBIC-TCP, TCP-Fusion and our new proposal on real machines. The results show Hybrid-TCPs have robustness for packet loss and high friendliness to TCP-Reno and CUBIC-TCP has good RTT-fairness as well as our proposal.

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  • A Proposal of Hybrid MAC for Sensor Networks

    SUZUKI Takamasa, OGINO Takafumi, KATTO Jiro

    IEICE technical report   109 ( 448 ) 467 - 472  2010.02

     View Summary

    Along with downsizing and cost reduction of wireless sensor nodes, researches for wireless sensor networks have become popular. In the wireless sensor networks, since sensor nodes are supplied by battery in many case, we need energy efficient communication methods. Examples of the conventional methods are "LEACH" based on TDMA "SMAC" based on CSMA and "ZMAC" based on both TDMA and CSMA. We propose a transmission method which combines TDMA and CSMA like ZMAC. ZMAC changes CSMA to TDMA when nodes sense collisions. On the other hand, our proposal does not change CSMA to TDMA, but it divides the communication areas into TDMA area where nodes transmit only by TDMA and CSMA area where nodes transmit only by CSMA.

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  • A Congestion Control Method extending TCP-Vegas over Wireless Multi-hop Ad Hoc Networks

    IIKUBO Naoya, KATTO Jiro

    IEICE technical report   109 ( 448 ) 71 - 76  2010.02

     View Summary

    TCP in wireless multi-hop ad hoc networks receives various influences like a peculiar loss in wireless environment, hidden terminal problem, exposed terminal problem and so on. Therefore, the performance of TCP decreases. In addition, conventional TCP protocols decrease the performance in wireless multi-hop ad hoc networks. Because conventional TCP protocols are designed for wired networks, the window size raises aggressively. Therefore, it causes the contention in MAC layer, packet collisions and the retransmission timeout. As a result, it leads to throughput decreases. Moreover, the throughput of TCP-Vegas is known to be about 30%〜70% higher than TCP-Reno. We propose a congestion control method based on TCP-Vegas for wireless multi-hop ad hoc networks. We compare the proposal method with the conventional methods(Reno, Vegas, Ada Vegas, Vegas-W).

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  • Performance Improvement of TCP-Vegas combining 802.11e and Window Control over Wireless LAN

    SONODA Kazuhide, IIKUBO Naoya, KATTO Jiro

    IEICE technical report   109 ( 448 ) 101 - 106  2010.02

     View Summary

    This paper presents performance improvement of TCP-Vegas combining the 802.11e priority control and window control over Wireless LAN. In TCP uplink connection over Wireless LAN, the problem is indicated that unfairness among TCP flows occurs because downlink packets stay in access point (AP). In addition, when we observe behaviors of TCP-Vegas, RTT increases by the packets staying in AP and total throughput (bandwidth utilization efficiency) can't get enough. This paper pays attention on this point, and we propose a method of TCP-Vegas assuming the 802.11e priority control and mild window control, which presents better fairness among TCP flows and throughput improvement.

    CiNii

  • ToMo: A Two-layer Mesh/Tree Structure for Live Streaming in P2P Overlay Network

    Suphakit Awiphan, Zhou Su, Jiro Katto

    2010 7TH IEEE CONSUMER COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING CONFERENCE-CCNC 2010     648 - 652  2010

     View Summary

    In this paper, we introduce a hybrid approach for overlay construction and data delivery in an application-layer multicast. We combine the strong points of a tree-based structure and a mesh-based data delivery to form ToMo, a two-layer hybrid overlay. We try to reduce the number of replicated packets at a source, and reduce an effect when slow connection peers are located near the source. The overlay is constructed in the fashion of a mesh layer over a tree layer. This structure allocates the source to multicast each piece of the packet to a specific group of child peers only. Different from other approaches, we employ only push-based data delivery in order to minimize the latency. The redundancy is avoided by defining a set of well-organized mesh connections. Furthermore, in our approach, the isolated peers affected by parent departure are not facing data loss during the rejoin process since they still receive data from their neighbors via mesh connections. Simulations through ns2 demonstrate the efficiency of this solution.

    DOI

  • Hybrid Application Layer Multicast with Hierarchically Distributed Nodes

    Zhou Su, Suphakit Awiphan, Kazumine Ogura, Jiro Katto, Yasuhiko Yasuda

    2010 7TH IEEE CONSUMER COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING CONFERENCE-CCNC 2010     369 - 373  2010

     View Summary

    The hybrid Application Layer Multicast (ALM) has been shown its efficiency by leveraging the conventionally main structures of application layer multicast, tree-based and mesh-based. However, how to select the proper node to construct the overlay and how to establish the connection between any two nodes are still unsolved. Therefore, this paper is to design a novel construction algorithm for the hybrid AIM to resolve the above two issues. Firstly, by carrying out the analysis of nodes&apos; characteristics, all nodes are divided into groups and a node priority is proposed to select the super node within each group. Secondly, by using the selected super node, all nodes are hierarchically controlled and different kinds of connections are carried out in the AIM, where the connection between super node and other nodes is set to be a tree to enhance the efficient utilization of network resource while the connection between other normal nodes is decided to be a mesh to reduce the overhead. Simulation results show that the proposal outperforms other conventional methods.

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  • Overlay tree construction to distribute layered streaming by application layer multicast

    Su, Z., Oguro, M., Okada, Y., Katto, J., Okubo, S.

    IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics   56 ( 3 ) 1957 - 1962  2010

     View Summary

    With the development of broadband technologies, more and more multimedia contents such as video or bulk file are being distributed over the Internet. However, an important issue to be resolved is how to construct an efficient overlay to provide users with the acceptable throughput and delay, while receiving multimedia contents. Therefore, this paper designs a tree construction algorithm by distributing the layered steaming over the ALM in order to improve both throughput and user delay. Firstly, to improve the throughput, based on theory analysis, we define a layered degree, out/in-degree and the corresponding constraints to manage the layered streaming and nodes. Secondly, a novel method, called Bi-cast, is proposed to reduce user delay during data-transmission. Thirdly, by using the defined degrees and the Bi-cast, we present a tree construction algorithm. Both the simulation and the implementation are carried out, and the results show that our proposal can obtain better performance than other conventional methods.

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  • A hybrid TCP-friendly rate control for multimedia streaming

    Tomoki Fujikawa, Yosuke Takishima, Hiroyuki Ujikawa, Kazumine Ogura, Jiro Katto, Haruki Izumikawa

    PV 2010 - 2010 18th International Packet Video Workshop     134 - 141  2010

     View Summary

    This paper presents a hybrid congestion control algorithm supporting throughput efficiency, TCP friendliness and RTT fairness, in order to provide highly smart multimedia streaming over the Internet. Recent studies on TCP and TFRC are evolving to achieve better throughput efficiency and RTT fairness. Examples are Hybrid TCP congestion control, VTP and TCP-Libra, where the former two improve throughput efficiency of TCP and TFRC, respectively, and the last one improves RTT fairness of TCP. This paper integrates these ideas and propose a new congestion control algorithm, called Hybrid TFRC, for multimedia streaming. Experiments are carried out and effectiveness of our proposal is verified. ©2010 IEEE.

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  • A contribution-aware multiple parent overlay network for P2P media streaming

    Suphakit Awiphan, Zhou Su, Jiro Katto

    PV 2010 - 2010 18th International Packet Video Workshop     118 - 125  2010

     View Summary

    Service capacity and contribution of the peers have been proven to be the important factors for selecting a serving peer in the P2P overlay networks. In this paper, we study how to design a multi-parent overlay network in a contribution aware manner. Our idea is to utilize the outbound bandwidth of all overlay nodes efficiently. Different from other multisource streaming approaches, we employ push-based data delivery in order to minimize the latency. The core of our overlay is conceived in a tree structure rooted at a source. The auxiliary connections with redundancy avoidance capability are proposed to increase the resilience of the tree. Furthermore, we introduce an overlay joining algorithm where the parent whose degrees are exhausted responses the new peer with a list of potential peers having residual degrees so that the new peer can join the overlay with minimal requests. Simulations through ns2 demonstrate the efficiency of our solution. ©2010 IEEE.

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  • A Novel Algorithm to Control Contents Selectively for Vehicular Communication Networks

    Zhou Su, Pinyi Ren, Rongtao Xu, Jiro Katto, Yasuhiko Yasuda

    2010 IEEE 72ND VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE FALL    2010

     View Summary

    With the development of recent vehicular communication technologies, distributing multimedia contents in the vehicular communication networks (VCNs) has become more and more popular, to provide conveniences and entertainment services during the time of driving. However, as multimedia contents are changed and updated dynamically, how to keep the consistency between the original and these replicas in VCNs is very important. Therefore, this paper designs a novel algorithm to control the consistency for the VCNs. In our proposal, after the analyses of the status of road-side units, on-board units and local geographical information, we divide all replicas into different groups, where one is necessary for update and the other are not. Then, we compare the cost to update replicas by using wireless and wired connection, and propose a method to make selection between them. The performance of our proposal is tested by simulation experiments. And the results show that our method can obtain the low delay successfully.

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  • Implementation experiments to evaluate a new TCP congestion control supporting loss-fairness

    Kazumine Ogura, Zhou Su, Jiro Katto

    2010 IEEE International Workshop Technical Committee on Communications Quality and Reliability, CQR 2010    2010

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a new TCP congestion control supporting loss-fairness, which also contributes to improving RTT fairness. It has been well known that smaller RTT flows grab more bandwidth than larger ones when they compete on the shared link. This is called RTT unfairness and is caused by congestion control mechanism of the current TCP. To solve this problem, many protocols have been proposed. TCP-Libra is one of them, which formulates its window increase rate as a function of RTT and brings the same throughput irrespective of different RTT values. However, we indicate TCP-Libra's formulation holds only when the congestion window is halved upon packet losses similar to TCP-Reno. When we apply different (smarter) window control schemes, the formulation has to be modified accordingly. Therefore, in this paper, we consider a hybrid congestion control supporting RTT fairness which switches two modes according to buffering state at the bottleneck link. In decrement phase upon packet loss, it decreases window size to clear the buffering packets instead of halving the window size. Furthermore, we introduce the concept of loss-fairness for our window increase formulation, which is equivalent to RTTfairness. Experiments are carried out to validate the proposed method by both implementation experiments and simulations, and much better performances are achieved against conventional methods. ©2010 IEEE.

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  • Improvement of IM-GPDCT by Using Multiple Image Magnification Methods and Selective Substitution of Low Frequency

    INOUE Yoshitaka, KATTO Jiro

    The IEICE transactions on information and systems   92 ( 10 ) 1740 - 1742  2009.10

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  • B-6-1 A Proposal of the Synchronized Intermittent Communication for Sensor Networks

    Suzuki Takamasa, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the Society Conference of IEICE   2009 ( 2 ) 1 - 1  2009.09

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  • B-6-6 Improving TCP-Vegas Performance for Multi-flow over Wireless Multi-hop Ad Hoc Networks

    IIKUBO Naoya, KATTO Jiro

    Proceedings of the Society Conference of IEICE   2009 ( 2 ) 6 - 6  2009.09

    CiNii

  • D-12-77 A Study on Improvement of Learning Efficiency and Recognition Rate by using Seam-Carving

    Sato Motoaki, Katto Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2009 ( 2 ) 186 - 186  2009.03

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  • B-6-76 Improving TCP-Vegas Performance over Wireless Multi-hop Ad Hoc Networks

    IIKUBO Naoya, KATTO Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2009 ( 2 ) 76 - 76  2009.03

    CiNii

  • B-6-106 A Study on the Hybrid Application Layer Multicast System

    OH Yin, SU Zhou, KATTO Jiro, TOMINAGA Hideyoshi

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2009 ( 2 ) 106 - 106  2009.03

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  • Key estimation using circle of fifths

    Inoshita, T., Katto, J.

    Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)   5371 LNCS   287 - 297  2009

     View Summary

    This paper presents a novel key estimation method of sound sources based on the music theory known as "circle of fifths". We firstly overview music theory and formulate the musical key analysis by vector operations. In detail, we separate music sources into small pieces and calculate FFT-based chroma vectors. They are converted to tonality vectors and COF (circle-of-fifth) vectors are calculated from the tonality vectors, which are mapped onto the circle of fifths coordinate. As a result, each music source can be represented by traces of COF vectors, which usually stay inside a single key region on the circle of fifths. Finally, HMM is applied to the traces of COF vectors in order to detect keys and their boundaries. Experiments using music databases are also carried out.

    DOI

  • Feature analysis and normalization approach for robust content-based music retrieval to encoded audio with different bit rates

    Hamawaki, S., Funasawa, S., Katto, J., Ishizaki, H., Hoashi, K., Takishima, Y.

    Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)   5371 LNCS   298 - +  2009

     View Summary

    In order to achieve highly accurate content-based music information retrieval (MIR), it is necessary to compensate the various bit rates of encoded songs which are stored in the music collection, since the bit rate differences are expected to apply a negative effect to content-based MIR results. In this paper, we examine how the bit rate differences affect MIR results, propose methods to normalize MFCC features extracted from encoded files with various bit rates, and show their effects to stabilize MIR results.

    DOI

  • Efficient Construction in ALM with Assignment of Layered Degree and Bi-Cast

    Zhou Su, Masato Oguro, Yohei Okada, Jiro Katto, Sakae Okubo

    2009 6TH IEEE CONSUMER COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING CONFERENCE, VOLS 1 AND 2     130 - 131  2009

    DOI

  • Priority based selection to improve contents consistency for mobile overlay network

    Zhou Su, Jiro Katto, Yasuhiko Yasuda

    IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC    2009

     View Summary

    With the growing use of dynamic content by mobile content distribution systems, how to manage dynamically changing files has become an important issue, since the cached replicas on different mobile sites must be updated if the originals have been changed. Therefore, this paper proposes a priority based selection method to enhance the efficient utilization of network resource and support the client mobility for Mobile Contents Delivery Network (M-CDN). On one hand, a consistency priority is calculated by analyzing the characteristics of mobile surrogates. If a given content which has been changed on its original node, only the replicas with the high consistency priority instead of all replicas are updated. On the other hand, an update priority is also proposed. If a replica has been selected for update, the latest version will be sent from the site decided by the update consistency. Simulation results show that the proposed new approach outperforms other conventional methods. © 2009 IEEE.

    DOI

  • Improvement of RTT-Fairness in Hybrid TCP Congestion Control

    Kazumine Ogura, Tomoki Fujikawa, Su Zhou, Jiro Katto

    CQR: 2009 IEEE INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP TECHNICAL COMMITTEE AND COMMUNICATIONS QUALITY AND RELIABILITY     1 - 6  2009

     View Summary

    This paper presents TCP-Fusion supporting RTT (Round Trip Time) fairness in addition to throughput efficiency and friendliness to TCP-Reno. When multiple TCP flows having different RTT values compete, more bandwidth is unfairly allocated to the flow having smaller RTT. This means that a user with longer RTT may not be able to obtain sufficient bandwidth by the current methods. On the other hand, recent studies on the TCP congestion control to achieve RTT fairness and throughput efficiency are evolving actively. An example for RTT fairness is TCP-Libra and an example for throughput efficiency is Hybrid TCP congestion control. This paper focuses on Hybrid TCP (exploiting residual link capacity when TCP-Reno drops its rate) and improves its RTT fairness by incorporating the ideas of TCP-Libra (congestion window increase in proportion to square of RTT) to its loss mode. Experiments are carried out to validate the proposed method and much better performances in RTT fairness and throughput are provided against conventional methods.

    DOI

  • Robust Mesh-based Data Delivery over Multiple Tree-Shaped Routes in P2P Overlay Network

    Suphakit Awiphan, Su Zhou, Jiro Katto

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE 12TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON OBJECT/COMPONENT/SERVICE-ORIENTED REAL-TIME DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING     181 - 187  2009

     View Summary

    In this paper, we introduce a new mesh-based approach for data delivery which is organized over multiple tree-shaped core routes. Given that both tree and mesh approaches for multicast overlay construction have their own strong points, we simply combine them. During session, the mesh connections are formed dynamically to facilitate the data delivery on tree-shaped core routes which may experience bandwidth bottlenecks. Unlike existing mesh-based approaches, our proposal employs push-based data delivery along mesh connection. A well-organized mesh construction scheme is defined to avoid data redundancies. We evaluated the proposal through ns-2 simulator. The simulation results demonstrate that our approach can provide higher average received quality and has acceptable control overhead when compared to a single tree method. We also show that, over a static overlay, the push-based data delivery on mesh can provide the received quality close to supposed pull-based data delivery method with less latency. Moreover, it has lower control overhead than the pull-based method when the peer number is large.

    DOI

  • BS-12-17 Mobile Consistency Control in Mobile Dynamic Contents Delivery Overlay(BS-12. Network Planning, Control, and Management)

    Su Zhou, Suphakit Awiphan, Katto Jiro, Yasuda Yasuhiko

    Proceedings of the Society Conference of IEICE   2008 ( 2 ) "S - 150"-"S-151"  2008.09

     View Summary

    This paper is to design an integrated consistency-control algorithm for mobile contents delivery network (M-CDN) to enhance the efficient utilization of network resource and support the client mobility. Firstly, by carrying out an analysis of mobile surrogates&#039; characteristics, for a given content which has been changed on its original node, only a limited number of its replicas instead of all replicas are updated. Then, if a replica has been selected for update, the latest version will be sent from an algorithm-decided site instead of from its original server.

    CiNii

  • A Study on Decoder-Side Picture Quality Improvement Using Additional Information

    SUZUKI Junya, ITAGAKI Shusei, SAKAIDA Shinichi, IGUCHI Kazuhisa, KATTO Jiro

    The IEICE transactions on information and systems   91 ( 8 ) 1971 - 1973  2008.08

    CiNii

  • A Study on PSNR Improvement by Composing Multiple Compressed Images

    ITAGAKI Shusei, SUZUKI Junya, SAKAIDA Shinichi, IGUCHI Kazuhisa, KATTO Jiro

    PCSJ2007, Nov.   91 ( 8 ) 1974 - 1975  2008.08

    CiNii

  • A New Video Coding Method Available for Decoding from Arbitrarily Frame

    IGUCHI Kazuhisa, SAKAIDA Shinichi, GOHSHI Seiichi, SUZUKI Junya, ITAGAKI Shusei, KATTO Jiro

    The IEICE transactions on information and systems   91 ( 8 ) 1946 - 1948  2008.08

    CiNii

  • B-7-125 Efficient Consistency Management for Mobile Dynamic Contents

    SU Zhou, TAKAGI Kunitaka, SUPHAKIT Awiphan, KATTO Jiro, YASUDA Yasuhiko

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2008 ( 2 )  2008.03

    CiNii

  • Denoising intra-coded moving pictures using motion estimation and pixel shift

    Jiro Katto, Junya Suzuki, Shusei Itagaki, Shinichi Sakaida, Kazuhisa Iguchi

    2008 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ACOUSTICS, SPEECH AND SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOLS 1-12     1393 - +  2008

     View Summary

    This paper presents a denoising method of intra-coded pictures using motion estimation and pixel shift. Firstly, we show that pixel-aligned mixture of distorted images which are spatially shifted and differently encoded brings reduction of quantization errors. We show that this effect can be formulated as a special case of Wiener-Hopf equation and independence of quantization errors affects the performance. We then consider its application to denoising of intra-coded pictures by using motion estimation and pixel shift. Experiments using actual image sequences verify that motion estimation is effective in moving regions, pixel shift is effective in static regions and favorable PSNR gains are achieved.

    DOI

  • Consistency and Update in Mobile Overlay Networks

    Zhou Su, Jiro Katto, Yasuhiko Yasuda, Yu Chen

    2008 THIRD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING IN CHINA, VOLS 1-3     978 - +  2008

     View Summary

    With the development whereby mobile content distribution systems can manage dynamically changing files, an important issue to be resolved is consistency management, which means the cached replicas on different mobile sites must be updated if the originals change. This paper is to design an integrated consistency-control algorithm for mobile contents delivery network (M-CDN) to enhance the efficient utilization of network resource and support the client mobility. Firstly, by carrying out an analysis of mobile surrogates' characteristics, for a given content which has been changed on its original node, only a limited number of its replicas instead of all replicas are updated. Secondly, if a replica has been selected for update, the latest version will be sent from an algorithm-decided site instead of from its original server. Simulation results show that the proposal outperforms other conventional methods.

    DOI

  • Simple Model Analysis and Performance Tuning of Hybrid TCP Congestion Control

    Jiro Katto, Kazumine Ogura, Yuki Akae, Tomoki Fujikawa, Kazumi Kaneko, Su Zhou

    GLOBECOM 2008 - 2008 IEEE GLOBAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS CONFERENCE     1387 - 1392  2008

     View Summary

    This paper presents simple analytical models of hybrid TCP congestion controls, which switch loss-based mode and delay-based mode adaptively, and tries their performance tuning. We firstly present ideal behavior models of three kinds of TCP congestion controls (loss-based, delay-based and hybrid). We then give abstracted models of the actual hybrid TCP s and consider their performance tuning. Finally, experiments validate analytical expectations and effectiveness of the hybrid TCP.

    DOI

  • BS-10-6 Scalable Consistency Control in Mobile Dynamic Contents Delivery Overlay

    Su Zhou, Kusumoto Tetsuya, Takagi Kunitaka, Katto Jiro, Yasuda Yasuhiko

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2007 ( 2 ) "S - 103"-"S-104"  2007.03

     View Summary

    This paper is to design an integrated consistency-control algorithm for mobile contents delivery network (M-CDN) to enhance the efficient utilization of network resource and support the client mobility. Firstly, by carrying out an analysis of mobile surrogates&#039; characteristics, for a given content which has been changed on its original node, only a limited number of its replicas instead of all replicas are updated. Then, if a replica has been selected for update, the latest version will be sent from an algorithm-decided site instead of from its original server.

    CiNii

  • Efficient consistency control for mobile dynamic contents delivery network

    Zhou Su, Jiro Katto, Yasuhiko Yasuda

    IEEE 2007 INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON MICROWAVE, ANTENNA, PROPAGATION AND EMC TECHNOLOGIES FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOLS I AND II     171 - 173  2007

     View Summary

    This paper is to design an integrated consistency-control algorithm for mobile contents delivery network (M-CDN) to enhance the efficient utilization of network resource and support the client mobility. Firstly, by carrying out an analysis of mobile surrogates characteristics, for a given content which has been changed on its original node, only a limited number of its replicas instead of all replicas are updated. Then, if a replica has been selected for update, the latest version will be sent from an algorithm-decided site instead of from its original server.

    DOI

  • Selective update approach to maintain strong Web consistency in dynamic content delivery

    Su, Z., Oguro, M., Katto, J., Yasuda, Y.

    IEICE Transactions on Communications   E90-B ( 10 ) 2729 - 2737  2007

     View Summary

    Content delivery network improves end-user performance by replicating Web contents on a group of geographically distributed sites interconnected over the Internet. However, with the development whereby content distribution systems can manage dynamically changing files, an important issue to be resolved is consistency management, which means the cached replicas on different sites must be updated if the originals change. In this paper, based on the analytical formulation of object freshness, web access distribution and network topology, we derive a novel algorithm as follows: (1) For a given content which has been changed on its original server, only a limited number of its replicas instead of all replicas are updated. (2) After a replica has been selected for update, the latest version will be sent from an algorithm-decided site instead of from its original server. Simulation results verify that the proposed algorithm provides better consistency management than conventional methods with the reduced the old hit ratio and network traffic.

    DOI CiNii

  • Support strong consistency for mobile dynamic contents delivery network

    Zhou Su, Jiro Katto, Yasuhiko Yasuda

    ISM 2007: NINTH IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON MULTIMEDIA, PROCEEDINGS     291 - 295  2007

     View Summary

    With the development whereby mobile content distribution systems can manage dynamically changing files, an important issue to be resolved is consistency management, which means the cached replicas on different mobile sites must be updated if the originals change. This paper is to design an integrated consistency-control algorithm for mobile contents delivery network (M-CDN) to enhance the efficient utilization of network resource and support the client mobility. Firstly, by carrying out an analysis of mobile surrogates&apos; characteristics, for a given content which has been changed on its original node, only a limited number of its replicas instead of all replicas are updated. Secondly, if a replica has been selected for update, the latest version will be sent from an algorithm-decided site instead of from its original server. Simulation results show that the proposal outperforms other conventional methods.

    DOI

  • Strategies towards robust and stable application layer multicast

    Tetsuya Kusumoto, Su Zhou, Jiro Katto, Sakae Okubo

    PACKET VIDEO 2007 - 16th International Packet Video Workshop    2007

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study is to construct a robust and stable overlay tree of ALM (Application Layer Multicast) for real-time video transmission. Firstly, we propose a proactive route maintenance which enables fast recovery of the overlay tree against node departures and failures. By forcing free node degrees for route backup, signaling overheads for route maintenance can be reduced in a scalable manner. Secondly, we improve performance of the proposed method by introducing layered video coding. Smooth layer management instead of coarse degree management contributes to reduction of the depth of overlay tree (i.e. delay) as well as to efficient bandwidth utilization. Thirdly, we introduce session records of each node into the overlay tree construction. Long-term history of user access records is expected to bring more robust overlay trees. Finally, we carried out extensive evaluation experiments. Simulations and implementations demonstrate that our methods lead to fast recovery of the overlay tree against node departures and reduction of the signaling overheads. Furthermore, introduction of layered video coding is proved to be efficient to reduce delays, to improve bandwidth utilization and to avoid severe degradation of picture quality. Final experiments show that incorporation of node stability reduces the number of nodes affected by parent node departures by promoting adequate nodes to upper layer of the ALM tree. ©2007 IEEE.

    DOI

  • Scalable maintenance for strong web consistency in dynamic content delivery overlays

    Zhou Su, Jiro Katto, Yasuhiko Yasuda

    IEEE International Conference on Communications     1728 - 1733  2007

     View Summary

    Content Delivery Overlays improves end-user performance by replicating Web contents on a group of geographically distributed sites interconnected over the Internet. However, with the development whereby overlay systems can manage dynamically changing flies, an important issue to be resolved is consistency management, which means the cached replicas on different sites must be updated if the originals change. In this paper, based on the analytical formulation of object freshness, web access distribution and network topology, we derive a novel algorithm as follows: (1) For a given content which has been changed on its original server, only a limited number of its replicas instead of all replicas are updated. (2) After a replica has been selected for update, the latest version will be sent from an algorithm-decided site instead of from its original server. Simulation results verify that the proposed algorithm provides much better consistency management than conventional methods with the reduced the old hit ratio and network traffic. © 2007 IEEE.

    DOI

  • Robust algorithm to retrieve scalable streaming media over content delivery networks

    Su, Z., Katto, J., Yasuda, Y.

    International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control   3 ( 6 B ) 1743 - 1754  2007

     View Summary

    A robust replication algorithm is very important to retrieve Web objects from the Content delivery network (CDN), where both the network topology and Web access are changed dynamically. However, current replica strategies in CDN are to statically and repeatedly keep the complete replica of the original object on many content servers. This method is weak in adapting the dynamic network, resulting in too much consumed server space and a waste of the storage cost. It becomes more serious by replicating some large-sized objects such as streaming media, which are being distributed over the Internet,more and more. In this paper, we discuss a robust replication strategy for scalable video strew-ning in CDN to reduce user response and storage cost as follows: 1) For content servers, which layer of which video contents should be selected to replicate? 2) How to test the robustness under different network environments? Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is robust and can provide much better performance than the conventional methods.

  • BS-8-12 Software Implementation of an On-demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Multimedia Streaming in Mobile Ad hoc Networks(BS-8. Technology and Architecture for Ubiquitous Network Systems,ENGLISH SESSION)

    KOIZUMI Shinya, TANIYAMA Kenta, MORII Takeshi, KOTANI Yukihiro, NOGUCHI Kazuhiro, KATTO Jiro

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2006 ( 2 ) "SE - 23"-"SE-24"  2006.03

    CiNii

  • 1P041 Structural alignment with Delaunay codes characterizing local structures and structural motifs identified by the alignment(1. Protein structure and dynamics (I),Poster Session,Abstract,Meeting Program of EABS & BSJ 2006)

    Tamura Shohei, Teramoto Yaemi, Katto Jiro, Wako Hiroshi

    Seibutsu Butsuri   46 ( 2 )  2006

    CiNii

  • An integrated retrieval and pre-fetching algorithms for segmented streaming in mobile peer-to-peer networks

    Zhou Su, Jiro Katto, Yasuhiko Yasuda

    2005 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CLUSTER COMPUTING (CLUSTER)     470 - 470  2006

    DOI

  • Proactive route maintenance for tree-based application layer multicast and its implementations

    Kusumoto, T., Katto, J., Okubo, S.

    IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems   E89-D ( 12 ) 2856 - 2866  2006

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study is to maintain efficient backup routes for reconstructing overlay trees quickly. In most conventional methods, after a node leaves the trees, its child nodes start searching for the new parents. In this reactive approach, it takes a lot of time to find a new parent. In this paper, we propose a proactive approach to finding a next parent as the backup route node over the overlay tree before the current parent leaves. A proactive approach allows a node to find its new parent node immediately and switch to the backup route node smoothly. In our proposal, the structure of the overlay tree using a redundant degree can decide a backup route node without so much overhead. Simulations demonstrate our proactive approach can recover from node departures 2 times faster than reactive approaches, and can construct overlay trees with lower overheads than another proactive method. Additionally we carried out experiments over actual networks and their results support the effectiveness of our approach. We confirmed that our proposal achieved better streaming quality than conventional approaches. Copyright © 2006 The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers.

    DOI

  • Experimental evaluation of an on-demand multipath routing protocol for video transmission in mobile ad hoc networks

    Taniyama, K., Morii, T., Koizumi, S., Noguchi, K., Kotani, Y., Katto, J.

    Journal of Zhejiang University: Science   7 ( SUPPL. 1 ) 145 - 150  2006

     View Summary

    We propose an on-demand multipath routing algorithm in a mobile ad hoc network for video transmission and evaluate its real world performance in video streaming application. There have been a number of multipath routing protocols extended from AODV which is a well-known single path routing protocol. Multipath routing protocols indicate good performance in the reduction of route discovery latency and unnecessary routing packets in simulations. We show that the route establishment using source route lists provided by us (Hu and Johnson, 2002) can reduce the route discovery latency, select stable routes automatically, and work well for live video streaming without limitation of the hop count based approaches. We evaluate this proposed method compared with the original AODV by using eight laptop PCs and demonstrate live streaming experiments.

    DOI

  • Minimizing video switching/composition delay by controlling video sync phases

    Ikeda, Y., Okubo, S., Katto, J., Kimura, K.

    Kyokai Joho Imeji Zasshi/Journal of the Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers   60 ( 11 ) 1789 - 1795  2006

     View Summary

    The current video switching/composition scheme employed is fundamentally subject to a variable delay of 0-1 frame at each stage due to the use of a frame synchronizer. We can fix and minimize this variable delay by controlling the video sync phase of the distributed video sources at the start of the communication session if they are driven by either the same video sync frequency or independent but very accurate sync frequencies. Furthermore, delivering the necessary phase controlling signals between the terminal and the video switching or composing point can be relatively easy because of the widely available IP networks. Based on .these ideas, we determined the performance of an experimental system we constructed that used video phase synchronization of distributed video sources. We describe the system's architecture, discuss the sync source dependency of the system, and report the delay observed in existing and proposed schemes of video composition using real time hardware experiments. The results obtained indicate that the proposed video sync controlling system is effective and has practical applications for fixing and minimizing the video switching/composition delay.

    DOI

  • Tree-based application layer multicast using proactive route maintenance and its implementation

    Tetsuya Kusumoto, Yohei Kunichika, Jiro Katto, Sakae Okubo

    P2PMMS 2005 - Proceedings of the ACM Workshop on Advances in Peer-to-Peer Multimedia Streaming, co-located with ACM Multimedia 2005     49 - 58  2005.11

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study is to maintain efficient backup routes for reconstructing overlay trees quickly. In most conventional methods, after a node leaves the trees, its children start searching for a new parent. In this reactive approach, it takes a lot of time to find a new parent. In this paper, we propose a proactive approach to finding a new parent over the overlay trees before the current parent leaves. A proactive approach allows a node to find its new parent immediately and switch to the backup route smoothly. In our proposal, the structure of the overlay tree using a redundant degree can decide a new parent without so much overhead. Simulations demonstrate our proactive approach can recover from node departures 2 times faster than reactive approaches, and can construct overlay trees with lower overheads than another proactive method. Additionally we carried out experiments over actual networks and their results support the effectiveness of our approach. We confirmed that our proposal achieved better streaming quality than conventional approaches.

    DOI

  • BS-9-3 Implementation of Throughput Maximized ALM using Layered Video Coding(BS-9. Latest Trends on Information Networking Technologies)

    OGURO Masato, OKADA Yohei, KATTO Jiro, OKUBO Sakae

    Proceedings of the Society Conference of IEICE   2005 ( 2 ) "SE - 5"-"SE-6"  2005.09

    CiNii

  • BS-10-14 Retrieval and Pre-fetching algorithms for Segmented Streaming in Mobile Peer-to-Peer Networks(BS-10. Network Planning, Control, and Management)

    Su Zhou, Katto Jiro, Yasuda Yasuhiko

    Proceedings of the Society Conference of IEICE   2005 ( 2 ) "SE - 37"-"SE-38"  2005.09

    CiNii

  • LL-012 Optimal Consistency Management in Dynamic Content Delivery Networks

    Su Zhou, Katto Jiro, Yasuda Yasuhiko

    情報科学技術レターズ   4   303 - 305  2005.08

    CiNii

  • 21世紀COEプロジェクト「プロダクティブICTアカデミア」

    上田 和紀, 大石 進一, 甲藤 二郎, 中島 達夫, 村岡 洋一, 山名 早人

    情報処理   46 ( 4 ) 410 - 416  2005.04

    CiNii

  • BS-11-1 Performance comparison of request models for a P2P based streaming Content Distribution Network(BS-11. Latest Trends on Information Networking Technologies)

    Skevik Karl Andre, Katto Jiro, Goebel Vera, Plagemann Thomas

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2005 ( 2 ) "SE - 22"-"SE-23"  2005.03

    CiNii

  • BS-10-5 Supporting Strong Web Consistency in Content Delivery Networks(BS-10. Network Controls for High-Quality Communications)

    SU Zhou, GU Hongyu, KATTO Jiro, YASUDA Yasuhiko

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2005 ( 2 ) "SE - 8"-"SE-9"  2005.03

    CiNii

  • A new approach for the construction of ALM trees using layered coding

    Yohei Okada, Masato Oguro, Jiro Katto, Sakae Okubo

    Proceedings of the Joint International Conference on Autonomic and Autonomous Systems and International Conference on Networking and Services, ICAS/ICNS 2005   2005   12 - 68  2005

     View Summary

    This paper presents a novel approach for efficient tree construction in ALM (Application Layer Multicast) using layered video coding. This system is suitable for the users in heterogeneous environment such as xDSL and CATV, where upload and download speeds are different. We point out some problems in these environment of the ALM and show their solutions at two stages. First, we redefine the "degree parameter" which originally specifies the number of single rate streams the host can transmit, to reflect asymmetric link properties and to accommodate layered streams. Second, we develop an efficient tree construction algorithm using the renewed degree parameter, which maximizes total throughput of all hosts. Simulations using NS-2 prove improvement in throughput, delay and overhead by our proposal. Software implementation is also carried out, and subjective quality improvement is verified. © 2005 IEEE.

    DOI

  • Supporting consistency management in dynamic content distribution overlays

    Z Su, J Katto, Y Yasuda

    2005 Joint International Conference on Autonomic and Autonomous Systems and International Conference on Networking and Services (ICAS/ICNS)   2005   397 - 402  2005

     View Summary

    Content Distribution Overlays improves end-user performance by replicating Web contents on a group of geographically distributed sites interconnected over the Internet. However, with the development whereby overlay systems can manage dynamically changing files, an important issue to be resolved is consistency management, which means the cached replicas on different sites must be updated if the originals change. In this paper, based on the analytical formulation of object freshness time, web access distribution and network topology we derive a novel algorithm as follows: (1) For a given content which has been changed at its original server, only a limited number of its replicas instead of all replicas are updated. (2) After a replica has been selected for update, the latest version will be sent from an algorithm-decided site instead of from its original server. Simulation results verify that the proposed algorithm provides much better consistency management than conventional methods with the reduced update overhead and network traffic.

    DOI

  • Supporting consistency management in dynamic content distribution overlays

    Z Su, J Katto, Y Yasuda

    2005 Joint International Conference on Autonomic and Autonomous Systems and International Conference on Networking and Services (ICAS/ICNS)     397 - 402  2005

     View Summary

    Content Distribution Overlays improves end-user performance by replicating Web contents on a group of geographically distributed sites interconnected over the Internet. However, with the development whereby overlay systems can manage dynamically changing files, an important issue to be resolved is consistency management, which means the cached replicas on different sites must be updated if the originals change. In this paper, based on the analytical formulation of object freshness time, web access distribution and network topology we derive a novel algorithm as follows: (1) For a given content which has been changed at its original server, only a limited number of its replicas instead of all replicas are updated. (2) After a replica has been selected for update, the latest version will be sent from an algorithm-decided site instead of from its original server. Simulation results verify that the proposed algorithm provides much better consistency management than conventional methods with the reduced update overhead and network traffic.

    DOI

  • A new approach for the construction of ALM trees using layered coding

    Y Okada, M Oguro, J Katto, S Okubo

    2005 JOINT INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AUTONOMIC AND AUTONOMOUS SYSTEMS AND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON NETWORKING AND SERVICES (ICAS/ICNS)   2005   62 - 67  2005

     View Summary

    This paper presents a novel approach for efficient tree construction in ALM (Application Layer Multicast) using layered video coding. This system is suitable for the users in heterogeneous environment such as xDSL and CATV, where upload and download speeds are different. We point out some problems in these environment of the ALM and show their solutions at two stages. First, we redefine the "degree parameter" which originally specifies the number of single rate streams the host can transmit, to reflect asymmetric link properties and to accommodate layered streams. Second, we develop an efficient tree construction algorithm using the renewed degree parameter, which maximizes total throughput of all hosts. Simulations using NS-2 prove improvement in throughput, delay and overhead by our proposal. Software implementation is also carried out, and subjective quality improvement is verified.

    DOI

  • Reno friendly TCP Westwood based on router buffer estimation

    K Kaneko, J Katto

    2005 Joint International Conference on Autonomic and Autonomous Systems and International Conference on Networking and Services (ICAS/ICNS)   2005   80 - 85  2005

     View Summary

    TCP Reno versions are widely used in current network, however it has been actualized that their throughput deteriorates in high-speed network and wireless environments. To overcome these problems of TCP Reno versions, a number of protocols have been proposed. In these researches, friendliness with TCP Reno becomes important. TCP Westwood is an example that is based on end-to-end bandwidth estimate, and brings higher efficiency performances. However it will be shown that the friendliness with TCP Reno is deteriorated according to network situations such as the buffer size of a bottleneck link router. In this paper, we quantify the buffer size that TCP Reno and TCP Westwood perform friendly to each other, and then propose an improved version of TCP Westwood that achieves friendliness with TCP Reno by estimating the buffer size of a bottleneck link router by using bandwidth estimation technique, RCE, and by updating congestion control parameters under the constraint of throughput estimation models. We confirm effectiveness of our proposal scheme by extensive simulation experiments. Simulation results show that our proposed scheme performs friendly to TCP Reno in various network situations independently of router buffer sizes.

    DOI

  • Optimal Replication Algorithm for Scalable Streaming Media in Content Delivery Networks

    SU Zhou, KATTO Jiro, YASUDA Yasuhiko

    IEICE transactions on information and systems   87 ( 12 ) 2723 - 2732  2004.12

     View Summary

    CDN (Content Delivery Networks) improves end-user performance by replicating web contents on a group of geographically distributed servers. However, repeatedly keeping the entire replica of the original objects into many content servers consumes too much server resource. This problem becomes more serious for the large-sized objects such as streaming media, e.g. high quality video. In this paper, we therefore propose an efficient replication method for layered video streams in CDN, which can reduce user response delays and storage costs simultaneously. Based on an analytical formulation of the cooperative replication of layers and segments of each video stream, we derive a replication algorithm which solves next three problems quantitatively. (1) How many servers should be selected to replicate a given video stream? (2) For a single video stream, how many layers and segments should be stored in a given server? (3) After selecting a group of servers for each video stream, how do we allocate the replication priority (i.e. order) to each server? Simulation results verify that the proposed algorithm efficiently resolves the above problems and provides much better performance than conventional methods.

    CiNii

  • B-6-198 Delivery of Multiple Description Coding Streaming Media over Peer to Peer Networks

    SU Zhou, KATTO Jiro, YASUDA Yasuhiko

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2004 ( 2 )  2004.03

    CiNii

  • Application layer multicast with proactive route maintenance over redundant overlay trees

    Kunichika, Y., Katto, J., Okubo, S.

    Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)   3333   306 - 313  2004

     View Summary

    In this paper, an efficient algorithm to look for backup parents in preparation of parent leaving is proposed for application layer multicasting whose topology is constituted in the shape of a tree from a single source node. In most conventional methods, each child node starts searching for its new parent after its parent node leaves from a multicasting tree. This reactive operation often causes long interruption period. In our proposal, each node holds its parent candidate proactively over redundant overlay trees. Proactive route maintenance leads to smooth switching to a new parent after node leaving and failure, and redundant structure of a multicasting tree avoids exhausting search of a backup parent. Computer simulations are also carried out and effectiveness of the proposed approach is verified.

  • Dynamic walks for searching streaming media in Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Su, Z., Katto, J., Yasuda, Y.

    Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)   3331   147 - 156  2004

     View Summary

    With the advance of network technologies, availability and popularity of streaming media contents over the P2P (Peer-to-Peer) Networks have grown rapidly in recent years. However, how to efficiently search a requested steaming media among P2P peers is still a problem which causes a serious user delay and limited hit ratio. This paper presents an efficient search method for streaming media in P2P, which reduces user response delays and exchange overhead simultaneously. Based on an analytical formulation of both streaming media and P2P peers' characteristics, we derive a search algorithm which solves the next two problems quantitatively. (1) How to decide the number of walkers (queries) at each step of search? (2) How to decide the length of walkers (queries) at each step of search? Simulation results verify that the proposed algorithm efficiently resolves the above problems and provides much better performance than conventional methods.

  • An Integration System of Video and 3D Graphics for Mobile Terminals

    INOUE Daisuke, KATTO Jiro, KANEKO Itaru, TSUTSUMI Junya, CALLOW Mark

    ITE technical report   27 ( 72 ) 25 - 30  2003.12

    CiNii

  • An Integration System of Video and 3D Graphics for Mobile Terminals

    Inoue Daisuke, Katto Jiro, Kaneko Itaru, Tsutsumi Junya, Callow Mark

    IEICE technical report. Image engineering   103 ( 514 ) 25 - 30  2003.12

     View Summary

    Recently, many cellular-phone terminals are equipped with 3D graphics rendering engine, Java execution environment and, furthermore, MPEG4 compression/decompression capability. In this paper, we report media integration system of video and graphics on the cellular-phone terminal aiming at creating and supplying more attractive contents. We propose a system architecture without requiring drastic change on current configuration, and report simulation results performed on PC.

    CiNii J-GLOBAL

  • An Integration System of Video and 3D Graphics for Mobile Terminals

    INOUE Daisuke, KATTO Jiro, KANEKO Itaru, TSUTSUMI Junya, CALLOW Mark

    IPSJ SIG Notes   43   115 - 120  2003.12

     View Summary

    Recently, many cellular-phone terminals are equipped with 3D graphics rendering engine, Java execution environment and, furthermore, MPEG4 compression/decompression capability. In this paper, we report media integration system of video and graphics on the cellular-phone terminal aiming at creating and supplying more attractive contents. We propose a system architecture without requiring drastic change on current configuration, and report simulation results performed on PC.

    CiNii

  • SB-10-13 Replication Algorithms for Scalable Streaming Media in Content Delivery Networks

    SU Zhou, KATTO Jiro, YASUDA Yasuhiko

    Proceedings of the Society Conference of IEICE   2003 ( 2 ) "SE - 24"-"SE-25"  2003.09

    CiNii

  • Integrated pre-fetching and replacing algorithm for graceful image caching

    Z Su, T Washizawa, J Katto, Y Yasuda

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS   E86B ( 9 ) 2753 - 2763  2003.09

     View Summary

    The efficient distribution of stored information has become a major concern ill the Internet. Since the web workload characteristics show that more than 60% of network traffic is caused by image documents. how to efficiently distribute image documents from servers to end clients is an important issue. Proxy cache is an efficient solution to reduce network traffic. 2 And it has been shown that an image caching method (Graceful Caching) based oil hierarchical coding format performs better than conventional caching schemes ill recent years. However, as the capacity of the Cache is limited, how to efficiently allocate the cache memory to achieve a minimum expected delay time is still a problem to he resolved. This paper presents all integrated caching algorithm to deal with the above problem for image databases. web browsers, proxies and other similar applications ill the Internet. By analyzing the web request distribution of the Graceful Caching, both replacing and pre-fetching algorithms are proposed. We also show that our proposal can be carried out based oil information readily available ill the proxy server; it flexibly adapts its parameters to the hit rates and access pattern of users requesting documents in the Graceful Caching. Finally we verify the performance of this algorithm by simulations.

    CiNii

  • Stream caching using hierarchically distributed proxies with adaptive segments assignment

    Z Su, J Katto, T Nishikawa, M Murakami, Y Yasuda

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS   E86B ( 6 ) 1859 - 1869  2003.06

     View Summary

    With the advance of high-speed network technologies, availability and popularity of streaming media contents over the Internet has grown rapidly in recent years. Because of their distinct statistical properties and user viewing patterns, traditional delivery and caching schemes for normal web objects such as HTML files or images can not be efficiently applied to streaming media such as audio and video. In this paper, we therefore propose an integrated caching scheme for streaming media with segment-based caching and hierarchically distributed proxies. Firstly, each stream is divided into segments and their caching algorithms are considered to determine how to distribute the segments into different level proxies efficiently. Secondly, by introducing two kinds of segment priorities, segment replacing algorithms are proposed to determine which stream and which segments should be replaced when the cache is full. Finally, a Web-friendly caching scheme is proposed to integrate the streaming caching with the conventional caching of normal web objects. Performance of the proposed algorithms is verified by carrying out simulations.

    CiNii

  • B-7-43 Replication Algorithm for Hierarchical Streaming Media in Content Delivery Networks

    SU Zhou, FUJIMORI Atsushi, KATTO Jiro, YASUDA Yasuhiko

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2003 ( 2 )  2003.03

    CiNii

  • Structure recovery with multiple cameras from scaled orthographic and perspective views

    Marugame, A., Katto, J., Ohta, M.

    IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence   21 ( 7 ) 628 - 633  1999

     View Summary

    This paper presents a novel framework for Euclidean structure recovery utilizing a scaled orthographic view and perspective views simultaneously. A scaled orthographic view is introduced in order to automatically obtain camera parameters such as camera positions, orientation, and focal length. Scaled orthographic properties enable all camera parameters to be calculated implicitly and perspective properties enable a Euclidean structure to be recovered. The method can recover a Euclidean structure with at least seven point correspondences across a scaled orthographic view and perspective views. Experimental results for both computed and natural images verify that the method recovers structure with sufficient accuracy to demonstrate potential utility. The proposed method can be applied to an interface for 3D modeling, recognition, and tracking.

    DOI

  • System architecture for synthetic/natural hybrid coding and some experiments

    Katto, J., Ohta, M.

    IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology   9 ( 2 ) 325 - 335  1999

     View Summary

    This paper presents a system architecture for synthetic/natural hybrid coding toward future visual services, Scene-description capability, terminal architecture, and network architecture are discussed by taking account of recent standardization activities: MPEG, VRML, ITU-T, and IETF, A consistent strategy to integrate scene-description capability and streaming technologies is demonstrated. Experimental results are also shown, in which synthetic/natural integration is successfully carried out.

    DOI

  • MPEG圧縮効率の理論解析とその符号量制御への応用

    甲藤二郎

    信学技報   95   DSP95 - 10  1995

    CiNii

  • Wavelet 変換を用いた9.6kb/s画像符号化

    甲藤二郎

    信学春全大     D - 262  1993

    CiNii

  • A new structure of parallel filter bank allowing perfect reconstruction

    K. Komatsu, J. Katto, Y. Yasuda

    IEEE Region 10 Annual International Conference, Proceedings/TENCON     978 - 982  1992.01

     View Summary

    © 1992 IEEE. New parallel filter banks allowing perfect reconstruction which are categorized in coding intermediate between subband coding and predictive coding are presented. M-channel filter banks allowing perfect reconstruction are represented mathematically, and filter banks categorized in the above coding are discovered. Three types of three-channel filter banks are designed. The coding gains of these filter banks are then maximized, i.e., the filter coefficients are optimized from the viewpoint of energy compaction property. Computer simulation shows that the designed filter bank performs well.

    DOI

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Industrial Property Rights

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Awards

  • 電子情報通信学会 フェロー

    2015.09  

  • 電子情報通信学会 通信ソサイエティ 活動功労賞

    2006.09  

  • 電子情報通信学会 学術奨励賞

    1995.09  

  • SPIE VCIP 1991, Best Student Paper Award

    1991.11  

Research Projects

  • 無線LANを用いた車載APの広域被覆配置による広域高速大容量通信

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(B)

    Project Year :

    2019.04
    -
    2022.03
     

    村瀬 勉, 金井 謙治, 甲藤 二郎, 計 宇生, 策力 木格, 小畑 博靖, 塩田 茂雄, 宮田 純子

     View Summary

    以下の3つの研究テーマを実施した。
    ■研究テーマ1: 車の移動制御・最適ルート誘導制御においては、(a)目的地に向かう車両の最短経路ではなく、需要のある場所への迂回ルートをとったときの、得失を評価する。■成果:車両が移動する経路を2.5倍居ないに納めるという条件のもと、最適なルート制御を行うことで、最短経路の場合よりも、スループットを280%(=約4倍)向上させることができる、という結果を得た。これにより、車両のルート制御をうまく行うことで、所望のスループットを得るという当初の目的が概ね達成できる見込みとなった。
    ■研究テーマ2: 干渉緩和技術・最適AP選択技術においては、(d) APへの接続可否制御、APへの負荷分散制御を提案する。■成果: 移動するAPに連続して接続するための基礎検討を行った。IEEE802.11adのミリ波通信においては、移動する車との通信は、非常に短時間に高速で情報を転送する必要があることがわかった。そのため、現在普及しているIEEE802.11acなどの帯域では、混信(干渉)が大きすぎ実用が困難であることがわかった。一方、11adを用いる本研究の方法では、干渉や混信の影響よりもハンドオーバの制御方法で性能が決まることが判明し、ハンドオーバの最適化方法として、ビーコン送出間隔の調整と、ハンドオーバタイミングを決定する技術を開発した。
    ■研究テーマ3: 高速短時間通信技術においては、(g)IEEE802.11adのミリ波通信方法の移動通信における性能を評価する。■成果:車内のアクセスポイントと車外の歩行者のスマホとで通信するモデルにおいて、ミリ波通信は、車両のボディが障害物とある影響で性能が大きく変わってくることが明らかになった。特に金属ボディでの減衰は極めて大きく、逆に、ガラスを通した場合には、それほどでも無いことなどを定量的に明らかにした。

  • Next generation networking infrastructure and application verification towards the most advanced mobile ICT system

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A)

    Project Year :

    2015.04
    -
    2019.03
     

    Katto Jiro

     View Summary

    We set next research & development issues in this project. As core techniques, (1) collection of wireless communication records, (2) prediction of wireless communication quality based on the record history, and (3) delivery control and route navigation based on the quality prediction. As extension techniques, (4) large scale deployment, security, sensor assist, new wireless communication support, and QoE evalutions, and (5) prototype implementations. For (1) to (3), we proposed quality prediction methods using machine learning, adaptive delivery control maximizing QoE metrics, and moving route navigation maximizing communication quality such as throughputs. For (4) to (5), we tried cloud system extension, performance improvement by using additional sensors and implementation experiments over actual networks. Finally, we published our research contributions in international conferences and transactions with peer reviews.

  • User Cooperative Mobility for Communication Quality in Densely Deployed Wireless LANs

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)

    Project Year :

    2015.04
    -
    2018.03
     

    MURASE TUTOMU, ONISHI Hirofumi

     View Summary

    To improve quality of services (QoS) without changing protocols or specifications, this research proposed “user mobility control” in which users or devices move the better place to obtain better QoS. If users can move, then we have more better parameters of protocols fitting to the current user positions. Tradeoff of the mobility cost and QoS improvement was evaluated by analysis, simulations and real device experiments with using newly developed proposed methods and algorithms. For maultiple users movements, heuristic approached are also developed.

  • Development of Software Radio and Audio Platform and Video Delivery Experiment

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research

    Project Year :

    2013.04
    -
    2015.03
     

    KATTO Jiro

     View Summary

    In this research, we developed platforms for software radio and software audio and carried out evaluation experiments. For software radio, we used GNU Radio, measured communication characteristics by changing transmission power, modulation and error correction, and tried wireless delivery of music, still images and motion pictures as its application. For software audio, we used commercial speakers, microphones and MATLAB, measured communication characteristics, and tried delivery of music and still images modulated over audio signals. Our software audio failed video transmission due to low data rates, but the results were paid attention and accepted by IEEE WCNC 2015 heled in March, 2015.

  • Performance Improvement and Implementation of Hybrid TCP Congestion Control

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)

    Project Year :

    2008
    -
    2010
     

    KATTO Jiro, SU Zhou

     View Summary

    This research had focused on transport protocols which were adequately designed and applied to broadband wired networks, wireless networks and underwater sensor networks. For each topic, novel proposals which outperformed conventional ones had been made by integrating theoretical analysis, simulation evaluations and actual implementations. We had also achieved future direction toward integrated design of transport protocols.

  • Highly Scalable Monitoring Architecture for Information Explosion Environments

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas

    Project Year :

    2006
    -
    2010
     

    NAKAJIMA Tatsuo, MURAOKA Yoichi, GOTO Shigeki, YAMANA Hayato, KATTO Jiro, OIKAWA Shuichi, AKIOKA Sayaka

     View Summary

    In this project, a monitoring system architecture consists of a set of software to protect information infrastructures, social infrastructures and human everyday life. The goal of the project is to integrate research areas that are independently discussed before.The project developed several monitoring systems for computer systems, network systems and the real world to investigate the future information infrastructure.

  • Highly Efficient / High Quality Multimedia Delivery Techniques over Multi-Hop Wireless Networks

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)

    Project Year :

    2005
    -
    2006
     

    KATTO Jiro

     View Summary

    In the first year, we firstly carried out performance evaluation by simulations and software implementations on notebook Linux PC about the multipath routing protocol for multi-hop wireless networks. Then, we built actual multi-hop wireless network testbed using multiple notebook PCs, and executed video delivery experiments in campus. Details are:
    (1)Simulation evaluations of the multipath routing method, that switches delivery routes adaptively according to wireless channel characteristics,
    (2)Simulation evaluations of the multipath routing method, that justifies wireless channel characteristics by using receiving powers of delivery routes,
    (3)Implementation and modification of KernelAODV, that is an open source multihop routing protocol operating on Linux, and
    (4)Implementation experiments of video content delivery over multi-hop wireless network built by multiple notebook PCs.
    In the second year, we published a paper, made some presentations at domestic conferences and continued evaluations about the multipath routing protocol for multi-hop wireless networks. Details are
    (1)Publication of a paper on the proposed multipath routing method and its application to multimedia content delivery,
    (2)Implementation evaluations of multi-hop video content delivery using H.264/AVC instead of H.263+,
    (3)Simulation evaluations of the multi-hop wireless network, that emulates actual implementation environment, and
    (4)Primitive prototype implementations of a visual sensing system, as an application of the proposed multipath routing protocol and video content delivery techniques.

  • Stream Caching Techniques for New Generation CDNs and Its Ubiquitous Extension

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)

    Project Year :

    2003
    -
    2005
     

    YASUDA Yasuhiko, KATTO Jiro

     View Summary

    This research had focused on two topics ; (1)efficient caching techniques of streaming media, and (2) efficient distribution techniques of streaming media, especially aiming at streaming distribution of digital video contents over the Internet.
    With regards to the stream caching, we had achieved next results per year. (2003) On the distributed caching technology of streaming contents compressed by layered coding, we had proposed an optimum distribution method of the streaming contents under the storage constraint of content servers. (2004) As extensions to 2003's result, we had proposed three new methods about distributed retrieval, distributed replication and cache consistency management of streaming contents. (2005) We had extended our framework to a cooperative caching method of streaming contents, which can be applied to mobile and ubiquitous environment. For each result, we had published our contributions at many domestic and international conferences. We had also published three papers and are now preparing submission of one new paper.
    With regards to the content distribution of streaming media, we had achieved next results per year. (2003) For the node failure problem in IP TV broadcasting, we had proposed a novel proactive route maintenance method, which enables fast route recovery when the node failure happens without causing heavy signaling overheads. (2004) In order to satisfy various kinds of customers whose internet connections are quite diverse from old dialup modems to fast fiber to the home, we had established a new IP broadcasting scheme which is quite flexible to the connection diversity problem by incorporating layered coding. (2005) As a last year of this research, we had merged two years' results and had brought their software implementation on the PCs. We carried out evaluation experiments over the actual internet and had indeed verified effectiveness of our approached. For each result,. we had published our contributions at many domestic and international conferences. Currently, two papers were submitted and they are now in review process.

  • 次世代ワイヤレスインターネットにおけるマルチメディア通信のための品質制御

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 若手研究(B)

    Project Year :

    2002
    -
    2004
     

    甲藤 二郎

     View Summary

    本年度は、アドホックネットワークにおけるマルチパスルーティング方式の特性改善とソフトウェア実装、およびアドホックネットワークにおけるTCPフレンドリ制御の特性改善、に重点を置いて研究開発を進めた。
    (1)アドホックネットワークにおけるマルチパスルーティング:昨年度より開発を進めているマルチパスルーティング方式に関して、IETF MANETグループでRFC化されているAODV(Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector)方式をベースに、主にルート選択時のメトリックの改善とシグナリングパケットの減少を目的として方式の開発を進め、シミュレーション評価によって有効性を明らかにした。また、並行してLinuxノートパソコン上へのソフトウェア実装を進め、本年度中の完成を目指して作業を進めている。実装完了時には、シミュレーション評価との条件を揃え、提案方式の実装評価としての有効性を実証する予定である。
    (2)アドホックネットワークにおけるTCPフレンドリ制御の特性改善:近年、国際学会において件数が増加しているIEEE802.11のモデリングと解析評価に着目し、VoIPやビデオ配信を想定したTCPフレンドリへの応用について検討を行い、通常の輻較によるパケット廃棄と、ホストの移動に伴う経路更新によって生じるパケットの順序逆転を分類するアルゴリズムを提案し、シミュレーション評価によって提案方式の有効性を明らかにした。
    成果発表としては、(1)に関しては、アルゴリズムに関して国際学会発表を行い、実装評価終了時には論文投稿を予定している。(2)に関しては、国内学会への投稿を行い、今後は国際学会投稿を行うと共に、実装評価への反映と論文化を予定している。

  • Streaming Caching Technologies for Next generation Multimedia Internet

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)

    Project Year :

    2000
    -
    2002
     

    YASUDA Yasuhiko, KATTO Jiro

     View Summary

    We investigated technologies on video streaming and related issues as follows:
    (1) Distributed/hierarchical caching algorithms for video streaming
    Classical web caching mechanisms cannot be directly applied to video streaming due to huge size of video data. To overcome this problem, several algorithms were investigated, such as splitting video data into small segments and by introduction of hierarchically located cache servers that cooperate in a distributed manner. Results were presented at international conferences and, with merged with the next topic, submitted to IEICE Transactions (accepted).
    (2) Web-friendly streaming caching algorithms
    Stream caching technologies should avoid performance degradation of current web caching methods that are widely deployed. We then proposed "web-friendly" stream caching algorithms that exploited statistical characteristics of web objects and streaming objects in a unified manner.
    (3) Improvement of caching algorithms for hierarchical image format
    Improved caching algorithms for hierarchically represented image data format were investigated. Development replacing/pre-fetching algorithm according to preference statistics and theoretical analysis of the web access model were carried out. Results were presented at international conferences, submitted to IEICE Transactions (accepted), and contributed to the above two topics on video stream caching.

  • 次世代インターネットにおけるマルチメディア通信のための有線・無線協調プロトコル

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 奨励研究(A)

    Project Year :

    2000
    -
    2001
     

    甲藤 二郎

     View Summary

    前年度の研究成果を発展させ、無線環境、ならびに有線・無線の混在環境下においてインターネット接続を行うときに、効率的なマルチメディア通信を実現するための諸問題の解決に努めた。
    (1)移動環境に適した受信者駆動階層化マルチキャストプロトコル
    IPマルチキャストを用いたマルチメディア情報の配信制御方式として、受信者駆動階層化マルチキャスト(Receiver-driven Layered Multicast : RLM)プロトコルが知られている。本提案では、このRLMプロトコルを移動通信環境でも使用可能とするための二つの方式を提案した。
    ・接続エリアの異なる複数のドメインを用意し、そのドメインと各階層を対応つける方式。
    ・RLMプロトコルの状態遷移に、無線環境特有のビット誤りによって発生したパケット廃棄による状態遷移を付加した方式。
    それぞれの方式に対してシミュレーションを行い、提案方式の有効性を明らかにした。
    (2)有線・無線境界部(ゲートウェイ)における適応誤り制御技術
    有線・無線の混在したインターネット接続環境を想定し、有線接続を想定したパケット廃棄対策として使用されるFECパケット方式と、無線接続を想定したビット誤り対策として使用されるFECヘッダ方式とを統合し、それぞれを有線・無線境界部のゲートウェイにおいて終端・適応制御をかけることで、FEC(誤り訂正符号)によるオーバーヘッドの影響を最低限に抑え、かつ受信端末における満足のいく再生品質を実現するための方式を提案した。合わせて、シミュレーションによって提案方式の有効性を明らかにした。また、既存のRTP/RTCPプロトコルを用いたゲートウェイの実装手段も明らかにした。
    (3)高速ハンドオフ・シームレスハンドオフ技術の開発
    移動しながらインターネット接続を行う場合に、特に音声や動画像の受信時に大きな品質劣化要因となるハンドオフ(基地局の切り替え)の問題に対して、ハンドオフの影響を最低限に抑えるための移動管理アルゴリズムの提案を三件行った。
    ・ハンドオフ時に旧ドメインと新ドメインに小規模なマルチキャストを行う方式。これによって接続の瞬断が軽減される。
    ・ハンドオフ時にアクセスルータと基地局の双方で階層的にバッファリング・バイキャスティングを行う方式。これによって、パケットの誤順序到着が抑えられる。
    ・ハンドオフ接続先の予測にGPS等の位置情報を利用して接続ドメインの再構成を行う方式。これによって、物理層レベルのアクセスルータのドメイン構成とネットワーク層レベルのドメイン構成の不一致の問題が解消される。
    以上の提案方式それぞれに対してシミュレーション評価を行い、提案方式の有効性を明らかにした。

  • 次世代インターネットにおけるマルチメディア通信のための有線・無線協調プロトコル

    科学研究費助成事業(早稲田大学)  科学研究費助成事業(奨励研究(A))

  • Streaming Caching Technologies for Next generation Multimedia Internet

  • 次世代ワイヤレスインターネットにおけるマルチメディア通信のための品質制御

    科学研究費助成事業(早稲田大学)  科学研究費助成事業(若手研究(B))

  • Stream Caching Techniques for New Generation CDNs and Its Ubiquitous Extension

  • Highly Efficient / High Quality Multimedia Delivery Techniques over Multi-Hop Wireless Networks

  • Highly Scalable Monitoring Architecture for Information Explosion Environments

  • Performance Improvement and Implementation of Hybrid TCP Congestion Control

  • ソフトウェア無線・音響統合プラットフォームの開発と動画像配信実験

    科学研究費助成事業(早稲田大学)  科学研究費助成事業(挑戦的萌芽研究)

  • 世界最高水準のモバイルICT環境を実現する次世代情報通信基盤と応用実証

    科学研究費助成事業(早稲田大学)  科学研究費助成事業(基盤研究(A))

  • 次世代画像符号化

  • 次世代情報ネットワーク

  • マルチメディア情報検索

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Specific Research

  • 深層学習を用いた画像圧縮・画像通信に関する研究開発

    2020  

     View Summary

    本研究開発では、深層学習を用いた画像圧縮と画像通信に関する研究開発を行った。画像圧縮に関しては、動画像圧縮におけるイントラ予測の特性改善、エンドエンド学習型画像圧縮の固定小数点実装、RNNを用いた学習型画像圧縮、フレーム補間を活用した動画像圧縮、等に関する検討を行った。また、成果発表は、IEEE TMM、CVPR、VCIP、ICIP、ICASSP等で行い、VCIPにおける発表はBest Paper Awardを受賞した。画像通信に関しては、映像ストリーミングにおける適応レート制御、無線通信に対する超解像応用、等の検討を行った。また、成果発表は、国際学会のWCNCとCCNCで行った。

  • 深層学習適用による革新的な画像圧縮と映像配信に関する研究開発

    2019  

     View Summary

    本研究開発では、深層学習を用いた画像圧縮と画像通信に関する研究開発を行った。画像圧縮に関しては、深層学習を用いた静止画像の非可逆圧縮と可逆圧縮、動画像の非可逆圧縮に関する検討を行った。画像通信に関しては、深層学習を用いた適応レート制御と360度映像拡張に関する検討を行った。研究成果は、CVPR、ICIP、VCIP、PCS、ISM、ICCE等の国際会議で発表を行うと共に、IEEE Trans. CSVT、IEEE Access、IEICE Trans. Comm. 等の査読付き論文誌にも採録された。また、2020年度も、CVPR、ICASSP等の国際学会やIEEE Trans. Multimedia、IEEE Trans. CSVT等の論文誌への採録が確定している。

  • 遅延クリティカルアプリケーションのための基盤技術開発と体系化

    2017  

     View Summary

    本研究開発では、クラウドを活用するマルチメディアサービスについて、サービス時間の短縮に貢献するエッジコンピューティングのプロトタイプ実装と特性評価を行った。一つの検討例では、OpenStackを活用したエッジコンピューティングのプロトタイプシステムを作成し、具体的なアプリケーションとして映像配信と人物検知を実装した。また、別の検討例では、エッジコンピューティングを活用した映像監視を想定し、人物検知の結果に応じて配信レートを増減する適応映像配信システムを作成した。その上で、それぞれのプロトタイプの実機実験評価として、低遅延化の効果を確認した。

  • RFファインダーの研究開発

    2015  

     View Summary

    無線通信情報と可視光・赤外線カメラの併用によって無線通信機器の位置をピンポイントで特定するセンサフュージョン型測位システム「RFファインダー」の研究開発を進めた。無線LANアクセスポイントを対象に、スマートフォンを用いたSSIDや電波受信電力の取得によっておよその位置を推定し、赤外線カメラによって、熱源として無線LANアクセスポイントの位置を特定した。一方、Raspberry PiなどのIoTデバイスも試したが、こちらは熱源として特定するには、温度がさほど高くならないことも確認した。また、可視光カメラと赤外線カメラをハイブリッド使用した人物検出の精度改善についても実験を行ない、成果発表を行なった。

  • 快適で省電力なスマート・ワイヤレス・ナビゲーション

    2014  

     View Summary

    快適で省電力な無線通信を実現するスマート・ワイヤレス・ナビゲーションに関する研究開発を進めてきた。スマートフォンなどを用いて、セルラー基地局と無線LANアクセスポイントの位置、時刻、通信品質、消費電力を収集し、無線信号マップを作成する。そして、そのマップを活用して通信品質の未来予測を行ったり、通信品質を最大化する経路を提示したりすることに応用する。今年度は科学研究費補助金の採択を目指し、論文投稿と学会発表の実績作りを進め、最終的には基盤研究(A)に採択されることができた。

  • 機械学習に基づくNR型画質推定

    2012  

     View Summary

    画像の画質評価尺度として、PSNRの計測には原画を用意する必要があるが、YouTubeに代表されるCGM(Consumer Generated Media)映像では原画を用意することが困難な場合が多い。そこで申請者はPSNRを変化させた多数の圧縮画像をSVM(Support Vector Machine)に学習させ、さらに顕著性マップを用いて、画像を顕著性領域と非顕著領域に分割することで推定精度の改善を図るブラインド(NR型:non-reference型)画質推定に関する検討を進めてきた。また、顕著性マップでは全体的に平坦な画像もしくは複雑な画像であっても相対的に顕著性領域の検出を試みるため、適切な分割が行われず、精度が低下することがあった。そこで、本申請ではまた、動画において各フレームを杭州貼れ別を用いて2つに分割し、領域毎にブラインドPSNR推定を行う方式の検討も行った。それによって、顕著性マップによる分割が失敗する場合でも、安定したPSNR推定が行えることを確認した。また、画像の高能率符号化方式では、低ビットレート時にブロック処理に起因したブロック歪みが圧縮画像中にしばしば発生する。圧縮画像の客観画質評価尺度としてPSNRやSSIMがよく用いられているが、これらはブロック歪みに影響された画質劣化を評価することは難しく、主観画質評価とは大きな差が発生してしまう。また、圧縮画像におけるブロック歪みの影響を評価する様々な手法が提案されているが、現時点で確立した手法があるとは言い難い。申請者は地デジ映像をキャプチャした多数のMPEG-2圧縮画像を対象に、収集した多数の主観評価結果に基づき、従来手法から求めた各種の画像特徴量とブロック歪みの主観評価結果の相関性について確認した。ただし、テストシーケンスの評価が曖昧かつMPEG-2でのみ圧縮したものであったため、検証は不十分であると考えた。そこで本申請ではまた、様々な動画像符号化により生じたブロック歪みを有する動画像に対して、ブロック歪みを検証する従来手法で求めた各種の画像特徴量により、手法の有効性確認及び性能比較を行った。

  • NR型画質推定を用いたCGM参照画像処理の性能改善

    2011  

     View Summary

    現在、圧縮画像の画質評価手段として、PSNR(Peak-to-Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio)やSSIM(Structural SIMilarity )が使用されている。しかし、これらの評価手段では、ブロック歪みなどの主観要因に特化した画質の劣化を評価することは難しい。そこで本研究では、ブロック歪みを有する画像の評価手段として、ブロック歪みの周期性に着目したケプストラム分析法を用いた検討を行った。具体的には、ブロック歪みを有するテスト画像のケプストラム情報を分析し、現在広く普及している各種の動画像符号化方式(H.261、MPEG-1、MPEG-2、H.263、MPEG-4、H.264/AVC、H.265/HEVC)に対して各々ケプストラム解析を行い、ブロック歪み評価手法の有効性確認とコーデックの性能比較を行った。その結果として、ケプストラム分析によってブロック歪みの影響を定量評価できること、動画像符号化方式の進歩に合わせてブロック歪み量が低減していること、などを示した。また、FlickrやYouTubeなどのCGM(Consumer Generated Media)を参照した画像処理として、自然画像を用いたマーカベースAR(Augmented Reality)の検討を進めている。これは、スマートフォンなどの画像入力に対し、画像内のオブジェクトをマーカーとしてCGMデータベース内の画像検索を行い、入力画像のスケールと方向を推定し、入力画像上にCGをオーバーレイ表示する方式である。本年度は、参照する画像のひずみの影響の検証を行い、画像のボケや反射の影響に関する評価実験を行った。その結果、画像のひずみ量に応じて検出可能な特徴点数が減少し、適切なAR表示が困難になること、より多数の画像群を参照することで、ひずみの存在する環境下でも正しい画像を選択できること、などを示した。今後は画質推定と画像処理とを組み合わせ、予測された歪み量に応じて適切な処理を選択する適応処理に関する検討を進めていく予定である。

  • ノンリファレンス型画質推定とそのデータベース参照型画像処理への応用

    2010  

     View Summary

    本研究では、圧縮画像の客観画質評価手法として、原画像を必要とせずに圧縮ストリームの符号化情報をもとに画質推定を行うNR(Non-Reference)型画質推定に着目し、以下の検討を行った。具体的な画質評価尺度としては、古くから広く用いられているPSNR (Peak-to-peak SNR)と、近年PSNRよりも主観評価に近い客観尺度として注目されているSSIM (Structural Similarity) を対象にしている。(1) NR型PSNR推定方式のH.264/AVC圧縮動画像への適用(2) NR型PSNR推定方式のJPEG圧縮画像への適用(3) NR型SSIM推定方式の定式化とJPEG圧縮画像への適用(1)では、既存のMPEG-2圧縮を対象とするNR型PSNR推定方式を、H.264/AVC圧縮に拡張し、実画像を用いた評価実験を行った。その結果、他の競合方式に比べて推定のばらつきはあるものの、NR型PSNR推定をH.264/AVCに適用するにあたっての、ある程度の推定精度の見通しを得た。(2)では、(3)の実験の前段階として、NR型PSNR推定方式のJPEG圧縮への適用を試みた。方式自体はMPEG-2方式の簡略化であり、実画像を用いた評価実験としても、良好な推定結果を得た。(3)では、従来にはない新規提案として、NR型SSIM推定の推定アルゴリズムの定式化と、実際のJPEG画像を用いた評価実験を行った。その結果として、正確な統計量を必要とするSSIMの推定アルゴリズムと、画像の局所性に依存して値が変動するSSIMの実測値の間にはトレードオフの関係(推定領域が大き過ぎると局所性が反映されず、小さ過ぎると統計量がばらつく問題)があることを明らかにした。今後の課題としては、Flickrのような大規模画像データベースを対象にNR型PSNR推定を適用することと、NR型SSIM推定の精度改善を試みる。

  • 圧縮映像コンテンツの高品質化・高解像度化に関する研究

    2009  

     View Summary

    本研究では、圧縮画像の画質改善技術として、以下の検討を行った。(1) 圧縮画像の複数イントラフレームを重ね合せることによる画質改善(2) 圧縮画像の圧縮ストリームからのNR型画質推定(3) 圧縮画像の周波数補間による高解像度化(1)では、量子化誤差の統計的独立性を利用して、復号側における動き検出と位置合わせを行い、複数フレームを重ね合せることで、量子化誤差を低減する方式を示し、効果を実証した。特に複数個の動き検出アルゴリズムを提案・比較し、有効性確認を行った。(2)では、動画像の圧縮ストリームから変換係数と量子化ステップサイズの情報を取り出し、原画像を参照することなく、統計処理によって圧縮画像の画質推定を行うNR(Non-Reference)型画質推定に関する検討を行った。特に対象をH.264/AVCとし、その圧縮アルゴリズムに適合した画質推定技術の開発と評価を行った。(3)では、離散コサイン変換ベースの画像拡大手法において、拡張領域のパディング法に工夫を加えることで高解像度画像の画質改善を実現する方式について検討を行った。

  • 大規模映像センサーネットワークに向けた映像処理・配信・収集技術に関する研究

    2007  

     View Summary

    映像センサーネットワークにおける映像処理技術、映像配信技術、ならびにその応用技術に関する検討を行った。映像処理技術に関しては、互いに独立に符号化を行った複数枚の圧縮画像を、互いに位置合わせを行った上で重み加算することにより高画質化を図る(量子化誤差を減らす)方式を提案し、各種の成果発表を行った。この方式は、分散センサー環境において、複数のカメラが同時に撮影した圧縮画像から作成したパノラマ画像の高精細化や、一台のカメラが撮影した圧縮動画像の高画質化に適用可能である。この研究成果は、信号処理の分野で著名なIEEE ICASSP 2008にも採択され、2008年4月の成果発表を予定している。映像配信技術に関しては、無線マルチホップ接続に適した輻輳制御方式の検討を行い、シミュレーションとLinux実装の併用による各種輻輳制御方式の比較検討を行ない、今後の研究開発に向けた問題点の整理を行った。また、本件とは別の研究成果として、シングルホップ接続を前提に、独自のRTT公平性とスループットの高効率性を実現する輻輳制御方式の成果発表を行っており、現在は、その方式のマルチホップ拡張の検討を進めている。さらには以上の基盤技術の応用として、無線受信強度を用いた位置検出技術を併用した映像センサーアプリケーション、ならびに、無線受信強度を用いた混雑推定技術を併用した映像センサーアプリケーションを検討し、それぞれのプロトタイプ試作を行った。共にWeb2.0的な手法も取り入れ、各種センサーが取得した情報をサーバ上に集約し、その集約データに対して、リモートにユーザがアクセス可能なWebインタフェースを実装した。

  • インターネット上のマルチメディア通信に向けた帯域制御技術に関する研究

    1999  

     View Summary

     インターネットではネットワークのふくそうが発生し、パケットの転送が遅れたり、パケット廃棄が発生することは避けられない。これはリアルタイム指向のマルチメディア通信では大きな品質劣化の原因となる。そこで、本研究では、これらの影響を回避・低減し、インターネット上で効率的なマルチメディア通信を実現するための帯域制御技術、ふくそう制御技術について検討を行った。従来方式としては、パケット廃棄が起きてから転送レートを下げる方式、ラウンドトリップ遅延を測定しながら許容値を超えたらレートを下げる方式、などが知られている。しかし、前者はレートの変動が激しすぎて品質が安定せず、後者はラウンドトリップの許容値を自動的に算出できないために任意のネットワークに適用できない、という問題があった。本研究では、特に後者の問題を解決するために、ラウンドトリップ遅延を判断基準として用いながら動的に転送レートを更新する、任意のネットワークに自由に適用できるアルゴリズムを検討した。具体的には、二通りの方法を検討した。第一の方式では、ネットワーク全体をバッファとみなし、その容量を計測可能なラウンドトリップ遅延と受信レートから動的に更新し、それに従って転送レートを制御する。第二の方式では、ラウンドトリップ遅延を継続的に測定し、それから求まる平均ラウンドトリップ遅延が一定の範囲に収まるように、転送レートをフィードバック制御する。さらに、これらについて実際にインターネット上における転送実験を行い、それぞれの方式の有効性を確認した。

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Syllabus

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Committee Memberships

  • 2014.06
    -
    2016.06

    映像情報メディア学会  編集長

  • 2012
    -
    2015

    IEEE ComSoC  Tech News Editorial Board

  • 2012.06
    -
    2014.05

    画像電子学会  財務理事

  • 2007.05
    -
    2013.04

    電子情報通信学会 ネットワークシステム研究専門委員会  専門委員

  • 2013
    -
     

    IEEE Healthcom 2013  Technical Program Committee

  • 2013
    -
     

    IEEE ICIP 2013  Technical Program Committee

  • 2013
    -
     

    IEEE ICC 2013  Technical Program Committee

  • 2012.06
    -
     

    独立行政法人 大学評価・学位授与機構  専門委員

  • 2012.06
    -
     

    電子情報通信学会通信ソサイエティ執行委員会  幹事

  • 2010.06
    -
    2012.05

    映像情報メディア学会  編集理事

  • 2012
    -
     

    IEEE Globecom 2012  Technical Program Committee

  • 2012
    -
     

    IEEE ISM 2012  Technical Program Committee

  • 2012
    -
     

    APSITT 2012  Technical Program Committee

  • 2012
    -
     

    IEEE ICIP 2012  Technical Program Committee

  • 2012
    -
     

    IEEE ICC 2012  Technical Program Committee

  • 2012
    -
     

    Packet Video 2012  Program Committee

  • 2012
    -
     

    PCS 2012  Steering Committee

  • 2012
    -
     

    MMM 2012  Technical Program Committee

  • 2009.07
    -
    2011.06

    電子情報通信学会 会誌編集委員会  編集委員

  • 2009.05
    -
    2011.05

    電子情報通信学会 画像工学研究会  委員長

  • 2011
    -
     

    IEEE Globecom 2011  Technical Program Committee

  • 2011
    -
     

    IEEE ISM 2011  Technical Program Committee

  • 2011
    -
     

    IEEE ICC 2011  Technical Program Committee

  • 2011
    -
     

    IWAIT 2011  General Co-Chair

  • 2011
    -
     

    MMM 2011  Technical Program Committee

  • 2010
    -
     

    IEEE ISM 2010  Technical Program Committee

  • 2010
    -
     

    Packet Video 2010  Organizing Committee

  • 2010
    -
     

    PCS 2010  Organizing Committee

  • 2010
    -
     

    APSITT 2010  Technical Program Committee

  • 2005.06
    -
    2009.05

    映像情報メディア学会編集委員会  編集委員

  • 2007.05
    -
    2009.04

    電子情報通信学会 画像工学研究会  副委員長

  • 2007.04
    -
    2009.03

    情報処理学会 AVM研究会  主査

  • 2009
    -
     

    PSIVT 2009  Technical Program Committee

  • 2009
    -
     

    MMM 2009  Technical Program Committee

  • 2006.08
    -
    2008.03

    総務省 次世代放送技術に関する研究会  委員

  • 2004.04
    -
    2008.03

    独立行政法人 新エネルギー・産業技術総合開発機構  主任研究員

  • 2008
    -
     

    PCM 2008  Technical Program Committee

  • 2008
    -
     

    ICAS/ICNS 2008  Technical Program Committee

  • 2008
    -
     

    IEEE ISM 2008  Technical Program Committee

  • 2008
    -
     

    MMM 2008  Technical Program Committee

  • 2001.05
    -
    2007.04

    電子情報通信学会 情報ネットワーク研究専門委員会  専門委員

  • 2007
    -
     

    PCM 2007  Technical Program Committee

  • 2007
    -
     

    ICAS/ICNS 2007  Technical Program Committee

  • 2007
    -
     

    IEEE ISM 2007  Technical Program Committee

  • 2006.08
    -
     

    総務省 放送システム委員会  委員

  • 2004.07
    -
    2006.06

    自治体衛星通信機構(LASCOM) 効率的な地域ネットワークの整備に関する調査研究会  委員

  • 2006
    -
     

    ICAS/ICNS 2006  Technical Program Committee

  • 2004.06
    -
    2005.06

    映像情報メディア学会 論文部門委員会  論文委員

  • 2004.06
    -
    2005.05

    総務省 離島における地域公共ネットワークの利活用に関する調査研究会  委員

  • 2005
    -
     

    ICAS/ICNS 2005  Technical Program Committee

  • 2005
    -
     

    PCM 2005  Technical Program Committee

  • 2002.02
    -
    2004.12

    総務省 電波有効利用政策研究会 電波利用料部会  委員

  • 2004
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    PCM 2004  Technical Program Committee

  • 2002.05
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    2003.07

    総務省 電波再配分のための給付金制度の具体化に関する研究会  委員

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