Updated on 2022/05/18

写真a

 
GEMMA, Masahiko
 
Affiliation
Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences
Job title
Professor

Concurrent Post

  • Faculty of Science and Engineering   Graduate School of Environment and Energy Engineering

  • Faculty of Social Sciences   Graduate School of Social Sciences

  • Faculty of International Research and Education   Graduate School of Asia Pacific Studies

  • Affiliated organization   Global Education Center

Research Institute

  • 2018
    -
    2022

    日米研究所   プロジェクト研究所所長

Degree

  • Ph.D. University of Minnesota (USA)

  • Ph.D.ミネソタ大学(米国)

Professional Memberships

  •  
     
     

    国際開発学会

  •  
     
     

    日本経済学会

  •  
     
     

    アメリカ農業経済学会

  •  
     
     

    日本農業経済学会

 

Research Areas

  • Economic policy

  • Economic policy

Research Interests

  • Applied Economics

Papers

  • Chapter 8 Valuing Ecosystem services in macroeconomic

    Smith, Rodney, Masahiko Gemma

    Handbook on the Economics of Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity, Springer     130 - 152  2014.05

  • 第10章 弦間正彦 横松宗太 Rodney B.W.Smith 鷲津明由 高瀬浩二

    弦間正彦, 横松宗太, Rodney B, W.Smith, 鷲津明由, 高瀬浩

    再生可能資源と役立つ市場取引 堀口健冶編著 御茶ノ水書房    2014.03

  • Profit Based Efficiency Measures, with an Application to Rice Production in Southern India

    Rodney B. W. Smith, Masahiko Gemma, K. Palinisami

    JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS   62 ( 2 ) 340 - 356  2011.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Using non-parametric methods, we estimate the foregone rents due to credit, allocative, and technical inefficiencies of subsistence farmers in Southern India. The lost rents are estimated directly from the Nerlovian efficiency index, and the results suggest the largest foregone rents derive from allocative inefficiencies and then credit inefficiencies. Also, results suggest that farms without well access experience larger losses than those with well access. Econometric results suggest education, the presence of tank water management efforts, and well access influence the level of foregone rent due to allocative and Nerlovian inefficiencies. Educational activities and policies to encourage better management of tanks are considered important for lowering the foregone losses.

    DOI

  • 第5章 東アジア統合の政治経済・環境協力

    世界政治経済と日本, 米国・中国

    東洋経済新報社 藪下監修 吉野・弦間編著 東アジア統合の政治経済・環境協力     93 - 101  2011.03

  • Chapter 14 Intelligent Agrifood Chains and Networks: Current Status, Future Trends and Real-life Cases from Japan

    Mihily Voros, Masahiko Gemma

    Wiley-Blackwell, Edited by Michael Bourlakis, Ilias Vlachos, Vasileios Zeimpekis, Intelligent Agrifood Chains and Networks     227 - 247  2011.03

  • Climate Change and Local Efforts: Cases of the U.S. and Japan

    Bochniarz, Z, M. Gemma

    A paper presented at the USJI Seminar on Climate Change Policies in the U.S. and Japan, Washington, DC, February 11, 2011    2011.02

  • Trade Liberalization and Productivity Growth in Asian Agriculture

    Gemma, Masahiko

    A paper presented in the Korea-Japan-China International Seminar 2010 of the Summer Academy Convention 2010 organized by the Korean Agricultural Economics Association, Seoul, Korea, June 18, 2010    2010.06

  • 第2章 気候変動問題への対応

    弦間正彦

    東洋経済新報社 藪下監修 秋葉・弦間・吉野編著 世界政治経済と日本・米国・中国     21 - 27  2010.03

  • Divergence of Performance in Agriculture before and after the EU Integration in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Gemma, Masahiko

    A paper presented at an international conference called ‘Food sector in Poland and directions of global agriculture development’ organized by the National Research Institute of Agricultural and Rural Economies in Poland, Pultusk, Poland, November 30-December 2, 2009    2009.12

  • Productivity Growth in New Members of the EU

    A paper presented at the Mini-Symposium of the 27th International Conference organized by the International Association of Agricultural Economists, Beijing, China, August 15-21, 2009    2009.08

  • 第11章 EU共通農業政策と東方拡大

    弦間正彦

    成文堂 福田耕治編著 EU・欧州統合研究 リスボン条約以後の欧州ガバナンス     212 - 225  2009.07

  • 第9章 国際貿易体制の変化と農業における生産性、効率性、技術進歩:アジアとEUの事例研究

    弦間正彦

    アジア経済研究所 野田・黒子・吉野編著 貿易指数と貿易構造の変化     253 - 267  2009.03

  • Transition and sustainability: Empirical analysis of environmental Kuznets curve for water pollution in 25 countries in Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States

    Sandra O. Archibald, Zbigniew Bochniarz, Masahiko Gemma, Tanja Srebotnjak

    Environmental Policy and Governance   19 ( 2 ) 73 - 98  2009

     View Summary

    This paper examines the effects of political, structural and economic changes on environmental quality in 25 Central and East European countries (CEECs) and the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) using selected water pollution indicators and by testing the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). Despite substantial research on the transition effects from centrally planned economies and totalitarian political systems to democracy and free market economies, the literature is limited with respect to the short- and long-term environmental impacts. Considering the institutional and structural changes in these economies, rising per capita income and increased trade and investment openness, these countries can be characterized as early, late and non-liberalizers with respect to the start and continuation of liberalization processes - a critical element of the systemic transformation in the CEECs. While trends in selected economic and social indicators (based on the OECD pressure-state-response framework) show that early liberalizers enjoyed positive gains relative to late liberalizers, the selected environmental indicators do not indicate consistent trends with regard to surface water quality. Among early and late liberalizers, nitrate, orthophosphate and ammonium concentrations decline and converge over time. Phosphorus concentrations initially dropped but then increased again for both groups of countries. Using the indicator of biological oxygen demand (BOD) as the dependent variable and a set of structural and economic measures as the independent variables, our econometric regression model provides some evidence for the EKC hypothesis and estimates the per capita income turning point for industrial BOD effluents to be approximately 3800-5000 USD. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley &amp
    Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

    DOI

  • Sources of Growth in Agricultural Development Before and After the EU Integration in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Gemma, Masahiko

    A paper presented at an international conference called ‘Food sector in Poland and directions of global agriculture development’ organized by the National Research Institute of Agricultural and Rural Economies in Poland, Pultusk, Poland, December 8-10, 2008    2008.12

  • Stabilization Value of Groundwater in Tank Irrigation Systems

    Palanisami, K, Gemma, M, Ranganathan

    Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Indian Society of Agricultural Economics   63 ( 1 ) 126 - 134  2008.04

  • The Stabilization Value of Groundwater and Conjunctive Water Management under Uncertainty

    Gemma, M, Y. Tsur

    Review of Agricultural Economics, American Agricultural Economic Association   Vol. 29 Number 3   540 - 548  2007.08

  • EUへの市場統合と農業発展 -ポーランドとリトアニアの事例研究-

    弦間正彦

    早稲田大学社会科学総合研究   8 ( 1 ) 1 - 20  2007.07

  • 第9章東アジアの農業・食料問題:貿易の自由化と地域協力

    弦間正彦

    経済共同体への展望』(シリーズ東アジア共同体の構築),岩波書店     245 - 271  2007.03

  • Effectiveness of Public Spending on Agricultural and Rural Development in Transition Economies

    International Seminar on Agricultural, Rural Development, pages, Februar, Olsztyn, Poland, Held at the, W-MODR Olsztyn, Poland

       2007.02

  • The Stabilization Value of Groundwater and Conjunctive Water Management under Uncertainty

    Gemma, Masahiko, Yacov Tsur

    A paper presented at the meetings of the Allied Association of Social Sciences, Chicago, January, 2007    2007.01

  • Reducing Obesity: What Americans can learn from the Japanese

    Senauer, B, M. Gemma

    Choices, American Agricultural Economic Association   The Fourth Quarter   265 - 269  2006.12

  • Senauer, B., Gemma, M.

    Is Obesity a Result of Faulty Economic, Policies?, The Case of the, United, States, Japan

    Proceedings of the 24th International Congress of International Association of Agricultural Economists, Goldcoast, Australia    2006.08

  • Private Sector Development in Uzbekistan Agriculture: Challenges and Opportunities

    Djalalov, S, M. Gemma

    Policy Reforms and Agricultural Development in Central Asia, Chapter 15, Springer     311 - 346  2006.04

  • Policy Reforms in Central Asia: Problems and Perspectives

    Djalalov, S, M. Gemma

    Policy Reforms and Agricultural Development in Central Asia, Chapter 4, Springer     71 - 101  2006.04

  • Market Reform and Producer Responses in Central Asia

    Djalalov, S, M. Gemma

    Policy Reforms and Agricultural Development in Central Asia, Chapter 13, Springer     267 - 276  2006.04

  • Impact of Policy Reforms on Farm Production in Uzbekistan

    Djalalov, S, M. Gemma

    Policy Reforms and Agricultural Development in Central Asia, Chapter 11, Springer     239 - 256  2006.04

  • Public Spending on Agricultural and Rural Development: An International Comparison

    Gemma, Masahiko

    2005 International Conference on Lanyang Studies, Proceedings of the2005 International Conference on Lanyang Studies    2005.12

  • Effectiveness of Public Spending on Agricultural and Rural Development in Transition Economies

    Gemma, M

    International Seminar on Agricultural and Rural Development    2005.09

  • Sustainable Farm Management Practices in the Enlarged EU: A Case Study of Integrated Eco Farm in the Central Hungary Region

    Voros, M, M. Gemma

    International Farm Management Association, Proceedings of the 15th International Farm Management Congress: Volume 2. Developing Entrepreneurship Abilities to Feed the World in a Sustainable Way     46 - 58  2005.08

  • Environmental Sustainability of CEE Transformation: A Distance Function Approach

    Gemma, Masahiko

    American Agricultural Economic Association, Mini-Symposium entitled 'From Transformation to Integration: Assessing Economic, Social and Environmental Sustainability of Agriculture and Rural Areas in Central and East European Countries'   12 pages  2005.08

  • Effectiveness of Public Spending on Agricultural and Rural Development in East Asia

    Gemma, Masahiko

    Rural Economy Society of Taiwan, Proceedings of the 2005 International SeminarOn Agricultural and Resource Economics     46 - 58  2005.06

  • The Stabilization Value of Groundwater and Conjunctive Water Management under Uncertainty

    Gemma, M, Y. Tsur

    Presented at the meetings of the Allied Association of Social Sciences    2005.04

  • 独立以後の中央アジアにおける農業発展の要因分析

    弦間正彦

    早稲田大学社会科学総合研究   ( 5 ) 43 - 52  2005.03

  • 途上国・移行国の農業・農村に対する公的予算配分のあり方に関する研究

    弦間正彦

    財)国際開発高等教育機構   55ページ  2005.03

  • 中東欧諸国における環境分野の改革

    弦間正彦

    日本貿易振興機構アジア経済研究所、「移行経済諸国における改革と開発」     75 - 94  2005.03

  • 中東欧諸国における環境分野の改革

    弦間正彦

    『移行経済諸国における改革と開発』,日本貿易振興機構アジア経済研究所     75 - 94  2005.03

  • Technical Efficiency and Water Management in Central Asia: Case of Private Farms in Uzbekistan

    Gemma, M

    New Challenges facing Asian Agriculture under Globalization, Asian Society of Agricultural Economists, Universiti Putra Malaysia Press     674 - 682  2005.01

  • Public Spending and Agricultural & Rural Development in East Asia

    Gemma, Masahiko

    American Agricultural Economic Association, Mini-Symposium for Rural Public Investment, Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction   16 pages  2004.08

  • 論壇 農業・農村の活性化-EU統合を迎えたハンガリーの事例-

    弦間正彦

    早稲田大学学生部、「新鐘」     42 - 45  2004.07

  • 第6章 中東欧諸国における自然環境分野の改革

    弦間正彦

    アジア経済研究所、「移行経済諸国における社会主義の負の遺産と開発」     133 - 148  2004.03

  • Assessing Progress Towards Sustainable Development in Central and East European Countries and Newly Independent States

    Archibald, S, Z. Bochniarz, M. Gemma, C. Lum

    Proceedings of the 10th International Sustainable Development Research Conference   ERP Environment  2004.03

  • Sources of Growth for Agriculture in Central Asia

    Gemma, Masahiko

    The 4th Conference of the Central Eurasian Studies Society at Harvard University    2003.10

  • Water Management and Agricultural Development in Central Asia: Case of Uzbekistan

    Gemma, Masahiko

    International Farm Management Association, Proceedings of the 13th International Farm Management Congress     386 - 396  2003.08

  • EU Accession and Sustainability in Hungary: Challenges for Farm and Rural Businesses

    Voros, M, M. Gemma

    International Farm Management Association, Proceedings of the 13th International Farm Management Congress     397 - 408  2003.08

  • 中東欧とEU

    弦間正彦

    早稲田大学現在政治経済研究所、「日EUシンポジウム報告書」     35 - 45  2003.05

  • Technical Efficiency and Water Management in Central Asia: Case of Private Farms in Uzbekistan

    Gemma, Masahiko

    Asian Society of Agricultural Economists, Proceedings of the Fourth Conference of the Asian Society of Agricultural Economists    2002.07

  • Technical Efficency in Transition Agriculture: Case of Private farms in Uzbekistan

    Gemma, Masahiko

    Proceedings of the Second Asian Conference on Efficency and Productivity Growth    2002.06

  • 第5章 中央アジアの農業発展

    弦間正彦

    アジア経済研究所、「移行経済諸国における経済改革と開発の展望」     107 - 128  2002.03

  • 第3章 中央アジアの農業発展

    弦間正彦

    アジア経済研究所、「中央アジア諸国における経済改革-東欧や日本の経験を踏まえて-」     75 - 90  2002.03

  • 移行経済における経済発展

    弦間正彦

    社)ロシア東欧貿易会、アゼルバイジャン産業政策セミナー報告論文集     25 - 37  2002.03

  • The Rice Economy in Taiwan's Demand and Supply Determinants and Prospects

    Gemma, Masahiko

    International Rice Research Institute, 'Developments in the Asian Rice Economy'     241 - 259  2002

  • Sustainable Agriculture in Japan and Its Implications to Hungarian Agriculture

    Gemma, Masahiko

    University of Debrecen Press, 'Environmental Problems and Results in Transition Agriculture’     54 - 72  2002

  • Dominance of Premium Varieties in the Japanese Rice Economy: Reasons and Implications

    Gemma, Masahiko

    Asian Society of Agricultural Economists, 'Sustainable Agriculture, Poverty and Food Security’     238 - 244  2002

  • The Rice Economy in Taiwan: Demand and Supply Determinats and Prospects

    International Workshop on Medium and Long-term Prospects of Rice Supply and Demand in the 21st Centuray, International Rice Research Institute, Las Banos, the Phillipines   24 pages  2001.12

  • Effectiveness of Government Spending for Productivity Growth, Income Disparity Improvement and Food Security in Japanese Agriculture

    Proceedings of the International Conference on Rural Investment, Growth and Poverty, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China   47-56   47 - 56  2001.11

  • Water Resource Management in Japan

    Proceedings of the International Symposium on Agriculture and Water Resource Management, Rural Economics Society of China (Taiwan)   2月12日  2001.09

  • Social Sciences in Higher Education: the lessons from the Japanese Experience

    The Proceedings of the Annual Conference on the Roles of Humanities and Social Sciences in the Arab Countries, UAE University, UAE   18 pages  2001.04

  • Macroeconomic Conditions in Transition Economies: A Comparative Study of the Uzbekistan Economy

    早稲田大学社会科学学会ワーキングペーパー、2001-1   55 pages  2001.02

  • Export and Agriculture in Uzbekistan

    早稲田大学社会科学学会ワーキングペーパー、2001-2   30 pages  2001.02

  • 第四章 農業発展

    勁草書房「中央アジア諸国の開発戦略」橋田坦編   111-135   111 - 135  2000.11

  • Dominance of Premium Rice Varieties in the Japanese Rice Economy : Reasons and Implications

    Proceedings of the theThird Congress of AAAE, Asian Association of Agricultural Economists   10 pages  2000.10

  • Profitability in Hungarian Private Agriculture

    International Association of Agricultural Economists, Poster Session, Berlin, Germany   8 pages  2000.08

  • Industrial Development in Transition Economies: Lessons and Implications

    早稲田社会科学研究,早稲田社会科学学会   Vol.1, No.1, 19-31   19 - 31  2000.07

  • 中央アジアの農業発展-ウズベキスタンの事例研究

    早稲田大学社会科学研究   60,pp.35-61   35 - 61  2000.03

  • 運輸部門における教訓、事後報告書から得られる教訓

    ODA評価研究会報告「プロジェクトのフォローアップ・アフターケアー」,世界経営協議会   210-217   210 - 217  2000.03

  • Industrial Policy and Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Transition Economies, International Conference on Capacity Building for Mongolian Development Strategy

    Mongolian Social Economic Research Institute   10 pages, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia  2000.03

  • 産業政策と農業発展

    ウズベキスタン産業政策セミナー報告論文集、 社),ロシア東欧貿易会, タシュケント、ウズベキスタン   35-41   35 - 41  2000.02

  • 移行期にある農業の経済分析-ハンガリーの個人生産部門-

    農業経済研究(日本農業経済学会論文集)別冊、日本農業経済学会   pp.512-514   512 - 514  1999.12

  • Determinants of Profitability in Hungarian Agriculture

    22nd Conference of the European Agricultural Economic Association, Poster Session   7 pages  1999.08

  • Sustainable Agriculture in Transition Economies: Case of Hungary

    Proceedings of the 12th International Farm Management Congress, International Farm Management Association   pp.138-144   138 - 144  1999.07

  • 食糧増産援助の評価—スリランカの事例

    報告書/外務省経済協力局評価室   pp1-15   1 - 15  1999.03

  • 移行期経済に関するミクロ分析—東欧の農業部門

    報告書/大蔵省財政金融研究所   pp1-39   1 - 39  1999.03

  • Book Review: Political Economics of Development by Esho Hideki

    Waseda Journal of Asian Studies/Center for International Education, Waseda University   20, pp79-82   79 - 82  1999.03

  • Sustainable Agriculture in Japan and Its Implications to Hungarian

    Proceedings/Agricultural University of Debrecen   pp1-15   1 - 15  1999.02

  • Nitrogen Balance of Agricultural Soils of Hungary

    Soil Pollution/Agricultural University of Debrecen   pp184-189   84 - 189  1998.10

  • Environmentally Friendly Agriculture in Japan

    Proceedings of the Conference on Decision Analysis for Farm Management   pp103-120   103 - 120  1998.10

  • 中・東欧

    我が国の農林業開発協力40年史/国際農林業協力協会   pp160-164   60 - 164  1998.07

  • 農村活性化の礎—新しい形の生産組織を目指して—山形県村山市の事例

    日本社会における農村地域の役割と発展方向に関する研究/早稲田大学農村地域研究会研究会   pp107-119   107 - 119  1998.03

  • 国際関係、地域研究、及び政策ネットワーク(チャールズ・モリソン)

    早稲田フォーラム/教務部   78;pp48-56   48 - 56  1998.03

  • 運輸分野

    ODA評価研究会報告「事後評価分野別分析からの教訓」/世界経営協議会   pp89-105、資料編 pp84-131   84 - 131  1998.03

  • Implications of the Minimum Access Rice Import on Supply and Demand Balance of Rice in Japan

    Agricultural Economics/International Agricultural Economics Association   16, pp193-204   193 - 204  1997.11

  • Environmental Problems and Policies in Hungarian Agriculture

    Proceedings of the 11th international Farm Management Congress/International Farm Management Association   1, pp397-412   393 - 414  1997.07

  • Rice Quality,Yields and Prices in Japan

    Waseda Journal of Asian Studies   18(P1-10)   1 - 10  1996.10

  • Institutional and Organizational Development for the Economies in Transition

    早稲田大学社会科学研究   53(P36-55)   36 - 55  1996.10

  • Rajkai,K.and M.Gemma,Factors Accounting for the Changes in Wheat Yields and the Environmental Implications in Hungaraian Agriculture

    1996年大会環境経済・政策学会報告要旨集(英語)   P98-101   98 - 101  1996.09

  • ポーランド農業の現状と課題-マクロ・ミクロ両面からの検討

    ロシア・東欧の農業   8;1(P2-28)   2 - 28  1996.06

  • ポーランド農業の現況

    歴史と地理/山川出版社   485  1995.10

  • The Rice Demand System in Japan

    社会科学研究/社会科学学会   51   127 - 143  1995.10

  • Projections and Policy Implications of Supply and Demand of Rice in South Korea

    農業経済/神戸大学   28-29   28 - 29  1995.07

  • ポーランド農業とEU

    ロシア・東欧の農業/(社)国際農林業協力協会   7;4  1995.03

  • ハンガリー農業の現状と課題

    社会科学研究/社会科学学会   52  1995.03

  • The Rice Economies in East Asia: the Case of Taiwan

    Discussion Paper/APEC Study Center & Institute of Developing Economies   3  1995.03

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Research Projects

  • Economic Analysis of Food Values: An International Comparison Study

    Project Year :

    2019.04
    -
    2023.03
     

  • Change of Japanese Agriculture due to Introduction of Foreign Labors

    Project Year :

    2018.04
    -
    2021.03
     

  • 「想像の共同体」MexAmericaの構築をめぐる米墨の相克

    Project Year :

    2017.04
    -
    2021.03
     

  • Certifications to improve market values of agricultural and food products: an international comparison study on developing and transitions countries

    Project Year :

    2016.04
    -
    2019.03
     

     View Summary

    The policies and institutions introduced to differentiate the home country products from imported products have not been so successful in achieving the goals of protection. These policies include geographical indication (GI), certification for organic products and certification for traditional foods. The objective of the study was to identify the conditions where these measures can be effective for agricultural development.For the cases of developing countries and transition countries, our experimental auction studies confirmed the existence of economic values for GI certification systems and traditional food certification systems.Policy implications include the need for promoting the protected products for the targeted consumers besides publicizing the protected products for general consumers. The respondents who showed higher willingness to pay had characteristics of having interests in production processes and quality of food products and of being in higher income groups

  • Economic Integration and Trade Liberalization, and Agricultural Development: Convergence of Agricultural Productivity and Prices

    Project Year :

    2013.04
    -
    2016.03
     

     View Summary

    This study examined the determinants for the changes in total factor productivity (TFP) for agriculture in transition economies in Southeast Asia and Central Europe. Policy implications were derived for achieving economically sustainable development in these transition economies.For the Southeast Asian case study, the impacts of ASEAN and WTO new memberships on TFP were analyzed. For the Central European case study, the impacts of new EU memberships and EU enlargement in 2004 were studied in comparison with the recovery period from the downturn of the economy under the post-socialist period, observed after 1995

  • Workers of Japanese Farms including Technical Intern Trainees

    Project Year :

    2013.04
    -
    2016.03
     

     View Summary

    This study is to recognize how the large-scale farms in Japan have developed with the help of full-time workers. Especially the corporate farms in Kagawa Prefecture show their rapid expansion by mixing staffs of Japanese workers and the technical intern trainees from abroad. Their business strategy like the independent operation of different division of companies makes them able to accept the number of trainees which they need, against the quantum system of training program that each farm has the limit number of trainees in proportion to the number of Japanese full-time workers

  • Determinants of Efficiency and Productivity Measures for Agriculture in Transition Economies

    Project Year :

    2010.04
    -
    2013.03
     

     View Summary

    The objectives of this study were to identify the determinants for productivity and production efficiency in the transition economies of Central Europe and Southeast Asia and to derive policy implications for sustainable development in agriculture. The impacts of the EU integration in Central Europe and trade liberalization through joining the WTO and the ASEAN in Southeast Asia were examined. The national level examinations for the transitions economies were undertaken.The divergence in performance of total factor productivity (TFP) has been observed among the new member countries as well as old member countries in the European Union after the enhancement of the European Union in 2004. The study team argued that the introduction of the second pillar of agricultural development in the common agriculture policy (CAP) has created this divergence in productivity among member countries. The divergence has not been observed in Asia unlike the European Union. Among ASEAN countries, new memberships for ASEAN and WTO served as sources for the improvement in TFP.The significant contributions of regional cooperation and economic integration to agricultural development have been proved in this study. Thus, the importance of the strategic approach on international trade and regional cooperation has been derived as policy implication

  • Production Structure of Polish Agriculture and its Reform

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    This study first compared the private agriculture and socialist agriculture for the period prior to the reforms being happened starting 1989 in Poland in terms of production structure, production technology, the use of inputs and the changes in total factor productivity. The private sector did not perform well because of restricted markets of inputs and outputs. The rate of growth in total factor productivity for the private sector was not found to be as high as one would expect for the sector with private ownership of the means of production.This study also examined the changes observed after the introduction of reform measures. The level of agricultural protection was significantly reduced. The amount of subsidies allocated to the sector dropped sharply and the border protection became loose. The decline in real income as a result of tight fiscal and monetary policies led to the drop in demand for food items. This then had an impact to lower the prices of agricultural products. Supply response slowed and the production was stagnated.The agricultural sector in Poland occupies still a large share in labor force and GDP contribution. Structural changes in this sector is inevitable for the economic development of the Polish economy. The increase in productivity of agricultural production and the development of the agro-industry based in rural areas seem to be the keys for further development. The role of the Government finds to be significant in these areas. The improvement in research and development programs is one of the key areas the Government has to take own initiatives.The de-collectivization process has been creating problems of its own and other East European countries have been experiencing stagnation of agricultural production with the changes in ownership of means of production. The Polish case provides a lesson that the settlement in this de-collectivization process would not necessarily guarantee the betterment of performance of the agricultural sector. Other efforts now the Polish Government is making have to be made at the same time as the de-collectivization process

  • 移行期経済における消費行動の変化に関する研究-ポーランドの勤労・農家・年金生活家計についてのケース・スタディー-

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    本研究は移行期経済における消費行動の変化に関して、データが整備されておりまた入手可能なポーランドをケースとして分析を加えるものである。供給量の制限もモデルに取り入れた需要関数モデルを使い、家計消費調査データを定量的に分析し、改革以前の中央計画経済体制下における食料消費行動と改革後のその変化をつかむことが本研究の目的であった。市場経済への移行に取り組んでいる国において観察される一人当たりの食料消費量の低下は、実質価格の低下と実質小売価格の上昇といった経済条件の変化によって説明されうるが、それ以外にも消費を取り巻く諸制度の変革が消費者行動に構造変化をもたらしていることが確認できた。本研究を進めるにあっては以下の作業を実施した。1.この分野における最近の内外の研究成果について再サーベイを行い、需要関数モデルを基本とする理論モデルを構築した。また入手可能データに対応した形で推計モデルを考案し、さらに基礎データを使い試行的な推計を行った。2.ワルシャワ経済大学のコバルスキー助教授を通して中央統計局が収集した家計消費データを勤労・農家・年金生活家計につき、1960年から1993年まで入手した。家計の種類別、所得階層別に支出額、商品単価を入力し、データベースを作成した。3.分類別に1.で試みられた推計モデルを使い、消費行動の分析を行う。その際には所得・価格変化に対する需要弾力性を計算するほかに、計測パラメーターの変化より構造変化の有無、またその程度を検証した。この結果市場経済化に伴う制度の改革等非経済的要因も経済的要因と並び消費行動の変化を説明する要因となっていることが分かった。今後は、よりミクロレベルのデータを用いて各制度の影響についてより詳細な考察を行いこの研究をより深化させていく予定である。さらに同様な分析を他の移行期にある国についても行い国際比較を試みる予定である

  • Projections and Policy Implication of Supply and Demand

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    Rice is the dominant staple food crop and the most important agricultural product in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. Preserving rice self-sufficiency has been the important objective of agricultural policy, and the rice sector has been strongly protected economically and politically in these three countries. Due to acceptance of the GATT Uruguay Round agreement in 1995, Japan and South Korea partially opened their rice market. Taiwan is not a member of the GATT,but it is seeking GATT membership. The most likely terms to be agreed upon for rice is said to be similar to the Japanese arrangement. On the other hand, the U.S.rice sector is going to experience a big change under the WTO and the 1996 farm bill.There are five major objectives in this study : first, to investigate government programs implemented to improve production efficiency and reduce production costs in rice ; second, to analyze the factors that caused a decrease in per capita rice consumption ; third, to identify factors to increas rice production while analyzing growth accounting and estimate rice production in the future ; fourth, to project supply and demand in each country for the next fifteen years and develop policy scenarios based on the estimates ; and the last, to investigate the U.S.rice supply and demand situation and its export potential to Japan, Korea, and Taiwan in the next fifteen years.The major conclusions related to future supply and demand balance of rice are as follows :1.Because of the minimum access rice import, declining rice consumption, and yield growth, the rice diversion program will need to be expanded in Japan.2.The annual supply/demand balance of rice is predicted to be negative during the period 1995-2010, and South Korea may have to start importing some more rice in addition to the minimum access import at the end of the 1990s.3.Although Taiwan has been exporting some rice, rice production will start declining due to the decrease in rice area harvested, and will become a rice importer in the future.4.Because of the cut back in export subsidies and agricultural budget, rice production and rice exports of the U.S.are likely to decrease

  • Changes in the Environment and Agriculture for the Economies in Transition

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    The purpose of this study was to examine the impacts of various economic reform measures on the environment in agriculture for the economies in transition. Policy implications were expected to be derived from the analyzes. The roles of the governments and new institutions were also studied.The followings have been accomplished.1. An extensive literature review has been carried out regarding the changes in recent policies and economic performance for the economies in transition. Especially issues related with agriculture and the environment have been carefully studied and a review paper has been written with Dr.Kalman Rajkai in Hungary ;2. Data on water quality and economic activities have been collected from Hungary. A simulation analysis has been undertaken and some findings have been presented at the conference of the Japanese Society or Environmental Economics and Policies. New economic environments have been confirmed to have been contributing for the improvement of water quality there ; and3. Besides already published general papers concerning agricultural development in Poland and Hungary, two environmental policy papers are near to their completion. Necessity of establishing new institutions and economic incentive based programs are being discussed there

  • Agriculture and Environmental Policies in Eastern Europe

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    We examined the impacts of various reform measures on agriculture and the environment in Poland and Hungary. We also considered the policy options for these economies in transition to cope with the environmental problems in agriculture. The followings are what we achieved through this research project.First, we surveryed the existing literature on the topics of the policy reforms in transition economies and the environmental models in agriculture. We identified the characteristics of the existing models for the latter review. Later, a crop growth model was developed by our team to evaluate the impact of policy changes on the field level environment. We also studied the changes in nitrogen balance for Hungarian agriculture using the same model. The decline in chemical fertilizer use was identified to be the source of the improvement in the condition of groundwater pollution.Second, the time-series quality data on surface water were obtained from Hungary. Weelaborated the link between agriculture and the quality changes in surface water using this data set. This exercise confirmed our simulation results from the crop growth model.Third, policy implications were derived from these studies. The policy papers related with agriculture and the environment were written and one was presented at the 11th Congress of the International Farm Management Association.Fourth, interviews were conducted to study the current status of agricultural producers and reports have been written based on the information collected. The issues related with environmentally friendly agricultural production were covered in this effort

  • Agricultural Organizations in Transition Economies

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    In this study, determinants of the efficiency in agricultural production have been examined. Policy implications were derived based upon the findings from statistical analyses of the data from Eastern and Central Europe and Central Asia. The followings are what I have achieved through this research project.First, I surveyed the existing literature on the topics of agricultural development in transition economies. The fact that the difference in the extent of the liberalization of agricultural markets and privatization of production, marketing and processing organizations has produced a wide range of the diversity in the performance of agriculture was confirmed through this reviewSecond, a set of cross-sectional data was obtained from Hungary and Uzbekistan, respectively. A database was created in order to perform statistical analyses.Third, determinants of the difference in the performance of private farms were identified using regression analyses. Private farms were confirmed to be price responsive in these two economies. Non-economic variables such as education were found to be the important factors in explaining the difference in economic activities in agricultural production, Distortions in input and output markets were found to be a blame for non-profit maximizing behavior of agricultural producers in transition economies.Fourth, policy implicaations were derived from these analyses. The policy need for lowering market distortions was identified.Fifth, research papers were written and presented at the 1999 Agricultural Economics Association of Japan's meeting, the 12th Congress of the International Farm Management Association and the 1999 European Agricultural Economics Associatioris meetings

  • Institutions and Agriculture in Transition Economics

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    In this study, factors determining the performance of agricultural productionand marketing have been examined. Policy implications were derived based upon the findings from statistical analyses of the data from Central Asia and Eastern and Central Europe. The followings are what we have achieved through this research project.First, our team surveyed the existing literature on the topics of agricultural development in transition economies. The fact that the difference in the extent of the liberalization of agricultural markets and privatization of production, marketing and processing organizations has produced a wide range of the diversity in the performance of agriculture was confirmed through our reviewSecond, a set of cross-sectional data was obtained from Central Asia, and Eastern and Central Europe. A database was created in order to perform statistical analyses.Third, determinants of the difference in the performance of private farms were identified using regression analyses. We found that distortions in input and output markets have been causing non-profit maximizing behavior of agricultural producers in transition economies. The government roles are still large to carry out further reform measures for Central Asian economies we also argued.Fourth, policy implications were derived from theseanalyses. The policy need for lowering market distortions was emphasized.Fifth, research papers were written and presented at the 1999 Agricultural Economics Association of Japan's meetings, the 12th Congress of the International Farm Management Association, the 7th European Association of Agricultural Economists conference and the 23^<rd> International Association of Agricultural Economists' congress

  • Study on the changing pattern of consumers' behavior of Polish and Lithuanian citizen after the accession to EU

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    The purpose of this project is to find the changing pattern of consumers' behavior in 3 years after the accession to EU (1st, May, 2004), in Poland and Lithuania on 3 fields. i.e. farmer's behavior of cultivation of agricultural products, consumer finance and housing loan, and short-term and long-term labor outside his country.Even before the beginning of our research we expected the scale of change of consumers' behavior will be quite large. As a result of 3 years' our research the extent of the change of consumers' behavior after the accession to EU becomes very immerse and dynamic.In the filed of agriculture the farmers of Poland and Lithuania every year changed their products elastically adjusting the price-cost situation in EU.The housing loan delivered to Polish grew from 74 billion zloty in 2002 to more than 280 billion zloty in 2006. The automobile loan also drastically increased in Poland and Lithuania.On 1st of May England and Ireland opened her labor market to foreign workers from EU countries. From 1st of May to 31st of July England accepted 65,525 foreign workers, in which the number of Polish was 35,710. Tremendous boom of short and medium term emigration had happened in Poland in 2004. As a result of it the serious deficit of high-qualified workers had happened in Poland and Lithuania.These three fact findings are, as far as we know, indeed our originality of our project

  • Economic Analysis of Institutions and Policies on Water Resources: Case of South India

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    Water has been always in demand for the purposes of achieving economic development and meeting the needs of growing population in developing countries. This study analyzed the data on water resources in agriculture in South India, where water has been scarce in the recent decades. This study is part of efforts to find useful policy implications for dealing with the shortage of water resources and the resulted negative consequences on economic and social development.The objectives of this study are to understand reasons for the difference in production efficiency and allocative efficiency among surveyed farms with different backgrounds and endowments on water resources for agricultural production and to derive policy implications for sustainable development in rural India. The followings are the outputs of this study so far.1.A set of database, which is useful for policy analyses, has been created based on our own survey in Tamilnadu in South India,2.A new non-parametric approach to decompose the efficiency measures has been developed and applied to the data which have been collected from the field,3.A new approach to calculate shadow prices of input materials has been also developed to derive policy implications on subsidy policies of input materials, and4.The economic values of the existence of well irrigation systems have been identified using time-series data. This research output has been presented at the Winter meetings of the American Agricultural Economic Association in January 2007. Two other papers related with 2 and 3 are in the process of the preparation for publication

  • Comparative Study on Agricultural and Rural Development, and Policies and Institutions in Central and Eastern Europe

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    Agricultural development in Central and Eastern Europe faces challenges to meet individual needs for agricultural, food and rural development objectives while adopting Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the European Union. This study attempted to examine the sources of change and difference in productivity and efficiency for agricultural production and to derive policy implications

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Specific Research

  • 移行国の農業発展と政府の役割に関する研究

    2004  

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     途上国や移行国においては現在でも、そして先進国の仲間入りを果たした日本においては過去の発展の過程で、農業や農村の果たす経済・社会的重要性は大きいし、また大きかった。そして、これらの分野には、多くの公的資金が投入され、各種支援政策が適用されてきている。しかし、投入された公的資金の経済的・社会的効果については、それが援助関連のプロジェクト・プログラムに関連している場合には、個別に事前・事後において検証する努力がなされてはいるが、評価の実施はまだ体系だったものにはなっていない。本研究は、農業・農村を取り巻く経済・社会環境が急速に変化してきている途上国を対象として、農業・農村に対する公的資金投入の経済的・社会的効果について分析し、今後のこの分野に対する政府の取り組み方に関する政策的含意を導入することを目的として実施された。 ポーランドを事例とした時系列データ(1991年から2003年)の統計分析から、体制移行後の農業・農村分野に対する公的資金配分、教育プログラムに対する予算配分、科学技術振興のための予算配分はそれぞれ農業部門の付加価値を改善するのに役立ってきており、またこのことが体制移行後の農村の生活の質向上に役立ってきていることが確認された。特に科学技術振興のための予算配分の貢献が大きかったことが分かった。この結果より、体制移行後の農業・農村に対する移行国政府の取り組みは効果を生み出してきており、今後も同様な努力が積み重ねられることが望ましいことが政策的含意として導入された。

  • 農業・農村インフラストラクチャーの役割に関する国際比較研究

    2003  

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       本研究は、教育、試験・研究機関・組織を含む広義の農業・農村インフラが、途上国や体制移行国において果たしてきた役割について再評価し、新しい経済・社会環境のもとで農業・農村インフラが持続的に期待される役割を果たすことができる条件を包括的に検討することが目的であった。さらに農業・農村インフラの改善・維持について政府の役割を明確化することも目的とした。調査・分析・考察は、国レベル、コミュニティーレベル、家族農を含む個別農業生産組織レベルの3つのレベルで行なった。国レベルでは、WTOの新ラウンドの結果として国際貿易がより自由化された状況になった場合に、また為替レートや他のマクロ経済状況が変化した場合に、国内の農業部門、非農業部門がどのような影響を受け、それが農業・農村インフラの役割をどのように変化させるうるのかを途上国や移行国の事例に関して分析し、今後の農業・農村インフラのあり方についてマクロ経済的視点より比較・検討した。コミュニティーレベルでは、これまでに農業・農村インフラが地域経済・社会の発展と貧困の軽減にどの程度貢献してきたのかを上記の国においてそれぞれ分析し、成功事例についてその成立条件を整理した。そして地域経済・社会の発展と貧困の軽減に結びつく形で農業・農村インフラを整備するために、政府が果たしうる役割について考察を加えた。ミクロレベルでの検討としては、それぞれの国における個別の農業生産組織が農業・農村インフラの改善を通して享受してきた便益を定量化し、その程度の違いの説明要因を分析した。また横断的な比較により、農業・農村インフラの維持・改善に個別の生産者が果たしうる役割について、管理組織の形態別に考察を加えた。

  • アジア経済危機と食料消費の変化に関する研究

    2001  

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    アジア諸国をおそった経済危機は、金融を始めとするサービス業と製造業の生産活動を大幅に減速させ、それらの部門の構造改革を余儀なくさせた。それ以外に、家計部門においては、実質所得の減少と実物・金融資産の価値の目減りを受け、個人消費の減退がもたらされた。個々の単価が低く、所得弾力性の低い食料においても、相対価格の変化からくる消費の代替が見られ、これまでの経済成長期に観察された食生活の変化と異なった動きが観察されてきている。もともと、韓国・台湾・日本においては、農産物の国内市場の自由化が段階的に進んでおり、肉などの価格の低下が見られ、さらには所得の向上に伴う都市世帯のみならず農村世帯においても見られるコメの劣等財化もあり、一人当たりコメ消費量の減少と、一人当りの肉、野菜の消費量増加が観察されてきた。今回のマクロ経済の停滞は、この傾向にブレーキをかける方向で、食生活に影響を及ぼしてきている。本研究は、この経済危機以降の変化が、実質価格や実質所得など経済的な要因の変化に対応した一時的なものなのか、それとも都市から農村への人口の再移動など他の非経済的要因の変化に関連した長期間にわたる構造的なものなのかを、アジア各国の個別のケースについて検証するものであった。 まず、韓国、台湾、日本、インドネシア、マレーシアから消費と所得の変化に関する時系列データ、社会・経済指標の時系列データを入手し、データベースを構築した。その後、このデータベースを使用し、需要関数が各国においてシステムとして計測された。そこでは、経済危機後の消費の変化が、実質価格や実質所得の変化によって説明できることが確認できた。一方で、都市から農村への人口の回帰は、一時的に消費変化のスピードを鈍化させたことが確認できた。これらの消費面での動きは、東アジアの国においては国内食料生産のあり方を再考慮する動きにもつながっており、農業・農村に関する政策の転換時期となったことも確認できた。

  • 東欧農業における生産構造の変化に関する研究

    1997  

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    東欧においては、複数政党制への転換に伴い1989年以降、市場経済体制への移行を目的として各種の経済改革が実施されてきており、生産・流通構造も大きく変化をとげている。持続可能な経済成長を可能にするためには、生産・流通部門における経済活動の担い手となる近代的経営組織の発展と、それらの活動を保障・支援する新しい制度の確立を含む経済・社会政策の導入が必要視されている。本研究は、農業分野に焦点を絞り、新旧の生産組織の生産構造の変化をミクロデータを分析することにより理解し、その結果をもとに政策分析を行い、政府の役割に関する政策的含意の導入を図るものであった。改革のアプロ-チが急進的と漸進的という具合に対照的であるポ-ランドとハンガリ-について、組織の違いとその組織を取り巻く経済環境の変化の違いを考慮に入れ、生産構造の変化を定量的に比較分析し、農業生産組織の変化内容について理解を図ることが研究の第一目的であった。さらにこの分析結果を踏まえて、移行期経済における農業部門の今後の発展を図る上での政府の役割とその政策手段を明確化することが研究の第二目的であった。本研究では、以下のことが達成された。1)ハンガリ-では、改革以前には社会主義部門における生産が中心であったことより、旧国営農場と新・旧協同農場の推移がわかる事例的なデータと、新規に誕生した小農を中心とするデ-タベ-スが構築された。一方、ポーランドでは、歴史的に個人農が多く存在していたことより、小農・近代化した個人農を中心に、民営化された国営農場と協同農場も含むデ-タベ-スが構築された。2)データ分析により、各種経営指標を使った場合に、上位に位置する農家の特徴が明示化された。個人農の場合には、生産規模の大きな生産組織ほど収益性が高く、固定資本回転率が高いことが確認された。旧国営農場や新・旧協同農場では、経営体制の立て直しが早い段階から実施されている生産組織においてパフォーマンスがよいことが分かった。ただし、旧国営農場や新・旧協同農場を取り巻く経済環境は流動的であり、新規投資に関しても消極的な組織が多く存在することが分かった。3)総括作業においては、分析により明示化された農業生産組織の生産構造の変化を踏まえ、導入しうる政策について問題検討を行った。生産コストの削減につながるような技術サービスの導入の可能性や価格リスクを低くするような制度の導入について考察がなされた。研究成果の発表:学術論文1998年10月、「東欧における農業生産組織の変容に関する分析」、早稲田大学社会科学研究学会発表論文1997年7月 Gemma, M. and M. Voros, Environmental Problems and Policies in Hungarian Agriculture, Proceedings of the 11th International Farm Management Congress, International Farm Management Association, Vol. 1, p.397 - p.412(英語)(共著)

  • 韓国における米を中心とした食糧消費の変化に関する研究

    1996  

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     韓国はガット・ウルグアイ・ラウンドの農業合意を受けて、米市場の一部自由化を開始した。これにより今後、農業及び関連産業を取り巻く経済環境の変化は加速化されるものと考えられる。韓国では日本と同様に、経済成長の過程で農業の国民経済における劣位化が進み、稲作部門を例外とせず国際競争力が低下してきている。そして、その背後には国内食料消費の変化が需要サイドの要因として存在している。韓国においても日本がたどったように、所得の向上に伴う食生活の変化が観察され、一人当りの米消費量は都市世帯のみならず農村世帯においても減少傾向にある。その一方で、一人当りの肉、野菜の消費量は増加して推移してきている。 これら実際に観察される食料消費の変化を説明する要因を明確化し、将来の食料需要の見通しを検討する際に必要となる基礎的な経済指標を推計することが本研究の目的であった。需要構造の分析に広く使用されているAIDSモデルを用いて、相対価格や可処分所得の変化といった経済的要因を中心に分析がなされた。その結果、主要食料品について価格弾力性と所得弾力性が推計され、近年コメが劣等財化していることが確認できた。それ以外にも、韓国の家計消費分野の研究・分析用データの整備をすることも本研究の目的であった。これについては、都市家計と農村家計の消費に関する時系列データと価格指標のデータベースが作成された。価格指標をこれまで長期に集めた例はなく、本研究を通して韓国の食料品価格の時系列データが整備された。

  • ポーランドにおける経済改革以降の農業発展と環境政策

    1995  

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    東欧における45年に及ぶ中央計画経済体制は,重工業を中心とした産業構造を固定化し,さらに歪んだ価格体系は生産要素の過剰投入や非効率的な生産体制の存続を許した。これにより環境汚染が進み,農業分野においても持続可能な発展が危ぶまれるような状態となっていた。 本研究においては,持続可能な農業発展を図るという視点より,移行期にあるポーランド農業の課題を検証した。政治上の混乱は続くが,経済政策面では堅実な財政・金融政策を導入している同国において,経済発展の回復が見られ,農業分野においても資源利用の効率性が高まったことが確認できた。これをさらに環境への負荷が低く持続可能な営農形態へ導くためには,今後各種の制度改革が必要となることが分かった。またポーランドにおいては農業外雇用機会の創出と農村工業の発展が課題となっていることが分かった。

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Overseas Activities

  • 移行経済の農業発展

    2003.03
    -
    2005.03

    アメリカ   アメリカ研究センター、ミネソタ大学・ハンプフリー公共政策研究所

 

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