Updated on 2022/11/28

写真a

 
YANAGISAWA, Akira
 
Affiliation
Faculty of Letters, Arts and Sciences, School of Culture, Media and Society
Job title
Professor

Concurrent Post

  • Faculty of Letters, Arts and Sciences   Graduate School of Letters, Arts and Sciences

  • Affiliated organization   Global Education Center

Research Institute

  • 2020
    -
    2022

    高等研究所   兼任研究所員

Degree

  • 修士

Professional Memberships

  •  
     
     

    早稲田大学東洋史懇話会

  •  
     
     

    日本モンゴル学会

  •  
     
     

    Society of Inner Asian Studies

  •  
     
     

    東方学会

  •  
     
     

    史学会

 

Research Areas

  • History of Asia and Africa

Research Interests

  • Asian History

Papers

  • Qing "Government Caravans" in Kiyakhta: The Activities of Bederge Muslims

    YANAGISAWA Akira

    Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko   ( 77 ) 1 - 37  2019  [Invited]

  • Lingae Francae in Diplomatic Relations between Russia and Qing

    YANAGISAWA Akira

    Shimane Journal of North East Asian Research, Special Issue   ( 3 ) 147 - 162  2017.09

  • SUGIYAMA Kiyohiko, Daishin teikoku no keisei to hakki-sei [The Formation of the Qing Empire and the Eight Banner System]

    YANAGISAWA Akira

    Manzokushi Kenkyū (Journal of Manchu and Qing Studies)   ( 14 ) 37 - 52  2015.12

    CiNii

  • The Qing's state caravans to Kiakhta composed of "bederge" Muslim merchants

    YANAGISAWA Akira

    Shiteki   ( 36 ) 232 - 253  2014.12

  • Prof. Wang Chung-han and his research on Chi'ing history

    YANAGISAWA Akira

    Tōhōgaku (Eastern Studies)   ( 128 ) 160 - 168  2014.07  [Refereed]

  • Relocation of Oyirad Groups to Manchuria and Hulun Buir

    Akira YANAGISAWA

    Senri Ethnological Studies (Oirad Pepole: Cultural Uniformity and Diversification. Edited by I. Lkhagvasuren, Yuki Konagaya)   ( 86 ) 89 - 101  2014.02

  • The Problem of Customs Duties on the Kiakhta Trade in the 1750-60th

    Akira YANAGISAWA

    Bulletin of the Graduate Division of Letters, Arts and Sciences of Waseda University   58 ( 58(第4分冊) ) 5 - 18  2013.02

    CiNii

  • Summarization on "kebungge fulgiyan i dangse" from Emperor Yongzheng and Qianlong Periods in Toyo Bunko

    Akira Yanagisawa, nslated, Edited by ALTA

    Manchu Studies   ( 2012-1 ) 35 - 48  2012

  • Visiting Mongol communities in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

    YANAGISAWA Akira

    Bulletin of Waseda Institure for Mongolian Studies   ( 5 ) 131 - 139  2009.09

    CiNii

  • The Barүu Peple of Fengcheng(鳳城)and Xiuyan(岫巌), Liaoning Province

    YANAGISAWA Akira

    Snimane Journal of North East Asian Research, Special Issue   ( 1 ) 47 - 66  2008.03

  • 『清国漂流図』と清朝の档案史料─大城親雲上に関する記載をめぐって─

    柳澤 明

    年次研究報告書(日本大学文理学部情報科学研究所)   ( 6 ) 175 - 177  2006.10

  • An Expedition to Transbaikalia in the Summer of 2005: Nerchinsk and Ulan-Ude

    YANAGISAWA Akira

    Manzokushi Kenkyū (Journal of Manchu and Qing Studies)   ( 5 ) 85 - 105  2006.09

    CiNii

  • Some Remarks on the "Addendum to the Treaty of Kiakhta" in 1768

    YANAGISAWA Akira

    Memoirs of the Research Department of The Toyo Bunko   ( 63 ) 65 - 87  2006.03

  • Expedition along the Amur River in the summer of 2004: Albazin and the Stanovoi Mountains

    YANAGISAWA Akira

    Manzokushi Kenkyū (Journal of Manchu and Qing Studies)   ( 4 ) 239 - 252  2005.06

  • Some remarks on the origin of the Ögeled people of Külün Buyir

    YANAGISAWA Akira

    Bulletin of Waseda Institute for Mongolian Studies   ( 2 ) 1 - 17  2005.03

  • The Manual of Birds held at the Palace Museums in Taipei and Peking

    YANAGISAWA Akira

    Manzokushi Kenkyū (Journal of Manchu and Qing Studies)   ( 3 ) 18 - 39  2004.07

  • Concerning the Negotiations between Russian and the Qing Dynasty on the "Addendum to the Treaty of Kiakhta" in 1768

    A. Yanagisawa

    The Tōyōshi-Kenkyū (The Journal of Oriental Researches)   62 ( 3 ) 1 - 33  2003.12  [Refereed]

  • 『異域録』のロシア語訳

    柳澤 明

    歴史と地理   ( 569 ) 52 - 55  2003.11

  • On some Manchu documents in St. Petersburg

    YANAGISAWA Akira

    Manzokushi Kenkyu (Journal of Manchu and Qing Studies)   ( 2 ) 172 - 176  2003.05

  • Works of the Late Prof. YOSHIDA Kin'ichi and Recent Research Trends over Russo-Chinese Relations

    YANAGISAWA Akira

    The Nairiku Ajiashi Kenkyu (Inner Asian Studies)   ( 18 ) 79 - 86  2003.03

  • Manchu Archival Materials concerning Russia Held at the First Historical Archives of China

    YANAGISAWA Akira

    Manzokushi Kenkyu Tsūshin (Journal of Manchu and Qing Studies)   ( 10 ) 38 - 57  2001.04

  • 八旗再考

    柳澤 明

    歴史と地理   ( 541 ) 1 - 10  2001.02

    CiNii

  • Arban doluduγar ǰaγun u emün-e qaγas tu qolbuγdaqu mongγul üsüg ün bičig debter

    INOUE Osamu, NAGAI Takumi, YANAGISAWA Akira

      ( 8 ) 80 - 109  1999.03

  • The Origin and Transition of the Old Barga (Qaγučin Barγu)

    Akira Yanagisawa

    社会科学討究   ( 129 ) 87 - 111  1999.01

  • Development of the Eight-Banner system and Reconstitution of Ethnic Groups in Hei-long-jiang District during the Qing Period

    YANAGISAWA Akira

    Rekishigaku Kenkyu (Journal of Historical Studies)   ( 698 ) 10 - 21  1997.06

  • The Establishment of the New Barga (Sin-e Barγu) Eight Banners

    Yanagisawa Akira

    SHIGAKU ZASSHI   102 ( 3 ) 369 - 403,488-48  1993

     View Summary

    From Yongzheng 10 (1732) to 12 (1734), the Qing government removed some ethnic groups-the Solons, Dahurs and others from Butha in Heilongjiang and the New Barga from Khalka-to the Hulun-beir region and organized the "eight banners". Although very few historical studies have ever been made on the establishment of the eight banners of Hulunbeir, we can find plenty of materials for this purpose in the Manchu archival documents stored at the Number 1 Historical Archives in Beijing. This fact proves that the Manchus attached importance to this matter. The aim of the present paper is to cast new light on the process of the migration, and the reasons why the Qing government created the eight banners of the migrants, giving special attention to the New Barga who were picked out from among the Khalkhas. What urged the Manchus to plan the removal of the Barga from Khalka to Hulun-beir was the escape of thousands of Barga belonging to one of the qosiru in Setsen Khan Aimak into the Russian territory in Yongzheng 8 (1730). The motive of their escape was to get free of the discriminatively heavy taxes which they were burdened with by their Khalkha ruler (jasar) to pay for assisting the Qing army to carry out the war against the Dzungars. The Manchus, therefore, attempted to prevent any further commotion by separating them from the Khalkha rulers. Although the plan met with some resistance from Khalkha rulers, through various preserving maneuvers, at last the Manchus successfully removed more than 3,000 Barga families in Yongzheng 12. The reasons why the Qing government adopted the eight banner system in ruling them were 1)to dissolve the old feudalistic social organization, for under the eight banner system there were no nobles who would burden the common people with private taxes; 2)to guarantee their living, for according to Qing's rule, the people under the eight banner system would be supported at public expense. Through the above investigation of the New Barga, a foundation has been built for further research on the other groups that were organized into the eight banner system in Manchuria and Mongolia (the so-called New Manchus, the Chakhars, etc.) after the Qing dynasty's conquest of China.

    DOI CiNii

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Books and Other Publications

  • 清朝の史跡をめぐって

    細谷, 良夫( Part: Contributor, 第6章 アムール上流域調査─アルバジンとスタノヴォイ山脈─(2004年8月);第7章 ザバイカル調査─ネルチンスクとウラン・ウデ─(2005年8月))

    東洋文庫  2022.03 ISBN: 9784809703119

  • 論集北東アジアにおける近代的空間 : その形成と影響

    李, 曉東, 李, 正吉( Part: Contributor, 第10章 露清外交におけるコミュニケーション=ギャップの実相──18世紀初頭と19世紀中葉の二つの事例を通じて)

    明石書店  2022.03 ISBN: 9784750353296

  • 東アジアと東南アジアの近世 : 一五〜一八世紀

    中島, 楽章, 弘末, 雅士, 吉沢, 誠一郎, 岡本, 隆司, 岩井, 茂樹, 大木, 康, 杉山, 清彦, 柳澤, 明, 岡田, 雅志, 六反田, 豊, 松井, 洋子, 太田, 淳, 宮田, 絵津子, 新居, 洋子, 岸本, 美緒, 斎藤, 照子, 渡辺, 美季, 上田, 信( Part: Contributor, 清朝時代のモンゴル社会)

    岩波書店  2022.03 ISBN: 9784000114226

  • 書物のなかの近世国家 : 東アジア「一統志」の時代

    小二田, 章, 高井, 康典行, 吉野, 正史, 竹内, 洋介, 須江, 隆, 櫻井, 智美, 酒井, 規史, 高橋, 亨, 荷見, 守義, 巴, 兆祥, 向, 正樹, 柳澤, 明, 澤, 美香, 清水, 則夫, 長谷川, 成一, 高橋, 章則, 吉田, 光男, 辻, 大和, 岡田, 雅志, 森山, 央朗, 村井, 誠人, 山田, 賢, 白井, 哲哉( Part: Contributor, 北辺からみる『大清一統志』)

    勉誠出版 (発売)  2021.08 ISBN: 9784585325055

  • ハンドブック近代中国外交史 : 明清交替から満洲事変まで

    岡本, 隆司, 箱田, 恵子( Part: Contributor, 露清関係──「隣国」関係の形成と構造)

    ミネルヴァ書房  2019.04 ISBN: 9784623084906

  • 中央ユーラシア史研究入門

    小松久男, 荒川正晴, 岡洋樹( Part: Contributor)

    山川出版社  2018.04 ISBN: 9784634640870

  • 清前歴史与盛京文化

    白文煜( Part: Contributor)

    遼寧民族出版社  2015.07 ISBN: 9787549710751

  • 内モンゴルを知るための60章

    ボルジギン・ブレンサイン( Part: Contributor)

    2015.07 ISBN: 9784750342238

  • 紀念王鍾翰先生百年誕辰学術文集

    ( Part: Contributor)

    中央民族大学出版社  2013.08 ISBN: 9787566004765

  • 内国史院档 天聡五年Ⅱ

    東洋文庫東北アジア研究班( Part: Joint translator)

    東洋文庫  2013.03 ISBN: 9784809702754

  • A Study on Manchu-Han Relations in the Qing Dynasty

    中国社会科学院近代史研究所政治史研究室( Part: Contributor)

    社会科学文献出版社  2011.08 ISBN: 9787509725917

  • モンゴル史研究─現状と展望

    早稲田大学モンゴル研究所( Part: Contributor)

    明石書店  2011.06 ISBN: 9784750334295

  • 内国史院档 天聡五年Ⅰ

    東洋文庫, 東北アジア研究班

    東洋文庫  2011.03 ISBN: 9784809702297

  • 東アジア世界の近代 19世紀(岩波講座 東アジア近現代通史 第1巻 )

    ( Part: Contributor)

    岩波書店  2010.12 ISBN: 9784000112819

  • アジア学のすすめ 第3巻 アジア歴史・思想論

    工藤元男, 李成市( Part: Contributor)

    弘文堂  2010.06 ISBN: 9784335501135

  • 東北アジア(朝倉世界地理講座──大地と人間の物語── 2)

    岡洋樹, 境田清隆, 佐々木史郎( Part: Contributor)

    朝倉書店  2009.11 ISBN: 9784254167924

  • 清朝とは何か(別冊『環』⑯)

    岡田英弘( Part: Contributor)

    2009.05 ISBN: 9784894346826

  • Immanent Stranger: "China" in the identity of ethnic minorities: Cases of the Mongols and the minorities of South China (Northeast Asian Studies (in Japanese) 10)

    Hiroki Oka( Part: Contributor)

    Center for Northeast Asian Studies, Tohoku University  2009.03 ISBN: 9784901449533

  • New Perspectives on the Study of Qing History

    HOSOYA Yoshio

    山川出版社  2008.02 ISBN: 9784634672147

  • Social and Cultural Change in Eastern Inner Mongolia in the Modern Period

    モンゴル研究所( Part: Contributor)

    雄山閣  2007.03 ISBN: 9784639019756

  • Neiguoshiyuandang: Early Manchu Archives of the Qing Historiography Academy: The Seventh Year of Tiancong, 1633/34

    Seminar on Manchu History, the Toyo Bunko( Part: Joint translator)

    Toyo Bunko  2003.03

  • The Bordered Red Banner Archives in Toyo Bunko

    Kanda Nobuo, Chief Edit( Part: Joint editor)

    Toyo Bunko  2001.03 ISBN: 4809701808

  • Altan Qaүan u Tuүuǰi: A biography of a Mongolian King of the 16th century, Facsimile text and Japanese translation with notes

    YOSHIDA Jun'ichi, Kesigtoүtaqu, YANAGISAWA Akira, ISHIHAMA Yumiko, INOUE Osamu, NAGAI Takumi, OKA Hiroki( Part: Joint translator)

    Kazama-Shobo  1998.03 ISBN: 4759910824

  • 満族の家族と社会

    愛新覚羅顕琦, 江守五夫( Part: Joint translator)

    第一書房  1996.04 ISBN: 480420105X

  • 清代中国の諸問題

    石橋秀雄( Part: Contributor)

    山川出版社  1995.07 ISBN: 4634658909

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Research Projects

  • 19世紀を中心とした軍事的学知をめぐる人と書物の交錯

    Project Year :

    2019.04
    -
    2024.03
     

     View Summary

    本研究は、国民国家が形成される19世紀を中心とし、軍人のグローバルな移動による人的ネットワークと、軍事関連書の翻訳・流通・受容という分析視角から、軍事的学知の交錯を研究するものである。日本・フランス・ドイツを主とし、オランダ・オスマン帝国・清朝を参照系と位置づけ、軍人と軍事関連書(人とモノ)の移動から、軍事的学知(学知)に光を当てることにより、軍事史的観点からみた新たな世界史像を提起したい

  • Multilingual translation and communication gap in the diplomatic relationship between Qing and Russia

    Project Year :

    2019.04
    -
    2022.03
     

  • ロシア統治下チベット仏教徒のチベット・モンゴルとの交流の研究

    Project Year :

    2017.04
    -
    2020.03
     

     View Summary

    (1) ダライラマ13世がモンゴルに滞在していた折、越境してきたロシアの仏教徒たちが、ダライラマ13世の身辺を警護し、仕え、それがダライラマの政治力を増していたこと、越境してきたブリヤート人はロシアではディリコフ、チベット資料ではナムダクノヤンという名前の王公であることがわかった。ダライラマ伝に基づくとナムダクノヤンは山西省五台山にまで確実に南下しており、ロシアの仏教徒の国境を越えた活動を呈示することができた。三月には本年度までの成果を、英文書籍The Resurgence of "Buddhist Government": Tibetan-Mongolian Relations in the Modern World. をUnion Press から出版した。<BR>(2) 七月にはパリのInalcoで開催された国際チベット学会(International Association for Tibetan Studies)において本書と同名のパネルをくみ、基調講演としてThe Impact of the 13th Dalai Lama’s Sojourn in Mongolia: Evoking the National Consciousness of Tibetan Buddhists from 1904 to 1908を発表した。バネルにはロシアからはブリヤートのツェレンビロフ、クチャーノフ、クズミンを迎え、日本から近代のモンゴル史の代表的な研究者である橘誠、井上岳彦、和田大知を迎え、この二年間の研究の成果を国際的に呈示する機会を得た。<BR>(3) 「大隈重信の東西文明調和論の背景にある19世紀末の普遍主義」『史観』41:242-226.を発表。本論文は、大隈重信の思想を世界を席巻していた仏教復興運動の世界史の中で捉え直したものである。(1) 過去二年間の研究業績を2019年3月、英文書籍The Resurgence of "Buddhist Government": Tibetan-Mongolian Relations in the Modern World. として出版した。本書はアメリカの雑誌Religious Studies Review, No. 45(December, 2019において好意的に評価され、論文掲載サイトにおいても多くのメンションをえた。<BR>(2) 国際チベット学会(International Association for Tibetan Studies)において筆者はこの二年の研究業績を発表するため出版済み書籍と同名のパネルを主宰し、書籍化した時点より進んだ研究内容を発表し好評を博した。このため、Brill の編集をつとめていたAlex McKayの仲介により、パネルの参加者を筆者に迎えてAmsteldam University Pressから書籍を出版する計画が進んでいる。<BR>(3) 2019年 2月にはブリヤート共和国のウランウデより歴史学研究所の副所長Vancicova氏を招聘し、氏の帰国とともブリヤート史の研究者、荒井幸康氏とともにウランウデの研究所を訪れ、20世紀初頭のブリヤート最高位の僧Iroutuevの資料を閲覧する予定であったが、コロナ禍のために、航空便がすべて欠航となり断念した。ここが唯一計画通りにいかなかった点である。コロナ禍がいつ静まるか不明なため、ウラン・ウデにおけるIroutuev の資料調査は遂行が難しいと思われる。<BR>そこで代替策として、ブリヤート最高位の僧Iroutuevやダライラマ13世の側近Dorzhievなどのロシアの仏教徒をロシア宮廷につないだ貴族、ウフトンスキー公が主宰していた新聞、Sankt Petersburgie ViedmostiのIroltuev、ならびに、インドの仏跡復興運動の機関誌 Journal of Maha Boshi Societyを、可能であれば大英図書館に閲覧にいき、それがかなわないのであれば、ブリヤート人が英領インドやスリランカの仏教徒たちと交流していた1900-1901年の期間にかぎって、そのデジタル情報を図書館交流でとりよせ、精査する。<BR>また、昨年の国際チベット学会の発表内容を英文で書籍化する作業を継続する

  • A Comparative Study of Honor, Loyalty and Patriotism in 18th and 19th Centuries from the Viewpoint of Military History

    Project Year :

    2014.04
    -
    2017.03
     

     View Summary

    Using a comparative frame, our project team researched the characteristics of the military ethos of warriors from Japan, China, the Ottoman empire,Germany, and France in what is called the “modern transitional period”(18th and 19th centuries). We took into consideration various direct and indirect relations among these regions in the fields of politics, economy, military affairs, modern scientific thought, and so on. Our research showed that military values such as honor, loyalty, and patriotism were grounded in notions such as rank, status, and class in early modern society and traditional way of thinking, and resulted from of a complex combination of elements such as newly developed military technology, newly adopted military education, the military conscription system, ethnic and religious identity, and nationalism

  • 日本における遊牧研究史とその新展開

    Project Year :

    2014.04
    -
    2015.03
     

     View Summary

    ボヤンバートル(宝音巴特爾)は、外国人特別研究員としての任期中、研究代表者である柳澤明と定期的に意見交換をしながら、早稲田大学図書館、東洋文庫等に所蔵される、19世紀後半から近年にいたるまでの日本における遊牧研究の成果を渉猟し、それらを次のように総括した。①19世紀末の日本人による中央アジア探検記録は、探検の多くが政治的・軍事的背景のもとに行われたものであることから、遊牧に関する研究史の中ではあまり注目されてこなかったが、実は当時の遊牧社会に関する貴重な情報を含んでおり、正当に評価すべきである。②20世紀前半~中葉、すなわち戦前期から戦後初期の日本人による研究に関しては、梅棹忠夫を中心とする京都大学関係の研究者の業績が出色である。それらは、動物学・植物学等の該博な知識と民族学(人類学)の方法論を駆使したもので、今日重要な課題となっている遊牧と環境の関係についても先見的な指摘を行っているが、モンゴルの遊牧に関しては、遊牧の地域差の原因に対する考察が不十分である等の限界も認められる。③20世紀後半以降においては、梅棹らを継承する一連の研究成果があるが、それとは別に、モンゴルの遊牧に関する吉田順一の業績が特筆に値する。それは、広範な実地調査を基礎として、遊牧社会における農耕の位置づけ、近代以降の遊牧社会の変容過程などを視野に入れたもので、遊牧の将来を考える上で多くの示唆に富む知見を含んでいる。日本の遊牧研究をこのような視点から俯瞰的に総括した研究は、日本においてもほとんど類例がなく、関連分野の研究者にとって高い参照価値をもつと思われる。なお、上記①の部分はすでに論文として発表済である。②・③についても論文原稿はほぼ完成しており、近い将来に発表予定である。③の吉田の業績については、それらを集成してモンゴル語に翻訳した単行本の出版を計画中であり、吉田氏本人の許諾も得ている。26年度が最終年度であるため、記入しない。26年度が最終年度であるため、記入しない

  • Study on the social reorganization and symbiotic relations in the past and present of Northeast Asia

    Project Year :

    2011.04
    -
    2015.03
     

     View Summary

    The study shows that, before the beginning of the 20th century, verious ethnic groups' movement including the Chinese to Mongolia, the Mongols between Inner and Outer Mongolia and the Kazakhs into Mongolia were observed and that the Qing's policy was not directed to blocking them completely, but to control and adjust their movements practically. Another aspect of this study about the era after the end of 20th century showed the Russia's response to Chinese labor emigrants and the reality and rationality of the demographical situation of its Siberian and Far eastern frontiers. In both of two eras studied in this project the asymmetric structure between China as push factor and Russia and Mongolia as pull factor was observed

  • Study of the trade route and system in the North Asia and the North East Asia between the 18th century and the 19th century

    Project Year :

    2010.04
    -
    2013.03
     

     View Summary

    In this study, we performed the field work of the following routes ; trade road between China and Mongolia,trade road from Amur to Sakhalin,trade road between northern Manchurian and Inner Mongolia,trade road in Sichuan and Uygur . As a result, we got the following knowledge; (1)The trade of each route was greatly prescribed in an aborigine and natural environments.(2) The local social structure that assumed a trade system the core was succeeded to until the first half of the year in the 20th century

  • A Study in "Erdeni tunumal neretu sudur orusiba".

     View Summary

    In 1993, we started our study from criticization and Romanization of the text of "Erdeni tunumal neretu sudur orusiba" and drew up a part of Japanese translation. In 1994, we were mainly engaged in examining the translation and putting interpretation on difficult terms and sentences in the text. Based on these works, we completed a preliminary draft of translation and notes in 1995. As we decided to publish the result of this study, so that in 1996, together with appllying to Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (Grant-in -Aid for Publication Scientific Research Results), we continued to fully reexamine the Romanization, translation and annotation. Getting granted in the following year, 1997, we drew up the preface, indexes, chronological table and bibliography. Our result, named "Altan qagammaan u tugammauji" (this was finally recognized through our investigation as the original title of the text) was publishied from Kazama-Shobo in March of 1998. We are convinced that our criticization of the text and intepretation on the difficult terms and sentences, especially on the Buddhist ones, surpass any precedent studies. At the same time, our study made it clearer that "Altan qagammaan u tugammauji" describes the expeditionary career of the king and the introduction of the Buddhism to Mongolia rather based on historical facts, which differs from other Mongolian chronicles after the 17th century including many mythical factors. It also casted new light on some important themes on history of Mongolia such as the transition of Mongol-Ming relations in the 16th century and the spread of the Tibetan Buddhism among the Mongolian people

  • Formation of China's World Order - Contact and Fusion of Hunting, Pasturage, and Hosbandry Cultures in the 18th Century -

     View Summary

    In 1999 and 2000 we investigated the names and the real situation of the Manchu and Han languages sources deposited at the institutions in Japan, Taiwan, and China (Beijing, Shenyang, Heerbin). We also visited Yunnan, Guizhou, Shandong, and Heilongjiang and confirmed the spread of the Qing and the Manchu culture into the skirts of the China World. We made researches in the following fields.1) We visited the lower reaches of the Heilongjiang (Amur) River. There existed the Heilongjiang Culture by the end of the 19th century. We went down the river from Khabarovsk to Nikolayevsk-na-Amure and investigated the life of minority people, especially those of Nanai (Hezhe).2) We investigated the remains of the Manchu Bannermen's station and their descendants at Qingzhou of Shandong Province. We found the remnants of the Manchu culture in their spoken Han language.3) We examined Neiguoshiyuan dang'an, Neige chuanzong-Like shishu, Junjichu chuanzong- Eluosi dang, and Baqi dutong yamen quanzong-zhiguan lei at the First Historical Archives of China. We also studied Baqi dang'an in Manchu and Han languages at the National Library in Taiwan, the Library of Academy.4) We made research in historical sources of Manchu language and the documents on the issues of Korea and the Qing relations at the Libraries of the Seoul National University and Keishou-kaku.5) We invited Mark Elliott (University of California-Santa Barbara), Liu Xiaomeng (the Research Institute of Modern History Social Academy of China), and Liu Chengyun (the Institute of Academia Sinica) and held research workshops in Toyo bunko and other places. We discussed the present situation of study on Baqi dang'an in Japan, US, China, and Taiwan. We are able to find out the influence of the Manchu, the Mongol, and the Han cultures in Baqi dang'an.6) We compared the Xianghongqi dang'an in Toyo Bunko with the Baqi dutong yamen quanzong dang'an in the First Historical Archives of China. We concluded that those dang'an materials were originally parts of the same series of documents and supplement each other

  • The Core and Peripheries of the Chinese Empire : -Pursuing the Original Form of Contemporary East Asia-

     View Summary

    <China and Taiwan>1.We conducted the following archival research at the First Historical Archive of China :(1)Investigations of duplicate copies of memorials of the Council of State (Junjichu) concerning problems in Chinese Turkestan (Xinqiang) and documents about Kazakhstan area in the Qing period (Hua Li). (2)Study of the Pu Yi Archives on the issue of banner history at the end of the Qing and the beginning of the Republic (Nakami), Neiguoshiyuan documents concerning the conduct of foreign policy at the beginning of the Qing (Yanagisawa), Qing documents about governance over the Jiangnan area (Yamamoto), Qing documents about the relevant ethnic groups (Kusuonoki) and a comparative study of Qinding Menggu zeli, Rifanyuan zeli in the Mongolian language and Daqing luli in the Manchurian language (Oka).2.We considered the disposal of the Qing estates and the difficulties of its salt manors, examining the documents deposited at the Liaoning Provincial Archives (Enatsu). We also investigated the situation of the Guizhou area and western Tibet by reading documents in the Sichuan Provincial Archives and the Institute of Ethnology in Guizhou Province (Takeuchi).3.Hosoya, Nakami, Kato, and Kusunoki investigated Manchu language documents in the Grand Secretariat Archives (Neige daku) at the Institute of History & Philology in Academia Sinica.<Russia>The participants in this project conducted the following research in collaboration with Prof. Kopitiko, a Russian colleague :1.A preliminary investigation at the historical sites of Manchu Tunguses in the Zeya and the Bureya valleys on the left bank of the Amur River (Hosoya) ;2.Research at the site of the Albazin Fortress (where Russia fought against the Qing), the Albazin Museum, and the local museum of the Amur oblast in Blagoveshensk (Hosoya, Nakami, Kato, Enatsu, and Yanagisawa);3.Examination of the historical sits of the Nerchinsk Treaty, such Qing documents regardiag the Kiakhta Treaty as archives of the Court of Colonial Affairs (Lifanyuan) and Yiyulu in the Mongolian language in Chita, Nerchinsk, Irkutsk, and the Buryat Republic (Hosoya, Nakami, Kato, Enatsu, and Yanagisawa)<Italy>Hosoya, Nakami, and Kato investigated Manchu language archives and books at the Venezia National Library, the Rome National Library, the Vatican Library, and the Jesuit Archival Museum. With the help of Prof. Staley of the University of Venezia, this research clarified that the Qianlong huidian zeli in Manchurian language is located at the Rome National Library and found that many reports of missionaries in China, sent to Italy with Manchu language edits in the Qing period, are in the Jesuit Archival Museum collection.<USA>Nakami, Kate, Hua Li, and Hosoya investigated the Manchu language archives of the Qing history at the Harvard-Yenching Library. Yamamoto also examined Library of Congress manuscripts regarding inhabitants of the Jiangnan area

  • The Transformation Process of Ethnic Groups in Heilongjiang area under the rule of Qing dynasty

     View Summary

    Heilongjiang (黒龍江) area (including present Kulun Buyir area of Inner-Mongolia) experienced a great change of distribution and composition of its population from the latter half of 17th to the first half of 18th century. The main cause of such a change is the incorporation of various ethnic groups into the Eight-Banner system. The Qing (清)government often shifted the location of Eight-Banner troops for political or military purposes, which caused population transfer on a large scale. Besides, basic units (niru) of the Eight Banners were usually organized according to supposed ethnicities, and given ethnic names. In other words, incorporation into the Eight-Banner system meant the official classification of people into ethnic groups.The ethnic framework set up by Qing is supposed to have a great influence upon the classification and the distribution of present nationalities. To make sure of it, we, on the one hand, cast a new light on the detailed process of incorporation of various groups into the Eight Banners through analysis of Qing archival materials. On the other hand, we held interviews with people of several nationalities in Kulun Buyir in 2004 and about the Nen (嫩) valley in 2005, to follow up the transformation process of ethnic conditions in recent years. As a result, it is proved that the ethnic definition given by the Qing government, together with the position under the Eight-Banner system, forms the basis of present group identity of each nationality. We also came to know that another element which had a great influence upon the distribution, social and cultural conditions of the native groups was, the open-land policy followed by the torrent of immigration of Han-Chinese from the last years of Qing dynasty

  • Historical Study in Cultural Contacts and Changes of North/Central Eurasia

     View Summary

    This research is aiming to analyze complex and various cultures of North/Central Eurasia through transcending the boundaries in research such as ages, areas, study fields, methodologies by combining organically the methods of history, linguistics, literature, anthropology etc. Setting the process of cultural contacts and acculturation to the main view point, using documents and folklore as principal materials, we paid our academic attentions to the existence of conventional and foreign elements; the processes of the spread of foreign elements, the transition or transformation of conventional elements by foreign elements and their fixing, the transformation of foreign elements by influence of conventional elements and their fixing, and the middle vehicles between conventional and foreign elements. The achievements are as follows. (1) Problems of the using the Pentaglot Thesaurus of Qing Dinasty as a research material; (2) Exchange-marriage of Mongol administration in Iran, (3) The social and cultural transition of Baryu people moved from Hulunbuir region to Liaoning province, (4) The state of transition of Turkic languages in Siberia through the pre- and post-Soviet times, (5) The Reification of nature and generation of Ethno-Cultural Capital in Post-Socialist Tuva, (6) The variety of leading characters' consciousnesses of the oral epics of Turkic peoples in Central Eurasia, (7) The real features of the domination of the Yuan Empire over the Goryeo Dynasty, (8) Ancient Bon religion and its transformation in ancient Tibet, (9) The relation between the expression of age in mongolian heroic epos and Qichong 七冲 concept in the art of divination (易学), (10) To modelize the process of harmonizing mongolian traditional and Buddhistic values as seen in the ancestral worship from the 19th century to the first half of the 20th century. (11) The catalog of a Mongolian and Turkic languages materials kept in the Hattori Collections of The University of Shimane was completed

  • The Study on Trading Structure of Ceramics in Innermost Asia

     View Summary

    We have studied for the purpose of clarify the actual situation of the trade ceramics with the area in Central Asia and in the former Southern Song dynasty. We set the investigation ground the Kharkhorum site which was a capital of Mongolia, and we reexamined ceramics which Russia Science Academy team excavated once and took pictures and the making of the drawings of the fragments, and published the two reports which attached English summary. Furthermore, we investigated Yuan blue and white porcelains discovered in Southeast Asia

  • Imperial Russia and the Emergence of "Northeast Asia" from the Viewpoint of International Relations

     View Summary

    This project traces changes in Imperial Russian foreign policy toward East Asia and Qing China, Japan and Korean responses to Russia from the mid 19^<th> century to 1917. Itinvestigated when and how the regional concept of "Northeast Asia" appeared on the world map. The project was implemented through field work at historical sites in the Qing-Russian border area and also by archival research in Russia, China, Korea, and European countries. Several international workshops discussing "Imperial Russia and Northeast Asia" were organized in Australia and Japan

  • Research in social and cultural Transformation in North and Northeast Asia-peoples who having the same roots and the "borders"-

     View Summary

    How did "the border" that was a political product force cultural and social transformation on the people who had the same origin lived in north and northeastern Asia? For example, we studied how was "the border" recognized among the Mongolians who strongly maintained identity. Besides, we studied how did the Mongolian transform in these areas sectioned by "the border"

  • Examination of relationship anti-Japanese movement and historical structure in North-east China

     View Summary

    Made clear points were as follows (1) Structure of the antagonistic relationship Chinese who moved to North-east China and Mongolian who were exposed to danger of the loss of their vested rights by moved Chinese. (2) Japan advocated preserving Mongolian's vested rights for competed with Chinese. (3) Feature of Anti-Japanese movements in North-east China had two faces which were not only using nationalism to compete with Japan but also cooperating for development of North-east China

  • A study on tribute and regulated trade from 14th to early 20th century and transformation of world order in East Asia

     View Summary

    This research dealing with tribute and trade in East Asia, Southeast Asia and Northeast Asia from 14th century to early 20th century aims to give clear understandings of tribute and trade system, and discusses the process of its transformation. We pointed out that the logical view advocated by Fairbank and Mancall assuming Canton trade as a part of the tribute system of Chinese Empire was inadequate and maintained that the formation of trade institutions with isolation and regulation in East Asia from 17th century should be regarded as important

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Presentations

  • The Eight Banner System and Ethnic Transformation in 17–19 c. Manchuria

    Akira Yanagisawa

    "Statecraft & Identity Creation in the Border Regions of the Qing" at 23rd Biennial Conference of European Association for Chinese Studies 

    Presentation date: 2021.08

    Event date:
    2021.08
     
     
  • 17-18世紀大興安嶺両麓人口遷徙趨勢

    柳澤 明  [Invited]

    内蒙古師範大学東北亜民族歴史文化研究院掲牌儀式曁“族際交流与文化互動”高峰論壇 

    Presentation date: 2019.12

    Event date:
    2019.12
     
     
  • The Eight Banners and "Domestic Mongols" in the Qing period

     [Invited]

    International Conference of the History and Culture of the Central Eurasia from the 13th to the 20th Centuries 

    Presentation date: 2019.11

    Event date:
    2019.11
     
     
  • 十八世紀黒龍江地区中俄貿易之変遷

    柳澤 明  [Invited]

    吉林師範大学第二次国際満学学術研討会 

    Presentation date: 2019.09

    Event date:
    2019.09
     
     
  • 「内旗」と「外旗」の境界を越えて─黒龍江の事例から─

    柳澤 明  [Invited]

    東北大学東北アジア研究センター研究会「清帝国におけるモビリティ再考:モンゴルの場合」 

    Presentation date: 2019.07

  • Population shifts and ethnic transformation of Non-Chinese groups in the 17-18 centuries Manchuria

    Akira Yanagisawa

    “Migration, Occupation, and Indigenous Identity in Early Modern Northeast China” in the Association for Asian Studies 2019 Annual Conference 

    Presentation date: 2019.03

    Event date:
    2019.03
     
     
  • Международный акт 1792 года как источник консульской юрисдикции

    Акира Янагисава  [Invited]

    Кяхта: история, наследие и современность  (Kyakhta)  ГАУК РБ «Кяхтинский краеведческий музей им. акадимика А. В. Обручева»

    Presentation date: 2018.09

  • Čing ulus bolun oros-un qarilčaүan-du qolbuүdaqu mongүul bičig

    Yanagisawa Akira  [Invited]

    Töb-ün ündüsten-ü yeke surүaүuli-yin qoyaduүar udaүan-u mongүul surbulǰi bičig sudulul-un olan ulus-un erdem sinǰilgen-ü qural  (Beijing)  Töb-ün ündüsten-ü yeke surүaүuli-yin mongүul kele udq-a ǰokiyal-un salburi

    Presentation date: 2017.11

  • 十八世紀土爾扈特部派往西蔵的三個使団

    柳澤 明  [Invited]

    International academic symposium "The changes of political developments of the Qing dynasty"  (Shanghai)  The Center of Historical Geographical Studies of Fudan University

    Presentation date: 2017.06

  • 清代中俄外交中満文所占的地位

    柳澤 明  [Invited]

    北京市社会科学院満学研究所学術講座  (Beijing)  北京市社会科学院満学研究所

    Presentation date: 2017.03

  • The three Kalmyk embassies to Tibet in 18th century and Qing's reaction to them

    Akira Yanagisawa

    The Nature of Inner- and East Asian Polities and Inter-polity Relations in the 18th and 19th centuries, focusing on Qing-Tibetan-Mongol relations; Perspectives from Contemporary Sources  (Tokyo)  Institute of Central Eurasian History and Culture, Waseda University, co-hosted by Kreddha

    Presentation date: 2017.03

  • 17~19世紀の露清外交と媒介言語

    柳澤 明  [Invited]

    人間文化研究機構「北東アジア地域研究推進事業」島根県立大学NEARセンター拠点プロジェクト「北東アジアにおける近代的空間の形成とその影響」第一回国際シンポジウム「北東アジア:胚胎期の諸相」  (Hamada)  the University of Shimane, Institute for North East Asian Research; National Institute for the Humanities

    Presentation date: 2016.11

  • 巴爾虎人的遷徙与姓氏

    柳澤 明  [Invited]

    中華人民共和国国家外国専家局重点引智項目“17-19世紀黒龍江流域民族文化変遷研究”外国専家学術講座  (Dalian)  Dalian Minzu University

    Presentation date: 2016.10

  • 関於清代察哈爾八旗的幾個問題

    柳澤 明  [Invited]

    内蒙古師範大学蒙古学学院学術講座  (Huhehaote)  Inner Mongolia Normal University, School of Mongolian Studies

    Presentation date: 2015.09

  • 「八旗」と「民族」の交差─清代旗人のアイデンティティ複合─

    柳澤 明  [Invited]

    東北大学東北アジア研究センター・共同研究「東北アジアにおける辺境地域社会再編と共生様態に関する歴史的・現在的研究」シンポジウム「越境の東北アジア:統治の動揺と地域流動化」  (Tokyo)  東北大学東北アジア研究センター

    Presentation date: 2015.03

  • 清朝の東北統治と奉天軍閥の形成

    柳澤 明  [Invited]

    科研・基盤研究[C]「現代中国の民族識別期における旗人の動向に関する研究」・基盤研究[A]「アフロ・ユ―ラシア内陸乾燥地文明の歴史生態人類学的研究」合同ワークショップ「軍閥と近代内モンゴル」  (Hikone)  The University of Shiga Prefecture

    Presentation date: 2015.02

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Specific Research

  • 清-ロシア関係史に関するロシアにおける研究史の総括と再検討

    2000  

     View Summary

     本研究の目的とするところは、特に18世紀の清-ロシア関係をめぐるロシア(ソ連)における研究史・研究動向を総括・再検討するための第一段階として、国内において可能な限りの情報を収集・分析することにあった。この目的を達成するため、具体的には次の3つの方面から作業を進めた。①Скачков、 П.Е. Очерки истории русского китаеведения (Москва、 1977) 、等の基本文献によって、ロシア(ソ連)の中国研究史を整理する;②既存の各種の文献目録等を基に、ロシアの中国研究に関するできるだけ総合的・網羅的な文献・資料の基礎リストを作成する;③関連文献を比較的多数所蔵する国内各機関について、②の基礎リストに基づく所蔵チェックを行うとともに、基礎リスト自体の補完も行う。以上のうち、②については、Скачков, П.Е. Библиография Китая (Москва-Ленинград、 1932);Tung-li Yuan、 Russian works on China 1918-1960 in American libraries(New Haven、 1961)等の目録のほか、研究代表者が1996年にモスクワのСинологическая библиотека(中国学図書館)における調査の際に作成した文献・資料リスト等を基に、逐次基礎リストを整備しつつあるが、現在のところ完成には至っていない。③については、早稲田大学中央図書館をはじめ、日本ロシア語情報図書館(東京都世田谷区)、北海道大学スラブ研究センター図書室等で調査を行ったほか、NACSIS-Webcat等のオンライン検索システムを通じての検索も実施し、データの充実に努めている。今後は、関連する概説書・研究書における引用・参照文献をもチェックして基礎リストをさらに充実させるとともに、より広範囲にわたる実地調査を進めた上、ある段階に達した時点で、上記①の作業に基づく適当な解題を付した上で公開する予定であるが、その方法としては、ホームページ等を活用することも考慮している。

  • 中国東北およびモンゴルにおける清朝の統治と民族集団の再形成の関係についての研究

    1998  

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    本研究は,申請者が従来から継続的に取り組んできた清朝統治下の中国東北における諸民族集団の再形成のプロセスの解明を,隣接するモンゴルの状況との比較をも視野に入れつつ,より全面的に進めることを目的とするものであった。そのため,計画通り1998年7月から8月にかけて中国に出張し,主として北京の中国第一歴史档案館において清朝中央政府の文書史料(档案)の調査を行った。 実際に閲覧・調査したのは,1)1680~90年代の「礼科史書」と「兵科史書」と,2)1720~30年代の「朱批奏摺」で,特に1)に重点をおいた。 これは,1680~90年代が,ロシア帝国およびジュンガル部の東進によって東北とモンゴルの諸民族の分布・帰属に大きな変動が見られた時期に当たり,現在に至る民族構成の基礎が形成される画期の1つであったの認識に基づく。「史書」とは中央・地方官が皇帝に提出した上奏文(題本)の副本であり,これまで十分な調査・研究が行われておらず,また当該時期の題本の原本が多く散逸している関係上,東北・モンゴルに関しても未知の情報を相当量含んでいると期待された。しかし,実際に閲覧してみると,予想以上に残欠がはなはだしく,系統的な情報を得ることはきわめて困難であった。 それでも,1)当該時期に清朝が東北とモンゴルにおいて実施した一連の軍事行動への在地諸民族の動員状況;2)戦乱を避けて各地に分散した諸民族の各グループの動向;等について,若干の新たな知見を得ることができた。なお,中国第一歴史档案館における調査以外に,北京では相当数の関連書籍を購入した。以上の調査によって得られた知見については,これをロシア語史料から得られる情報と対比させつつ,目下分析を進めているが,具体的な発表先は現時点では確定していない。

  • 清代東北における諸民族集団の再編に関する研究

    1997  

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    本研究は、中国東北地方の現在の諸民族集団の分布やエスニシティは、清朝による統治体制の展開の中で再形成された結果であるとの見通しを、具体的な資料に基づいて検証しようとするものである。こうした研究を進めるための一次資料としては、清代の中央・地方行政機関の文書(档案)のほか、日本支配期(「満州国」期)の調査報告・統計等も重要であるが、本研究では、これらのうち日本国内に所蔵されているものの収集・分析を行なった。実際に資料調査を行なった機関は、1)東京外国語大学アジア・アフリカ言語文化研究所、2)一橋大学附属図書館、3)一橋大学経済研究所である。うち1)においては、マイクロフィルムの形で所蔵されている『黒竜江将軍衙門档案』のうち、康煕29(1690)年~59(1720)年の部分の一部を閲覧し、多数の文書を複写した(ただし、研究者が同研究所共同研究員である関係で複写が無料となったため、支出実績には反映されていない)。また、2)、3)においては、主として満州国期の資料を収集した。資料が膨大であるため、分析はなお完了していないが、関係するいくつかの民族集団のうち、特に現在内蒙古自治区呼倫貝爾盟陳巴爾虎旗(清代においては同地域は黒竜江の所管)の主要人口を構成するホーチン=バルガ(陳巴爾虎)と呼ばれる人々の前身が、1690~94年に戦乱を避けてハルハ(現在のモンゴル国)から黒竜江地区に流入した後、清朝によって八旗制に組み込まれながら移住を繰り返す中で、次第に民族集団としての再形成を果たしていく過程が、具体的に明らかになりつつある。本研究の成果は、「ホーチン=バルガ(陳巴爾虎)の起源と変遷」(仮題)として『社会科学討究』第44巻2号に発表する予定であるが、今後中国に所蔵される関連資料を調査・収集する機会が得られれば、研究成果をさらに充実したものとしていくことができるであろう。

Overseas Activities

  • 近代モンゴルおよび中国東北(満州)における社会・文化変容

    2016.04
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    2016.09

    イギリス   ケンブリッジ大学

 

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