Updated on 2022/07/02

写真a

 
KAWAI, Takashi
 
Affiliation
Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Fundamental Science and Engineering
Job title
Professor
Profile
Takashi Kawai received Ph.D., M.A., B.A. in Human Sciences from Waseda University, in 1998, 1995, 1993. His professional positions are follows; 1998 - 2000 School of Human Sciences, Waseda University: Research Associate 2000 - 2002 Global Information and Telecommunication Institute, Waseda University: Assistant Professor 2002 - 2008 Graduate School of Global Information and Telecommunication Studies, Waseda University: Associate Professor 2008 - Present Department of Intermedia Art and Science, School of Fundamental Sciences and Engineering, Waseda University: Professor 2008 and 2016 Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki: Visiting Professor

Concurrent Post

  • Faculty of Science and Engineering   Graduate School of Fundamental Science and Engineering

  • Affiliated organization   Global Education Center

Research Institute

  • 2020
    -
    2022

    理工学術院総合研究所   兼任研究員

  • 2020
    -
    2022

    国際情報通信研究センター   兼任研究員

Degree

  • Waseda University   Ph.D. in Human Sciences

Professional Memberships

  •  
     
     

    The Virtual Reality Society of Japan

  •  
     
     

    The Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers

  •  
     
     

    Japan Ergonomics Society (JES)

  •  
     
     

    Stereoscopic Displays and Applications (SD&A)

  •  
     
     

    Advanced Imaging Society (AIS)

  •  
     
     

    International Ergonomics Association (IEA)

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Research Areas

  • Human interface and interaction

Research Interests

  • Ergonomics / Human Factors

Papers

  • Evaluation and estimation of discomfort by physiological indexes during continuous work with Mixed Reality systems (1)

    Takahashi Ryu, Suzuki Shion, Tsuchiya Kento, Hirose Masato, Yamashita Riku, Banchi Yoshihiro, Kawai Takashi

    The Japanese Journal of Ergonomics   57   1G2 - 2-1G2-2  2021

    DOI CiNii

  • Evaluation and estimation of discomfort by physiological indexes during continuous work with Mixed Reality systems (2)

    Banchi Yoshihiro, Suzuki Shion, Tsuchiya Kento, Hirose Masato, Takahashi Ryu, Yamashita Riku, Kawai Takashi

    The Japanese Journal of Ergonomics   57   1G2 - 3-1G2-3  2021

    DOI CiNii

  • Examination of ergonomic data augmentation technology using deep learning

    BANCHI Yoshihiro, TOMINO Nagakazu, YAMAGATA Tomohiro, KAWAI Takashi

    The Japanese Journal of Ergonomics   57   2G4 - 6-2G4-6  2021

    DOI CiNii

  • Psycho-physiological effects by game play using a mixed reality headset

    BANCHI Yoshihiro, KAWAI Takashi

    The Japanese Journal of Ergonomics   56   1D1 - 03-1D1-03  2020

    DOI CiNii

  • Estimation of motion sickness in automated vehicles using deep learning

    Kawai T., Banchi Y., Kashiwa T., Kuzu M., Takenaga T., Nakamura S., Yamashita R., Tsuchiya K.

    The Japanese Journal of Ergonomics   56   2E4 - 02-2E4-02  2020

    DOI CiNii

  • Analysis of body pressure distribution on car seats by using deep learning

    R. Mitsuya, K. Kato, N. Kou, T. Nakamura, K. Sugawara, H. Dobashi, T. Sugita, T. Kawai

    Applied Ergonomics   75   283 - 287  2019.02  [Refereed]

  • 1F3-7 Evaluation of automated driving experience using VR simulation

    KAWAI Takashi, IGARASHI Toshifumi, BANCHI Yoshihiro, MOCHIZUKI Kenta, TSUCHIYA Kento

    The Japanese Journal of Ergonomics   55   1F3 - 7-1F3-7  2019

    DOI CiNii

  • 1F3-5 A basic study on time evaluation during virtual reality experience

    BANCHI Yoshihiro, YOSHIKAWA Keisuke, KAWAI Takashi

    The Japanese Journal of Ergonomics   55   1F3 - 5-1F3-5  2019

    DOI CiNii

  • 1F3-4 Evaluation of user experience while viewing 180-degree images using a HMD

    YOSHIKAWA Keisuke, BANCHI Yoshihiro, KAWAI Takashi

    The Japanese Journal of Ergonomics   55   1F3 - 4-1F3-4  2019

    DOI CiNii

  • 1C1-1 Children Behavior in Preschool Education of Digital Media Content Usage (1): Part of Image Analysis

    KOBAYASHI Yuki, TAKENAGA Tsubasa, KAWAI Takashi, IKESHITA Hanae, SAITO Masanori, NANAMI Yoh

    The Japanese Journal of Ergonomics   55 ( 0 ) 1C1 - 1-1C1-1  2019

    DOI CiNii

  • 1C1-2 Children Behavior in Preschool Education of Digital Media Content Usage (2): Part of Text Mining Analysis

    TAKENAGA Tsubasa, KOBAYASHI Yuki, KAWAI Takashi, IKESHITA Hanae, SAITO Masanori, NANAMI Yoh

    The Japanese Journal of Ergonomics   55 ( 0 ) 1C1 - 2-1C1-2  2019

    DOI CiNii

  • Use of smartphone-based head-mounted display devices to view a three-dimensional dissection model in a virtual reality environment: Pilot questionnaire study

    Y. Masuoka, H. Morikawa, T. Kawai, T. Nakagohri

    JMIR Medical Education   5 ( 1 ) e11921 - e11921  2019.01  [Refereed]

  • The effect of the physical state of the body on illusory touch sensations in a virtual environment

    Y. Banchi, H. Morikawa, T. Kawai

    The Journal of The Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers   72 ( 11 ) J201 - J207  2018.11  [Refereed]

  • Weight sense representation using cross-modality in virtual reality

    Y. Hirao, R. Mitsuya, T. Kawai

    The Journal of The Virtual Realy Society of Japan   23 ( 4 ) 263 - 270  2018.11  [Refereed]

  • Augmented cross-modality: translating the physiological responses, knowledge and impression to audio-visual information in virtual reality

    Y. Hirao, T. Kawai

    Journal of Imaging Science and Technology   62 ( 2 ) 060402-1 - 060402-8  2018.11  [Refereed]

  • Time course of sickness symptoms with HMD viewing of 360-degree videos

    J. Häkkinen, F. Ohta, T. Kawai

    Journal of Imaging Science and Technology   62 ( 2 ) 060403-1 - 060403-11  2018.11  [Refereed]

  • Effects of chair swiveling on user experience during viewing 360-degree images using a head-mounted display

    Y. Banchi, K. Yoshikawa, T. Kawai

    The Journal of The Virtual Realy Society of Japan   23 ( 3 ) 217 - 227  2018.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    <p>The authors examined the effects of chair swiveling with the psycho-physiological effects of viewing short segments of 360° videos using a head-mounted display (HMD) in terms of the type of content. Twenty participants viewed 360° videos with varying features using an eye-tracking HMD consisting of a smartphone fitted in a case containing optics. Ten participants were seated on a swivel chair and the others on a fixed one. Objective indexes on gaze and body rotation and subjective indexes on simulator sickness, emotional reaction and immersion were measured. It was found that the features of content, especially camera motion, affect psychological effects like discomfort and observation behavior, and chair swiveling affects the behavior looking around, the reception of visual information and emotional response. It turns out that the rotating chair, which is easy to think that it supports the action the user sees, does not necessarily contribute to the user experience.</p>

    DOI CiNii

  • 1A4-2 Behavioral Analysis while viewing 360-degree images using a HMD (1)

    BANCHI Yoshihiro, YOSHIKAWA Keisuke, KAWAI Takashi

    The Japanese Journal of Ergonomics   54   1A4 - 2-1A4-2  2018

    DOI CiNii

  • 1A4-3 Behavioral analysis while viewing 360-degree images using a HMD (2)

    YOSHIKAWA Keisuke, BANCHI Yoshihiro, KAWAI Takashi

    The Japanese Journal of Ergonomics   54   1A4 - 3-1A4-3  2018

    DOI CiNii

  • Scalable Conversion and User Experience of Viewing Immersive Stereoscopic Images using a Smartphone

    Banchi Yoshihiro, Morikawa Hiroyuki, Kawai Takashi

    The Journal of The Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers   72 ( 11 ) J201 - J207  2018

    DOI CiNii

  • H2-3 A study on reduction of discomfort associated by viewpoint movement in Mixed Reality

    NAKAMURA Keisuke, SATO Hidema, WADA Kohei, KAWAI Takashi

    The Japanese journal of ergonomics   53 ( 1 ) S178 - S179  2017

    DOI CiNii

  • H2-2 A study on expression method in virtual object manipulation using Mixed Reality

    WADA Kohei, SATO Hidema, NAKAMURA Keisuke, MORIKAWA Hiroyuki, KAWAI Takashi

    The Japanese journal of ergonomics   53 ( 1 ) S176 - S177  2017

    DOI CiNii

  • The effects on visual attention and memory of partial binocular disparity in the 3D images

    S.H. Kim, H. Morikawa, R. Mitsuya, K, Watanabe,T. Kawai

    The Journal of The Virtual Realy Society of Japan   21 ( 4 ) 675 - 683  2016.12  [Refereed]

  • Effects of preference decision on parallax angles in stereoscopic images

    S.H. Kim, H. Morikawa, R. Mitsuya, K, Watanabe,T. Kawai

    The Journal of The Virtual Realy Society of Japan   21 ( 4 ) 657 - 664  2016.12  [Refereed]

  • The effect of the physical state of the body on illusory touch sensations in a virtual environment

    H. Morikawa, S.H. Kim, F. Ohta, K, Watanabe,T. Kawai

    The Journal of The Virtual Realy Society of Japan   21 ( 4 ) 617 - 625  2016.12  [Refereed]

  • Analysis of user behavior characteristics during viewing 360-degree images using a simple head-mounted display

    S. Tsukada, Y. Hasegawa, Y. Banchi, H. Morikawa, T. Kawai

    The Journal of The Virtual Realy Society of Japan   21 ( 4 ) 595 - 603  2016.12  [Refereed]

  • The effects of depth perception in disparity conditions on preference

    S.H. Kim, H. Morikawa, R. Mitsuya, K, Watanabe,T. Kawai

    Journal of Human Interface Society   18 ( 4 ) 329 - 337  2016.11  [Refereed]

  • Virtual reality and ergonomics

    T. Kawai

    Journal of Research Institute of Human Engineering for Quality Life   17 ( 2 ) 5 - 9  2016.09

  • 3D映画における奥行き感の演出が恐怖感情に及ぼす影響

    金 相賢, 盛川浩志, 河合隆史

    日本バーチャルリアリティ学会論文誌   21 ( 1 ) 121 - 129  2016.03  [Refereed]

  • 1F4-2 Analysis of user behavior during viewing 360-degree virtual reality images

    TSUKADA Shota, HASEGAWA Yusuke, BANCHI Yoshihiro, MORIKAWA Hiroyuki, KAWAI Takashi

    The Japanese Journal of Ergonomics   52   S240 - S241  2016

    DOI CiNii

  • 1F4-3 Scalability and user experience in viewing a simple head-mounted display using a smartphone

    BANCHI Yoshihiro, TSUKADA Shota, HASEGAWA Yusuke, MORIKAWA Hiroyuki, KAWAI Takashi

    The Japanese Journal of Ergonomics   52   S242 - S243  2016

    DOI CiNii

  • Evaluation of user experience in a stereoscopic video game

    R. Kato, T. Kawai, R. Mitsuya, S. Toyosawa, J. Takatalo, G. Nyman, J. Häkkinen

    The Journal of Game Amusement Society   4 ( 1 ) 33 - 40  2015.03  [Refereed]

  • Effect of inter lenses distance of simple HMD using a smartphone on fusional limit in stereo vision

    TAKAHASHI Suguru, BANCHI Yoshihiro, TSUKADA Shota, HASEGAWA Yusuke, MORIKAWA Hiroyuki, OHTA Keiji, KAWAI Takashi

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE ITE WINTER ANNUAL CONVENTION   2015   24B - 1  2015

     View Summary

    In this study investigated the effect of the frame design of a simple smartphone HMD on the stereoscopic visionand considered the design requirements for comfortable viewing environment. The results showed a trend that the fusionallimit becomes nearer in a simple HMD.

    DOI CiNii

  • 2C3-1 Effects on body sway viewing tilted 3D images using binocular disparity

    Kim Sanghyun, Ohta Fumiya, Kawai Takashi, Watanabe Katsumi, Seto Reiko, Fujita Yushi

    JES Ergonomics   51 ( 0 ) S488 - S491  2015

     View Summary

    This paper was intended to examined whether the body sway during viewing stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) tilted images was stable or not. Tilted 3D image was composed of directional information in which monocular disparity tilled by using a simple gradient depth map. Experiments were carried out to evaluate body sway using CG driving simulator in the five viewing conditions; left tilted 3D, right tilted 3D, forward tilted 3D, backward tilted 3D, and 2D condition. Standing twenty participants body sway was measured by using balance wii board while driving and judging on direction before trespassing the intersection. As a result, it was suggested that body sway was significantly increased to select same direction in left and right tilted image conditions.

    CiNii

  • 2F4-5 Functional disparity in stereoscopic images and the effects on route memory

    KAWAI Takashi, TAKAHASHI Michika, KIM Sanghyun, WATANABE Katsumi

    JES Ergonomics   51 ( 0 ) S336 - S337  2015

    CiNii

  • 2F4-2 Preference and visual characteristics of represented position of stereoscopic images

    HIRAGA Daiki, KIM Sanghyun, MORIKAWA Hiroyuki, MITSUYA Reiko, KAWAI Takashi, WATANABE Katsumi

    JES Ergonomics   51 ( 0 ) S330 - S331  2015

    CiNii

  • 2C5-3 Preference and visual characteristics of represented position of stereoscopic images

    HIRAGA Daiki, MATSUURA Kunto, KIM Sanghyun, MORIKAWA Hiroyuki, MITSUYA Reiko, KAWAI Takashi, WATANABE Katsumi

    JES Ergonomics   50 ( 0 ) S274 - S275  2014

    CiNii

  • Visual task performance using a monoclular see-through head-mounted display (HMD) while walking

    T. Mustonen, M. Berg, J. Kaistinen, T. Kawai, J. Hakkinen

    Journal of Experimental Psychology   19 ( 4 ) 333 - 344  2013.11  [Refereed]

  • Cross-modal Illusion of 'weak' tactile sensation using see-through HMD

    H. Morikawa, H. Iino, S.H. Kim, T. Kawai

    The Journal of The Virtual Realy Society of Japan   18 ( 2 ) 151 - 159  2013.06  [Refereed]

  • Human-centered Design for Ultra-realistic Experience

    KAWAI Takashi

    The Journal of the Institute of Television Engineers of Japan   67 ( 4 ) 286 - 288  2013.04

    DOI CiNii

  • 1S2-5 Disparity modification and the effects on emotional represeotation of stereoscopic images

    ATSUTA Daiki, TOMIYAMA Yuya, KIM Sanghyun, MORIKAWA Hiroshi, MITSUYA Reiko, KAWAI Takashi, HAKKINEN Jukka

    JES Ergonomics   49   S40 - S41  2013

    DOI CiNii

  • 2E1-2 Subjective evaluation of social presence sensations while avatar communications

    KITAMURA Shusuke, KIRIKI Takayuki, YOSHIMI Masato, Shinki Akihiro, MITSUYA Reiko, KAWAI Takashi, ASANO Junta, OKAMOTO Ryutaro

    JES Ergonomics   49   S388 - S389  2013

    DOI CiNii

  • 1G-1 Binocular Disparity and Emotional Evaluation of Horror in S3D Content

    Kim Sanghyun, Morikawa Hiroyuki, Mitsuya Reiko, Kawai Takashi, Häkkinen Jukka

    JES Ergonomics   49   S424 - S427  2013

    DOI CiNii

  • 2C4-3 Kansei evaluation method focusing on individual differences in preference for own avatar

    Tsunai Yumiko, Kitamura Shusuke, Mitsuya Reiko, Asano Junta, Okamoto Ryutaro, Kawai Takashi

    JES Ergonomics   49   S336 - S337  2013

    DOI CiNii

  • 1C3-4 Characteristic of tactile illusion using a see-through binocular head mounted display (1)

    MORlKAWA Hiroyuki, KIM Sanghyun, MITSUYA Reiko, KAWAl Takashi

    JES Ergonomics   49   S150 - S151  2013

    DOI CiNii

  • 2C4-1 Visual Impressions and Preference of Stereoscopic Images on 3D Mobile Devices

    SHIBATA Takashi, OSHIMA Keisuke, MUNEYUKI Fumiya, YOSHITAKE Junki, KAWAI Takashi

    JES Ergonomics   49   S332 - S333  2013

    DOI CiNii

  • 2C1-4 3DCG animations for surgical education of multi-organ harvesting from brain-dead donor

    Watanabe Kazuhito, Yuge Ayaka, Morikawa Hiroyuki, Kawai Takashi, Furukawa Hirioyuki

    JES Ergonomics   49   S320 - S321  2013

    DOI CiNii

  • 1C3-3 Characteristic of tactile illusion using a see-through binocular head mounted display (1)

    KAWAI Takashi, MORIKAWA Hiroyuki, KIM Sanghyun

    JES Ergonomics   49   S148 - S149  2013

    DOI CiNii

  • 11-3 Research on the Sitting Posture during Viewing 3DTV : Effect of Parallax Change on Sitting Posture

    KIKUCHI Keita, MITSUYA Reiko, TOMIYAMA Yuya, YAMAZOE Takashi, KAWAI Takashi

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE ITE ANNUAL CONVENTION   2013   11 - 3-1-_11-3-2_  2013

     View Summary

    Recently, with the development of the 3D technology, it is commonly used to see and hear 3D contents through 3-D TV and PC for a long time among at home. So we focused on the sitting posture and the parallax of 3D contents as fundamental researches about this and researched it. As a result, a correlation was seen in both sides.

    DOI CiNii

  • Effects of digital picture books on mental engagement in young children

    H. Ikeshita, S. Kiyono, T. Kawai, M. Kimura, S. Yoshida

    ICIC Express Letters   6 ( 12 ) 3021 - 3026  2012.12  [Refereed]

  • Differences in viewing history affect discomfort associated with stereoscopic video

    Satoshi Toyosawa, Takashi Kawai, Chin-Sen Chen, Ming-Hui Lin

    JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION DISPLAY   20 ( 8 ) 474 - 483  2012.08  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The relationship between differences in individuals' past experience viewing stereoscopic images and their discomfort associated with 3D video was examined. In the current study, 21 subjects were categorized as either inexperienced or experienced viewers of stereoscopic images (12 and 9 subjects, respectively). Two commercially available 3D movies with different depth and motion characteristics were presented to the subjects under two different viewing conditions. Eye discomfort, fatigue in parts of the body, and mental workload were measured. We found that experienced viewers were affected more from moderate depth video with less motion, perhaps because of their higher degree of attention toward subtler depth detail. Experienced viewers reported more severe fatigue in the upper parts of their bodies, which could be attributed to their body adjustments effected in an effort to optimally receive depth information. Inexperienced viewers were affected more by images with more depth and motion, a result perhaps of their initial excitement to experience the new technology. It was shown that particularly depth-emphasized segments demand higher mental workload from experienced viewers, but the effect is transient and not cumulative. It was found that differences between the two groups are exaggerated under the near viewing condition.

    DOI

  • Psycho-physiological evaluation by stereoscopic display systems in artifacts

    J. Yoshitake, S.H. Kim, H. Morikawa, R. Mitsuya, T. Kawai

    The Japanese journal of ergonomics   48 ( 4 ) 170 - 178  2012.08  [Refereed]

  • Changes in diurnal salivary cortisol secretion following cognitive-behavioral therapy in patients with panic disorder

    S. Izawa, N. Yoshida, L. Jaelin, M. Arie, T. Kawai, S. Nomura, D. Eames, M. Kaiya

    Japanese Journal of Behavioral Medicine   18 ( 1 ) 29 - 35  2012.08  [Refereed]

  • Electronic picture book and the effects on reading to children(1)

    Kiyono Sumire, Yamazoe Hanae, Kimura Miyuki, Yoshida Seiji, Kawai Takashi

    Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of Japan Ergonomics Society   48 ( 0 ) 442 - 443  2012

    DOI CiNii

  • Electronic Picture Book and the Effects on Reading to Children (2)

    Yamazoe Hanae, Kiyono Sumire, Kawai Takashi, Kimura Miyuki, Yoshida Seiji

    Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of Japan Ergonomics Society   48 ( 0 ) 444 - 445  2012

    DOI CiNii

  • Safe and Comfort Stereoscopic 3D Image Content Creation - Quality eXperience Design

    OHTA Keiji, KAWAI Takashi

    The Journal of the Institute of Television Engineers of Japan   65 ( 9 ) 1301 - 1303  2011.09

    DOI CiNii

  • Subjective evaluation of wide-viewing-angle stereoscopic contents in a dome theater

    H. Yoon, N. Abe, K. Ohta, T. Kawai, S. Suzuki

    Journal of Information Display   12 ( 3 ) 153 - 158  2011.08  [Refereed]

  • Ergonomic evaluation of stereoscopic content for a museum exhibition

    N. Abe, K. Ohta, T. Kawai, K. Ando, T. Kakinuma, K. Fujita, N. Kudo

    Journal of Information Display   12 ( 3 ) 159 - 165  2011.08  [Refereed]

  • Psycho-physiological effects of visual artifacts by stereoscopic display systems

    Sanghyun Kim, Junki Yoshitake, Hiroyuki Morikawa, Takashi Kawai, Osamu Yamada, Akihiko Iguchi

    STEREOSCOPIC DISPLAYS AND APPLICATIONS XXII   7863 ( 78631Q ) 1 - 11  2011

     View Summary

    The methods available for delivering stereoscopic (3D) display using glasses can be classified as time-multiplexing and spatial-multiplexing. With both methods, intrinsic visual artifacts result from the generation of the 3D image pair on a flat panel display device. In the case of the time-multiplexing method, an observer perceives three artifacts: flicker, the Mach-Dvorak effect, and a phantom array. These only occur under certain conditions, with flicker appearing in any conditions, the Mach-Dvorak effect during smooth pursuit eye movements (SPM), and a phantom array during saccadic eye movements (saccade). With spatial-multiplexing, the artifacts are temporal-parallax (due to the interlaced video signal), binocular rivalry, and reduced spatial resolution. These artifacts are considered one of the major impediments to the safety and comfort of 3D display users. In this study, the implications of the artifacts for the safety and comfort are evaluated by examining the psychological changes they cause through subjective symptoms of fatigue and the depth sensation. Physiological changes are also measured as objective responses based on analysis of heart and brain activation by visual artifacts. Further, to understand the characteristics of each artifact and the combined effects of the artifacts, four experimental conditions are developed and tested. The results show that perception of artifacts differs according to the visual environment and the display method. Furthermore visual fatigue and the depth sensation are influenced by the individual characteristics of each artifact. Similarly, heart rate variability and regional cerebral oxygenation changes by perception of artifacts in conditions.

    DOI

  • Psycho-physiological effects of head-mounted displays in ubiquitous use

    Kawai Takashi, Hakkinen Jukka, Oshima Keisuke, Saito Hiroko, Yamazoe Takashi, Morikawa Hiroyuki, Nyman Gote

    MULTIMEDIA ON MOBILE DEVICES 2011 AND MULTIMEDIA CONTENT ACCESS: ALGORITHMS AND SYSTEMS V   7881  2011  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • Character structures recognition using stereoscopic devices based on stroke order for literacy learning

    H. Yamazoe, T. Kawai, M. Miyao

    The Journal of The Institute of Erectronics, Information and Communication Engineers   94 ( 1 ) 242 - 250  2011.01  [Refereed]

  • User Experience in 3D Stereoscopic Games

    Jari Takatalo, Takashi Kawai, Jyrki Kaistinen, Gote Nyman, Jukka Hakkinen

    MEDIA PSYCHOLOGY   14 ( 4 ) 387 - 414  2011  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    New display technologies, such as 3D stereoscopic displays, provide opportunities to enhance the user experience (UK) in digital games. A widely-held belief is "the more stereo, the better experience." The purpose of this study is to examine this belief and evaluate the added value of 3D stereo to the UX in games. Stereo separation in a display was varied, and a multidimensional UX was measured using a psychological Presence-Involvement-Flow Framework(2) (PIFF2) in a between-subjects design. The PIFF2 findings were further supported by both qualitative and objective measures. Users' descriptions of the game were included as well as adverse symptoms, open-ended negative aspects of 3D stereo, basic eye physiology, objective performance metrics, and fundamental background variables. This hybrid qualitative-quantitative methodology shows that more stereo does not lead to better UX. It was shown that a moderate level of stereo separation affected the UX most by increasing the sense of presence among the users. These results deepen the previous findings in investigating the stereo effect in different media. The advantage of using multidimensional measures to evaluate UX, the added value of 3D stereo, and the practical implications of the results are further discussed.

    DOI

  • Scalable 3D image conversion of stereoscopic images for safety and comfort

    Shinsuke Kishi, Sanghyun Kim, Takashi Shibata, Kawai Takashi, Jukka Häkkinen, Jari Takatalo, Göte Nyman

    Kyokai Joho Imeji Zasshi/Journal of the Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers   64 ( 12 ) 1912 - 1920  2010.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Since 3D display methods and viewing environments vary widely, high-quality content is expected to become multi-purpose. Meanwhile, there is increasing interest in the bio-medical effects of various types of image content and there are moves toward international standardization, so safety and comfort need to be considered in 3D content production. The aim of the authors' research is to contribute to the production and application of 3D content that is safe and comfortable. In this paper, the authors focus on the process of changing the screen size, examining a scalable 3D conversion algorithm and evaluating its effectiveness. The authors evaluated the visual load imposed during the viewing of various 3D contents converted by the prototype algorithm by comparing them with ideal conditions and with content expanded without conversion. To examine the effects of screen size reduction on viewers, changes in user impression and experience were elucidated using an evaluation grid method.

    DOI

  • Improved Visibility of Monocular Head-Mounted Displays Through the Bright Control of Backlighting

    Takashi Yamazoe, Shinsuke Kishi, Takashi Shibata, Takashi Kawai

    JOURNAL OF DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY   6 ( 9 ) 367 - 373  2010.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Monocular head-mounted displays (HMDs) will be a major tool for ubiquitous computing. However, monocular HMD visibility causes a decrease in the light received from the environment. Fluctuating light from the environment strongly affects the visibility of images presented on the monocular HMD. In the present study, we have studied a method for controlling HMD backlighting to improve visibility at the wearing a monocular HMD under variable lighting conditions. Three backlight control patterns were developed from Experiment I as psychophysical measurements, and their validities were subjectively evaluated in Experiment II. The results suggest increased visibilities at wearing a monocular HMD when controlling the backlight. Moreover, the rules for backlighting control are based on psychophysical theory.

    DOI

  • Construction and evaluation of a virtual heritage with human model distribution

    H.Y. Yoon, N. Abe, T. Kawai, T. Inoue, E. Andaroodi, M-R, Matini, K. Ono

    The Journal of The Virtual Realy Society of Japan   15 ( 2 ) 203 - 212  2010.06  [Refereed]

  • Evaluation of microflow experiences induced while playing video games

    R. Kato, T. Kawai, K. Nihei, T. Sato, H. Yamagata, Y. Tashiro, T. Yamazaki

    Journal of Digital Games Research   4 ( 1 ) 59 - 67  2010.03  [Refereed]

  • Ergonomic evaluations and serious applications of digital content

    T. Kawai

    Psychiatria et Neurologia Pediatrica Japonica   50 ( 1 ) 17 - 24  2010.03  [Invited]

  • Ergonomic evaluation of ubiquitous computing with monocular head-mounted display

    Kawai Takashi, Hakkinen Jukka, Yamazoe Takashi, Saito Hiroko, Kishi Shinsuke, Morikawa Hiroyuki, Mustonen Terhi, Kaistinen Jyrki, Nyman Gote

    MULTIMEDIA ON MOBILE DEVICES 2010   7542  2010  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • Removal of organism noise in near-infrared spectroscopy signal by time series analysis

    R. Mitsuya, H. Morikawa, S. Kurihara, T. Kawai, Y. Tamura

    Journal of Human Interface Society   11 ( 2 ) 163 - 172  2009.05  [Refereed]

  • Digital archiving of Maijishan grotto and stereoscopic VR content

    N. Abe, T. Kawai, J. Ohya, Z. Hongbin, M. Ando

    Journal of The Virtual Reality Society of Japan   14 ( 3 ) 275 - 282  2009.03  [Refereed]

  • The effect of using stereoscopy in a literacy learning system for children with developmental dyslexia

    H. Yamazoe, R. Mitsuya, T. Kawai, T. Sato, H, Yamagata,T, Yamazaki, M. Miyao

    Journal of Japan Society for Educational Technology   32 ( 4 ) 417 - 424  2009.02  [Refereed]

  • LCD backlight control for visibility of monocular head-mounted displays

    Takashi Yamazoe, Shinsuke Kishi, Takashi Shibata, Takashi Kawai

        1 - 5  2009  [Refereed]

  • メタバースを活用した立体映像コンテンツの制作

    柴田隆史, 李在麟, 黄盛俊, 河合隆史

    映像情報メディア学会誌   63 ( 12 ) 184 - 188  2009  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • A video abstraction method based on viewer's heart activity and its evaluations

    Satoshi Toyosawa, Takashi Kawai

    Kyokai Joho Imeji Zasshi/Journal of the Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers   63 ( 1 ) 86 - 94  2009  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In video abstraction, viewer's emotional reactions to original video play an important role because people often choose what to watch based on the emotional context. We have devised a method for incorporating viewer's perceived impressions in video abstraction. The impression level is measured by the degree of arousal, based on two measures of heart activity: deceleration of heart rate and activation of the higher frequency component of the heart rate variability. For an evaluation of our method, we performed two sets of experiments comparing the abstracts generated by our method against subjective selections. Three short videos with different arousal levels (two arousing and one calm) were used. In Experiment 1, shot matching between two abstracts was examined: the arousing videos showed a 50% match, while the calm one showed a 30% match. In Experiment 2, the abstracts were displayed to the subjects, which they evaluated subjectively: our method generated good results in the arousing/pleasant video.

    DOI

  • Time series evaluation of visual fatigue and depth sensation using a stereoscopic display

    Sanghyun Kim, Shinsuke Kishi, Takashi Kawai, Toyohiko Hatada

    Journal of Information Display   10 ( 4 ) 188 - 194  2009  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Conventional stereoscopic (3D) displays using binocular parallax generate unnatural conflicts between convergence and accommodation. These conflicts can affect the observer's ability to fuse binocular images and may cause visual fatigue. In this study, time series changes in visual fatigue and depth sensation when viewing stereoscopic images with changing parallax were examined. In particular, the physiological changes, including the subjective symptoms of visual fatigue, when viewing five parallax conditions, were examined. Then a comparative analysis of the 2D and 3D conditions was performed based on the visual function. To obtain data regarding the visual function, the time series changes in the spontaneous-blinking rate before and during the viewing of 3D images were measured. The time series change results suggest that 2D and 3D images cause significantly different types of visual fatigue over the range of binocular disparity. © 2009 Taylor &amp
    Francis Group, LLC.

    DOI

  • Effects of stereoscopic 3-D images with optical correction on asthenopia recovery

    T. Shibata, T. Kawai, L. Jae-Lin, S.H. Kim, M. Otsuki, N. Miyake, Y. Yoshihara,T. Iwasaki

    The Japanese journal of ergonomics   44 ( 6 ) 341 - 348  2008.12  [Refereed]

  • Measurement of brain activation using NIRS for evaluation of body image induction by cross-modal stimulation

    H. Morikawa, T. Kawai

    Journal of Human Interface Society   10 ( 2 ) 191 - 198  2008.05  [Refereed]

  • 3DCG Reconstitution and Virtual Reality of UNESCO World Heritage in Danger: the Citadel of Bam

    K. Ono, E, Andaroodi, A. Einfar, N. Abe, M.R. Matini, O. Bouet, F. Chopin, T. Kawai, A. Kitamoto, A. Ito, E. Mokhtari, S. Einfar, S.M. Beheshti, C. Adle

    Progress in Informatics   5   99 - 136  2008.03  [Refereed]

  • Ergonomic evaluation of portable video games

    R. Kato, T. Kawai, H. Ikeshita, K. Nihei, T. Sato, H. Yamagata, Y. Tashiro, T. Yamazaki

    Journal of Digital Games Research   2 ( 1 ) 67 - 75  2008.03  [Refereed]

  • Ergonomic evaluation of a field-sequential colour projection system

    Sang-Hyun Kim, Takashi Shibata, Takashi Kawai, Kazuhiko Ukai

    DISPLAYS   29 ( 2 ) 132 - 137  2008.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    A field-sequential colour projection system can display colour images using a single panel. Such a system, however, produces characteristic trichromatic separation, or "colour breakup". Colour breakup is the perceived splitting of the white portions of an image into its red, green, and blue components when the image is projected with the colour sequential method and the viewer's eyes are moving rapidly. Viewing images containing colour breakup may cause visual fatigue and other symptoms of asthenopia. In this study, the authors examine the various subjective symptoms of asthenopia that can be caused by colour breakup. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • 5-7 Evaluation of stereoscopic image quality for mobile devices using IBQ methodology

    KURIHARA Shunsuke, SHIBATA Takashi, KAWAI Takashi, TAKAHASHI Tsuyoshi, SHIMIZU Tomoyuki, KAWADA Ryoichi, ITO Atsushi

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE ITE ANNUAL CONVENTION   2008   _5 - 7-1_-_5-7-2_  2008

     View Summary

    In this study, the authors evaluated stereoscopic image quality for mobile devices using IBQ (Interpretation-based quality) methodology. In the experiment, paired comparisons and interviews were integrated for understanding user experience under various viewing conditions. This paper describes the results of the experiment and discusses the characteristics in the mobile stereoscopic imaging.

    DOI CiNii

  • Scalable 3D image conversion and ergonomic evaluation

    Shinsuke Kishi, Sang Hyun Kim, Takashi Shibata, Takashi Kawai, Jukka Hakkinen, Jari Takatalo, Gote Nyman

    STEREOSCOPIC DISPLAYS AND APPLICATIONS XIX   6803  2008  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Digital 3D cinema has recently become popular and a number of high-quality 3D films have been produced. However, in contrast with advances in 3D display technology, it has been pointed out that there is a lack of suitable 3D content and content creators. Since 3D display methods and viewing environments vary widely, there is expectation that high-quality content will be multi-purposed. On the other hand, there is increasing interest in the bio-medical effects of image content of various types and there are moves toward international standardization, so 3D content production needs to take into consideration safety and conformity with international guidelines. The aim of the authors' research is to contribute to the production and application of 3D content that is safe and comfortable to watch by developing a scalable 3D conversion technology. In this paper, the authors focus on the process of changing the screen size, examining a conversion algorithm and its effectiveness. The authors evaluated the visual load imposed during the viewing of various 3D content converted by the prototype algorithm as compared with ideal conditions and with content expanded without conversion. Sheffe's paired comparison method was used for evaluation. To examine the effects of screen size reduction on viewers, changes in user impression and experience were elucidated using the IBQ methodology. The results of the evaluation are presented along with a discussion of the effectiveness and potential of the developed scalable 3D conversion algorithm and future research tasks.

  • Effects of changing image size on depth perception using a floating 3-D display

    Takashi Shibata, Takashi Yamazoe, Takashi Kawai, Hidenori Kuribayashi, Toyohiko Hatada, Isao Tomisawa, Masaru Ishikawa

    2008 SID INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM, DIGEST OF TECHNICAL PAPERS, VOL XXXIX, BOOKS I-III   39   1339 - +  2008  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    A floating-image display produces 3-D effects using a lens system that makes an image appear to float in the air. The authors examine the effects on depth perception and asthenopia of viewing a floating image that continuously changes in size. The results of the experiments suggest that viewers perceive the floating image to be moving back and forth as the image size changes despite the Act that the image's actual position does not change. Monocular depth cues, especially changes in size, enhanced the 3-D effects of images presented on the floating-image display.

  • 光学補正方式立体ディスプレイによる立体映像表現

    柴田隆史, 河合隆史

    画像ラボ   19 ( 7 ) 11 - 16  2008  [Invited]

  • A video digest generation method based on heart-rate-variability

    S. Toyosawa, T. Kawai

    Journal of Human Interface Society   9 ( 2 ) 243 - 250  2007.05  [Refereed]

  • A development of the virtual reality contents for the treatment of subway panic disorder

    L. Jaelin, K. Ohta, T. Kawai, N. Yoshida, S. Izawa, S. Nomura, E. Douglas, M. Yamasaki, H. Kaiya

    Journal of The Virtual Reality Society of Japan   12 ( 1 ) 57 - 65  2007.04  [Refereed]

  • Reducing binocular rivalry in the use of monocular head-mounted display

    Takashi Yamazoe, Shinsuke Kishi, Takashi Shibata, Takashi Kawai, Masaki Otsuki

    JOURNAL OF DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY   3 ( 1 ) 83 - 88  2007.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Monocular head-mounted displays (HMDs) can be used with wearable computers. However, such displays can cause binocular rivalry, a phenomenon in which the left and right images alternate, and is unstable. Binocular rivalry, when using HMD, causes the image of the environment to alternate with the HMD image, or even the total loss of perception of the image from the HMD. Binocular rivalry can occur with displays of any resolution. In this study, we used optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) to reduce binocular rivalry. A special stimulus synchronized to the occurrence of binocular rivalry was used to trigger OKN. The subject was asked to observe a visual stimulus and press a trigger button whenever binocular rivalry occurred. This initiated the presentation of a specific spatial frequency stimulus that broke up the rivalry. Electro-oculogram (EOG) electrodes recorded the observer's possible loss of perception of the HMD image, helping to confirm the occurrence of binocular rivalry. Sixteen subjects participated in the experiments. The results indicate that synchronizing special stimuli to the viewers' responses in order to induce OKN can reduce binocular rivalry.

    DOI

  • Ergonomic approaches to content creation for 3D displays

    Takashi Kawai, Shinsuke Kishi, Sang Hyun Kim, Takashi Yamazoe, Takashi Shibata, Tetsuri Inoue, Yusuke Sakaguchi, Kazushige Okabe, Kuno Yasuhiro

    Journal of Information Display   8 ( 1 ) 26 - 31  2007  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper presents ergonomic approaches to editing and evaluating content for 3D displays. Two systems, a nonlinear editing system and an evaluation system, were developed to improve viewing safety and comfort for 3D content observ ers and provide better usability for the creators from the viewpoint of ergonomics. © 2007 Taylor &amp
    Francis Group, LLC.

    DOI

  • Eye movement on a projector using field sequential color projection system

    Sang-Hyun Kim, Takashi Shibata, Takashi Kawai, Kazuhiko Ukai

    Kyokai Joho Imeji Zasshi/Journal of the Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers   61 ( 12 ) 1742 - 1749  2007  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    A field-sequential color projection system displays color images using a single panel and a color filter wheel. The wheel spins very rapidly, and creates a sequence of red, green, blue, and white images that combine to create a single full-color image. Although the use of a single panel can reduce both projector size and costs, the field-sequential color projection mechanism causes the observer to perceive trichromatic separation during times of rapid eye movement. This phenomenon is called "color breakup". We examine the characteristics of saccadic eye movement, which result from viewing images containing color breakup. We describe two experiments that were conducted to examine the effects of color breakup as manifested through the ergonomic indices of eye movement and the subjective symptoms of asthenopia.

    DOI

  • Study of cross modality stimulation for safety-education VR contents

    H. Morikawa, T. Kawai, M. Munekata, A. Tanabe, F. Saito, M. Nonaka

    Journal of The Virtual Reality Society of Japan   11 ( 4 ) 479 - 485  2006.12  [Refereed]

  • Measuring spatial distribution of visual attention in action video game

    K. Yokoi, K, Watanabe,R. Kato, T. Kawai, T. Sato, T, Yamazaki, H. Yamagata

    Kansei Engineering International   6 ( 2 ) 13 - 18  2006.11  [Refereed]

  • Presence display system utilizing human body information

    T. Kawai

    Japan Society of Biofeedback Research   32   2 - 8  2006.04  [Invited]

  • 19-5 Subjective Evaluation on Heart-Rate-Variability Based video Digests

    Toyosawa Satoshi, Kawai Takashi

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE ITE ANNUAL CONVENTION   2006   _19 - 5-1_-_19-5-2_  2006

     View Summary

    Two types of video digests are created based on viewer's HRV (Heart Rate Variability) and are subjectively evaluated. The experiments had shown that the digest from an assemblage of shots with viewer's lower cognitive load (less LF component) yielded coherent, easier to grasp video than that of the higher-load scenes' assemblage.

    DOI CiNii

  • Video Game Playling Styles in Children with Developmental Disorder

    Ikeshita Hanae, Kato Ryo, Kawai Takashi, Sato Tadashi, Yamagata Hitoshi, Yamazaki Takashi, Miyao Masutomo

    Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of Japan Ergonomics Society   42 ( 0 ) 200 - 201  2006

    DOI CiNii

  • Ergonomic evaluation system for stereoscopic video production - art. no. 60551B

    T. Kawai, S. Kishi, T. Yamazoe, T. Shibata, T. Inoue, Y. Sakaguchi, K. Okabe, Y. Kuno, T. Kawamoto

    Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XIII   6055   B551 - B551  2006  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper describes the trial development of an ergonomic evaluation system for stereoscopic video production. The purpose of the system is to quantify the parallax distribution of stereoscopic images and evaluate their viewing safety and comfort. The authors processed the images to extract the optical flow between the right and left images. The reference values for safety and comfort were obtained from two subjective evaluation and precedent studies. This paper reports the results of the experiments and the development of a prototype evaluation system.

  • Evaluation of stereoscopic medical video content on an autostereoscopic display for undergraduate medical education

    Ilgner Justus, Kawai Takashi, Shibata Takashi, Yamazoe Takashi, Westhofen Martin

    STEREOSCOPIC DISPLAYS AND VIRTUAL REALITY SYSTEMS XIII   6055  2006  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • An ergonomic evaluation system for stereoscopic 3-D images

    Shinsuke Kishi, Takashi Yamazoe, Takashi Shibata, Takashi Kawai, Tetsuri Inoue, Yusuke Sakaguchi, Kazushige Okabe, Yasuhiro Kuno

    Kyokai Joho Imeji Zasshi/Journal of the Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers   60 ( 6 ) 934 - 942  2006  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The experimental production of an ergonomic evaluation system for stereoscopic 3-D images is described. The purpose of the system is to quantify the depth sensation of 3-D images and to evaluate them. Image processing was applied to compute the optical flow between right and left videos. The functionality of the system was examined by referring to previous reports and by conducting two experiments. The results of the improvement and the validity of the system in terms of 3-D image creation are reported.

    DOI

  • Visual Fatigue in Congenital Nystagmus Caused by Viewing Images of Color Sequential Projectors

    Masaki Ogata, Kazuhiko Ukai, Takashi Kawai

    JOURNAL OF DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY   1 ( 2 ) 314 - 320  2005.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Color breakup is the perceived splitting of the white portions of an image into its red, green, and blue components when the image is projected with the color sequential method and the viewer is moving his or her eyes. This study aims to evaluate how color breakup affects symptoms of visual fatigue in people with congenital nystagmus. The eyes of people with congenital nystagmus continuously oscillate leading to color breakup without pause. One in every 1 500 persons is afflicted with congenital nystagmus. Many sufferers have almost no symptoms in daily life except for a mild deterioration of visual acuity. Five subjects with congenital nystagmus were shown a 15-min portion of a movie projected with three video projectors (one liquid cyrstal display (LCD) projector and two single-chip digital light processing (DLP) projectors). They were subjectively evaluated both pre- and post-viewing with a questionnaire listing visual fatigue symptoms. One subject was tested in an additional experiment using six more projectors. Results indicated that subjects with congenital nystagmus felt severe visual fatigue after they viewed images produced by color sequential projectors. Mechanism of the cause of visual fatigue is not clear in general and in color breakup in congenital nystagmus, however, it was clear that people with nystagmus felt continuing color breakup as a flickering image. Flickering light is a major cause of visual fatigue. Color sequential projectors are best avoided in public settings, such as classrooms, lecture theaters and conference sites.

    DOI

  • Stereoscopic 3-D display with optical correction for the reduction of the discrepancy between accommodation and convergence

    T. Shibata, T. Kawai, K. Ohta, M. Otsuki, N. Miyake, Y. Yoshihara,T. Iwasaki

    Journal of the Society of Information Display   13 ( 8 ) 665 - 671  2005.05  [Refereed]

  • Improvement of vergence-accommodation mismatch by stereoscopic 3D display system using optical correction

    T. Kawai

    VISION   17 ( 2 ) 123 - 129  2005.04  [Invited]

  • Effects of videogames on mood states

    Kato Ryo, Ikesita Hanae, Kawai Takashi, Sakai Shigekazu, Sato Tadashi, Yamazaki Takashi, Yamagata Hitoshi, Arima Toshio

    Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of Japan Ergonomics Society   41 ( 0 ) 252 - 253  2005

    DOI CiNii

  • Crowdedness estimation in public pedestrian space for pedestrian guidance

    S Toyosawa, T Kawai

    2005 IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference (ITSC)     137 - 142  2005  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    A degree of crowdedness in public pedestrian space is obtained from sequences of greyscale images and still colour images in order to provide a route selection hint to pedestrians. Two measures are employed: amount of motion and colour entropy, and they are used selectively depending on the nature of target space. The pedestrian space is categorised into two: smooth and stagnated. The smooth space urges pedestrians to flow smoothly without pausing, while the stagnated space invites pedestrians to pause for socialising. A degree of stagnation, obtained from accumulated differentiated images, is used to distinguish these two types of space. The amount of motion and the colour entropy are compared against human's sense of crowdedness for evaluation. The experiments have shown that the amount of motion represents the smooth space's crowdedness well, while the colour entropy is suitable for evaluating the stagnated space. It has also shown tendency of significance between the degree of stagnation and the types of space.

  • Stereoscopic 3-D display with dynamic optical correction for recovering from asthenopia

    T Shibata, T Kawai, M Otsuki, N Miyake, Y Yoshihara, T Iwasaki

    Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XII   5664   1 - 9  2005  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study was to consider a practical application of a newly developed stereoscopic 3-D display that solves the problem of discrepancy between accommodation and convergence. The display uses dynamic optical correction to reduce the discrepancy, and can present images as if they are actually remote objects. The authors thought the display may assist in recovery from asthenopia, which is often caused when the eyes focus on a nearby object for a long time, such as in VDT (Visual Display Terminal) work. In general, recovery from asthenopia, and especially accommodative asthenopia, is achieved by focusing on distant objects. In order to verify this hypothesis, the authors performed visual acuity tests using Landolt rings before and after presenting stereoscopic 3-D images., and evaluated the degree of recovery from asthenopia. The experiment led to three main conclusions:
    (1) Visual acuity rose after viewing stereoscopic 3-D images on the developed display.
    (2) Recovery from asthenopia was particularly effective for the dominant eye in comparison with the other eye.
    (3) Interviews with the subjects indicated that the Landolt rings were particularly clear after viewing the stereoscopic 3-D images.

  • Examination on stereoscopic representation with accommodation

    K. Ohta, T. Shibata, T. Kawai, M. Otsuki, N. Miyake, Y. Yoshihara, T. Iwasaki

    IDW/AD '05: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 12TH INTERNATIONAL DISPLAY WORKSHOPS IN CONJUNCTION WITH ASIA DISPLAY 2005, VOLS 1 AND 2     1735 - 1738  2005  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We have developed a stereoscopic 3-D display system with dynamic optical correction that reduces the optical discrepancy. The contents of this system allows various camera controls in virtual space to produce different impressions. This is accomplished by means of a customized VR authoring tool attached to the system. We examined camera control patterns in VR space and effective expression techniques using this system. The results show that various camera control patterns significantly affect the Subject's impression of the images.

  • A method for reducing asthenopia by using stereoscopic 3-D images

    Keiji Ohta, Takashi Kawai, Takashi Shibata, Tsuneto Iwasaki, Nobuyuki Miyake

    Kyokai Joho Imeji Zasshi/Journal of the Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers   59 ( 10 ) 1534 - 1540  2005  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We developed a prototype system to reduce asthenopia by using stereoscopic 3-D images that moved in depth direction, and evaluated the effects of the system. Accommodative step response time, profiles of mood states and refractions were measured as indexes for examining the subject's visual fatigue. In young subjects, the accommodative relaxation time tended to be shortened by watching the images. This tendency indicates that the ciliary muscle quickly relaxed. In contrast, we observed an increase of accommodation in some aged subjects while they viewed the images. These results suggest that the work of the ciliary muscle is activated by observing the images. Our results suggest the possibility that viewing stereoscopic 3-D images can reduce asthenopia.

    DOI

  • Evaluation of 3D motion sickness induced by videogames

    K. Ohta, T. Kawai, Y. Ebine, R. Yamaguchi

    Journal of The Virtual Reality Society of Japan   9 ( 4 ) 343 - 351  2004.12  [Refereed]

  • 強化現実技術を応用した立体ディスプレイシステムの開発

    盛川浩志, 川口真実, 河合隆史, 大谷淳

    日本人間工学会誌   第40巻特別号   372 - 373  2004.06

    DOI

  • Improvement of the mismatch of visual information by the stereoscopic 3-D display system using mono-focal lens

    T. Shibata, T. Kawai, K. Ohta, Y. Yoshihara,T. Inoue, T. Iwasaki, N. Terashima

    The Japanese journal of ergonomics   40 ( 2 ) 99 - 106  2004.04  [Refereed]

  • 3-8 Crowd congestion evaluation in public space from interframe images

    Toyosawa Satoshi, Kawai Takashi

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE ITE ANNUAL CONVENTION   2004   _3 - 8-1_-_3-8-2_  2004

     View Summary

    We utilised interframe differencing as a measure for crowdedness. As talking aloud in crowded space is perceived as socially questionable behaviour, this "awareness" information would help mobile users to avoid unnecessary annoyance to others. To this end, we evaluated the correlation between differential images and sense of crowdedness, and found the measure was useful.

    DOI CiNii

  • Production and evaluation of stereoscopic video presentation in surgical training

    J Ilgner, T Kawai, M Westhofen, T Shibata

    STEREOSCOPIC DISPLAYS AND VIRTUAL REALITY SYSTEMS XI   5291   293 - 302  2004  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Stereoscopic video teaching can facilitate understanding for current minimally-invasive operative techniques. This project was created to set up a digital stereoscopic teaching environment for training of ENT residents and medical students. We recorded three ENT operative procedures (tympanoplasty, paranasal sinus operation and laser chordectomy) at the University Hospital Aachen. The material was edited stereoscopically at the Waseda University and converted into a streaming 3-D video format, which does not depend on PAL or NTSC signal standards. Video clips were evaluated by 5 ENT specialists and 11 residents in single sessions on an LCD monitor (8) and a CRT monitor (8). Emphasis was laid on depth perception, visual fatigue and time to achieve stereoscopic impression. Qualitative results were recorded on a visual analogue scale, ranging from I (excellent) to 5 (bad). The overall impression was rated 2,06 to 3,13 in the LCD group and 2,0 to 2,62 in the CRT group. The depth impression was rated 1,63 to 2,88 (LCD) and 1,63 to 2,25 (CRT). Stereoscopic video teaching was regarded as useful in ENT training by all participants. Further points for evaluation will be the quantification of depth information as well as the information gain in teaching junior colleagues.

  • Development of a stereoscopic 3D display system to observe restored heritage

    H Morikawa, M Kawaguchi, T Kawai, J Ohya

    STEREOSCOPIC DISPLAYS AND VIRTUAL REALITY SYSTEMS XI   5291   415 - 422  2004  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The authors have developed a binocular-type display system that allows digital archives of cultural assets to be viewed in their actual environment. The system is designed for installation in locations where such cultural assets were originally present. The viewer sees buildings and other heritage items as they existed historically by looking through the binoculars. Images of the cultural assets are reproduced by stereoscopic 3D CG in cyberspace, and the images are superimposed on actual images in real-time. This system consists of stereoscopic CCD cameras that capture a stereo view of the landscape and LCDs for presentation to the viewer. Virtual cameras. used to render CG images from digital archives. move in synchrony with the actual cameras, so the relative position of the CG images and the landscape on which they are superimposed is always fixed. The system has manual controls for digital zoom. Furthermore, the transparency of the CG images can be altered by the viewer. As a case study for the effectiveness of this system, the authors chose the Heijyoukyou ruins in Nara, Japan. The authors evaluate the sense of immersion, stereoscopic effect, and usability of the system.

  • Examination of a stereoscopic 3-D display system using a correction lens

    T Kawai, T Shibata, K Ohta, Y Yoshihara, T Inoue, T Iwasaki

    STEREOSCOPIC DISPLAYS AND VIRTUAL REALITY SYSTEMS X   5006   254 - 262  2003  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper describes an examination of a stereoscopic 3-D display system using a correction lens. The purpose of the system is to reduce the accommodation and convergence difference during viewing stereoscopic 3-D images by using simple technique. This correction lens is a mono-focal lens, and added to the polarized filter glasses.
    In this study, the authors carried out three experiments in order to examine the appropriate utilization conditions and effects of the correction lens. In experiment 1, the refractive power of correction lens was examined under six conditions in which distances of accommodation and convergence were theoretically equal. In experiment 2, the presenting condition of stereoscopic 3-D images suitable for the correction lens was examined by measurement of refractions during viewing visual target that moved in depth direction. In experiment 3, the effectiveness of the correction lens was examined by using the utilization conditions obtained in experiment 1 and 2.
    From the results of the experiments, the following conclusions were drawn.
    (1) Correction lenses shift the accommodation distance.
    (2) Using a correction lens with the appropriate refractive power and setting the appropriate conditions for presenting stereoscopic 3-D images reduced the difference between accommodation and convergence.
    (3) The use of a correction lens affected the subjective symptoms of asthenopia.

  • Non-linear editing software for stereoscopic 3-D movies

    Takashi Kawai, Takashi Shibata, Tetsuri Inoue, Yusuke Sakaguchi, Kazushige Okabe, Yasuhiro Kuno

    Kyokai Joho Imeji Zasshi/Journal of the Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers   57 ( 2 ) 247 - 252  2003  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We developed software for the non-linear editing of stereoscopic 3-D movies. This software has functions unique to stereoscopic 3-D movies and works on a personal computer. Editing is much simpler with this software than it is with conventional systems that require four synchronized video tape recorders. At the same time, the software makes possible the post-recording adjustment of field-sequential 3-D movies, a difficult task for conventional editing systems. In addition, the results of the usability test confirmed the software's ease of use and enhancement of editing tasks.

    DOI

  • Visual information media and relaxation

    T. Kawai

    Journal of Research Institute of Human Engineering for Quality Life   3 ( 4 ) 25 - 30  2002.10

  • Development and evaluation of fragrance presentation system using visual information

    T. Kawai, T. Takatsu

    Journal of aroma science and technology   3 ( 4 ) 342 - 346  2002.09  [Refereed]

  • Spatial representation with environmental fragrances

    T. Kawai

    Journal of aroma science and technology   3 ( 3 ) 61 - 67  2002.08  [Refereed]

  • Evaluation of virtual classroom on cyberspace for hospitalized children

    T. Kawai, T. Kidokoro, Y. Fujino, H. Saito, T. Mochiduki, M. Inoue, K. Nihei, Y. Matsumoto

    Journal of The Virtual Reality Society of Japan   7 ( 1 ) 79 - 86  2002.04  [Refereed]

  • 3D displays and applications

    T Kawai

    DISPLAYS   23 ( 1-2 ) 49 - 56  2002.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This chapter describes 3D displays for stereoscopic images. The 3D display system will be used in broadcasting and other applications the world over in and after 2010. In this chapter, principle, technological trend and effects on human body of 3D displays are described. In addition, the activities of authors for application of 3D displays are introduced. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • Development of an electro-optical 3D adapter for stereoscopic video recording

    T Shibata, T Kawai, T Inoue, Y Sakaguchi, K Okabe, Y Kuno

    STEREOSCOPIC DISPLAYS AND VIRTUAL REALITY SYSTEMS IX   4660   325 - 330  2002  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We describe the development and evaluation of an electro-optical 3D adapter for recording stereoscopic 3D images with a standard video camcorder. The adapter uses a combination of liquid crystal shutters and a half prism to record right and left images in each field of an NTSC signal. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple and usable 3D recording system. We investigated the usability of a conventional-model 3D adapter and examined solutions to the problems we found. This adapter has the following characteristics.
    (1) The 3D recordings were made using the parallel method
    (2) The frame of the adapter does not obstruct light in any part of the images
    (3) A correcting lens is used in close-up recordings to equalize the sizes of the right and left images
    (4) The vertical disparity of each image is easy to adjust
    (5) The base length can be adjusted to between 65mm and 90mm.

  • Development of software for editing stereoscopic 3-D movies

    T Kawai, T Shibata, T Inoue, Y Sakaguchi, K Okabe, Y Kuno

    STEREOSCOPIC DISPLAYS AND VIRTUAL REALITY SYSTEMS IX   4660   58 - 65  2002  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper describes the development of software for non-linear editing of stereoscopic 3-D movies. The purpose of the software is to simplify the creation of stereoscopic 3-D movies as well as reduce production costs.
    The software has the following functions.
    (1) Separate a field-sequential movie file into right and left movie files
    (2) Display right and left movie files on time base
    (3) Adjust horizontal and vertical disparities
    (4) Adjust image size and rotation
    (5) Correct inverted fields
    (6) Measure the theoretical distance of a presented image
    (7) Adjust movies created using the parallel recording method
    (8) Combine right and left movie files into a field-sequential 3-D movie file
    This paper reports the results of the development of the software and discusses the usefulness of the software for editing stereoscopic 3-D movies.

  • A study on psycho-physiological effects of environmental fragrances

    T. Kawai

    Journal of aroma science and technology   2 ( 4 ) 50 - 58  2001.11  [Refereed]

  • A study on psychological effects of environmental fragrances

    T. Kawai

    Journal of aroma science and technology   2 ( 2 ) 58 - 64  2001.05  [Refereed]

  • A development and evaluation of a stereoscopic display system for rehabilitation of the elder

    T. Shibata, T. Kawai, A. Arimoto, T. Ohshima,T. Yoshitomi, S. Matsuoka, K. Noro, N. Terashima

    Journal of The Virtual Reality Society of Japan   6 ( 1 ) 19 - 25  2001.03  [Refereed]

  • Production of stereoscopic 3-D movies of a Spanish monastery for a digital archive

    T Kawai, T Shibata, T Mochizuki, K Noro

    STEREOSCOPIC DISPLAYS AND VIRTUAL REALITY SYSTEMS VII   3957   284 - 287  2000  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper describes a production of stereoscopic 3-D movies of a Spanish monastery for a digital archive. The authors have previously produced and presented an experimental virtual museum of Japanese Buddhist art in 1995. The purpose of this study was to produce a parallel with it, and to examine a simple method for the production.

  • Effect of head mount display on visual function

    T. Kawai, T. Iwasaki, T. Inoue, K. Noro

    Journal of The Virtual Reality Society of Japan   4 ( 1 ) 275 - 280  1999.03  [Refereed]

  • Surgical education and stereoscopic 3-D display system

    T. Kawai

    The Japanese Journal of Medical Instrumentation   69 ( 3 ) 130 - 134  1999.03

  • Development of compact telepresence transmitting system and realization of participatory communication

    K. Noro, T. Kawai, S. Matsuoka

    The Japanese journal of ergonomics   34 ( 6 ) 319 - 323  1998.12  [Refereed]

  • A Study on the Eye Movement during Watching Stereoscopic 3D Images

    SHIBATA Takashi, IWASAKI Tsuneto, KAWAI Takashi, NORO Kageyu

    JES Ergonomics   39   502 - 503  1998.05

    DOI CiNii

  • A Study on Laughter Expressions of Patients with Dementia

    KAWAI Takashi, MATSUOKA Shigeaki, NORO Kageyu

    JES Ergonomics   39   438 - 439  1998.05

    DOI CiNii

  • Designs for the Interactivity between Stereoscopic 3D Movies and the Observers

    KAWAI Takashi

    JES Ergonomics   39   64 - 67  1998.05

    DOI CiNii

  • A production and evaluation of an interactive visual database on posture

    KAZAMA Mizuho, KAWAI Takashi, NORO Kageyu

    JES Ergonomics   39   526 - 527  1998.05

    DOI CiNii

  • Recording and presentation of a working environment using virtual reality

    T. Kawai, R. Hatatsu, A. Cho, K. Noro

    Journal of Human Sciences   9 ( 2 ) 57 - 63  1997.02

  • Virtual reality presentation at Bonn University, Germany about "Der Buddha der Erleuchtung im Yakushiji Tempel zu Nara"

    T. Kawai, T. Hidenobu, R. Sawayama, K. Noro

    Journal of Human Sciences   9 ( 2 ) 41 - 45  1997.02

  • The development of a dummy head for 3-D audiovisual recording for transmitting telepresence

    K Noro, T Kawai, H Takao

    ERGONOMICS   39 ( 11 ) 1381 - 1389  1996.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Manufacturing systems that employ modern technology often deprive workers of their humanity. One such example is seen in teleconferencing between remote plants. Here, it is difficult for participants to make eye-to-eye contact, a major obstacle in the communication of the participants' intentions and emotions. Indeed participants often complain that the facial expressions or emotions of the other side are difficult to perceive, that it is difficult to carry on a friendly, warm conversation, or that it is difficult to convey one's intentions to the other. They thus tend to become irritated during these conferences, and at times make erroneous judgements. In such situations, it can be said that the system users are being deprived of their humanity. This occurs because a machine or computer, when placed between two people communicating, interferes with a natural communication. What measures are there then to achieve a natural communication in such a setting, with a machine or computer between those communicating? These methods are classified here. In this study, a system for communicating 'presence' was employed to achieve a natural communication. The prototype system is called a 'dummy head for 3-D audiovisual recording'. Using this dummy head, dialogue between operators, remote control, as well as the recording of a skilled worker's use of his hands were carried out, and the results were evaluated. From these results, the authors report on how the prototype system, when placed between humans, helps to achieve a natural communication. Finally, some examples are given to show the human need for achieving a natural communication in such interface situations.

  • Psychological effect of stereoscopic 3-D images with fragrances

    T Kawai, K Noro

    ERGONOMICS   39 ( 11 ) 1364 - 1369  1996.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Stereoscopic 3-D images are used with a lot of virtual reality systems because of their sense of reality. At the same time, in the training that heightens levels of self control of autonomic responses with images, it is thought that reality of software is important. Therefore, the authors investigated use of 3-D images as a technical tool to heighten the reality of software. In this study, a laboratory was transformed into a relaxation room using 3-D images with fragrances and an experiment was carried out to examine the psychological effect of it. From the results of this study, the authors reported on the effects of fragrances on psychological responses when viewing 3-D images and the possibilities of producing these effects for relaxation.

  • Performance of 3-D digitizing in stereoscopic images

    T Inoue, T Kawai, K Noro

    ERGONOMICS   39 ( 11 ) 1357 - 1363  1996.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Experiments were conducted to understand the basic characteristics of pointing to three-dimensional images generated by stereoscopic images. The experimental examination found that it was difficult to point to the correct position of the image and that the depth of the image was underestimated so that the object perceived by the subject was distorted. Subjects who were familiar with viewing 3-D images made less error in position and size perception than did subjects having little experience in viewing 3-D images. These results imply that the performance of 3-D pointing in stereoscopic 3-D images will improve with experience although it is difficult to perform a 3-D pointing precisely.

  • Application of 3D images for robot manipulation

    A. Cho, Y. Inagaki, T. Kawai, K. Noro

    Journal of Human Sciences   8 ( 1 ) 103 - 111  1995.08

  • Effects of fighting action video games on brain waves

    T. Kawai, R. Inagaki, S. Tajiri, K. Noro, K. Matsushima

    Journal of Human Sciences   8 ( 1 ) 82 - 86  1995.08

  • Sensory motor aspects of Interactive media

    K. Noro, T. Kawai

    Journal of Human Sciences   8 ( 1 ) 68 - 73  1995.08

  • Production data of multimedia space "Yakushi Nyorai"

    T. Kawai, K. Noro

    Journal of Human Sciences   7 ( 2 ) 32 - 39  1995.02

  • Relaxation effect of stereoscopic images

    T. Kawai, W.S. Kim, Y. Sakano, K. Noro

    The Journal of The Institute of Television Engineers of Japan   48 ( 10 ) 1306 - 1311  1994.10  [Refereed]

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Books and Other Publications

  • Virtual reality filmmaking

    Auth. Celine Tricart, Trans. T. Kawai, Y. Banchi

    CUTT System  2018.09 ISBN: 4877834419

  • Basics of stereoscopic representations

    T. Kawai, H. Morikawa, K. Ohta, N. Abe

    Ohmsha, Ltd.  2010.09 ISBN: 4274068161

  • Cutting-edge of medical 3D content

    Ed. Auth. T, Nakagori, T. Kawai, H. Morikawa

    CUTT System  2007.04 ISBN: 4877831894

  • Advanced media and human sciences

    Ed. Auth, T. Kawai, T. Shibata

    Transart  2006.06 ISBN: 4887522967

  • Next Media Creator's Guide 2 - Virtual Reality Production

    T. Inoue, K. Ohta, H. Morikawa, T. Kawai

    CUTT System  2003.12 ISBN: 4877831010

  • Next Media Creator's Guide 1 - Stereoscopic Representation

    T. Kawai, M. Tanaka

    CUTT System  2003.11 ISBN: 4877831002

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Misc

  • 光学シースルー型ヘッドマウントディスプレイ使用時における周辺環境の視覚的変化に対する応答特性の評価

    トウコウ, 山添崇, 三家礼子, 河合隆史

    第76回全国大会講演論文集   2014 ( 1 ) 87 - 88  2014.03

     View Summary

    光学シースルー型ヘッドマウントディスプレイ(HMD)の使用時に、周辺環境の視覚情報に注意を向けようとすると、HMDの視覚情報が阻害要因となり得ることが懸念されている。そこで本研究では、HMD使用時における周辺環境の変化に対する応答特性について、基礎的な検討を行った。HMDには7桁の数列によるクレペリンテストを、周辺環境では50インチのHDTVを用いて矢印の呈示を行った。参加者はHMDの画面に10秒毎に出現する数列に対する回答を口頭でしつつ、HDTVの画面に断続的に呈示される矢印の指示方向をキーボードで回答した。評価指標にはキー操作の選択反応時間、心拍数、クレペリンテストの正答率、SSQ、NASA-TLXを用いた。

    CiNii

  • Nobel approaches for design and evaluation of realism

    KAWAI Takashi

    ITE Technical Report   36 ( 44 ) 13 - 18  2012.10

     View Summary

    This paper describes the authors' activities on design and evaluation of realism from following two viewpoints; (1) Design of realism based on complementation of experience. (2) Evaluation of realism based on representation of binocular disparity.

    CiNii

  • 14-2 Visual Comfort with 3D Mobile Devices

    SHIBATA Takashi, MUNEYUKI Fumiya, OSHIMA Keisuke, YOSHITAKE Junki, KAWAI Takashi

    Proceedings of the ... ITE annual convention   ( 2012 ) 14 - 2-1-"14-2-2"  2012.08

     View Summary

    We conducted an experiment that examined a relationship between visual comfort and individual observer's interpupillary distance. The results showed that observers with larger interpupillary distance tended to prefer stereo images behind the screen. It suggests that users can adjust the depth of stereo images in advance for a comfortable stereo viewing on mobile devices.

    CiNii

  • Stereoscopic Content and User Experience

    KAWAI Takashi

    The Journal of the Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers   93 ( 5 ) 402 - 405  2010.05

    CiNii

  • Ergonomic approach for presence displays

    KAWAI Takashi

    ITE technical report   28 ( 66 ) 29 - 34  2004.11

    CiNii

  • Activities for stereoscopic imaging from the viewpoint of content

    KAWAI Takashi

    IEICE technical report. Electronic information displays   103 ( 353 ) 29 - 32  2003.10

     View Summary

    In this paper, the author's recent research activities related to the content productions and applications of stereoscopic 3-D images were introduced.

    CiNii

  • Development and Evaluation of Stereoscopic 3-D Display System for Reduction of Asthenopia

    KAWAI Takashi, SHIBATA Takashi, OHTA Keiji, IWASAKI Tsuneto, MIYAKE Nobuyuki

    Technical report of IEICE. HCS   102 ( 280 ) 29 - 32  2002.08

     View Summary

    The authors developed the stereoscopic 3-D display system for reduction of asthenopia, and evaluated it from the view point of psycho-physiological responses.

    CiNii

  • A development and evaluation of a Real-time Monitoring System for the posture

    MORIKAWA Hiroyuki, KAWAI Takashi, NORO Kageyu

      37   154 - 155  2001.09

    CiNii

  • Development and evaluation of a network printing system using mobilephone

    KAZAMA Mizuho, KAWAI Takashi, NORO Kageyu, FUJINOKI Akihiro, JONGKO Jeffrey J.

      37   554 - 555  2001.09

    CiNii

  • Virtual classroom on cyber space for hospitalized children

    KIDOKORO Tomoko, KAWAI Takashi, NORO Kageyu, FUJINO Yuichi, SATO Hitomi, NIHEI Kenji, MATUMOTO Yoshihiro

      37   424 - 425  2001.09

    CiNii

  • Educational application of stereoscopic 3D images using hi-speed network

    SHIBATA Takashi, KAWAI Takashi, KAMEYAMA Wataru, URANO Yoshiyori, BITOH Mineo, OGURA Hiroshi, SASAKI Nobuyuki, SAITO Ryuji, ISHIDA Akira, KIDERA Hidehiro

      37   422 - 423  2001.09

    CiNii

  • An ergonomic research on a VR simulation for architecture

    HIRAIWA Yosuke, KAWAI Takashi, NORO Kageyu

      37   426 - 427  2001.09

    CiNii

  • A study on the Psychological Effect of Environmental Fragrances

    HAGIWARA Akiko, KAWAI Takashi, NORO Kageyu

      39   218 - 219  1998.05

    CiNii

  • A Study on 3-Dimensional Display for Robot Manipulation

    HATATSU Rei, KAWAI Takashi, NORO Kageyu

      37   290 - 291  1996.04

    CiNii

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Industrial Property Rights

  • 疑似体験装置、疑似体験方法及び疑似体験プログラム

    河合 隆史

    Patent

  • 情報処理システムおよびプログラム

    河合 隆史, 伴地 芳啓

    Patent

  • 衝突感覚提示システム及びプログラム

    河合 隆史, 伊波 穣, 長谷川 雄祐

    Patent

  • ナビゲーション装置およびナビゲーション制御プログラム

    河合 隆史, 金 相賢, 渡邊 克巳

    Patent

  • 運転支援装置及び運転支援方法

    河合 隆史

    Patent

  • 経路案内装置及び経路案内プログラム

    河合 隆史, 金 相賢, 渡邊 克巳

    Patent

  • 立体映像制作装置およびプログラム

    5505881

    河合 隆史, 太田 啓路, 阿部 信明, 盛川 浩志

    Patent

  • 立体映像呈示装置

    4856775

    河合 隆史

    Patent

  • 立体視用印刷物

    5396027

    河合 隆史, 阿部 信明

    Patent

  • プログラム、情報記憶媒体及びコンテンツ提供装置

    河合 隆史, 三家 礼子

    Patent

  • 感覚呈示システム及び感覚呈示装置

    5419100

    河合 隆史, 盛川 浩志

    Patent

  • 立体画像生成装置およびプログラム

    4958689

    河合 隆史, 阿部 信明

    Patent

  • 恐怖症治療システム及び恐怖症治療装置

    河合 隆史, 李 在鱗, ダグラス・イームズ, 野村 忍, 中島 隆行

    Patent

  • シミュレーション装置及びシミュレーション方法

    4906397

    河合 隆史, 盛川 浩志

    Patent

  • 立体映像呈示装置

    4975256

    河合 隆史

    Patent

  • 立体映像呈示装置

    4549661

    河合 隆史, 柴田 隆史

    Patent

  • 立体映像評価装置および立体映像チューナ

    4469159

    河合 隆史, 井上 哲理

    Patent

  • 立体映像呈示装置

    4378118

    河合 隆史, 盛川 浩志, 川口 真美

    Patent

  • 視覚及び触覚を利用した感覚呈示装置

    河合 隆史, 久保田 裕, 永島 秀文, 盛川 浩志

    Patent

  • 眼精疲労等回復ディスプレイ装置

    河合 隆史, 柴田 隆史, 太田 啓路

    Patent

  • 嗅覚刺激呈示装置

    河合 隆史, 高津 智仁

    Patent

  • 立体映像信号の編集方法

    4617024

    河合 隆史, 井上 哲理, 柴田 隆史

    Patent

  • 立体映像観察装置

    河合 隆史, 井上 哲理, 柴田 隆史

    Patent

  • 仏像の仮想修復システム

    大橋 一章, 河合 隆史, 櫻庭 裕介

    Patent

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Awards

  • Charles E. Ives Journal Award.

    2019   Society for Imaging Science and Technology   Time course of sickness symptoms with HMD viewing of 360-degree videos

    Winner: J. Häkkinen, F. Ohta, T. Kawai

  • Best Paper Award

    2014   Asian Conference on Ergonomics and Design   Cognitive characteristics of directional judgement through binocular disparity on a virtual tilted screen

    Winner: S.H. Kim, H. Itaoka, H. Morikawa, R. Mitsuya, T. Kawai, K. Watanabe

  • Japan Ergonomics Society Research Award

    2009   Japan Ergonomics Society   Effects of stereoscopic 3-D images with optical correction on asthenopia recovery

    Winner: T. Shibata, T. Kawai, L. Jae-Lin, S.H. Kim, M. Otsuki, N. Miyake, Y. Yoshihara,T. Iwasaki

  • The best use of stereoscopic presentation tools

    2004   Stereoscopic Displays and Applications   Development and evaluation of amusement machine using autostereoscopic 3D display

    Winner: T. Kawai, T. Shibata, Y. Shimizu, M. Kawata, M. Suto

  • mobile VISUAL 2001 Best Mobile Movie Award

    2001   Mobile Content Forum   The Tour of Crystal Kingdom

    Winner: T. Kawai, A. Kawai

  • Azusa Ono Memorial Award Artistic Category

    1994   Waseda University   A multimedia content integrating stereoscopic images, binaural sounds, environmental fragrances and theatrical productions “Yakushi Nyorai”

    Winner: T. Kawai

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Research Projects

  • バーチャルリアリティ構築環境に関する人間工学的設計・評価

    Project Year :

    2020.04
    -
    2021.03
     

     View Summary

    本研究では個人や組織がより良いVR・ARアプリケーションを構築するために役立つソフトウェアエンジニアリングの知識を創出することを目的として、開発者を対象とした調査を行う。また、調査結果に基づいて、新たなVRユーザインタフェースの事例研究を実施し、併せて実証的に検討する

  • A proof-of-concept study of augmented cross-modality in VR space

    Project Year :

    2018.04
    -
    2021.03
     

  • バーチャルリアリティ構築環境に関する人間工学的設計・評価

    Project Year :

    2018.11
    -
    2020.03
     

     View Summary

    本研究の目的は、高品質なバーチャルリアリティ(VR)およびオーグメンテッドリアリティ(AR)アプリケーションの構築に活用できる、ソフトウェアエンジニアリングに関する知見を収集・分析することである。具体的には、VR / ARのアプリケーションとして、フルボディアバターの開発に着目し、ユーザインタフェースおよびソフトウェアエンジニアリングの双方の観点から、既存の課題と潜在的な解決方法を検討している。初年度は、近い将来のVRアプリケーションとして期待される、フルボディアバターの開発に関するケーススタディを実施した。本ケーススタディでは、フルボディアバター・インタフェースのインタラクションを構築する基礎として、物理シミュレーションを利用した。この物理ベースのアプローチによって、ユーザだけでなく、ソフトウェアエンジニアにもメリットがあることが特徴であり、個別に作成されたスクリプトを必要とせずに、直感的な操作や歩行のインタラクションを提供することを可能とした。本ケーススタディから得られた知見は、VRソフトウェアエンジニアリングの包括的な調査にかかる質問紙の作成に応用した。同時に本ケーススタディの成果は、「Stand-alone, Wearable System for Full Body VR Avatars: Towards Physics-based 3D Interaction」として、当該分野の国際会議であるIEEE VR 2019 OSAKAでのビデオ発表を行った。最近ではコンシューマ向けVR / AR機器が数多く発売されており、本研究を通して、それらがソフトウェアエンジニアリングにどのような影響を与えたかを考察することで、今後のVR / ARソフトウェアエンジニアリングのリファレンスとして機能することを目指した。フルボディアバターの開発に関するケーススタディの実施や国際会議での発表など、当初の計画通りに推進することができた。次年度は、初年度のケーススタディで得られた成果を発展させるとともに、ユーザインタフェースならびにソフトウェアエンジニアリングの観点から、課題と解決方法を検討する。具体的には、フルボディアバターのユーザビリティやエンジニアリングにかかる質問紙による調査を実施し、得られた知見を収集・分析する。同時に、フルボディアバターの改良へのフィードバックを図ることで、本取り組みが、今後のVRソフトウェアエンジニアリングのリファレンスとして機能することを目指す

  • 3D Virtual reality imaging system for surgical simulation and surgical planning

    Project Year :

    2014.04
    -
    2017.03
     

     View Summary

    We used virtual reality (or augmented reality) imaging system as a novel approach to clarify the 3D surgical anatomy of the pancreas, bile duct, and major vessels. 3D virtual reality images were generated with 3D imaging software application OsiriX. OsiriX is a useful application that allows creation of 3D imaging model. We created surface-rendered virtual reality images derived from a computer reconstruction of the cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging or multi-detector computed tomography. 3D Virtual reality imaging could demonstrate not only major vessels but also the bile duct around the pancreas and liver. 3D Virtual reality images was useful for surgical simulation and surgical planning of resection of cholangiocarcinoma and pancreatic cancer

  • Emotional enhancement and the effects of stereoscopic image content

    Project Year :

    2013.04
    -
    2016.03
     

     View Summary

    In this research, an approach for producing functional depth sensation, to enable emotional enhancement, was proposed and examined in order to establish stereoscopic (3D) images as a new media to support entertainment and culture.Specifically, experimental investigations were carried out using 2D to 3D conversion to add binocular disparity to images for inducing emotions (emotional images). From the results, it was found that the degree of emotional arousal was increased by 2D to 3D conversion, and this tendency was enhanced by disparity modification which was proposed in this research.In addition, the effects of emotional enhancement by 2D to 3D conversion and disparity modification of emotional images were examined in terms of time perception. Experiments showed basic tendencies that enhancement of emotional arousal by converted and disparity modified 3D images and the lengthening effects of time estimation

  • Spatial and Temporal Distortion of Three dimensional Space

    Project Year :

    2011.04
    -
    2016.03
     

     View Summary

    The present study investigated the perceptual, cognitive, affective distortion associated with emerging 3D visual presentation from the perspective of experimental psychology, cognitive science, and ergonomics. We accumulated the data on the spatial distortion of perceived position of visual stimuli in 3D space, the biasn in numerosity and density perception in 3D space, the effects of partially converted stereoscopic images and virtual tilted images on visual attention, memory, and body control. These findings have been discussed in both academic and public settings in order to facilitate forming the scientific and technological infrastracture for future use of 3D visual presentations

  • Evaluation and Representation of Tactile Movement Illusion

    Project Year :

    2011.04
    -
    2014.03
     

     View Summary

    This research proposed the method that represents a tactile sensation using cross modal Illusion. The illusion induces a tactile movement sensation using visual and tactile stimulus. This illusion is expected to apply to the media content and human interface systems. Therefore, the characteristics of the cross modal illusion were examined.We found an another new illusion that induced the tactile sensation using visual stimuli in this research. The new illusion occurs by observation of visual stimuli through a see-through HMD. The illusion was thought that is available for Augmented Reality content. Therefore, we examined the factor of visual stimuli and the method for induction of illusion. The result of the experiment indicated that a see-through HMD is suitable for induction of this illusion.In recent, HMD is improved and expected to become popular. The illusion we proposed is thought that contributes to media content for HMD

  • A study on stereoscopic representations to examine user experience and enhance effectiveness

    Project Year :

    2011.04
    -
    2013.03
     

     View Summary

    In this study, emotional expression as a psychological component to form user experience by stereoscopic (3D) epresentations, collation with characteristics was performed. As a case study, disparity of emotional scenes in famous 3D movies was analyzed. From the results of the analysis, disparity modification to enhance specific emotions was quantified, and the effectiveness was evaluated

  • Digital Archive Construction and Research on the Recording Methods of the Cliff Images in Sichuan-sheng, China

     View Summary

    This research features a precious group of Chinese cultural legacy, the abundant cliff images remaining in the Sichuan area, aiming to create a record of their present state in preparation for the progressing destruction due to erosion and human cause, and to seek an effective recording method for research and preservation efforts. The researchers worked in collaboration with Sichuan University and the Chengdu-city Research Institute of Archaeology, the partnering research institutions in China, and tested variations of research methods through executing a complete enumeration of the cliff images within the targeted areas and then completing a record of their entire contents. The targeted areas were Pujiang and Qionglai, both located in the western part of the Sichuan Basin. The cliff image sites counted eighteen in Pujiang and five in Qionglai, with a grand total of over six hundred grottoes. The basic recording methods used were photography, measurement and description of the Buddhist statues and their attachments including the grotto structures, survey drawings, and rubbings. As a possible replacement for survey drawings with their inevitable shortcomings, the researchers introduced non-contact 3D laser scanning -a pioneering attempt in the genre of archaeological studies of Chinese grottoes- and verified its advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, the researchers presented a number of research papers using the resulting data, discussing the significance of the artistic activities within the area from the perspective of Buddhist art history, thus contributing a meaningful prospect for regional studies in the genre of Chinese Buddhist art history

  • The Study and Development Regarding Cultural Property Preservation and Restoration Using X-ray CT Scanner

     View Summary

    This inter-disciplinary research was made possible by cooperation from researchers from both literary and scientific fields, and aimed to develop a preservation and restoration method for wooden cultural assets, especially Buddhist sculptures, using medical-use x-ray CT scanner. The biggest advantage of the x-ray CT scanning method is that it allows one to obtain information on the inner structure of cultural properties without physical contact, and thus without risking damage to the actual property. The method is especially effective in cases where the original state of the property is unknown due to restoration activities from later periods. Specifically, by reconstructing slice images from CT scanning, the researchers were able to recreate the original state on the computer monitor. Furthermore, not only does the method provide hints on the time period at which the property was created, but also allows one to examine whether there are any objects concealed within the sculpture, and in cases where such objects exist, their shapes. The method has already been proven effective in restoration activities of wooden Buddhist sculptures

  • 錯覚を利用したサイバースペース介入システムの試作と評価

     View Summary

    本研究課題では、仮想空間(サイバースペース)における、より直感的な操作を可能とするインタフェースデバイスの開発を目的とし、知覚心理学領域で報告された錯覚を応用することで、仮想の物体に身体感覚を誘発させるシステムの試作を行い、その効果について検討を行った。実験システムの構築にあたり、仮想の手と実際の手との空間的整合性を保って呈示するディスプレイシステムを開発した。このディスプレイシステムと、触覚フィードバック機構を備えたデータグローブ、視覚刺激用映像と触覚刺激を同期させて出力するコンピュータによって、実験システムを構築した。構築したシステムを用いて、仮想の手にも身体感覚を誘発させる錯覚が発生するか実験的に検証を行った。次に、錯覚発生に影響する要因について、錯覚を誘発しやすい視・触覚刺激の呈示方法、およびサイバースペースの表現方法について、評価実験により検討を行った。実験の結果、仮想の物体にも同様に錯覚が発生することが確認された、また、刺激呈示方法については、刺激定位がより正確に知覚できる条件でもっとも錯覚が発生しやすいことがわかった。さらに、本システムのインタフェースシステムとしての効果を検証するために、実験で用いたシステムにインタラクションを可能にする機構を付加した。このシステムを用い、インタラクションを付加させた状態の錯覚発生に与える影響について、インタビュー法による主観評価実験を行った。結果として、インタラクションを実現させるために必要な装置を手指に付加させることが、錯覚発生を抑制してしまうという意見が多く聞かれた。インタフェースとして錯覚を利用するためには、その表現方法についての工夫が必要になると示唆された。本研究で得られた知見から、今後の課題として、インタラクションを付加させる際の、システムの構築方法について検討が必要であると考えられた

  • カンボディアにおける中世遺跡と日本人町の研究

     View Summary

    A.日本人町の調査本年度は7月17日から24日に、ポニャールー第二次発掘調査を行った。今年度の調査はこれまで日本人町の推定地として何度か取り上げられてきたNO.1地点の教会跡地の東側に2カ所の調査区を設定した。東側の川に近い調査地では遺物の出土量も少なく、顕著な遺構も発見できなかった。教会の建物推定地に設定した調査区では、教会の床と思われる漆喰の層を検出し、この位置に教会が存在したことを確認できた。また漆喰床面を断ち割った下からは、ガラス瓶の破片が出土し、この教会が近代をさかのぼるものではないことが判明した。表採遺物の調査本年度発掘調査の終了後に、出土遺物の調査を行った。今回も昨年度におもにNO.5地点で表採された中国陶磁の写真撮影と実測調査を行った。B.窯跡の調査クメール陶器研究では、ソサイ窯跡の第3次調査を行った1月22日から2月3日まで行った。今回の調査で窯跡の大まかな規模と構造がはっきりした。窯跡は幅約2m、長さ約5mの規模で、これまで調査したタニ窯跡より規模が小さいことがわかった。遺物の採集もあわせて行い、来年度の調査報告書刊行に備えた。C.国際シンポジウム1.月30日から2月1日までの3日間、国際シンポジウム、Early Settlements in the Neohthic period and the production of Khmer Ceramicsを開催した。30日は基調講演としてSPAFA代表ピシット氏と、ビクトリアアルバート美術館のジョンガイ氏に講演をお願いした。31日は午前に新石器時代、午後にクメール陶器のシンポジウムを行った。2月1日には、シンポジウム参加者をソサイ窯跡の発掘現場に招待し、現地説明会を行った。今回のシンポジウムの実施によって、各国の研究者同士の情報交換が行われると共に、今後も引き続き、定期的にこのようなシンポジウムを開催することの必要性が浮かび上がった

  • サイバースペースにおける仮想身体感覚呈示システムの開発

     View Summary

    本研究課題では、身体イメージにかかる錯覚をサイバースペースに誘発することによる、インタフェースへの応用やサイバースペースシステムの構築を目的としている。前年度の研究活動では、錯覚の発生に関わる刺激呈示条件についての知見が得られた。また、錯覚の評価方法について、自己受容感覚のずれが指標となることが示唆されたが、インタフェースシステムへの応用にあたっては、錯覚誘発刺激の実装手法の検討が課題として残された。そこで本年度の研究活動においては、身体感覚の獲得に必要とされる視覚、触覚、自己受容感覚への刺激呈示の関連性について、実験的な検討を行った。錯覚発生の指標として、上述の身体の位置感覚の変化を利用した。結果から、錯覚誘発刺激の実装手法として、自己受容感覚への刺激を伴う場合に、錯覚発生が抑制される可能性が示唆された。また本年度は、仮想身体感覚のインタフェースへの応用として、教育・訓練分野を想定したサイバースペースシステムを構築した。具体的には、工場内での作業場面を再現し、仮想身体感覚を伴うことによるタスクパフォーマンスの評価を行った。作業中の精神状態の評価指標として、皮膚電気反応を選択した。構築したサイバースペースシステムを用いた実験では、皮膚電気反応と作業内容との相関が見られ、当該用途における仮想身体感覚の呈示は有効であると考えられた。さらに、仮想身体感覚の呈示方法の高度化として、カメラ付ヘッドマウントディスプレイを用いた強化現実型に着目し、仮想の身体と現実の身体との関連性において、空間的自由度の高いシステムを試作した。今後は、上記用途における仮想身体感覚呈示システムの実用化と、呈示方法の高度化に伴う効果的なコンテンツの開発手法について検討を行っていく

  • 凹面鏡による立体虚像生成原理を応用した高精度3次元観察・計測装置の開発

     View Summary

    昨年度の研究により、直径40cm程度の凹面鏡では、中心部約10cm程度の空間において約5%の歪で画像観察が可能であることが判明しており、本年度は昨年度試作された観察装置に対して(1)対象物の観察者の手による直接操作を可能にすること。(2)光学的な計測装置を付加することにより、立体形状を計測する。の2点を可能にするための筐体加工を行なった。結果として、(1)は有効に機能することが確認され、自然な奥行き感を伴う細かな操作にも、電子的に生成された立体画像に比べて格段に疲労感が少なく、精密加工や医療分野などにおける精密な観察・操作に適していることが確認された。現在医療分野への応用に関する共同研究を計画中である。(2)に関しては画像計測時の鏡面反射における画像の歪除去の問題を解決するまでには至らなかったが、比較的小さな対象物の立体形状の計測の可能性に関して基礎的な知見を得ることができた。今後はこの試作装置を活用して、凹面鏡を利用した立体形状の精密計測に関する研究を継続してゆく予定で、企業との共同研究の計画が進行中である

  • 脳機能の特性を活用したクロスモーダルコンテンツ

     View Summary

    本研究課題では、脳機能の解明によって明らかとなった認知特性を利用して、新たな身体感覚を生起する情報の呈示手法とその内容を、クロスモーダル(感覚統合)コンテンツと呼称し、次世代メディアとしてのクロスモーダルコンテンツの制作・応用・検証を行った。具体的な取り組みとして、身体イメージを利用したコンテンツの制作、脳活動のモニタリングによる客観的な評価法の検討ならびに共感覚的なクロスモーダル表現手法の開発を行った。本研究課題の遂行によって得られた知見を以下にまとめる。1)身体イメージを利用したコンテンツ制作として、身体イメージの誘発を利用した安全教育用VRコンテンツの試作を行った。アンケート調査の結果から、多様な認知状態を対象としたコンテンツ開発への展開が考察された。2)身体イメージ獲得という認知体験について、脳機能計測(NIRS)を用いた評価手法の検討を行った。実験の結果、特定の脳部位の観察によって、身体イメージの誘発が評価できることが示唆された。データ解析方法についても、トレンド解析によるノイズ除去が可能となった。3)視触覚のクロスモーダル刺激によって、仮想の触運動感覚が生じるという錯覚を発見し、この錯覚について評価実験を行った。結果、主観評価とNIRSデータの結果にある程度の関連性を認めることができた。4)上記錯覚に関連し、実際には呈示されていない触覚を生起するという共感覚的な現象に注目し、基礎的な検討を行った。試作コンテンツを用いたNIRSによる評価実験の結果から、特徴的な体験の生起が示唆された。以上、本研究課題の推進により、具体的かつ有益な知見を数多く取得できたことから、新たなメディアコンテンツの可能性を拓く、近未来のコア技術の形成に寄与できたと考える

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Presentations

  • Ergonomics in virtual reality: Guidance and PoC

    T. Kawai  [Invited]

    IMID 2019 DIGEST,pp.65 

    Presentation date: 2019.08

  • Stand-alone, wearable system for full body VR avatars: towards physics-based 3D interaction

    T. M. Takala, C. C. Hsin, T. Kawai

    IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality and 3D User Interfaces 

    Presentation date: 2019.03

  • Effects of binocular parallax in 360-degree VR images on viewing behavior

    Y. Banchi, K. Yoshikawa, T. Kawai

    Electronic Imaging, Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XXX 

    Presentation date: 2019.01

  • An ergonomic evaluation of elevating the work desk: the relationship of sitting work with standing work

    R. Mitsuya, K. Nakamura, T. Sugita, N. Ozawa, T. Yaita, T. Kawai

    Proceedings of the AHFE 2018 International Conference on Human Factors in Transportation 

    Presentation date: 2019.01

  • Feature classification of skilled and unskilled persons in car driving operation

    T. Sugita, R. Mitsuya, T. Torii, A. Sugiyama, K. Sugawara, H. Dobashi, T. Kawai

    Proceedings of the AHFE 2018 International Conference on Human Factors in Transportation 

    Presentation date: 2019.01

  • Ergonomic Evaluations of Virtual Reality System and Content

    T. Kawai  [Invited]

    IDW '18,pp.1010-1012 

    Presentation date: 2018.12

  • Ergonomic guidance for virtual reality content creation

    T. Kawai, J. Häkkinen

    Proceedings of the XXth Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association 

    Presentation date: 2018.08

  • Ergonomic approaches to stereoscopic and 360 images

    T. Kawai  [Invited]

    SID 2018 DIGEST,pp.866-869 

    Presentation date: 2018.05

  • Emotional effects of car-based motion representations with stereoscopic images

    J. Inami, R. Kodama, Y. Hasegawa, N. Fujieda, T. Kawai

    Electronic Imaging, Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XXIX 

    Presentation date: 2018.01

  • Gazing behavior by viewing virtual heritage using a head-mounted display

    S.H. Kim, Y. Uchiyama, K. Yagi, T. Kawai

    The 2nd Asian Conference on Ergonomics and Design,pp.604-607 

    Presentation date: 2017.06

  • Behavioral and psychological effects by short time viewing 360 videos using a HMD

    Y. Banchi, S. Tsukada, K, Yoshikawa, T. Kawai

    The 2nd Asian Conference on Ergonomics and Design,pp.600-603 

    Presentation date: 2017.06

  • Ergonomics in advanced imaging technologies

    T. Kawai  [Invited]

    The 2nd Asian Conference on Ergonomics and Design,pp.26-29 

    Presentation date: 2017.06

  • Analysis of body pressure distribution on car seats through machine learning

    R. Mitsuya, K. Kato, N. Kou, T. Nakamura, K. Sugawara, H. Dobashi, T. Kawai

    1st International Comfort Congress 

    Presentation date: 2017.06

  • Pseudo-haptic by stereoscopic images and effects on muscular activity

    T. Kawai, F. Ohta, S.H. Kim, H. Morikawa

    Electronic Imaging, Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XXVIII 

    Presentation date: 2017.02

  • Human factors / ergonomics in advanced imaging and the gaze tracking issues

    T. Kawai  [Invited]

    MobileHCI 2016 (workshop: Inferring user action with mobile gaze tracking) 

    Presentation date: 2016.09

  • Effect of inter-lens distance on fusional limit in stereoscopic vision using a simple smartphone head-mounted display

    H. Morikawa, Y. Banchi, S. Tsukada, Y. Hasegawa, S. Takahashi, K. Ohta, T. Kawai

    Electronic Imaging, Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XXVII 

    Presentation date: 2016.02

  • The effects of functional binocular disparity on route memory in stereoscopic images

    S.H. Kim, M. Takahashi, K, Watanabe,T. Kawai

    Electronic Imaging, Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XXVII 

    Presentation date: 2016.02

  • Emotional arousal with 3D images and effects on time perception

    T. Kawai, R. Hama, M. Horiuchi

    Electronic Imaging, Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XXVII 

    Presentation date: 2016.02

  • The effect on motion sickness and user experience of different game interfaces using a HMD

    S.H. Kim, J.Y. Hong, R. Mitsuya, T. Kawai

    The 5th International Symposium of Visual Image Safety 

    Presentation date: 2015.09

  • Partially converted stereoscopic images and the effects on visual attention and memory

    S.H. Kim, H. Morikawa, R. Mitsuya, T. Kawai, K. Watanabe

    SPIE,Vol.9391,pp.939119-1-10 

    Presentation date: 2015.02

  • Disparity modification in stereoscopic images for emotional enhancement

    T. Kawai, D. Atsuta, S.H. Kim, J. Häkkinen

    SPIE,Vol.9391,pp.93910Q-1-8 

    Presentation date: 2015.02

  • Establishment of Educational Program for Multiorgan Procurement From Deceased Donors

    M. Taniguchi, H. Furukawa, T. Kawai, H. Morikawa, K. Morozumi, M. Goto, T. Kondo, A. Aikawa, T. Ito, A. Takahara, M. Nio, N. Kokubo, S. Uemoto, N. Fukushima, K. Yoshida,T, Kenmochi, H. Date, M. Ono, S. Eguchi, T. Shimamura, K. Mizuta, T. Yoshizumi, T. Ueno

    Transplant Proceedings,Vol.46,No.4,pp.1071-1073 

    Presentation date: 2014.07

  • Evaluation of Ergonomic Keyboard using the EMG Measurement and Questionnaire Prevention of Musculoskeletal Disorde

    R. Mitsuya, T. Kawai, T. Kiriki, A. Kasuga, Y. Nishiwaki, M. Nozaki

    Mixed Methods 

    Presentation date: 2014.06

  • Cognitive characteristics of directional judgment through binocular disparity on a virtual tilted screen

    S.H. Kim, H. Itaoka, H. Morikawa, R. Mitsuya, T. Kawai, K. Watanabe

    Asian Conference of Ergonomics and Design 

    Presentation date: 2014.05

  • Measurement of perceived stereoscopic sensation through disparity metrics and compositions

    S. Toyosawa, T. Kawai

    SPIE,Vol.9011,901117-1-7 

    Presentation date: 2014.02

  • Disparity modifications and the emotional effects of stereoscopic images

    T. Kawai, D. Atsuta, Y. Tomiyama, S.H. Kim, H. Morikawa, R. Mitsuya, J. Häkkinen

    SPIE,Vol.9011,pp.901115-1-8 

    Presentation date: 2014.02

  • Visual comfort and viewing time of S3D content on mobile devices

    T. Shibata, K. Oshima, F. Muneyuki, T. Kawai

    SID2013 DIGEST,pp.497-500 

    Presentation date: 2013.05

  • A stereoscopic archive for the heritage of industrial modernization and the evaluation

    H. Yoon, K. Ando, T. Kawai, K. Ohta

    SPIE,Vol.8648,pp.86481Y-1-10 

    Presentation date: 2013.01

  • Applications of 2D to 3D conversion for educational purposes

    Y. Koido, H. Morikawa, S. Shiraishi, W. Maruyama, S. Takeuchi, T. Nakagori, M. Hirakata, H. Shinkai, T. Kawai

    SPIE,Vol.8648,pp.86481X-1-9 

    Presentation date: 2013.01

  • Comfortable stereo viewing on mobile devices

    T. Shibata, F. Muneyuki, K. Oshima, J, Yoshitake,T. Kawai

    SPIE,Vol.8648,pp.86481D-1-7 

    Presentation date: 2013.01

  • Disparity analysis of 3D movies and emotional representations

    T. Kawai, M. Hirahara, Y. Tomiyama, D. Atsuta, J. Häkkinen

    SPIE,Vol.8648,pp.86480Z-1-9 

    Presentation date: 2013.01

  • Effects of digitized picture books on mental engagement in young children

    H. Yamazoe, S. Kiyono, T. Kawai, M. Kimura, S. Yoshida

    APCHI2012,pp.361-367 

    Presentation date: 2012.08

  • Effects of see-through head-mounted display for viewing 3D contents on visual function

    H. Morikawa, S. Kitamura, T. Kiriki, S. Oyama, T. Shibata, H. Baba, T. Kawai

    The 4th International Conference on 3D Systems and Applications,pp.204-208 

    Presentation date: 2012.06

  • Ergonomic evaluation of stereoscopic shooting condition using parallax analysis

    R. Tanaka, A. Shinki, T. Shibata, C.S. Chen, M.H. Lin, T. Kawai

    The 4th International Conference on 3D Systems and Applications,pp.199-203 

    Presentation date: 2012.06

  • Ergonomic evaluation of visual discomfort with autostereoscopic displays

    T. Shibata, J. Yoshitake, Y. Koido, K. Kikuchi, T. Kawai

    SID 2012 DIGEST,pp.129-132 

    Presentation date: 2012.06

  • Partial 2D to S3D conversion and the cognitive characteristics

    Y. Koido, T. Kawai

    SPIE,Vol.8288,pp.82882E-1-10 

    Presentation date: 2012.01

  • Depth enhancement of S3D content and the psychological effects

    M. Hirahara, S. Shiraishi, T. Kawai

    SPIE,Vol.8288,pp.82881N-1-11 

    Presentation date: 2012.01

  • A visual training device for learning Chinese character of children with developmental dyslexia

    H. Yamazoe, T. Kawai, M. Miyao

    CSEDU,pp.386-389 

    Presentation date: 2011.05

  • Psycho-physiological effects of visual artifacts by stereoscopic display systems

    S.H. Kim, J. Yoshitake,H, Morikawa, T. Kawai, O. Yamada, A. Iguchi

    SPIE,Vol.7863,pp.78631Q-1-11 

    Presentation date: 2011.01

  • Ergonomic evaluation of crosstalk in stereoscopy through heart activity and forehead blood flow

    S. Toyosawa, H. Morikawa, K, Nakano,T. Kawai, C.S. Chen, H.L. Chang, J.C. Yang

    SPIE,Vol.7863,pp.786311-1-10 

    Presentation date: 2011.01

  • Psycho-physiological effects of head-mounted displays in ubiquitous use

    T. Kawai, J. Häkkinen, K. Oshima, H. Saito, T, Yamazoe,H. Morikawa, G. Nyman

    SPIE,Vol.7881,pp.788107-1-12 

    Presentation date: 2011.01

  • What do people look at when they watch stereoscopic movies?

    J. Häkkinen, T. Kawai, J. Takatalo, R. Mitsuya, G. Nyman

    SPIE,Vol.7524,pp.75240E-1-10 

    Presentation date: 2010.01

  • Ergonomic evaluation of ubiquitous computing with monocular head-mounted display

    T. Kawai, J, Häkkinen,T, Yamazoe, H. Saito, S. Kishi, H. Morikawa, T. Mustonen, J. Kaistinen, G. Nyman  [Invited]

    SPIE,Vol.7542,pp.754202-1-9 

    Presentation date: 2010.01

  • Evaluation of 3D displays in terms of literacy learning

    H. Ikeshita, T. Kawai, M. Ishii, H. Yamagata, K. Niinuma, Y. Ono, M. Miyao

    IDW '09,pp.1135-1138 

    Presentation date: 2009.12

  • Time-series changes in visual fatigue and depth sensation while viewing stereoscopic images

    S.H. Kim, S. Kishi, T. Kawai, T. Hatada

    IMID 2009 DIGEST,pp.1099-1102 

    Presentation date: 2009.10

  • User experience and multi-purposing of stereoscopic content

    T. Kawai  [Invited]

    IMID 2009 DIGEST,pp.1095-1098 

    Presentation date: 2009.10

  • Stereoscopic camera system with creator-friendly functions

    S. Kishi, N. Abe, T, Shibata,T. Kawai, M. Maeda, K. Hoshi

    SPIE,Vol.7237,pp.72371M-1-9 

    Presentation date: 2009.01

  • Evaluation of stereoscopic image quality for mobile devices using Interpretation Based Quality methodology

    T. Shibata, S. Kurihara, T. Kawai, T. Takahashi, T. Shimizu, R. Kawada, A. Ito, J, Häkkinen, J, Takatalo, G. Nyman

    SPIE,Vol.7237,pp.72371E-1-8 

    Presentation date: 2009.01

  • Effects of changing image size on depth perception using a floating 3-D display

    T. Shibata, T, Yamazoe, T. Kawai, H. Kuribayashi, T. Hatada, I. Tomisawa, M. Ishikawa

    SID 2008 DIGEST,pp.1339-1342 

    Presentation date: 2008.05

  • Measuring stereoscopic image quality experience with interpretation based quality methodology

    J. Häkkinen, T. Kawai, J, Takatalo, T. Leisti, J. Raduna, A. Hirsaho, G. Nyman

    SPIE,Vol.6808,pp.68081B-1-12 

    Presentation date: 2008.01

  • A usability assessment on a virtual reality system for panic disorder treatment

    J. Lee, T. Kawai, N. Yoshida, S. Izawa, S. Nomura, D. Eames, H. Kaiya

    SPIE,Vol.6804,pp.680403-1-10 

    Presentation date: 2008.01

  • Interactive stereoscopic viewer for cultural heritage

    N. Abe, T. Kawai, M. Kawaguchi, M. Ando

    SPIE,Vol.6803,pp.680314-1-9 

    Presentation date: 2008.01

  • Scalable 3D image conversion and ergonomic evaluation

    S. Kishi, S. H. Kim, T. Shibata, T. Kawai, J, Häkkinen, J, Takatalo, G. Nyman

    SPIE,Vol.6803,pp.68030F-1-9 

    Presentation date: 2008.01

  • Ergonomic approaches for stereoscopic image creation

    T. Kawai  [Invited]

    ASIAGRAPH 2007,Vol.1,No.2,pp.73-78 

    Presentation date: 2007.10

  • Ergonomic evaluation of portable videogame software

    R. Kato, T. Kawai, H. Ikeshita, K. Nihei, T. Sato, H, Yamagata, H. Tashiro, T. Yamazaki

    DIGRA 2007,pp.91-95 

    Presentation date: 2007.09

  • Video digest based on heart rate

    S. Toyosawa, T. Kawai

    IASTED 2007,Vol.583,No.40,pp.15-20 

    Presentation date: 2007.08

  • Ergonomic content creation for 3D display

    T. Kawai  [Invited]

    IMID 2006 DIGEST,pp.86-91 

    Presentation date: 2006.08

  • Physiological effects of color breakup in field-sequential color projection system

    S. H. Kim, T. Shibata, T. Kawai

    SID 2006 DIGEST,pp.314-317 

    Presentation date: 2006.06

  • Dynamic evaluation of distribution of visual attention during playing video game

    K. Yokoi, K. Watanabe, T. Kawai, R. Kato, T. Sato, T, Yamazaki, H. Yamagata

    ACM SIGCHI 2006,Article No.96,pp.43-44 

    Presentation date: 2006.06

  • Examination of asthenopia recovery using stereoscopic 3D display with dynamic optical correction

    T. Shibata, T. Kawai, K. Ohta, J. L. Lee, M. Otsuki, N. Miyake, Y. Yoshihara, T. Iwasaki

    SPIE,Vol.6055,pp.60550E-1-8 

    Presentation date: 2006.01

  • Evaluation of stereoscopic medical video content on an autostereoscopic display for undergraduate medical education

    J. Ilgner, T. Kawai, T, Shibata,T, Yamazoe,M. Westhofen

    SPIE,Vol.6055,pp.605506-1-11 

    Presentation date: 2006.01

  • Ergonomic evaluation system for stereoscopic video production

    T. Kawai, S. Kishi, T. Yamazoe, T, Shibata,T. Inoue, Y. Sakaguchi, K. Okabe, Y. Kuno, T. Kawamoto

    SPIE,Vol.6055,pp.60551B-1-8 

    Presentation date: 2006.01

  • Psycho-physiological effects of a monocular head mount display

    S. Kishi, T. Yamazoe, T, Shibata, T. Kawai

    IDW '05,pp.1829-1832 

    Presentation date: 2005.12

  • Examination on stereoscopic representation with accommodation

    K. Ohta, T, Shibata, T. Kawai, M. Otsuki, N. Miyake, Y. Yoshihara,T. Iwasaki

    IDW '05,pp.1735-1738 

    Presentation date: 2005.12

  • Crowdedness estimation in public pedestrian space for pedestrian guidance

    S. Toyosawa, T. Kawai

    IEEE ITSC 2005,pp.137-142 

    Presentation date: 2005.09

  • Ergonomic evaluation of color breakup in field-sequential color projection system

    T. Shibata, T. Kawai, S. H. Kim, K. Ukai

    IMID 2005 DIGEST,pp.121-124 

    Presentation date: 2005.07

  • 3D display system and application with optical correction

    T. Kawai  [Invited]

    IMID 2005 DIGEST,pp.111-116 

    Presentation date: 2005.07

  • Stereoscopic 3-D display with dynamic optical correction for recovering from asthenopia

    T. Shibata, T. Kawai, M. Otsuki, N. Miyake, Y. Yoshihara,T. Iwasaki

    SPIE,Vol.5664,pp.1-9 

    Presentation date: 2005.01

  • Ergonomic evaluation of a projector using field sequential color projection system

    E. Umezawa, T. Shibata, T. Kawai, K. Ukai

    IDW '04,pp.1531-1534 

    Presentation date: 2004.12

  • Development and evaluation of stereoscopic 3-D display with dynamic optical correction

    T. Shibata, T. Kawai, M. Otsuki, N. Miyake, Y. Yoshihara,T. Iwasaki, N. Terashima

    IDW '04,pp.1555-1558 

    Presentation date: 2004.12

  • Virtual restoration and analysis of important cultural properties using 3D model constructed by X-ray CT

    H. Morikawa, M. Kawaguchi, T. Kawai, Y. Sakuraba, K. Ohashi

    VSMM 2004,pp.201-208 

    Presentation date: 2004.11

  • 3D scanning and use of digital data in study of grottos in Sichuan, China

    M. Kawaguchi, H. Morikawa, T. Kawai, T, Hamada,R. Hida

    VSMM 2004,pp.179-187 

    Presentation date: 2004.11

  • Development of a stereoscopic 3D display system to observe restored heritage

    H. Morikawa, M. Kawaguchi, T. Kawai, J. Ohya

    SPIE,Vol.5291,pp.415-422 

    Presentation date: 2004.01

  • Production and evaluation of stereoscopic video presentation in surgical training

    J. Ilgner, T. Kawai, M. Wethofen, T. Shibata

    SPIE,Vol.5291,pp.293-302 

    Presentation date: 2004.01

  • Development and evaluation of amusement machine using autostereoscopic 3D display

    T. Kawai, T. Shibata, Y. Shimizu, M. Kawata, M. Suto

    SPIE,Vol.5291,pp.1-8 

    Presentation date: 2004.01

  • Development of stereoscopic 3D display system with optical correction

    T. Shibata, T. Kawai, K. Ohta, N. Miyake, Y. Yoshihara,T. Inoue, T. Iwasaki, N. Terashima

    Proceedings of the XVth Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association 

    Presentation date: 2003.08

  • Application of an illusion for tactile interface

    H. Morikawa, T. Kawai, H. Kubota, H. Nagashima

    Proceedings of the XVth Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association 

    Presentation date: 2003.08

  • Integrated evaluation system for multimedia contents

    T. Inoue, T. Kawai, M. Kazama, A. Ito, H. Fujimura, T. Hanamura, N. Sakaki

    Proceedings of the XVth Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association 

    Presentation date: 2003.08

  • Evaluation of motion sickness caused by videogames

    K. Ohta, T. Kawai, Y. Ebine, T. Shoji, A. Etori, T. Konuma, K. Murayama

    Proceedings of the XVth Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association 

    Presentation date: 2003.08

  • Evaluation of a TV program for infants using image processing

    T. Kawai, S. Sakai, Y. Takahashi, H. Hattori, N. Isshiki

    Proceedings of the XVth Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association 

    Presentation date: 2003.08

  • Examination of a stereoscopic 3-D display system using a correction lens

    T. Kawai, T. Shibata, K. Ohta, Y. Yoshihara,T. Inoue, T. Iwasaki

    SPIE,Vol.5006,pp.254-262 

    Presentation date: 2003.01

  • Development of an electro-optical 3D adapter for stereoscopic video recording

    T. Shibata, T. Kawai, T. Inoue, Y. Sakaguchi, K. Okabe, Y. Kuno

    SPIE,Vol.4660,pp.325-330 

    Presentation date: 2002.01

  • Development of software for editing stereoscopic 3-D movies

    T. Kawai, T, Shibata,T. Inoue, Y. Sakaguchi, K. Okabe, Y. Kuno

    SPIE,Vol.4660,pp.58-65 

    Presentation date: 2002.01

  • Stereoscopic 3-D images and open learning

    T. Kawai, T. Shibata, K. Noro, M. Bitoh, W. Kameyama, Y. Urano, Y. Ogura, N. Sasaki, A. Ishida, H. Kidera

    VSMM 2000,pp. 339-345 

    Presentation date: 2000.10

  • Production of stereoscopic 3-D movies of a Spanish monastery for a digital archive

    T. Kawai, T, Shibata, T. Mochizuki, K. Noro

    SPIE,Vol.3957,pp.284-287 

    Presentation date: 2000.01

  • Virtual museum of Japanese-Buddhist temple features for intercultural communication

    T. Kawai, H. Takao, T. Inoue, H. Miyamoto, K. Noro

    SPIE,Vol.3295,pp.144-147 

    Presentation date: 1998.01

▼display all

Specific Research

  • 公共空間におけるタッチレスインタフェースの基礎検討

    2020  

     View Summary

    本研究では、ポスト・コロナ時代におけるヒューマンインタフェース・インタラクションの概念として、SDUI(Social Distance User Interface)を提案し、社会実装を想定したSDUIの実施例としてクロスモーダル3Dディスプレイシステムを構築し、その基本特性を評価した。具体的に、身体部位に重畳表示された虚像によって微弱な触感が生起されるという、研究代表者らの先行研究に基づき「実際には触れていないのに、触れたような感覚が得られる」という視覚誘発型微触感錯覚を応用したクロスモーダルシステムを試作した。これを公共空間におけるタッチ型インタフェースのイノベーションの一形態と位置付け、その基本特性について人間工学的なアプローチによる実験的検討を行った。

  • 拡張クロスモダリティとダイバーシティ体験

    2019  

     View Summary

    本研究課題では、バーチャルリアリティ(VR)技術における新たなアプローチとして「拡張クロスモダリティ」という概念を提唱し、その要件や有効性について実証的な検討を行った。拡張クロスモダリティとは、「所望する感覚や体験に伴う生体情報を、感覚刺激として解析・変換・表現する」アプローチである。拡張クロスモダリティの実証的な取り組みの過程において、他者の身体機能や精神状態の対象とし、スポーツ選手の感覚や体験の解析・変換・表現を選定した。具体的には、本学オリンピック・パラリンピック事業推進室等との連携により、フェンシング選手に乗り移ったかのような体験を意図したVRシステムについて試作・評価を行った。

  • バーチャルリアリティ体験の日常生活行動としての位置づけと要因・相互作用の分析

    2017  

     View Summary

    本研究では、日常生活におけるバーチャルリアリティ(VR)体験の生体に与える影響に着目し、心拍変動を指標とした実験的な検討を行った。目的は、日常生活行動におけるVR体験の位置づけと、生活行動の一つとしての有効活用への知見を得ることである。実験的検討では10例の参加者を対象として、3日間の心拍変動の連続測定を行い、1日1回の30分間のVR体験を求めた。結果から、積極的なインタラクションを生起するVR体験によって、心拍変動から求めたストレス値が減少する傾向が認められた。

  • 錯覚を利用したサイバースペース介入システムの開発

    2003  

     View Summary

    本研究課題では、仮想空間(サイバースペース)における、より直感的な操作を可能とするインタフェースデバイスの開発を目的とし、知覚心理学領域で報告された錯覚を応用することで、仮想の物体に身体感覚を誘発させるシステムの試作を行い、その効果について検討を行った。実験システムの構築にあたり、仮想の手と実際の手との空間的整合性を保って呈示するディスプレイシステムを開発した。このディスプレイシステムと、触覚フィードバック機構を備えたデータグローブ、視覚刺激用映像と触覚刺激を同期させて出力するコンピュータによって、実験システムを構築した。構築したシステムを用いて、仮想の手にも身体感覚を誘発させる錯覚が発生するか実験的に検証を行った。次に、錯覚発生に影響する要因について、錯覚を誘発しやすい視・触覚刺激の呈示方法、およびサイバースペースの表現方法について、評価実験により検討を行った。実験の結果、仮想の物体にも同様に錯覚が発生することが確認された、また、刺激呈示方法については、刺激定位がより正確に知覚できる条件でもっとも錯覚が発生しやすいことがわかった。さらに、本システムのインタフェースシステムとしての効果を検証するために、実験で用いたシステムにインタラクションを可能にする機構を付加した。このシステムを用い、インタラクションを付加させた状態の錯覚発生に与える影響について、インタビュー法による主観評価実験を行った。結果として、インタラクションを実現させるために必要な装置を手指に付加させることが、錯覚発生を抑制してしまうという意見が多く聞かれた。インタフェースとして錯覚を利用するためには、その表現方法についての工夫が必要になると示唆された。本研究で得られた知見から、今後の課題として、インタラクションを付加させる際の、システムの構築方法について検討が必要であると考えられた。

  • リハビリテーションおよび緩和ケアを目的とした立体ディスプレイシステムの開発と評価

    2001  

     View Summary

     本研究は、立体映像技術を、高齢者のリハビリテーションや緩和ケアへ応用するための取り組みである。前年度までの経緯として、指向性反射スクリーンによる立体ディスプレイを歩行訓練機に搭載し、高齢者を対象として、立体映像コンテンツの観察を伴った歩行訓練を行った。その結果から、高齢者の立体映像コンテンツに対する興味や意見を確認でき、高齢者を対象とする際の課題と、システム開発におけるハードウェア設計の改善が示唆された。そこで今年度は、本システムの福祉領域での実用化を目的として、システム設計に関するパラメトリックなデータの取得を行った。 具体的には、ADLスコアが比較的高く、歩行訓練をリハビリテーションとして処方できる、高齢者11例(男性6例、女性5例。平均年齢75.6+-9.4歳)を被験者として、歩行訓練中の観察中心位置を測定した。結果から、上下方向には約40cm(トレッドミル上115~155cm)、前後方向には約45cm(サポートアーム前端から20~65cm)、左右方向には約25cmの移動範囲があることが分かった。左右方向においては、片足に支障がある場合、片側に寄ってしまうという傾向も見られた。本立体ディスプレイは、立体映像観察のためのメガネを装着する必要がない反面、観察位置がある程度限定される。被験者のプロトコル結果とあわせ、本システムの観察位置の裕度は、前後方向に5cm未満、左右方向に5cm未満であることが分かった。それより、高齢者の身体特性を考慮したシステム設計も必要であることが示唆された。 本研究の今後の方向性としては、システム開発に加え、コンテンツに関する検討と評価、そして表情や身体動作の測定機能の付加など、福祉領域での実用化を目指し、システムの最適化を図っていきたいと考えている。

  • 福祉応用を目的とした立体映像コンテンツに関する研究

    2000  

     View Summary

     本研究は、立体映像技術を、高齢者のリハビリテーションや緩和ケアへ応用するための取り組みである。前年度までの経緯として、指向性反射スクリーンによる立体ディスプレイを用いて、高齢者に立体映像を呈示し、立体視機能の調査を行うと共に、対象者の選定に関する検討を行ってきた。その結果、対象者選定の一基準として、ADLスコアを手がかりとすることが示唆された。 これを踏まえて本研究では、この立体ディスプレイを歩行訓練機に搭載し、ADLスコアが比較的高い高齢者を対象として、立体映像コンテンツの観察を伴った歩行訓練を行った。呈示したコンテンツとしては、(1)奈良県薬師寺の建築物や仏像、(2)スペインの修道院、(3)公園のウォークスルー、を用意した。その結果、「歩行訓練中に映像があった方がよい」といった肯定的な意見と、「歩行訓練と映像観察というように複数のことを同時に行うのは困難だ」といった否定的な意見が聞かれた。それにより、高齢者の立体映像コンテンツに対する興味や意見を確認でき、高齢者を対象とする際の課題と、システム開発におけるハードウェア設計の改善が示唆された。また、この実験では、立体映像の観察時間は長くても約15分間であったが、自覚的な眼精疲労は認められなかった。 立体映像の利用により、平面映像と比べてより高度な情報の呈示が可能となる。しかし、それを高齢者を対象とした福祉分野へ応用する場合、さまざまな課題が残されていることが、本研究を通して明らかになった。今後は、コンテンツに関する検討と評価に加え、システム設計に関するパラメトリックなデータの取得を行い、福祉領域での実用化を目指したいと考えている。

  • バーチャルリアリティを応用した痴呆性高齢者の診断・リハビリシステムの開発と評価

    1999  

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     本研究は、バーチャルリアリティ技術を、高齢者のリハビリテーションへ適用するための取り組みである。筆者らは、昨年度までに痴呆性高齢者の表情の測定と解析を行っており、軽度の痴呆性高齢者が、映像刺激に対して強い興味を抱く傾向が認められている。そこで本研究では、映像刺激として高臨場感な立体映像を利用した、リハビリテーション機器の開発を検討している。今年度は、立体ディスプレイシステムを試験的に構築し、痴呆性高齢者に立体映像の観察を求め、両眼立体視機能に関する調査と、本システムに適した患者の検討を行った。 実験は、山口県下関市の昭和病院のリハビリテーション室で実施した。日常会話が行える程度の軽度の痴呆性高齢者10例に対し、ランダム・ドット・ステレオグラムと海中風景などの実写映像を観察させた。立体映像の呈示には、指向性反射スクリーンを用いた投射型立体ディスプレイを用いた。このディスプレイは、明るい部屋で特殊なメガネを着用することなく、大画面の立体映像を鑑賞することが可能という特徴があり、病院内での利用に適していると考えられた。データの測定は、映像観察中の、問いかけによる立体視の確認の他、2台のビデオカメラで被験者の表情と身体動作の撮影を行った。また、映像呈示後に、本システムで用いるコンテンツに関するインタビューも行った。さらに、映像呈示前後に、眼精疲労に関する自覚症状の調査を行った。 実験の結果から、8例の被験者のうち、6例が呈示映像に対して立体視を形成していることが推測された。解析においては、痴呆度を示す長谷川式スコアとADLスコアに関して、立体視形成との関係を検討した。各スコアに関して、ノンパラメトリック検定を行ったところ、ADLスコアと立体視形成において、5%水準で有意差が認められた。これは、痴呆性高齢者の立体映像との適合性について、痴呆度よりもADLスコアとの関連性が高いことを示唆している。同時に、ADLスコアが高い被験者ほど、立体映像に対し、強い興味を示す傾向が認められた。また、眼精疲労に関する調査では、映像呈示前後での顕著な変化は認められなかった。 本研究の今後の課題としては、(1)システムの試作と評価、(2)コンテンツの選定と制作、(3)リハビリテーション効果の検討等が残されている。

  • 痴呆患者の笑い表情の測定と解析

    1998  

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     本研究の目的は、痴呆患者の笑い表情の収録を行い、その所見から痴呆の表情に与える影響を検討することである。将来的には、痴呆の非侵襲的な診断などのパラメディカルな応用が期待できる。 笑い表情の収録には、光学結合型の臨場感通信システムを使用した。呈示内容には、ホームビデオで撮影した子供や動物のハプニングや失敗などを、20分程度に編集したものを選択した。痴呆症患者55例を含む66例の入院患者(71.5±23.5才)の表情を測定した。なお、被験者の分類は、長谷川式スコアから判別した。 笑い表情では、眼裂の上下の収縮、口角の左右の伸長という、一貫した距離変化が見られることから、各特徴点間距離を求めた。笑い始めから笑い形成までの被験者の表情を、等間隔でフレーム抽出し、各被験者の笑い始めの特徴点間距離をベースラインとした変化率に変換した。結果から、痴呆が高度になるほど眼裂の収縮が小さく、左右差が大きくなることが分かった。また、前頭葉、頭頂葉に障害のある方が、眼裂の収縮に左右差が大きくなる傾向が認められた。 本実験の結果から、痴呆の高度や障害部位の笑い表情に与える影響は、眼裂の収縮の大きさや左右差において顕著であることが分かった。一方、口角の伸長では、痴呆の高度や障害部位による差異は認められなかった。また、本研究を進める上で、非痴呆患者や軽度の痴呆患者に、映像刺激に対して強い興味を持つ場合が多いことが分かった。今後は、被験者数の増加や分析方法の検討に加えて、映像刺激を用いたリハビリシステムへの表情測定機能の付加といった、応用領域の検討も併せて行いたいと考えている。

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