Updated on 2022/05/19

写真a

 
TOGAWA, Nozomu
 
Affiliation
Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Fundamental Science and Engineering
Job title
Professor
Profile
1992年早稲田大学理工学部卒業.1997年同大学院理工学研究科博士後期課程修了.同年博士(工学).早稲田大学助手・講師,北九州市立大学助教授等を経て,2009年より,早稲田大学理工学術院教授(現在に至る).集積システム設計,セキュリティ等が専門.

Concurrent Post

  • Faculty of Science and Engineering   Graduate School of Fundamental Science and Engineering

  • Affiliated organization   Global Education Center

Research Institute

  • 2021
    -
    2022

    データ科学センター   兼任センター員

  • 2020
    -
    2022

    理工学術院総合研究所   兼任研究員

  • 2020
    -
    2022

    国際情報通信研究センター   兼任研究員

  • 2020
    -
    2022

    リサーチイノベ オープンイノベーション推進セクション   兼任センター員

  • 2018
    -
    2023

    次世代コンピューティング基盤研究所   プロジェクト研究所所長

Education

  • 1994.04
    -
    1997.03

    Waseda University   Graduate School of Science and Engineering   Electrical Engieering  

  • 1992.04
    -
    1994.03

    Waseda University   Graduate School of Science and Engineering  

  • 1988.04
    -
    1992.03

    Waseda University   School of Science and Engineering  

Degree

  • Waseda University   Dr. Eng.

Research Experience

  • 2009.04
    -
    Now

    Waseda University   Faculty of Science and Engineering

  • 2007.04
    -
    2009.03

    Waseda University   Faculty of Science and Engineering

  • 2005.04
    -
    2007.03

    Waseda University   Faculty of Science and Engineering

  • 2001.04
    -
    2005.03

    The University of Kitakyushu   Faculty of Environmental Engineering

  • 2000.04
    -
    2001.03

    Waseda University   Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering

  • 1997.04
    -
    2000.03

    Waseda University   School of Science and Engineering

▼display all

Professional Memberships

  •  
     
     

    ACM

  •  
     
     

    IEEE

  •  
     
     

    情報処理学会

  •  
     
     

    電子情報通信学会

 

Research Areas

  • Information security

  • Computer system

Research Interests

  • information security

  • integrated system design

Papers

  • QUBO Matrix Distorting Method for Consumer Applications.

    Tomokazu Yoshimura, Tatsuhiko Shirai, Masashi Tawada, Nozomu Togawa

    ICCE     1 - 6  2022  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • Efficient Coefficient Bit-Width Reduction Method for Ising Machines.

    Yuta Yachi, Yousuke Mukasa, Masashi Tawada, Nozomu Togawa

    ICCE     1 - 6  2022  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • A PDR Method Using Smartglasses Reducing Accumulated Errors by Detecting User's Stop Motions.

    Dai Sato, Nozomu Togawa

    ICCE     1 - 2  2022  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • Carrying-mode Free Indoor Positioning Using Smartphone and Smartwatch and Its Evaluations.

    Tomoya Wakaizumi, Nozomu Togawa

    J. Inf. Process.   30   52 - 65  2022  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • An Anomalous Behavior Detection Method Based on Power Analysis Utilizing Steady State Power Waveform Predicted by LSTM

    Kazunari Takasaki, Ryoichi Kida, Nozomu Togawa

    Proceedings - 2021 IEEE 27th International Symposium on On-Line Testing and Robust System Design, IOLTS 2021     1 - 7  2021.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Hardware security issues have emerged in recent years as Internet of Things (IoT) devices have rapidly spread. Power analysis is one of the methods to detect anomalous operations, but it is hard to apply it to IoT devices where an operating system and various software programs are running and hence its power waveforms become more complex. In this paper, we propose an anomalous behavior detection method utilizing application-specific power behaviors extracted by steady-state power waveform, which is generated by LSTM (long short-term memory). The proposed method is based on extracting application-specific power behaviors by predicting steady-state power waveforms. At that time, by using LSTM, we can effectively predict steady-state power waveforms, even if they include one or more cycled waveforms and/or they are composed of many complex waveforms. In the experiment, we implement three normal application programs and one anomalous application program on a single board computer and apply the proposed method to it. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method successfully detects the anomalous power behavior of an anomalous application program, while the existing method cannot.

    DOI

  • Hardware-trojan classification based on the structure of trigger circuits utilizing random forests

    Tatsuki Kurihara, Nozomu Togawa

    Proceedings - 2021 IEEE 27th International Symposium on On-Line Testing and Robust System Design, IOLTS 2021     1 - 4  2021.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Recently, with the spread of Internet of Things (IoT) devices, embedded hardware devices have been used in a variety of everyday electrical items. Due to the increased demand for embedded hardware devices, some of the IC design and manufacturing steps have been outsourced to third-party vendors. Since malicious third-party vendors may insert malicious circuits, called hardware Trojans, into their products, developing an effective hardware Trojan detection method is strongly required. In this paper, we propose 25 hardware-Trojan features based on the structure of trigger circuits for machine-learning-based hardware Trojan detection. Combining the proposed features into 11 existing hardware-Trojan features, we totally utilize 36 hardware-Trojan features for classification. Then we classify the nets in an unknown netlist into a set of normal nets and Trojan nets based on the random-forest classifier. The experimental results demonstrate that the average true positive rate (TPR) becomes 63.6% and the average true negative rate (TNR) becomes 100.0%. They improve the average TPR by 14.7 points while keeping the average TNR compared to existing state-of-the-art methods. In particular, the proposed method successfully finds out Trojan nets in several benchmark circuits, which are not found by the existing method.

    DOI

  • Data Augmentation for Machine Learning-Based Hardware Trojan Detection at Gate-Level Netlists

    Kento Hasegawa, Seira Hidano, Kohei Nozawa, Shinsaku Kiyomoto, Nozomu Togawa

    Proceedings - 2021 IEEE 27th International Symposium on On-Line Testing and Robust System Design, IOLTS 2021     1 - 4  2021.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Due to the rapid growth in the information and telecommunications industries, an untrusted vendor might compromise the complicated supply chain by inserting hardware Trojans (HTs). Although hardware Trojan detection methods at gate-level netlists employing machine learning have been developed, the training dataset is insufficient. In this paper, we propose a data augmentation method for machine-learning-based hardware Trojan detection. Our proposed method replaces a gate in a hardware Trojan circuit with logically equivalent gates. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method successfully enhances the classification performance with all the classifiers in terms of the true positive rates (TPRs).

    DOI

  • An Approach to the Vehicle Routing Problem with Balanced Pick-up Using Ising Machines

    Siya Bao, Masashi Tawada, Shu Tanaka, Nozomu Togawa

    2021 International Symposium on VLSI Design, Automation and Test, VLSI-DAT 2021 - Proceedings    2021.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Vehicle routing problems (VRPs) can be solved as optimization problems. Practical applications of the VRPs are involved in various areas including manufacturing, supply chain, and tourism. Conventional approaches using von Neumann computers obtain good approximate solutions to the optimization problems, but conventional approaches show disadvantages of computation costs in large-scale or complex problems due to the combinatorial explosion. Oppositely, Ising machines or quantum annealing machines are non-von Neumann computers that are designed to solve complex optimization problems. In this paper, we propose an Ising-machine based approach for the vehicle routing problem with balanced pick-up (VRPBP). The development of the VRPBP is motivated by postal items pick-up services in the real-world. Our approach includes various features of VRP variants. We propose a 2-phase approach to solve the VRPBP and key elements in each phase are mapped onto quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) forms. Specifically, the first phase belongs to the clustering phase which is an extension to the knapsack problem with additional distance and load balancing concerns. The second phase is mapped to the traveling salesman problem. Experimental results of our approach are evaluated in terms of solution quality and computation time compared with conventional approaches.

    DOI

  • Mapping induced subgraph isomorphism problems to ising models and its evaluations by an ising machine

    Natsuhito Yoshimura, Masashi Tawada, Shu Tanaka, Junya Arai, Satoshi Yagi, Hiroyuki Uchiyama, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems   E104.D ( 4 ) 481 - 489  2021.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    SUMMARY Ising machines have attracted attention as they are expected to solve combinatorial optimization problems at high speed with Ising models corresponding to those problems. An induced subgraph isomorphism problem is one of the decision problems, which determines whether a specific graph structure is included in a whole graph or not. The problem can be represented by equality constraints in the words of combinatorial optimization problem. By using the penalty functions corresponding to the equality constraints, we can utilize an Ising machine to the induced subgraph isomorphism problem. The induced subgraph isomorphism problem can be seen in many practical problems, for example, finding out a particular malicious circuit in a device or particular network structure of chemical bonds in a compound. However, due to the limitation of the number of spin variables in the current Ising machines, reducing the number of spin variables is a major concern. Here, we propose an efficient Ising model mapping method to solve the induced subgraph isomorphism problem by Ising machines. Our proposed method theoretically solves the induced subgraph isomorphism problem. Furthermore, the number of spin variables in the Ising model generated by our proposed method is theoretically smaller than that of the conventional method. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method can successfully solve the induced subgraph isomorphism problem by using the Ising-model based simulated annealing and a real Ising machine.

    DOI

  • Solving constrained slot placement problems using an ising machine and its evaluations

    Sho Kanamaru, Kazushi Kawamura, Shu Tanaka, Yoshinori Tomita, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems   E104D ( 2 ) 226 - 236  2021.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Ising machines have attracted attention, which is expected to obtain better solutions of various combinatorial optimization problems at high speed by mapping the problems to natural phenomena. A slot-placement problem is one of the combinatorial optimization problems, regarded as a quadratic assignment problem, which relates to the optimal logic-block placement in a digital circuit as well as optimal delivery planning. Here, we propose a mapping to the Ising model for solving a slot-placement problem with additional constraints, called a constrained slot-placement problem, where several item pairs must be placed within a given distance. Since the behavior of Ising machines is stochastic and we map the problem to the Ising model which uses the penalty method, the obtained solution does not always satisfy the slot-placement constraint, which is different from the conventional methods such as the conventional simulated annealing. To resolve the problem, we propose an interpretation method in which a feasible solution is generated by post-processing procedures. We measured the execution time of an Ising machine and compared the execution time of the simulated annealing in which solutions with almost the same accuracy are obtained. As a result, we found that the Ising machine is faster than the simulated annealing that we implemented.

    DOI

  • An Indoor Positioning Method using Smartphone and Smartwatch Independent of Carrying Modes

    Tomoya Wakaizumi, Nozomu Togawa

    Digest of Technical Papers - IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics   2021-January  2021.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    A pedestrian dead reckoning method, or PDR method in short, is one of the positioning methods in indoor environments, which estimates user's positions by using sensors such as acceleration and angular velocity sensors. When we consider using a smartphone as a PDR sensor device, it has various carrying modes such as holding it directly and carrying it inside a pocket. How to deal with these various carrying modes is the great concern in PDR using a smartphone. In this paper, we propose a PDR method based on a combination of a smartphone and a smartwatch. By synchronizing smartphone and smartwatch sensors effectively, the proposed method can successfully reduce drift errors and thus estimate accurate user's positions, compared to just using a smartphone. Furthermore, even when the user carries his/her smartphone in various carrying modes, the proposed method still realizes accurate PDR. The experimental results demonstrate that the positioning errors are reduced by approximately 87.5% on average compared to the existing method.

    DOI

  • Visiting-Route Recommendation in Amusement Parks and its Evaluations by an Ising Machine

    Yosuke Mukasa, Tomoya Wakaizumi, Shu Tanaka, Nozomu Togawa

    Digest of Technical Papers - IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics   2021-January   1 - 6  2021.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In an amusement park, an attraction-visiting route considering the waiting time and traveling time improves visitors' satisfaction and experience. We focus on Ising machines to solve the problem, which are recently expected to solve combinatorial optimization problems at high speed by mapping the problems to Ising models or quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) models. We propose a mapping of the visiting-route recommendation problem in amusement parks to a QUBO model for solving it using Ising machines. By using an actual Ising machine, we could obtain feasible solutions 15 times faster with almost the same accuracy as the simulated annealing method for the visiting-route recommendation problem.

    DOI

  • Reducing Writing Energy Consumption for Non-Volatile Registers Utilizing Frequent Patterns of Sequential Bits on RISC-V Architecture

    Shota Matsuno, Masashi Tawada, Nozomu Togawa

    Digest of Technical Papers - IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics   2021-January   1 - 6  2021.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Single-board computers have been widely spread and used in a variety of situations, where they may be requested to operate under low-energy conditions or with an unstable power supply. Utilizing non-volatile memory (NVM) retaining data without power must be one of the effective solutions to tackle this issue. However, compared to volatile memory such as SRAM and DRAM, NVM consumes more energy in writing operations. In this paper, we propose an effective energy reduction method for RISC-V architecture, targeting one of NVMs called spin-transfer torque RAMs (STT-RAM). Firstly, we thoroughly investigate the writing bit patterns to registers in RISC-V architecture for various typical application programs and find out that most of them can be classified into three patterns, in which most bits in writing 32-bit data are 0s (zero's). Secondly, we propose an energy-reduced register-writing method utilizing these frequent writing bit patterns. In this method, when a writing data falls into one of the three frequent bit writing patterns above, we just write the bit pattern type into the extra bits and do not write actual data into registers and hence we can reduce the write energy in NVM register writing extremely. Experimental results on RISC-V architecture demonstrate that the energy consumption is reduced by 12.5%-53.8% by using our proposed method compared to the baseline architecture.

    DOI

  • A PDR Method Combining Smartphone and Smartwatch based on Multi-Scenario Map Matching.

    Tomoya Wakaizumi, Nozomu Togawa

    GCCE     308 - 309  2021  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • An autonomous driving system utilizing image processing accelerated by FPGA.

    Kazunari Takasaki, Kota Hisafuru, Ryotaro Negishi, Kazuki Yamashita, Keisuke Fukada, Tomoya Wakaizumi, Nozomu Togawa

    FPT     1 - 4  2021  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • Toward Learning Robust Detectors from Imbalanced Datasets Leveraging Weighted Adversarial Training.

    Kento Hasegawa, Seira Hidano, Shinsaku Kiyomoto, Nozomu Togawa

    CANS     392 - 411  2021  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • A Three-Stage Annealing Method Solving Slot-Placement Problems Using an Ising Machine.

    Keisuke Fukada, Matthieu Parizy, Yoshinori Tomita, Nozomu Togawa

    IEEE Access   9   134413 - 134426  2021  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • Experimental evaluations of parallel tempering on an ising machine

    Yosuke Mukasa, Shu Tanaka, Nozomu Togawa

    IPSJ Transactions on System LSI Design Methodology   14   27 - 29  2021  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Ising machines have recently attracted much attention because they are expected to solve combinatorial optimization problems efficiently. We focus on an Ising machine whose algorithm is based on parallel tempering (PT), and experimentally evaluate the performance of the Ising machine for MIN-CUT problems. Experimental results show that the Ising machine outperforms a famous graph partitioning solver in terms of the quality of solution and the time-to-target-solution.

    DOI

  • Performance Comparison of Typical Binary-Integer Encodings in an Ising Machine

    Kensuke Tamura, Tatsuhiko Shirai, Hosho Katsura, Shu Tanaka, Nozomu Togawa

    IEEE Access   9   81032 - 81039  2021  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The differences in performance among binary-integer encodings in an Ising machine, which can solve combinatorial optimization problems, are investigated. Many combinatorial optimization problems can be mapped to find the lowest-energy (ground) state of an Ising model or its equivalent model, the Quadratic Unconstrained Binary Optimization (QUBO). Since the Ising model and QUBO consist of binary variables, they often express integers as binary when using Ising machines. A typical example is the combinatorial optimization problem under inequality constraints. Here, the quadratic knapsack problem is adopted as a prototypical problem with an inequality constraint. It is solved using typical binary-integer encodings: one-hot encoding, binary encoding, and unary encoding. Unary encoding shows the best performance for large-sized problems.

    DOI

  • Generating adversarial examples for hardware-trojan detection at gate-level netlists

    Kohei Nozawa, Kento Hasegawa, Seira Hidano, Shinsaku Kiyomoto, Kazuo Hashimoto, Nozomu Togawa

    Journal of Information Processing   29   236 - 246  2021  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Recently, the great demand for integrated circuits (ICs) drives third parties to be involved in IC design and manufacturing steps. At the same time, the threat of injecting a malicious circuit, called a hardware Trojan, by third parties has been increasing. Machine learning is one of the powerful solutions for detecting hardware Trojans. How-ever, a weakness of such a machine-learning-based classification method against adversarial examples (AEs) has been reported, which causes misclassification by adding perturbation in input samples. This paper firstly proposes a framework generating adversarial examples for hardware-Trojan detection at gate-level netlists utilizing neural networks. The proposed framework replaces hardware Trojan circuits with logically equivalent ones, and makes it difficult to detect them. Secondly, we propose a Trojan-net concealment degree (TCD) and a modification evaluating value (MEV) as measures of the amount of modifications. Finally, based on the MEV, we pick up adversarial modification patterns to apply to the circuits against hardware-Trojan detection. The experimental results using benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed framework successfully decreases the true positive rate (TPR) by a maximum of 30.15 points.

    DOI

  • A route recommendation method considering individual user’s preferences by monte-carlo tree search and its evaluations

    Yuta Ishizaki, Yurie Koyama, Toshinori Takayama, Nozomu Togawa

    Journal of Information Processing   29   81 - 92  2021  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    As smartphones and tablets are widely spread and used, route recommendation and guidance services have become commonplace. Conventional services in route recommendation and guidance try to give best routes in terms of route length, time required, and train/bus fares, whereas even different users are given the same route when inputting the same parameters. However, each user has various preferences from the aspect of safety and comfort. It is strongly desirable to reflect the user’s preferences in route recommendation and recommend the most preferable route to every user. Since user’s preferences are extremely vague and complicated, how to evaluate them in route recommendation is one of the key problems there. In this paper, we propose a route recommendation method, called P-UCT method, considering individual user’s preferences utilizing Monte-Carlo tree search. In the proposed method, we firstly ex-tract route features based on the route recommendation history of every user and construct a route evaluator based on Support Vector Machine (SVM). After that, the method generates a random route from a start point to an end point by Monte-Carlo tree search. The route evaluator determines how well every generated route matches the user’s preferences. By repeating the evaluation, the method obtains the route, which must be closest to the user’s preferences. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the existing method from the viewpoint of the average evaluation scores. They also demonstrate that the proposed method provides the recommended route reflecting the user’s individual preferences even if it learns the recommended route history of areas in different situations.

    DOI

  • A capacitance measurement device for running hardware devices and its evaluations

    Makoto Nishizawa, Kento Hasegawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   E103A ( 9 ) 1018 - 1027  2020.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In IoT (Internet-of-Things) era, the number and variety of hardware devices becomes continuously increasing. Several IoT devices are utilized at infrastructure equipments. How to maintain such IoT devices is a serious concern. Capacitance measurement is one of the powerful ways to detect anomalous states in the structure of the hardware devices. Particularly, measuring capacitance while the hardware device is running is a major challenge but no such researches proposed so far. This paper proposes a capacitance measuring device which measures device capacitance in operation. We firstly combine the AC (alternating current) voltage signal with the DC (direct current) supply voltage signal and generates the fluctuating signal. We supply the fluctuating signal to the target device instead of supplying the DC supply voltage. By effectively filtering the observed current in the target device, the filtered current can be proportional to the capacitance value and thus we can measure the target device capacitance even when it is running. We have implemented the proposed capacitance measuring device on the printed wiring board with the size of 95 mm × 70 mm and evaluated power consumption and accuracy of the capacitance measurement. The experimental results demonstrate that power consumption of the proposed capacitance measuring device is reduced by 65% in low-power mode from measuring mode and proposed device successfully measured capacitance in 0.002 µF resolution.

    DOI

  • Trojan-net classification for gate-level hardware design utilizing boundary net structures

    Kento Hasegawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems   E103D ( 7 ) 1618 - 1622  2020.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Cybersecurity has become a serious concern in our daily lives. The malicious functions inserted into hardware devices have been well known as hardware Trojans. In this letter, we propose a hardware-Trojan classification method at gate-level netlists utilizing boundary net structures. We first use a machine-learning-based hardware-Trojan detection method and classify the nets in a given netlist into a set of normal nets and a set of Trojan nets. Based on the classification results, we investigate the net structures around the boundary between normal nets and Trojan nets, and extract the features of the nets mistakenly identified to be normal nets or Trojan nets. Finally, based on the extracted features of the boundary nets, we again classify the nets in a given netlist into a set of normal nets and a set of Trojan nets. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method outperforms an existing machine-learning-based hardware-Trojan detection method in terms of its true positive rate.

    DOI

  • An Anomalous Behavior Detection Method for IoT Devices by Extracting Application-Specific Power Behaviors

    Kazunari Takasaki, Kento Hasegawa, Ryoichi Kida, Nozomu Togawa

    Proceedings - 2020 26th IEEE International Symposium on On-Line Testing and Robust System Design, IOLTS 2020     1 - 4  2020.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    With the widespread use of Internet of Things (IoT) devices in recent years, we utilize a variety of hardware devices in our daily life. On the other hand, hardware security issues are emerging. Power analysis is one of the methods to detect anomalous operations, but it is hard to apply it to IoT devices where an operating system and various software programs are running. In this paper, we propose an anomalous behavior detection method for an IoT device by extracting application-specific power behaviors. First, we measure a power consumption of an IoT device, and obtain the power waveform. Next, we extract an application-specific power waveform by eliminating a steady factor from the obtained power waveform. Finally, we extract feature values from the application-specific power waveform and detect an anomalous behavior by utilizing the local outlier factor (LOF) method. The experimental results using a single board computer demonstrate that the proposed method successfully detects the anomalous power behavior of an anomalous application program.

    DOI

  • Evaluation on Hardware-Trojan Detection at Gate-Level IP Cores Utilizing Machine Learning Methods

    Tatsuki Kurihara, Kento Hasegawa, Nozomu Togawa

    Proceedings - 2020 26th IEEE International Symposium on On-Line Testing and Robust System Design, IOLTS 2020     1 - 4  2020.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Recently, with the spread of Internet of Things (IoT) devices, embedded hardware devices have been used in a variety of everyday electrical items. Due to the increased demand for embedded hardware devices, some of the IC design and manufacturing steps have been outsourced to third-party vendors. Since malicious third-party vendors may insert hardware Trojans into their products, developing an effective hardware Trojan detection method is strongly required. In this paper, we evaluate hardware Trojan detection methods using neural networks and random forests at gate-level intellectual property (IP) cores that contain more than 10,000 nets. First, we extract 11 features for each net in a given netlist, and learn them with neural networks and random forests. Then, we classify the nets in an unknown netlist into a set of normal nets and Trojan nets based on the learned classifiers. The experimental results demonstrate that the average true positive rate becomes 84.6% and the average true negative rate becomes 95.1%, which is sufficiently high accuracy compared to existing evaluations.

    DOI

  • Designing stochastic number generators sharing a random number source based on the randomization function

    Masashi Tawada, Nozomu Togawa

    NEWCAS 2020 - 18th IEEE International New Circuits and Systems Conference, Proceedings     271 - 274  2020.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this study, we propose a novel stochastic number generator architecture and prove that the resulting circuit can deliver independent stochastic numbers and improve the accuracy of the calculation results obtained using some recent conventional stochastic computing-based arithmetic circuits. This study is motivated by the increasingly important role of stochastic computing in various fields, such as the digital circuit design, where the stochastic number generators are responsible for a significant share of the hardware cost.

    DOI

  • Document-level sentiment classification in japanese by stem-based segmentation with category and data-source information

    Siya Bao, Nozomu Togawa

    Proceedings - 14th IEEE International Conference on Semantic Computing, ICSC 2020     311 - 314  2020.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Existing studies focus on text information while ignoring category and data source information, both of which are verified to be important in interpreting sentiments in travel comments in this paper. Furthermore, the unique linguistic characteristics of Japanese cause difficulty in applying the conventional token-based word segmentation methods to Japanese comments directly. In this paper, we propose a method of stem-based segmentation based on Japanese linguistic characteristics and incorporate it with category and data source information into a hierarchical network model for document-level sentiment classification. Empirical results of our proposed model outperform existing models on a real-world dataset.

    DOI

  • Multi-Resolutional Image Format Using Stochastic Numbers and Its Hardware Implementation

    Ryota Ishikawa, Masashi Tawada, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2020 IEEE 11th Latin American Symposium on Circuits and Systems, LASCAS 2020     1 - 4  2020.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The popularization of IoT devices made image processing very common for users. Image formats used in hardware abound since there are varieties of IoT devices. Conversion of image formats in hardware is relatively complicated compared with other calculation. This paper focuses on conversion of image resolution, especially image reduction. By expressing images with stochastic numbers, this paper proposes an image format which can be treated to be in several resolution with one data. From experimental evaluations, we found that the proposed image format enables image reduction by pixel average to be implemented into hardware with lower costs compared with conventional pixel average using binary numbers. Also, image magnification using the proposed image format can restore the original image, while conventional image magnification cannot.

    DOI

  • Adversarial examples for hardware-trojan detection at gate-level netlists

    Kohei Nozawa, Kento Hasegawa, Seira Hidano, Shinsaku Kiyomoto, Kazuo Hashimoto, Nozomu Togawa

    Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)   11980 LNCS   341 - 359  2020  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Recently, due to the increase of outsourcing in integrated circuit (IC) design and manufacturing, the threat of injecting a malicious circuit, called a hardware Trojan, by third party has been increasing. Machine learning has been known to produce a powerful model to detect hardware Trojans. But it is recently reported that such a machine learning based detection is weak against adversarial examples (AEs), which cause misclassification by adding perturbation in input data. Referring to the existing studies on adversarial examples, most of which are discussed in the field of image processing, this paper first proposes a framework generating adversarial examples for hardware-Trojan detection for gate-level netlists utilizing neural networks. The proposed framework replaces hardware Trojan circuits with logically equivalent circuits, and makes it difficult to detect them. Second, we define Trojan-net concealment degree (TCD) as a possibility of misclassification, and modification evaluating value (MEV) as a measure of the amount of modifications. Third, judging from MEV, we pick up adversarial modification patterns to apply to the circuits against hardware-Trojan detection. The experimental results using benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed framework successfully decreases true positive rate (TPR) by at most 30.15 points.

    DOI

  • How to Reduce the Bit-width of an Ising Model by Adding Auxiliary Spins

    Daisuke Oku, Masashi Tawada, Shu Tanaka, Nozomu Togawa

    IEEE Transactions on Computers   71 ( 1 ) 223 - 234  2020  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Annealing machines have been developed as non-von Neumann computers aimed at solving combinatorial optimization problems efficiently. To use annealing machines for solving combinatorial optimization problems, we have to represent the objective function and constraints by an Ising model, which is a theoretical model in statistical physics. Further, it is necessary to transform the Ising model according to the hardware limitations. In the transformation, the process of effectively reducing the bit-widths of coefficients in the Ising model has hardly been studied so far. Thus, when we consider the Ising model with a large bit-width, a naive method, which means right bit-shift, has to be applied. Since it is expected that obtaining highly accurate solutions is difficult by the naive method, it is necessary to construct a method for efficiently reducing the bit-width. This paper proposes methods for reducing the bit-widths of interaction and external magnetic field coefficients in the Ising model and proves that the reduction gives theoretically the same ground state of the original Ising model. The experimental evaluations also demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed methods.

    DOI

  • Guiding Principle for Minor-Embedding in Simulated-Annealing-Based Ising Machines

    Tatsuhiko Shirai, Shu Tanaka, Nozomu Togawa

    IEEE Access   8   210490 - 210502  2020  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We propose a novel type of minor-embedding (ME) in simulated-annealing-based Ising machines. The Ising machines can solve combinatorial optimization problems. Many combinatorial optimization problems are mapped to find the ground (lowest-energy) state of the logical Ising model. When connectivity is restricted on Ising machines, ME is required for mapping from the logical Ising model to a physical Ising model, which corresponds to a specific Ising machine. Herein we discuss the guiding principle of ME design to achieve a high performance in Ising machines. We derive the proposed ME based on a theoretical argument of statistical mechanics. The performance of the proposed ME is compared with two existing types of MEs for different benchmarking problems. Simulated annealing shows that the proposed ME outperforms existing MEs for all benchmarking problems, especially when the distribution of the degree in a logical Ising model has a large standard deviation. This study validates the guiding principle of using statistical mechanics for ME to realize fast and high-precision solvers for combinatorial optimization problems.

    DOI

  • A new LDPC code decoding method: Expanding the scope of ising machines

    Masashi Tawada, Shu Tanaka, Nozomu Togawa

    Digest of Technical Papers - IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics   2020-January   1 - 6  2020.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have previously been considered as combinatorial optimization problems (COPs) in respect to its decoding. However, after defining it as such, none have gone so far as to convert the LDPC code into a quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) problem. Thus, a new method is created: one that converts the LDPC code to a QUBO problem, inputs the QUBO problem into Ising machines (computers based on the Ising model that are designed to solve the QUBO problem), obtains the QUBO solution and converts it to a LDPC solution. By utilizing an actual Ising machine, LDPC solutions with code length of 256-bits have been obtained with an accuracy of 93.9% by average annealing time 214.0ms. The benefit of this newfound methodology goes beyond its theoretical imprint of obtaining LDPC solutions more accurately. It has only been a few years since the Ising machine has been developed. Therefore, in formulating this method, one expands the currently scope of studies involving Ising machines, helping current and future researchers unlock its full range of capabilities and possibilities.

    DOI

  • Theory of Ising Machines and a Common Software Platform for Ising Machines

    Shu Tanaka, Yoshiki Matsuda, Nozomu Togawa

    Proceedings of the Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference, ASP-DAC   2020-January   659 - 666  2020.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Ising machines are a new type of non-Neumann computer that specializes in solving combinatorial optimization problems efficiently. The input form of Ising machines is the energy function of the Ising model or quadratic unconstrained binary optimization form, and Ising machines operate to search for a condition to minimize the energy function. We describe the theory of Ising machines and the present status of the Ising machines, software for Ising machines, and applications using Ising machines.

    DOI

  • FPGA-based Heterogeneous Solver for Three-Dimensional Routing

    Kento Hasegawa, Ryota Ishikawa, Makoto Nishizawa, Kazushi Kawamura, Masashi Tawada, Nozomu Togawa

    Proceedings of the Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference, ASP-DAC   2020-January   11 - 12  2020.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    A heuristic algorithm is one of the approaches to solve an NP-hard problem. In order to enhance the capability of the system, heterogeneous computing is often adapted. In this paper, we propose an FPGA-based heterogeneous solver for three-dimensional routing. The proposed system is implemented into multiple FPGA boards and a single-board computer. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system outperforms a single FPGA system.

    DOI

  • Scalable stochastic number duplicators for accuracy-flexible arithmetic circuit design

    Ryota Ishikawa, Masashi Tawada, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IPSJ Transactions on System LSI Design Methodology   13   10 - 20  2020  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Stochastic computing is a computation method which can implement arithmetic operations by simple logic circuits. Stochastic numbers are used in this method, whose values are defined by their bit streams' appearance rates of 1's. As a nature of stochastic computing, changing the length of the input stochastic numbers will change the whole circuit's accuracy. However, in some implementations with re-convergence paths, the circuit itself will cause errors, i.e., the length of the input stochastic numbers does not change that circuit's accuracy. This paper proposes a stochastic number duplicator whose outputs differ every time and are all independent. This stochastic number duplicator has a scalable structure by changing the numbers of flip-flops for bit re-arrangement. From the experimental evaluations and discussions, we clarify that the proposed stochastic number duplicator enables accuracy-flexible circuits.

    DOI

  • A travel decision support algorithm: Landmark activity extraction from japanese travel comments

    Siya Bao, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    Studies in Computational Intelligence   849   109 - 123  2020  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    To help people smoothly and efficiently make travel decisions, we utilize the advantages of travel comments posted by thousands of other travelers. In this paper, we analyze the feasibility of exploring landmark activity queries and representative examples from Japanese travel comments. Contributions in this paper include a framework for extracting activity concerned keywords and queries, quantifying the relationship between landmark activities and comment contents. An evaluation of activity-example extraction is conducted in two case studies through 18,939 travel comments.

    DOI

  • Personalized Landmark Recommendation for Language-Specific Users by Open Data Mining

    Siya Bao, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    Studies in Computational Intelligence   791   107 - 121  2019  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    © 2019, Springer Nature Switzerland AG. This paper proposes a personalized landmark recommendation algorithm aiming at exploring new sights into the determinants of landmark satisfaction prediction. We gather 1,219,048 user-generated comments in Tokyo, Shanghai and New York from four travel websites. We find that users have diverse satisfaction on landmarks those findings, we propose an effective algorithm for personalize landmark satisfaction prediction. Our algorithm provides the top-6 landmarks with the highest satisfaction to users for a one-day trip plan our proposed algorithm has better performances than previous studies from the viewpoints of landmark recommendation and landmark satisfaction prediction.

    DOI

  • Bicycle Behavior Recognition Using 3-Axis Acceleration Sensor and 3-Axis Gyro Sensor Equipped with Smartphone.

    Yuri Usami, Kazuaki Ishikawa, Toshinori Takayama, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE Transactions   102-A ( 8 ) 953 - 965  2019  [Refereed]

  • Static Error Analysis and Optimization of Faithfully Truncated Adders for Area-Power Efficient FIR Designs.

    Jinghao Ye, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Youhua Shi

    IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, ISCAS 2019, Sapporo, Japan, May 26-29, 2019   2019-May   1 - 4  2019  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    © 2019 IEEE Faithfully truncated adders are used for low cost FIR implementations in this paper, which improves state-of-the-art CSD-based FIR filter designs for further area and power reduction while meeting the accuracy requirement. As a solution to the accuracy loss caused by truncated adders, this paper performed a static error analysis of truncated adders. Furthermore, based upon our mathematical analysis, we show that, with a given accuracy constraint, an optimal truncated adder configuration can be effortlessly determined for area-power efficient FIR designs. Evaluation results on various FIR designs showed that 16.8%~35.4% reduction in area and 11.8%~27.9% in power saving can be achieved with the proposed optimal truncated adder designs within an average error of 1 ulp.

    DOI

  • Efficient Ising Model Mapping to Solving Slot Placement Problem.

    Sho Kanamaru, Daisuke Oku, Masashi Tawada, Shu Tanaka, Masato Hayashi, Masanao Yamaoka, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics, ICCE 2019, Las Vegas, NV, USA, January 11-13, 2019     1 - 6  2019  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • An FPGA Implementation Method based on Distributed-register Architectures.

    Koichi Fujiwara, Kazushi Kawamura, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IPSJ Trans. System LSI Design Methodology   12   38 - 41  2019  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • A Robust Indoor/Outdoor Detection Method Based on Spatial and Temporal Features of Sparse GPS Measured Positions.

    Sae Iwata, Kazuaki Ishikawa, Toshinori Takayama, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE Transactions   102-A ( 6 ) 860 - 865  2019  [Refereed]

  • A Multiple Cyclic-Route Generation Method with Route Length Constraint Considering Point-of-Interests.

    Tensei Nishimura, Kazuaki Ishikawa, Toshinori Takayama, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE Transactions   102-A ( 4 ) 641 - 653  2019  [Refereed]

  • Personalized landmark recommendation algorithm based on language-specific satisfaction prediction using heterogeneous open data sources

    Siya Bao, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    Proceedings - 2018 10th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks, CICN 2018     70 - 76  2018.08

     View Summary

    © 2018 IEEE. This paper proposes a personalized landmark recommendation algorithm based on the prediction of users' satisfaction on landmarks. We have accumulated 270,239 user-generated comments from travel websites of Ctrip, Jaran and TripAdvisor for 196 landmarks in Tokyo, Japan. We find that users do have different satisfaction on landmarks depending on their commonly used languages and travel websites. Then we establish a database for landmarks with abundant and accurate landmark type and landmark satisfaction information. Finally, we propose an effective personalized landmark satisfaction prediction algorithm based on users' landmark type, language and travel website preferences. After that, landmarks with the top-6 highest satisfaction are provided to the user for a one-day visit plan in Tokyo. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can recommend landmarks that fit the user's preferences and our algorithm also successfully predicts the user's landmark satisfaction with a low error rate less than 7%, which is superior to other previous studies.

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  • Robust AES circuit design for delay variation using suspicious timing error prediction

    Yuki Yahagi, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    Proceedings - International SoC Design Conference 2017, ISOCC 2017     101 - 102  2018.05  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a robust AES (advanced encryption standard) circuit for delay variation. In our proposed AES circuit, suspicious timing error prediction circuits (STEPCs) and their associating gating circuit are incorporated into a normal AES circuit to predict timing errors. STEPCs are inserted between inter-module connections and thus we can monitor almost all of the signal paths between registers and effectively prevent timing errors. The simulation results demonstrate that our AES circuit with STEPCs can be overclocked by up to 1.66X with just 8.05% area overheads.

    DOI

  • A selector-based FFT processor and its FPGA implementation

    Yuya Hirai, Kazushi Kawamura, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    Proceedings - International SoC Design Conference 2017, ISOCC 2017     88 - 89  2018.05  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used in various applications such as signal processings and developing a high-speed FFT processor is quite required. In this paper, we propose a high-speed FFT processor based on selector logics. The selector-based FFT processor is constructed by focusing on the subtract-multiplication operations and partly applying selector logics to them. Furthermore, we implement the selector-based FFT processor on a Xilinx FPGA. Experimental results show that our proposed FFT processor can improve the processing speed by up to 21% and also reduce the number of LUTs by up to 33% compared with a naive FFT processor.

    DOI

  • A loop structure optimization targeting high-level synthesis of fast number theoretic transform

    Kazushi Kawamura, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    Proceedings - International Symposium on Quality Electronic Design, ISQED   2018-   106 - 111  2018.05  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Multiplication with a large number of digits is heavily used when processing data encrypted by a fully homomorphic encryption, which is a bottleneck in computation time. An algorithm utilizing fast number theoretic transform (FNTT) is known as a high-speed multiplication algorithm and the further speeding up is expected by implementing the FNTT process on an FPGA. A high-level synthesis tool enables efficient hardware implementation even for FNTT with a large number of points. In this paper, we propose a methodology for optimizing the loop structure included in a software description of FNTT so that the performance of the synthesized FNTT processor can be maximized. The loop structure optimization is considered in terms of loop flattening and trip count reduction. We implement a 65,536-point FNTT processor with the loop structure optimization on an FPGA, and demonstrate that it can be executed 6.9 times faster than the execution on a CPU.

    DOI

  • A stayed location estimation method for sparse GPS positioning information based on positioning accuracy and short-time cluster removal

    Sae Iwata, Tomoyuki Nitta, Toshinori Takayama, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   E101A ( 5 ) 831 - 843  2018.05  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Cell phones with GPS function as well as GPS loggers are widely used and users' geographic information can be easily obtained. However, still battery consumption in these mobile devices is main concern and then obtaining GPS positioning data so frequently is not allowed. In this paper, a stayed location estimation method for sparse GPS positioning information is proposed. After generating initial clusters from a sequence of measured positions, the e ective radius is set for every cluster based on positioning accuracy and the clusters are merged e ectively using it. After that, short-time clusters are removed temporarily but measured positions included in them are not removed. Then the clusters are merged again, taking all the measured positions into consideration. This process is performed twice, in other words, two-stage short-time cluster removal is performed, and finally accurate stayed location estimation is realized even when the GPS positioning interval is five minutes or more. Experiments demonstrate that the total distance error between the estimated stayed location and the true stayed location is reduced by more than 33% and also the proposed method much improves F1 measure compared to conventional state-of-the-art methods.

    DOI

  • A hardware-Trojan classification method utilizing boundary net structures

    Kento Hasegawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2018 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics, ICCE 2018   2018-   1 - 4  2018.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Recently, cybersecurity has become a serious concern for us. For example, the threats of hardware Trojans (malfunctions inserted into hardware devices) have appeared. Since hardware vendors often outsource parts of their hardware products to third-party vendors, the risk of hardware-Trojan insertion has been increased. Especially in the hardware design step, malicious vendors have a chance to insert hardware Trojans easily. In this paper, we propose a hardware-Trojan classification method utilizing boundary net structures. To begin with, we use a machine-learning-based hardware-Trojan detection method and classify the nets in a given netlist into a set of normal nets and that of Trojan nets. Based on the classification, we investigate the nets around the boundary between normal nets and Trojan nets and extract the features of the nets identified to be normal nets or Trojan nets mistakenly. Finally, using the classification results of machine-learning-based hardware-Trojan detection and the extracted features of the boundary nets, we classify the nets in a given netlist into a set of normal nets and that of Trojan nets again. The experimental results demonstrate that our method outperforms an existing machine-learning-based hardware-Trojan detection method in terms of true positive rate.

    DOI

  • Road-illuminance level inference across road networks based on Bayesian analysis

    Siya Bao, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2018 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics, ICCE 2018   2018-   1 - 6  2018.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a road-illuminance level inference method based on the naive Bayesian analysis. We investigate quantities and types of road lights and landmarks with a large set of roads in real environments and reorganize them into two safety classes, safe or unsafe, with seven road attributes. Then we carry out data learning using three types of datasets according to different groups of the road attributes. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method successfully classifies a set of roads with seven attributes into safe ones and unsafe ones with the accuracy of more than 85%, which is superior to other machine-learning based methods and a manual-based method.

    DOI

  • Scan-based side-channel attack against HMAC-SHA-256 circuits based on isolating bit-transition groups using scan signatures

    Daisuke Oku, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IPSJ Transactions on System LSI Design Methodology   11   16 - 28  2018.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    A scan chain is used by scan-path test, one of design-for-test techniques, which can control and observe internal registers in an LSI chip. On the other hand, a scan-based side-channel attack is focused on which can restore secret information by exploiting the scan data obtained from a scan chain inside the crypto chip during cryptographic processing. In this paper, we propose a scan-based attack method against a hash generator circuit called HMAC-SHA- 256. Our proposed method is composed of three steps
    Firstly, we isolate 64 bit-transition groups from a scan data using scan signatures based on the property of the HMAC-SHA-256 algorithm. Secondly, we classify these 64 bittransition groups into 32 pairs. Lastly, we find out the correspondence between the scan data and the internal registers in the target HMAC-SHA-256 circuit. Our proposed method restores the secret information by the three steps above, even if the scan chain includes registers other than the target hash generator circuit and hence it becomes too long. Experimental results show that our proposed method successfully restores two secret keys of the HMAC-SHA-256 circuit using up to 425 input messages in 7.5 hours.

    DOI

  • Designing hardware trojans and their detection based on a SVM-based approach

    Tomotaka Inoue, Kento Hasegawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    Proceedings of International Conference on ASIC   2017-   811 - 814  2018.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Since hardware production become inexpensive and international, hardware vendors often outsource their products to third-party vendors. Due to the situation, malicious vendors can easily insert malfunctions (also known as 'hardware Trojans') to their products. In this paper, we experimentally evaluate a machine-learning-based hardware-Trojan detection method using several hardware Trojans we designed. To begin with, we design three types of hardware Trojans and insert them to simple RS232 transceiver circuits. After that, we learn known netlists, where we know which nets are Trojan ones or normal ones beforehand, using a machine-learning-based hardware-Trojan detection method with a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. Finally, we classify the nets in the designed hardware-Trojan-inserted netlists into a set of Trojan nets and that of normal nets using the learned classifier. The experimental results demonstrate that the hardware-Trojan detection method with the SVM-based approach can detect a part of hardware Trojans we designed.

    DOI

  • A low cost and high speed CSD-based symmetric transpose block FIR implementation

    Jinghao Ye, Youhua Shi, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa

    Proceedings of International Conference on ASIC   2017-   311 - 314  2018.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this paper, a low cost and high speed CSD-based symmetric transpose block FIR design was proposed for low cost digital signal processing. First, the existing area-efficient CSD-based multiplier was optimized by considering the reusability and the symmetry of coefficients for area reduction. Second, the position of the input register was changed for high speed transpose block FIR processing in which half of the number of required multipliers can be saved. When compared with the existing block FIR designs, the proposed FIR design can increase the data rate from 238.66 MHz to 373.13 MHz while saving 10.89% area and 21.30% energy consumption as well.

    DOI

  • Floorplan-driven high-level synthesis using volatile/non-volatile registers for hybrid energy-harvesting systems

    Daiki Asai, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    Proceedings of International Conference on ASIC   2017-   64 - 67  2018.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a floorplan-driven highlevel synthesis algorithm utilizing both volatile and non-volatile registers for hybrid energy-harvesting systems. In our algorithm, we firstly introduce an idea of safety line candidates. Based on them, we perform safety-line (SL) scheduling so that every operation does not cross the safety line candidates and then perform volatile/non-volatile register binding so that all the data crossing the safety line candidates are stored into non-violate registers. We can safely restore all the data and re-start the circuit operation from every safety line candidate, even if the power shut-off occurs while running the circuit. Experimental results show that our algorithm reduces average latency by 30.76% and the average energy consumption by 24.94% compared to the naive algorithm when sufficient energy is given (normal mode). Experimental results also show that our algorithm reduces average latency by 30.58% compared to the naive algorithm by reducing rollback execution if a small amount of energy is given (energy-harvesting mode).

    DOI

  • Soft error tolerant latch designs with low power consumption (invited paper)

    Saki Tajima, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Youhua Shi

    Proceedings of International Conference on ASIC   2017-   52 - 55  2018.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    As semiconductor technology continues scaling down, the reliability issue has become much more critical than ever before. Unlike traditional hard-errors caused by permanent physical damage which can't be recovered in field, soft errors are caused by radiation or voltage/current fluctuations that lead to transient changes on internal node states, thus they can be viewed as temporary errors. However, due to the unpredictable occurrence of soft errors, it is desirable to develop soft error tolerant designs. For this reason, soft error tolerant design techniques have gained great research interest. In this paper, we will explain the soft error mechanism and then review the existing soft error tolerant design techniques with particular emphasis on SEH family because they can achieve low power consumption and small performance overhead as well.

    DOI

  • Detecting the Existence of Malfunctions in Microcontrollers Utilizing Power Analysis.

    Kento Hasegawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    24th IEEE International Symposium on On-Line Testing And Robust System Design, IOLTS 2018, Platja D'Aro, Spain, July 2-4, 2018     97 - 102  2018  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • An Effective Stochastic Number Duplicator and Its Evaluations Using Composite Arithmetic Circuits.

    Ryota Ishikawa, Masashi Tawada, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    24th IEEE International Symposium on On-Line Testing And Robust System Design, IOLTS 2018, Platja D'Aro, Spain, July 2-4, 2018     53 - 56  2018  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • Hardware Trojan Detection Utilizing Machine Learning Approaches.

    Kento Hasegawa, Youhua Shi, Nozomu Togawa

    17th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications / 12th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering, TrustCom/BigDataSE 2018, New York, NY, USA, August 1-3, 2018     1891 - 1896  2018  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    © 2018 IEEE. Hardware security has become a serious concern in recent years. Due to the outsourcing in hardware production, malicious circuits (or hardware Trojans) can be easily inserted into hardware products by attackers. Since hardware Trojans are tiny and stealthy, their detection is difficult. Under the circumstances, numerous hardware-Trojan detection methods have been proposed. In this paper, we elaborate the overview of hardware-Trojan detection and review the hardware-Trojan detection methods using machine learning which is one of the state-of-the-art approaches.

    DOI

  • An Ising model mapping to solve rectangle packing problem.

    Kotaro Terada, Daisuke Oku, Sho Kanamaru, Shu Tanaka, Masato Hayashi, Masanao Yamaoka, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2018 International Symposium on VLSI Design, Automation and Test (VLSI-DAT), Hsinchu, Taiwan, April 16-19, 2018     1 - 4  2018  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • A Relaxed Bit-Write-Reducing and Error-Correcting Code for Non-Volatile Memories.

    Tatsuro Kojo, Masashi Tawada, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE Transactions   101-A ( 7 ) 1045 - 1052  2018  [Refereed]

  • A Low Power Soft Error Hardened Latch with Schmitt-Trigger-Based C-Element.

    Saki Tajima, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Youhua Shi

    IEICE Transactions   101-A ( 7 ) 1025 - 1034  2018  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Copyright © 2018 The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers. To deal with the reliability issue caused by soft errors, this paper proposed a low power soft error hardened latch (SHC) design using a novel Schmitt-Trigger-based C-element for reliable low power applications. Unlike state-of-the-art soft error tolerant latches that are usually based on hardware redundancy with large area overhead and high power consumption, the proposed SHC latch is implemented through double-sampling and node-checking using a novel Schmitt-Trigger-based C-element, which can help to reduce the area overhead and the corresponding power consumption as well. The evaluation results show that the total number of transistors of the proposed SHC latch is only increased by 2 when compared to the conventional unhardened C2MOS latch, while up to 20.35% and 82.96% power reduction can be achieved when compared to the conventional un-hardened C2MOS latch and the existing soft error tolerant HiPeR design, respectively.

    DOI

  • Extension and Performance/Accuracy Formulation for Optimal GeAr-Based Approximate Adder Designs.

    Ken Hayamizu, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Youhua Shi

    IEICE Transactions   101-A ( 7 ) 1014 - 1024  2018  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Copyright © 2018 The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers. Approximate computing is a promising solution for future energy-efficient designs because it can provide great improvements in performance, area and/or energy consumption over traditional exact-computing designs for non-critical error-tolerant applications. However, the most challenging issue in designing approximate circuits is how to guarantee the pre-specified computation accuracy while achieving energy reduction and performance improvement. To address this problem, this paper starts from the state-of-the-art general approximate adder model (GeAr) and extends it for more possible approximate design candidates by relaxing the design restrictions. And then a maximum-error-distance-based performance/accuracy formulation, which can be used to select the performance/energy-accuracy optimal design from the extended design space, is proposed. Our evaluation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of area overhead, performance, energy consumption, and computation accuracy.

    DOI

  • Stochastic Number Duplicators Based on Bit Re-Arrangement Using Randomized Bit Streams.

    Ryota Ishikawa, Masashi Tawada, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE Transactions   101-A ( 7 ) 1002 - 1013  2018  [Refereed]

  • A Multiple Cyclic-Route Generation Method for Strolling Based on Point-of-Interests.

    Tensei Nishimura, Kazuaki Ishikawa, Toshinori Takayama, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    8th IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics - Berlin, ICCE-Berlin 2018, Berlin, Germany, September 2-5, 2018     1 - 2  2018  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • Robust Indoor/Outdoor Detection Method based on Sparse GPS Positioning Information.

    Sae Iwata, Kazuaki Ishikawa, Toshinori Takayama, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    8th IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics - Berlin, ICCE-Berlin 2018, Berlin, Germany, September 2-5, 2018     1 - 4  2018  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • Designing Subspecies of Hardware Trojans and Their Detection Using Neural Network Approach.

    Tomotaka Inoue, Kento Hasegawa, Yuki Kobayashi, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    8th IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics - Berlin, ICCE-Berlin 2018, Berlin, Germany, September 2-5, 2018     1 - 4  2018  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • Landmark Seasonal Travel Distribution and Activity Prediction Based on Language-specific Analysis.

    Siya Bao, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEEE International Conference on Big Data, Big Data 2018, Seattle, WA, USA, December 10-13, 2018     3628 - 3637  2018  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    © 2018 IEEE. Online media communities have globally spanned and have increasingly accelerated the development of intelligent travel recommendation systems in both academic and industrial fields. However, there is a bottleneck that differences in users' seasonal travel distributions (when to visit) in various language groups are ignored. This paper proposes a seasonal activity prediction algorithm based on user comments over the period of 2012 to 2017 in different language groups. We take the advantage of online user comments which provide visiting time for each landmark and detailed activity description. With the accumulation of 417,787 user comments on TripAdvisor for 300 landmarks in three big cities, we analyze the language-specific differences in travel distributions. After that, prediction of future travel distribution for each language group is generated. Then potential peak and off seasons of each landmark are distinguished and representative seasonal activities are extracted through comment contents for peak and off seasons, respectively. Experimental results in the three cities show that the proposed algorithm is more accurate in terms of peak season detection and seasonal activity prediction than previous studies.

    DOI

  • Capacitance Measurement of Running Hardware Devices and its Application to Malicious Modification Detection.

    Makoto Nishizawa, Kento Hasegawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2018 IEEE Asia Pacific Conference on Circuits and Systems, APCCAS 2018, Chengdu, China, October 26-30, 2018     362 - 365  2018  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • Empirical Evaluation and Optimization of Hardware-Trojan Classification for Gate-Level Netlists Based on Multi-Layer Neural Networks.

    Kento Hasegawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE Transactions   101-A ( 12 ) 2320 - 2326  2018  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • An accurate indoor positioning algorithm using particle filter based on the proximity of bluetooth beacons

    Ryoya Momose, Tomoyuki Nitta, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2017 IEEE 6th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics, GCCE 2017   2017-   1 - 5  2017.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Indoor positioning without GPS is one of the most important problems in indoor pedestrian navigation. In this paper, we propose an accurate indoor positioning algorithm using a particle filter based on a floormap, where we use the proximity of the Bluetooth beacons as well as acceleration and geomagnetic sensors. In designing the likelihood function in the particle filter, we effectively use the proximity of the Bluetooth beacons, which just gives rough distance to the target beacon but more stable than conventional RSSI-based distance estimation. In addition to that, by effectively utilizing a floormap, the accumulated positioning errors due to the acceleration and geomagnetic sensors are much reduced. Moreover, when the radio waves from the Bluetooth beacons are blocked by obstacles, we can also take it into account in designing the likelihood function in the particle filter. Experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm can reduce the indoor positioning errors by up to 79% compared to several conventional algorithms.

    DOI

  • A stayed location estimation method for sparse GPS positioning information

    Sae Iwata, Tomoyuki Nitta, Toshinori Takayama, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2017 IEEE 6th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics, GCCE 2017   2017-   1 - 5  2017.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Cell phones with GPS function as well as GPS loggers are widely used and we can easily obtain users' geographic information. However, still battery consumption in these mobile devices is main concern and then we are not allowed to obtain GPS positioning data so frequently. In this paper, we propose a stayed location estimation method for sparse GPS positioning data. After generating initial clusters from a sequence of measured positions, we set the effective radius for every cluster based on positioning accuracy and merge the clusters effectively using it. After that, we temporarily remove short-time clusters but do not remove measured positions included in them. Then we merge the clusters again, taking all the measured positions into consideration. We perform this process twice, i.e, we perform two-stage short-time cluster removal, and finally realize accurate stayed location estimation even when the GPS positioning interval is five minutes or more. Experiments demonstrate that the total distance error between the estimated stayed location and the true stayed location is reduced by more than 50% compared to a conventional state-of-the-art method.

    DOI

  • Personalized one-day travel with multi-nearby-landmark recommendation

    Siya Bao, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics - Berlin, ICCE-Berlin   2017-   239 - 242  2017.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Travel route recommendation can strongly influence users' satisfaction and the success of touristic businesses. This paper proposes a personalized travel recommendation algorithm with time planning. We use landmark categorization and region clustering to obtain effective elements. Then we build a travel map to generate all possible travel routes. Our proposed algorithm has higher precision in landmark recommendation and time planning than thoes in previous algorithms.

    DOI

  • A robust scan-based side-channel attack method against HMAC-SHA-256 circuits

    Daisuke Oku, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics - Berlin, ICCE-Berlin   2017-   79 - 84  2017.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    A scan-based side-channel attack is still a real threat against a crypto circuit as well as a hash generator circuit, which can restore secret information by exploiting the scan data obtained from scan chains inside the chip during its processing. In this paper, we propose a scan-based attack method against a hash generator circuit called HMAC-SHA-256. Our proposed method restores the secret information by finding out the correspondence between the scan data obtained from a scan chain and the internal registers in the target HMAC-SHA-256 circuit, even if the scan chain includes registers other than the target hash generator circuit and an attacker does not know well the hash generation timing. Experimental results show that our proposed method successfully restores two secret keys of the HMAC-SHA-256 circuit in at most 6 hours.

    DOI

  • A bitwidth-aware high-level synthesis algorithm using operation chainings for tiled-DR architectures

    Kotaro Terada, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   E100A ( 12 ) 2911 - 2924  2017.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    As application hardware designs and implementations in a short term are required, high-level synthesis is more and more essential EDA technique nowadays. In deep-submicron era, interconnection delays are not negligible even in high-level synthesis thus distributed-register and - controller architectures (DR architectures) have been proposed in order to cope with this problem. It is also profitable to take data-bitwidth into account in high-level synthesis. In this paper, we propose a bitwidth-aware high-level synthesis algorithm using operation chainings targeting Tiled-DR architectures. Our proposed algorithm optimizes bitwidths of functional units and utilizes the vacant tiles by adding some extra functional units to realize effective operation chainings to generate high performance circuits without increasing the total area. Experimental results show that our proposed algorithm reduces the overall latency by up to 47% comparedtothe conventional approach without area overheads by eliminating unnecessary bitwidths and adding efficient extra FUs for Tiled-DR architectures.

    DOI

  • A safe and comprehensive route finding algorithm for pedestrians based on lighting and landmark conditions

    Siya Bao, Tomoyuki Nitta, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   E100A ( 11 ) 2439 - 2450  2017.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a safe and comprehensive route finding algorithm for pedestrians based on lighting and landmark conditions. Safety and comprehensiveness can be predicted by the five possible indicators: (1) lighting conditions, (2) landmark visibility, (3) landmark effectiveness, (4) turning counts along a route, and (5) road widths. We first investigate impacts of these five indicators on pedestrians' perceptions on safety and comprehensiveness during route findings. After that, a route finding algorithm is proposed for pedestrians. In the algorithm, we design the score based on the indicators (1), (2), (3), and (5) above and also introduce a turning count reduction strategy for the indicator (4). Thus we find out a safe and comprehensive route through them. In particular, we design daytime score and nighttime score differently and find out an appropriate route depending on the time periods. Experimental simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm obtains higher scores compared to several existing algorithms. We also demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is able to find out safe and comprehensive routes for pedestrians in real environments in accordance with questionnaire results.

    DOI

  • Effective write-reduction method for MLC non-volatile memory

    Masashi Tawada, Shinji Kimura, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems     1 - 4  2017.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Recently, the requirement for non-volatile memory on embedded systems has increased because they can be applied with normally-off and power gating technologies to. However, they have a lower endurance than volatile memories. When data is encoded as a write-reduction code appropriately, the endurance of non-volatile memory can be enhanced by writing the encoded data into the memory. We propose a highly effective write-reduction method for a multi-level cell (MLC) non-volatile memory focusing on the write-reduction code (WRC) as the optimal bit-write reduction method. The WRC can be applied only to single-level cell non-volatile memory. The proposed method generates a cell-write reduction code based on the WRC
    the cell has multiple bits as the holdable data. Our proposed method achieves a cell-write reduction by 31.6% compared to the conventional method.

    DOI

  • Trojan-feature extraction at gate-level netlists and its application to hardware-Trojan detection using random forest classifier

    Kento Hasegawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems     1 - 4  2017.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Recently, due to the increase of outsourcing in IC design, it has been reported that malicious third-party vendors often insert hardware Trojans into their ICs. How to detect them is a strong concern in IC design process. The features of hardware-Trojan infected nets (or Trojan nets) in ICs often differ from those of normal nets. To classify all the nets in netlists designed by third-party vendors into Trojan ones and normal ones, we have to extract effective Trojan features from Trojan nets. In this paper, we first propose 51 Trojan features which describe Trojan nets from netlists. Based on the importance values obtained from the random forest classifier, we extract the best set of 11 Trojan features out of the 51 features which can effectively detect Trojan nets, maximizing the F-measures. By using the 11 Trojan features extracted, the machine-learning based hardware Trojan classifier has achieved at most 100% true positive rate as well as 100% true negative rate in several TrustHUB benchmarks and obtained the average F-measure of 74.6%, which realizes the best values among existing machine-learning-based hardware-Trojan detection methods.

    DOI

  • Trojan-feature extraction at gate-level netlists and its application to hardware-Trojan detection using random forest classifier

    Kento Hasegawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems   100-A ( 12 ) 2857 - 2868  2017.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Recently, due to the increase of outsourcing in IC design, it has been reported that malicious third-party vendors often insert hardware Trojans into their ICs. How to detect them is a strong concern in IC design process. The features of hardware-Trojan infected nets (or Trojan nets) in ICs often differ from those of normal nets. To classify all the nets in netlists designed by third-party vendors into Trojan ones and normal ones, we have to extract effective Trojan features from Trojan nets. In this paper, we first propose 51 Trojan features which describe Trojan nets from netlists. Based on the importance values obtained from the random forest classifier, we extract the best set of 11 Trojan features out of the 51 features which can effectively detect Trojan nets, maximizing the F-measures. By using the 11 Trojan features extracted, the machine-learning based hardware Trojan classifier has achieved at most 100% true positive rate as well as 100% true negative rate in several TrustHUB benchmarks and obtained the average F-measure of 74.6%, which realizes the best values among existing machine-learning-based hardware-Trojan detection methods.

    DOI

  • Hardware Trojans classification for gate-level netlists using multi-layer neural networks

    Kento Hasegawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2017 IEEE 23rd International Symposium on On-Line Testing and Robust System Design, IOLTS 2017     227 - 232  2017.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Recently, due to the increase of outsourcing in IC design and manufacturing, it has been reported that malicious third-party IC vendors often insert hardware Trojans into their products. Especially in IC design step, it is strongly required to detect hardware Trojans because malicious third-party vendors can easily insert hardware Trojans in their products. In this paper, we propose a machine-learning-based hardware-Trojan detection method for gate-level netlists using multi-layer neural networks. First, we extract 11 Trojan-net feature values for each net in a netlist. After that, we classify the nets in an unknown netlist into a set of Trojan nets and that of normal nets using multi-layer neural networks. We obtained at most 100% true positive rate with our proposed method.

    DOI

  • Hardware Trojan detection and classification based on steady state learning

    Masaru Oya, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2017 IEEE 23rd International Symposium on On-Line Testing and Robust System Design, IOLTS 2017     215 - 220  2017.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a logic-testing based HT detection and classification method utilizing steady state learning. We first observe that HTs are hidden while applying random test patterns in a short time but most of them can be activated in a very long-term random circuit operation. Hence it is very natural that we learn steady signal-transition states of every suspicious Trojan net in a netlist by performing short-term random simulation. After that, we simulate or emulate the netlist in a very long time by giving random test patterns and obtain a set of signal-transition states. By discovering correlation between them, our method detects HTs and finds out its behavior. Experimental results demonstrate that our method can successfully identify all the real Trojan nets to be Trojan nets and all the normal nets to be normal nets, while other existing logic-testing HT detection methods cannot detect some of them.

    DOI

  • A Floorplan Aware High-Level Synthesis Algorithm with Body Biasing for Delay Variation Compensation

    Koki Igawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E100A ( 7 ) 1439 - 1451  2017.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a floorplan aware high-level synthesis algorithm with body biasing for delay variation compensation, which minimizes the average leakage energy of manufactured chips. In order to realize floorplan-aware high-level synthesis, we utilize huddle-based distributed register architecture (HDR architecture). HDR architecture divides the chip area into small partitions called a huddle and we can control a body bias voltage for every huddle. During high-level synthesis, we iteratively obtain expected leakage energy for every huddle when applying a body bias voltage. A huddle with smaller expected leakage energy contributes to reducing expected leakage energy of the entire circuit more but can increase the latency. We assign control-data flow graph (CDFG) nodes in non-critical paths to the huddles with larger expected leakage energy and those in critical paths to the huddles with smaller expected leakage energy. We expect to minimize the entire leakage energy in a manufactured chip without increasing its latency. Experimental results show that our algorithm reduces the average leakage energy by up to 39.7% without latency and yield degradation compared with typical-case design with body biasing.

    DOI

  • A Hardware-Trojan Classification Method Using Machine Learning at Gate-Level Netlists Based on Trojan Features

    Kento Hasegawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E100A ( 7 ) 1427 - 1438  2017.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Due to the increase of outsourcing by IC vendors, we face a serious risk that malicious third-party vendors insert hardware Trojans very easily into their IC products. However, detecting hardware Trojans is very difficult because today's ICs are huge and complex. In this paper, we propose a hardware-Trojan classification method for gate-level netlists to identify hardware-Trojan infected nets (or Trojan nets) using a support vector machine (SVM) or a neural network (NN). At first, we extract the five hardware-Trojan features from each net in a netlist. These feature values are complicated so that we cannot give the simple and fixed threshold values to them. Hence we secondly represent them to be a five-dimensional vector and learn them by using SVM or NN. Finally, we can successfully classify all the nets in an unknown netlist into Trojan ones and normal ones based on the learned classifiers. We have applied our machine-learning based hardware-Trojan classification method to Trust-HUB benchmarks. The results demonstrate that our method increases the true positive rate compared to the existing state-of-the-art results in most of the cases. In some cases, our method can achieve the true positive rate of 100%, which shows that all the Trojan nets in an unknown netlist are completely detected by our method.

    DOI

  • Efficient Multiplexer Networks for Field-Data Extractors and Their Evaluations

    Koki Ito, Kazushi Kawamura, Yutaka Tamiya, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E100A ( 4 ) 1015 - 1028  2017.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    As seen in stream data processing, it is necessary to extract a particular data field from bulk data, where we can use a field-data extractor. Particularly, an (M, N)-field-data extractor reads out any consecutive N bytes from an M-byte register by connecting its input/output using multiplexers (MUXs). However, the number of required MUXs increases too much as the input/output byte widths increase. It is known that partitioning a MUX network leads to reducing the number of MUXs. In this paper, we firstly pick up a multi-layered MUX network, which is generated by repeatedly partitioning a MUX network into a collection of single layered MUX networks. We show that the multi-layered MUX network is equivalent to the barrel shifter from which redundant MUXs and wires are removed, and we prove that the number of required MUXs becomes the smallest among MUX-network-partitioning based field-data extractors. Next, we propose a rotator-based MUX network for a field-data extractor, which is based on reading out a particular data in an input register to a rotator. The byte width of the rotator is the same as its output register and hence we no longer require any extra wires nor MUXs. By rotating the input data appropriately, we can finally have a right-ordered data into an output register. Experimental results show that a multi-layered MUX network reduces the number of required gates to construct a field-data extractor by up to 97.0% compared with the one using a naive approach and its delay becomes 1.8 ns-2.3 ns. A rotator-based MUX network with a control circuit also reduces the number of required gates to construct a field-data extractor by up to 97.3% compared with the one using a naive approach and its delay becomes 2.1 ns-2.9 ns.

    DOI

  • Message from the Editor-in-Chief.

    Nozomu Togawa

    IPSJ Trans. System LSI Design Methodology   10   1  2017  [Refereed]

    DOI DOI2

  • A Bit-Write-Reducing and Error-Correcting Code Generation Method by Clustering ECC Codewords for Non-Volatile Memories

    Tatsuro Kojo, Masashi Tawada, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E99A ( 12 ) 2398 - 2411  2016.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Non-volatile memories are paid attention to as a promising alternative to memory design. Data stored in them still may be destructed due to crosstalk and radiation. We can restore the data by using errorcorrecting codes which require extra bits to correct bit errors. Further, nonvolatile memories consume ten to hundred times more energy than normal memories in bit-writing. When we configure them using error-correcting codes, it is quite necessary to reduce writing bits. In this paper, we propose a method to generate a bit-write-reducing code with error-correcting ability. We first pick up an error-correcting code which can correct t-bit errors. We cluster its codeswords and generate a cluster graph satisfying the S-bit flip conditions. We assign a data to be written to each cluster. In other words, we generate one-to-many mapping from each data to the codewords in the cluster. We prove that, if the cluster graph is a complete graph, every data in a memory cell can be re-written into another data by flipping at most S bits keeping error-correcting ability to t bits. We further propose an efficient method to cluster error-correcting codewords. Experimental results show that the bit-write-reducing and error-correcting codes generated by our proposed method efficiently reduce energy consumption. This paper proposes the world-first theoretically near-optimal bit-write-reducing code with error-correcting ability based on the efficient coding theories.

    DOI

  • A Highly-Adaptable and Small-Sized In-Field Power Analyzer for Low-Power IoT Devices

    Ryosuke Kitayama, Takashi Takenaka, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E99A ( 12 ) 2348 - 2362  2016.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Power analysis for IoT devices is strongly required to protect attacks from malicious attackers. It is also very important to reduce power consumption itself of IoT devices. In this paper, we propose a highly-adaptable and small-sized in-field power analyzer for low-power IoT devices. The proposed power analyzer has the following advantages: (A) The proposed power analyzer realizes signal-averaging noise reduction with synchronization signal lines and thus it can reduce wide frequency range of noises; (B) The proposed power analyzer partitions a long-term power analysis process into several analysis segments and measures voltages and currents of each analysis segment by using small amount of data memories. By combining these analysis segments, we can obtain long-term analysis results; (C) The proposed power analyzer has two amplifiers that amplify current signals adaptively depending on their magnitude. Hence maximum readable current can be increased with keeping minimum readable current small enough. Since all of (A), (B) and (C) do not require complicated mechanisms nor circuits, the proposed power analyzer is implemented on just a 2.5 cm x 3.3 cm board, which is the smallest size among the other existing power analyzers for IoT devices. We have measured power and energy consumption of the AES encryption process on the IoT device and demonstrated that the proposed power analyzer has only up to 1.17% measurement errors compared to a high-precision oscilloscope.

    DOI

  • Hardware-Trojans Rank:Quantitative Evaluation of Security Threats at Gate-Level Netlists by Pattern Matching

    Masaru Oya, Noritaka Yamashita, Toshihiko Okamura, Yukiyasu Tsunoo, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E99A ( 12 ) 2335 - 2347  2016.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Since digital ICs are often designed and fabricated by third parties at any phases today, we must eliminate risks that malicious attackers may implement Hardware Trojans (HTs) on them. In particular, they can easily insert HTs during design phase. This paper proposes an HT rank which is a new quantitative analysis criterion against HTs at gate-level netlists. We have carefully analyzed all the gate-level netlists in Trust-HUB benchmark suite and found out several Trojan net features in them. Then we design the three types of Trojan points: feature point, count point, and location point. By assigning these points to every net and summing up them, we have the maximum Trojan point in a gate-level netlist. This point gives our HT rank. The HT rank can be calculated just by net features and we do not perform any logic simulation nor random test. When all the gate-level netlists in Trust-HUB, ISCAS85, ISCAS89 and ITC99 benchmark suites as well as several OpenCores designs, HT-free and HT-inserted AES netlists are ranked by our HT rank, we can completely distinguish HT-inserted ones (which HT rank is ten or more) from HT-free ones (which HT rank is nine or less). The HT rank is the world-first quantitative criterion which distinguishes HT-inserted netlists from HT-free ones in all the gate-level netlists in Trust-HUB, ISCAS85, ISCAS89, and ITC99.

    DOI

  • Multi-scenario high-level synthesis for dynamic delay variation and its evaluation on FPGA platforms

    Koki Igawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE ELECTRONICS EXPRESS   13 ( 18 ) 20160641  2016.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Multi-scenario high-level synthesis for distributed register/controller architecture has been proposed targeting static delay variation. In this paper, we extend it and propose a floorplan-driven high-level synthesis algorithm which can be applied to dynamic delay variation by effectively using an error prediction technique, where pre-error registers are introduced to local registers in every circuit block. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm using two and three scenarios on an FPGA chip reduces the average number of required control steps by 17.6% and 25.5% on average compared to worst-case high-level synthesis at the expense of increasing lookup-tables and flip-flops. Moreover, we implement a multi-scenario elliptic-wave-filter (EWF) circuit with three scenarios synthesized by our proposed algorithm onto an FPGA chip and run it under the environment with varying supply voltages which causes dynamic delay variation. The FPGA implementation experiments also demonstrate that the EWF circuit effectively runs on the real FPGA chip. As far as we know, this is the world-first experiment where a multi-scenario circuit runs under real dynamic delay variation environment.

    DOI

  • Bi-Partitioning Based Multiplexer Network for Field-Data Extractors

    Koki Ito, Kazushi Kawamura, Yutaka Tamiya, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E99A ( 7 ) 1410 - 1414  2016.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    An (M,N)-field-data extractor reads out any consecutive N bytes from an M-byte register by connecting its input/output using a multiplexer (MUX) network. It is used in packet analysis and/or stream data processing for video/audio data. In this letter, we propose an efficient MUX network for an (M,N)-field-data extractor. By bi-partitioning a simple MUX network into an upper one and a lower one, we can theoretically reduce the number of required MUXs without increasing the MUX network depth. Experimental results show that we can reduce the gate count by up to 92% compared to a naive approach.

    DOI

  • Interconnection-Delay and Clock-Skew Estimate Modelings for Floorplan-Driven High-Level Synthesis Targeting FPGA Designs

    Koichi Fujiwara, Kazushi Kawamura, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E99A ( 7 ) 1294 - 1310  2016.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Recently, high-level synthesis techniques for FPGA designs (FPGA-HLS techniques) are strongly required in various applications. Both interconnection delays and clock skews have a large impact on circuit performance implemented onto FPGA, which indicates the need for floorplan-driven FPGA-HLS algorithms considering them. To appropriately estimate interconnection delays and clock skews at HLS phase, a reasonable model to estimate them becomes essential. In this paper, we demonstrate several experiments to characterize interconnection delays and clock skews in FPGA and propose novel estimate models called "IDEF" and "CSEF". In order to evaluate our models, we integrate them into a conventional floorplan-driven FPGA-HLS algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm can realize FPGA designs which reduce the latency by up to 22% compared with conventional approaches.

    DOI

  • A Multi-Scenario High-Level Synthesis Algorithm for Variation-Tolerant Floorplan-Driven Design

    Koki Igawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E99A ( 7 ) 1278 - 1293  2016.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In order to tackle a process-variation problem, we can define several scenarios, each of which corresponds to a particular LSI behavior, such as a typical-case scenario and a worst-case scenario. By designing a single LSI chip which realizes multiple scenarios simultaneously, we can have a process-variation-tolerant LSI chip. In this paper, we propose a multi-scenario high-level synthesis algorithm for variation-tolerant floorplan-driven design targeting new distributed-register architectures, called HDR architectures. We assume two scenarios, a typical-case scenario and a worst-case scenario, and realize them onto a single chip. We first schedule/bind each of the scenarios independently. After that, we commonize the scheduling/binding results for the typical-case and worstcase scenarios and thus generate a commonized area-minimized floorplan result. At that time, we can explicitly take into account interconnection delays by using distributed-register architectures. Experimental results show that our algorithm reduces the latency of the typical-case scenario by up to 50% without increasing the latency of the worst-case scenario, compared with several existing methods.

    DOI

  • Indoor Navigation Based on Real-time Direction Information Generation Using Wearable Glasses

    Ryota Iwanaji, Tomoyuki Nitta, Kazuaki Ishikawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2016 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CONSUMER ELECTRONICS-ASIA (ICCE-ASIA)    2016  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Indoor areas such as office buildings and railway stations have almost no landmarks and how to navigate pedestrians to their destination points there is one of the big challenges. In this paper, we propose an indoor navigation system based on real-time direction information generation using wearable glasses. The proposed system effectively calculates a pedestrian's direction in a real-time manner using sensors and superimposes the direction to proceed on wearable glasses. Hence it navigates pedestrians to their right direction without using landmarks. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed navigation system.

  • A High-level Synthesis Algorithm for FPGA Designs Optimizing Critical Path with Interconnection-delay and Clock-skew Consideration

    Koichi Fujiwara, Kazushi Kawamura, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2016 INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON VLSI DESIGN, AUTOMATION AND TEST (VLSI-DAT)    2016  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    High-level synthesis for FPGA designs (FPGA-HLS) is recently required in various applications. Since wire delays are becoming a design bottleneck in FPGA, we need to handle interconnection delays and clock skews in FPGA-HLS flow. In this paper, we propose an FPGA-HLS algorithm optimizing critical path with interconnection-delay and clock-skew consideration. By utilizing HDR architecture, we floorplan circuit modules in HLS flow and, based on the result, estimate interconnection delays and clock skews. To reduce the critical-path delay(s) of a circuit, we propose two novel methods for FPGA-HLS. Experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm can improve circuit performance by up to 24% compared with conventional approaches.

  • Rotator-Based Multiplexer Network Synthesis for Field-Data Extractors

    Koki Ito, Kazushi Kawamura, Yutaka Tamiya, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2016 29TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM-ON-CHIP CONFERENCE (SOCC)     194 - 199  2016  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    As seen in stream data processing, it is necessary to extract a particular data field from bulk data, where we can use a field-data extractor. Particularly, an (M; N)-field-data extractor reads out any consecutive N bytes from an M -byte register by connecting its input/output using multiplexers (MUXs). However, the number of required MUXs increases too much as the input/output byte lengths increase. It is known that partitioning an MUX network leads to reducing the number of MUXs. In this paper, we firstly pick up a multi-layered MUX network, which is generated by repeatedly partitioning a MUX network into a collection of single-layered MUX networks. We show that the multi-layered MUX network is equivalent to the barrel shifter from which redundant MUXs and wires are removed, and we prove that the number of its required MUXs becomes the smallest among MUX-network-partitioning based field-data extractors. Next, we propose a rotator-based MUX network for a field-data extractor, which reads out a particular data in an input register to a rotator. The size of the rotator is the same as its output register and hence we no longer require any extra wires nor MUXs. By rotating the input data appropriately, we can finally have a right-ordered data into an output register. Experimental results show that our rotator-based MUX network reduces the required number of gates to implement a field-data extractor by up to 33% compared with the one using a multi-layered MUX network.

    DOI

  • In-situ Trojan Authentication for Invalidating Hardware-Trojan Functions

    Masaru Oya, Youhua Shi, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE SEVENTEENTH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON QUALITY ELECTRONIC DESIGN ISQED 2016     152 - 157  2016  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Due to the fact that we do not know who will create hardware Trojans (HTs), and when and where they would be inserted, it is very difficult to correctly and completely detect all the real HTs in untrusted ICs, and thus it is desired to incorporate in-situ HT invalidating functions into untrusted ICs as a countermeasure against HTs. This paper proposes an in situ Trojan authentication technique for gate-level netlists to avoid security leakage. In the proposed approach, an untrusted IC operates in authentication mode and normal mode. In the authentication mode, an embedded Trojan authentication circuit monitors the bit-flipping count of a suspicious Trojan net within the pre-defined constant clock cycles and identify whether it is a real Trojan or not. If the authentication condition is satisfied, the suspicious Trojan net is validated. Otherwise, it is invalidated and HT functions are masked. By doing this, even untrusted netlists with HTs can still be used in the normal mode without security leakage. By setting the appropriate authentication condition using training sets from Trust-HUB gate-level benchmarks, the proposed technique invalidates successfully only HTs in the training sets. Furthermore, by embedding the in-situ Trojan authentication circuit into a Trojan-inserted AES crypto netlist, it can run securely and correctly even if HTs exist where its area overhead is just 1.5% with no delay overhead.

    DOI

  • A Delay Variation and Floorplan Aware High-level Synthesis Algorithm with Body Biasing

    Koki Igawa, Youhua Shi, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE SEVENTEENTH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON QUALITY ELECTRONIC DESIGN ISQED 2016     75 - 80  2016  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a delay variation and floorplan aware high-level synthesis algorithm with body biasing, which minimizes the average leakage energy of manufactured chips. To realize a floorplan-oriented high-level synthesis, we utilize a huddle-based distributed register architecture (HDR architecture), one of the DR architectures. HDR architecture divides the chip area into small partitions called a huddle and we can control a body bias voltage for every huddle. During high-level synthesis, we iteratively obtain expected leakage energy for every huddle when applying a body bias voltage. A huddle with smaller expected leakage energy contributes to reducing expected leakage energy of the entire circuit but can increase the latency. We assign CDFG nodes in critical paths to the huddles with larger expected leakage energy and those in non-critical paths to the huddles with smaller expected leakage energy. We expect to minimize the entire leakage energy in a manufactured chip without increasing its latency. Experimental results show that our algorithm reduces the average leakage energy by up to 38.9% without latency and yield degradation compared with typical-case design with body biasing.

    DOI

  • A High-performance Circuit Design Algorithm using Data Dependent Approximation

    Kazushi Kawamura, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2016 INTERNATIONAL SOC DESIGN CONFERENCE (ISOCC)     95 - 96  2016  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a high-performance circuit design algorithm using input data dependent approximation. In our algorithm, STEPCs (Suspicious Timing Error Prediction Circuits) are utilized for identifying the paths to be optimized inside a circuit efficiently. Experimental results targeting a set of basic adders show that our algorithm can achieve performance increase by up to 11.1% within the error rate of 2.1% compared to a conventional design technique.

    DOI

  • Hash-Table and Balanced-Tree Based FIB Architecture for CCN Routers

    Kenta Shimazaki, Takashi Aoki, Takahiro Hatano, Takuya Otsuka, Akihiko Miyazaki, Toshitaka Tsuda, Nozomu Togawa

    2016 INTERNATIONAL SOC DESIGN CONFERENCE (ISOCC)     67 - 68  2016  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Recently, content centric networking (CCN) attracts attention as a next generation network on which every router forwards a packet to another router and also functions as a server. A CCN router has a forwarding table called FIB (Forwarding Information Base) but its table look-up can become a bottleneck. In this paper, we propose FIB data structure for CCN routers which can reduce the number of comparisons in its look-up table. Our proposed FIB is composed of a bloom filter and a hash table and each hash entry is connected to a balanced binary search tree. By using our FIB, the number of comparisons cannot much increase even if hash collisions occur. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed FIB over the several existing methods.

    DOI

  • Scalable and Small-Sized Power Analyzer Design with Signal-Averaging Noise Reduction for Low-Power IoT Devices

    Ryosuke Kitayama, Takashi Takenaka, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2016 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS (ISCAS)     978 - 981  2016  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Power analysis for IoT devices is strongly required to reduce power consumption and realize secure communications. In this paper, we propose a scalable and small-sized power analyzer with signal-averaging noise reduction for low-power IoT devices. The proposed power analyzer reduces a wide frequency range of noises by using a signal averaging method and is implemented on just a 2cm x 3cm board, which is the smallest size among the other existing power analyzers for IoT devices. It further has the following advantages: (a) It has a two-level amplifier that amplifies current signals adaptively depending on their magnitude. Hence maximum readable current can be increased with keeping minimum readable current small enough. (b) If long-time analysis is required, it can be partitioned into several analysis segments. The proposed power analyzer can measure currents and voltages of each analysis segment by using a small amount of data memories. After that, by combining these analysis segments using a timer module, we can obtain long-time analysis results. We have analyzed power and energy consumption of encryption processes of AES block cipher on the IoT device and demonstrated that the proposed power analyzer has only 1.8% measurement error compared with a high-precision oscilloscope.

    DOI

  • Redesign for Untrusted Gate-level Netlists

    Masaru Oya, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2016 IEEE 22ND INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ON-LINE TESTING AND ROBUST SYSTEM DESIGN (IOLTS)     219 - 220  2016  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a redesign technique which designs from untrusted netlists to trusted netlists. Our approach consists of two phases, detection phase and invalidation phase. The detection phase picks up suspicious hardware Trojans (HTs) by pattern matching. The invalidation phase modifies the suspicious HTs in order not to activate them. In the invalidation phase, three invalidation techniques are selected by analyzing location of suspicious malicious nets. Applying appropriately the invalidation technique to the nets can correctly invalidate HTs. In our results, the proposed technique can successfully invalidate HTs on several Trust-HUB benchmarks without HT activations. The results clearly demonstrate that our redesign technique is very effective to remove HT risks.

    DOI

  • Hardware Trojans Classification for Gate-level Netlists based on Machine Learning

    Kento Hasegawa, Masaru Oya, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2016 IEEE 22ND INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ON-LINE TESTING AND ROBUST SYSTEM DESIGN (IOLTS)     203 - 206  2016  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Recently, we face a serious risk that malicious third-party vendors can very easily insert hardware Trojans into their IC products but it is very difficult to analyze huge and complex ICs. In this paper, we propose a hardware-Trojan classification method to identify hardware-Trojan infected nets (or Trojan nets) using a support vector machine (SVM). Firstly, we extract the five hardware-Trojan features in each net in a netlist. Secondly, since we cannot effectively give the simple and fixed threshold values to them to detect hardware Trojans, we represent them to be a five-dimensional vector and learn them by using SVM. Finally, we can successfully classify a set of all the nets in an unknown netlist into Trojan ones and normal ones based on the learned SVM classifier. We have applied our SVM-based hardware-Trojan classification method to Trust-HUB benchmarks and the results demonstrate that our method can much increase the true positive rate compared to the existing state-of-the-art results in most of the cases. In some cases, our method can achieve the true positive rate of 100%, which shows that all the Trojan nets in a netlist are completely detected by our method.

    DOI

  • Pedestrian Navigation Based on Landmark Recognition Using Glass-type Wearable Devices

    Ryoya Yano, Tomoyuki Nitta, Kazuaki Ishikawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2016 IEEE 5TH GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON CONSUMER ELECTRONICS     1 - 2  2016  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a pedestrian navigation system based on landmark recognition. Our proposed system utilizes a glass-type wearable device and gives a correspondence between a map and a real-world landscape. By recognizing a landmark position effectively, a pedestrian can easily know where to turn at each turning position and hence he/she can reach his/her goal without losing his/her way. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system can increase the landmarks which pedestrians can recognize and thus gives comprehensive navigation effectively.

    DOI

  • Comprehensive Deformed Map Generation for Wristwatch-type Wearable Devices Based on Landmark-based Partitioning

    Keisuke Kono, Tomoyuki Nitta, Kazuaki Ishikawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2016 IEEE 5TH GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON CONSUMER ELECTRONICS     1 - 2  2016  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Recently, wristwatch-type wearable devices are developed and geographic information services have become widely available on them. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive deformed map generation algorithm for wristwatch-type wearable devices. Our algorithm first normalizes a pedestrian route to 0 degrees, 45 degrees, or 90 degrees so that the pedestrian can see the route not tilting the wristwatch-type wearable device on his/her wrist. Second, our algorithm partitions the normalized map so that several landmarks are overlapped in the partitioned sub-maps. Hence the sub-maps can be largely displayed on wristwatch-type wearable devices and the pedestrian can recognize his/her location even when the sub-maps displayed are changed. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our deformed map generation algorithm on wristwatch-type wearable devices.

    DOI

  • A Safe and Comprehensive Route Finding Method for Pedestrian Based on Lighting and Landmark

    Siya Bao, Tomoyuki Nitta, Kazuaki Ishikawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2016 IEEE 5TH GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON CONSUMER ELECTRONICS     1 - 5  2016  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a safe and comprehensive route finding method for pedestrians. We evaluate five factors that do relieve pedestrians' fear of darkness. Based upon the evaluation, we propose a comprehensive route finding method by taking road width and reduction on turning points into consideration. The experimental results on real outdoor environments under different lighting situations confirm that the proposed method can obtain safety and comprehensive routes for pedestrians.

    DOI

  • Implementation Evaluation of Scan-based Attack against a Trivium Cipher Circuit

    Daisuke Oku, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2016 IEEE ASIA PACIFIC CONFERENCE ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS (APCCAS)     220 - 223  2016  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Scan-path test, which is one of design-for-test techniques using a scan chain, can control and observe internal registers in an LSI chip. However, attackers can also use it. to retrieve secret information from cipher circuits. Recently, scan-based attacks using a scan chain inside an LSI chip is reported which can restore secret information by analyzing the scan data during cryptographic processing. In this paper, we pick up a scan-based attack method against a Trivium cipher, one of synchronous stream ciphers, and evaluate it using the FPGA platform called SASEBO-GII We implement the Trivium cipher on the FPGA chip and perform the scan-based attack against it. We demonstrate that the scan-based attack can successfully restore the secret information in the FPGA chip within several minutes, even if the FPGA chip contains several circuits other than the Trivium cipher circuit, which reveals that the scan-based attack against the Trivium cipher is not only a simulation threat but a real threat.

    DOI

  • Scan-Based Side-Channel Attack on the Camellia Block Cipher Using Scan Signatures

    Huiqian Jiang, Mika Fujishiro, Hirokazu Kodera, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E98A ( 12 ) 2547 - 2555  2015.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Camellia is a block cipher jointly developed by Mitsubishi and NTT of Japan. It is designed suitable for both software and hardware implementations. One of the design-for-test techniques using scan chains is called scan-path test, in which testers can observe and control the registers inside the LSI chip directly in order to check if the LSI chip correctly operates or not. Recently, a scan-based side-channel attack is reported which retrieves the secret information from the cryptosystem using scan chains. In this paper, we propose a scan-based attack method on the Camellia cipher using scan signatures. Our proposed method is based on the equivalent transformation of the Camellia algorithm and the possible key candidate reduction in order to retrieve the secret key. Experimental results show that our proposed method sucessfully retrieved its 128-bit secret key using 960 plaintexts even if the scan chain includes the Camellia cipher and other circuits and also sucessfully retrieves its secret key on the SASEBO-GII board, which is a side-channel attack standard evaluation board.

    DOI

  • A Hardware-Trojans Identifying Method Based on Trojan Net Scoring at Gate-Level Netlists

    Masaru Oya, Youhua Shi, Noritaka Yamashita, Toshihiko Okamura, Yukiyasu Tsunoo, Satoshi Goto, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E98A ( 12 ) 2537 - 2546  2015.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Outsourcing IC design and fabrication is one of the effective solutions to reduce design cost but it may cause severe security risks. Particularly, malicious outside vendors may implement Hardware Trojans (HTs) on ICs. When we focus on IC design phase, we cannot assume an HT-free netlist or a Golden netlist and it is too difficult to identify whether a given netlist is HT-free or not. In this paper, we propose a score-based hardware-trojans identifying method at gate-level netlists without using a Golden netlist. Our proposed method does not directly detect HTs themselves in a gate-level netlist but it detects a net included in HTs, which is called Trojan net, instead. Firstly, we observe Trojan nets from several HT-inserted benchmarks and extract several their features. Secondly, we give scores to extracted Trojan net features and sum up them for each net in benchmarks. Then we can find out a score threshold to classify HT-free and HT-inserted netlists. Based on these scores, we can successfully classify HT-free and HT-inserted netlists in all the Trust-HUB gate-level benchmarks and ISCAS85 benchmarks as well as HT-free and HT-inserted AES gate-level netlists. Experimental results demonstrate that our method successfully identify all the HT-inserted gate-level benchmarks to be "HT-inserted" and all the HT-free gate-level benchmarks to be "HT-free" in approximately three hours for each benchmark.

    DOI

  • ECC-Based Bit-Write Reduction Code Generation for Non-Volatile Memory

    Masashi Tawada, Shinji Kimura, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E98A ( 12 ) 2494 - 2504  2015.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Non-volatile memory has many advantages such as high density and low leakage power but it consumes larger writing energy than SRAM. It is quite necessary to reduce writing energy in non-volatile memory design. In this paper, we propose write-reduction codes based on error correcting codes and reduce writing energy in non-volatile memory by decreasing the number of writing bits. When a data is written into a memory cell, we do not write it directly but encode it into a codeword. In our write-reduction codes, every data corresponds to an information vector in an error-correcting code and an information vector corresponds not to a single codeword but a set of write-reduction codewords. Given a writing data and current memory bits, we can deterministically select a particular write-reduction codeword corresponding to the data to be written, where the maximum number of flipped bits are theoretically minimized. Then the number of writing bits into memory cells will also be minimized. Experimental results demonstrate that we have achieved writing-bits reduction by an average of 51% and energy reduction by an average of 33% compared to non-encoded memory.

    DOI

  • Code Generation Limiting Maximum and Minimum Hamming Distances for Non-Volatile Memories

    Tatsuro Kojo, Masashi Tawada, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E98A ( 12 ) 2484 - 2493  2015.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Data stored in non-volatile memories may be destructed due to crosstalk and radiation but we can restore their data by using error-correcting codes. However, non-volatile memories consume a large amount of energy in writing. How to reduce maximum writing bits even using error-correcting codes is one of the challenges in non-volatile memory design. In this paper, we first propose Doughnut code which is based on state encoding limiting maximum and minimum Hamming distances. After that, we propose a code expansion method, which improves maximum and minimum Hamming distances. When we apply our code expansion method to Doughnut code, we can obtain a code which reduces maximum-flipped bits and has error-correcting ability equal to Hamming code. Experimental results show that the proposed code efficiently reduces the number of maximum-writing bits.

    DOI

  • A floorplan-driven high-level synthesis algorithm with multiple-operation chainings based on path enumeration

    Kotaro Terada, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems   2015-   2129 - 2132  2015.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    As process technologies advance, interconnection delays are not negligible even in high-level synthesis and regular-distributed-register (RDR) architecture has been proposed to cope with this problem. In this paper, we propose a floorplan-driven high-level synthesis algorithm using multiple-operation chainings composed of two or more operations, and reduce the overall latency targeting RDR architecture. Our algorithm enumerates multiple-operation-chaining path candidates before performing scheduling/binding. Based on them, we find out optimal ones taking into account RDR floorplan information. Experimental results show that our algorithm successfully reduces the latency by up to 30.4% compared to the conventional approaches.

    DOI

  • An Effective Suspicious Timing-Error Prediction Circuit Insertion Algorithm Minimizing Area Overhead

    Shinnosuke Yoshida, Youhua Shi, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E98A ( 7 ) 1406 - 1418  2015.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    As process technologies advance, timing-error correction techniques have become important as well. A suspicious timing-error prediction (STEP) technique has been proposed recently, which predicts timing errors by monitoring themiddle points, or check points of several speed-paths in a circuit. However, if we insert STEP circuits (STEPCs) in the middle points of all the paths from primary inputs to primary outputs, we need many STEPCs and thus require too much area overhead. How to determine these check points is very important. In this paper, we propose an effective STEPC insertion algorithm minimizing area overhead. Our proposed algorithm moves the STEPC insertion positions to minimize inserted STEPC counts. We apply a max-flow and min-cut approach to determine the optimal positions of inserted STEPCs and reduce the required number of STEPCs to 1/10-1/80 and their area to 1/5-1/8 compared with a naive algorithm. Furthermore, our algorithm realizes 1.12X-1.5X overclocking compared with just inserting STEPCs into several speed-paths.

    DOI

  • A Floorplan-Driven High-Level Synthesis Algorithm for Multiplexer Reduction Targeting FPGA Designs

    Koichi Fujiwara, Kazushi Kawamura, Shin-ya Abe, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E98A ( 7 ) 1392 - 1405  2015.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Recently, high-level synthesis (HLS) techniques for FPGA designs are required in various applications such as computerized stock tradings and reconfigurable network processings. In HLS for FPGA designs, we need to consider module floorplan and reduce multiplexer's cost concurrently. In this paper, we propose a floorplan-driven HLS algorithm for multiplexer reduction targeting FPGA designs. By utilizing distributed-register architectures called HDR, we can easily consider module floorplan in HLS. In order to reduce multiplexer's cost, we propose two novel binding methods called datapath-oriented scheduling/FU binding and datapath-oriented register binding. Experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm can realize FPGA designs which reduce the number of slices by up to 47% and latency by up to 22% compared with conventional approaches while the number of required control steps is almost the same.

    DOI

  • An Energy-Efficient Floorplan Driven High-Level Synthesis Algorithm for Multiple Clock Domains Design

    Shin-ya Abe, Youhua Shi, Kimiyoshi Usami, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E98A ( 7 ) 1376 - 1391  2015.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this paper, we first propose an HDR-mcd architecture, which integrates periodically all-in-phase based multiple clock domains and multi-cycle interconnect communication into high-level synthesis. In HDR-mcd, an entire chip is divided into several huddles. Huddles can realize synchronization between different clock domains in which interconnection delay should be considered during high-level synthesis. Next, we propose a high-level synthesis algorithm for HDR-mcd, which can reduce energy consumption by optimizing configuration and placement of huddles. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves 32.5% energy-saving compared with the existing single clock domain based methods.

    DOI

  • A High-Level Synthesis Algorithm with Inter-Island Distance Based Operation Chainings for RDR Architectures

    Kotaro Terada, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E98A ( 7 ) 1366 - 1375  2015.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In deep-submicron era, interconnection delays are not negligible even in high-level synthesis and regular-distributed-register architectures (RDR architectures) have been proposed to cope with this problem. In this paper, we propose a high-level synthesis algorithm using operation chainings which reduces the overall latency targeting RDR architectures. Our algorithm consists of three steps: The first step enumerates candidate operations for chaining. The second step introduces maximal chaining distance (MCD), which gives the maximal allowable inter-island distance on RDR architecture between chaining candidate operations. The last step performs list-scheduling and binding simultaneously based on the results of the two preceding steps. Our algorithm enumerates feasible chaining candidates and selects the best ones for RDR architecture. Experimental results show that our proposed algorithm reduces the latency by up to 40.0% compared to the original approach, and by up to 25.0% compared to a conventional approach. Our algorithm also reduces the number of registers and the number of multiplexers compared to the conventional approaches in some cases.

    DOI

  • Energy-efficient High-level Synthesis for HDR Architecture with Multi-stage Clock Gating

    Akasaka Hiroyuki, Abe Shin-ya, Yanagisawa Masao, Togawa Nozomu

    IMT   10 ( 1 ) 1 - 7  2015

     View Summary

    With the miniaturization and high performance of current and future LSIs, demand for portable devices has much more increased. Especially the problems of battery runtime and device overheating have occurred. In addition, with the downsize of the LSI design process, the ratio of an interconnection delay to a gate delay has continued to increase. High-level synthesis to estimate the interconnection delays and reduce energy consumption is essential. In this paper, we propose a high-level synthesis algorithm based on HDR architectures (huddle-based distributed register architectures) utilizing multi-stage clock gating. By increasing the number of clock gating stages in each huddle, we increase the number of the control steps at which we can apply the clock gating to registers. We can determine the configuration of the clock gating with optimized energy consumption. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed algorithm reduced energy consumption by up to 27.7% compared with conventional algorithms.

    DOI CiNii

  • Fast source optimization by clustering algorithm based on lithography properties

    Masashi Tawada, Takaki Hashimoto, Keishi Sakanushi, Shigeki Nojima, Toshiya Kotani, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    DESIGN-PROCESS-TECHNOLOGY CO-OPTIMIZATION FOR MANUFACTURABILITY IX   9427  2015  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Lithography is a technology to make circuit patterns on a wafer. UV light diffracted by a photomask forms optical images on a photoresist. Then, a photoresist is melt by an amount of exposed UV light exceeding the threshold. The UV light diffracted by a photomask through lens exposes the photoresist on the wafer. Its lightness and darkness generate patterns on the photoresist. As the technology node advances, the feature sizes on photoresist becomes much smaller. Diffracted UV light is dispersed on the wafer, and then exposing photoresists has become more difficult. Exposure source optimization, SO in short, techniques for optimizing illumination shape have been studied. Although exposure source has hundreds of grid-points, all of previous works deal with them one by one. Then they consume too much running time and that increases design time extremely. How to reduce the parameters to be optimized in SO is the key to decrease source optimization time. In this paper, we propose a variation-resilient and high-speed cluster-based exposure source optimization algorithm. We focus on image log slope (ILS) and use it for generating clusters. When an optical image formed by a source shape has a small ILS value at an EPE (Edge placement error) evaluation point, dose/focus variation much affects the EPE values. When an optical image formed by a source shape has a large ILS value at an evaluation point, dose/focus variation less affects the EPE value. In our algorithm, we cluster several grid-points with similar ILS values and reduce the number of parameters to be simultaneously optimized in SO. Our clustering algorithm is composed of two STEPs: In STEP 1, we cluster grid-points into four groups based on ILS values of grid-points at each evaluation point. In STEP 2, we generate super clusters from the clusters generated in STEP 1. We consider a set of grid-points in each cluster to be a single light source element. As a result, we can optimize the SO problem very fast. Experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm runs speed-up compared to a conventional algorithm with keeping the EPE values.

    DOI

  • A Floorplan-Aware High-Level Synthesis Technique with Delay-Variation Tolerance

    Kazushi Kawamura, Yuta Hagio, Youhua Shi, Nozomu Togawa

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2015 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ELECTRON DEVICES AND SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS (EDSSC)     122 - 125  2015  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    For realizing better trade-off between performance and yield rate in recent LSI designs, it is required to deal with increasing the ratios of interconnect delay as well as delay variation. In this paper, a novel floorplan-aware high-level synthesis technique with delay-variation tolerance is proposed. By utilizing floorplan-driven architectures, interconnect delays can be estimated and then handled even in high-level synthesis. Applying our technique enables to realize two scheduling/binding results (one is a non-delayed result and the other is a delayed result) simultaneously on a chip with small area/performance overhead, and either one of them can be selected according to the post-silicon delay variation. Experimental results demonstrate that our technique can reduce delayed scheduling/binding latency by up to 32.3% compared with conventional approaches.

  • Scan-based Side-channel Attack against Symmetric Key Ciphers Using Scan Signatures

    Mika Fujishiro, Youhua Shi, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2015 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ELECTRON DEVICES AND SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS (EDSSC)     309 - 312  2015  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    There are a number of studies on a side-channel attack which uses information exploited from the physical implementation of a cryptosystem. A scan-based side-channel attack utilizes scan chains, one of design-for-test techniques and retrieves the secret information inside the cryptosystem. In this paper, scan based side-channel attack methods against symmetric key ciphers such as block ciphers and stream ciphers using scan signatures are presented to show the risk of scan-based attacks.

  • Partitioning-Based Multiplexer Network Synthesis for Field-Data Extractors

    Koki Ito, Yutaka Tamiya, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2015 28TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM-ON-CHIP CONFERENCE (SOCC)     263 - 268  2015  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    As seen in packet analysis of TCP/IP offload engine and stream data processing for video/audio data, it is necessary to extract a particular data field from bulk data, where we can use a field-data extractor. Particularly, an (M, N)-field-data extractor reads out any consecutive N bytes from an M-byte register by connecting its input/ output using multiplexers. However, the number of required multiplexers increases too much as the input/ output byte lengths increase. How to reduce the number of its required multiplexers is a major challenge. In this paper, we propose an efficient multiplexer network synthesis method for an (M, N)-field-data extractor. Our method is based on inserting an (N + B - 1)-byte virtual intermediate register into a multiplexer network and partitioning it into an upper network and a lower network. Our method theoretically reduces the number of required multiplexers without increasing the multiplexer network depth. We also propose how to determine the size of the virtual intermediate register that minimizes the number of required multiplexers. Experimental results show that our method reduces the required number of gates to implement a field-data extractor by up to 92% compared with the one using a naive multiplexer network.

    DOI

  • A Process-Variation-Aware Multi-Scenario High-Level Synthesis Algorithm for Distributed-Register Architectures

    Koki Igawa, Youhua Shi, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2015 28TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM-ON-CHIP CONFERENCE (SOCC)     7 - 12  2015  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In order to tackle a process-variation problem, we can define several scenarios, each of which corresponds to a particular LSI behavior, such as a typical-case scenario and a worst-case scenario. By designing a single LSI chip which realizes multiple scenarios simultaneously, we can have a process-variation-tolerant LSI chip. In this paper, we propose a processvariation- aware low-latency and multi-scenario high-level synthesis algorithm targeting new distributed-register architectures, called HDR architectures. We assume two scenarios, a typical-case scenario and a worst-case scenario, and realize them onto a single chip. We first schedule/bind each of the scenarios independently. After that, we commonize the scheduling/binding results for the typical-case and worst-case scenarios and thus generate a commonized area-minimized floorplan result. Experimental results show that our algorithm reduces the latency of the typical-case scenario by up to 50% without increasing the latency of the worst-case scenario, compared with several existing methods.

    DOI

  • A Floorplan-Driven High-Level Synthesis Algorithm with Multiple-Operation Chainings based on Path Enumeration

    Kotaro Terada, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2015 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS (ISCAS)     2129 - 2132  2015  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    As process technologies advance, interconnection delays are not negligible even in high-level synthesis and regular-distributed-register (RDR) architecture has been proposed to cope with this problem. In this paper, we propose a floorplan-driven high-level synthesis algorithm using multiple-operation chainings composed of two or more operations, and reduce the overall latency targeting RDR architecture. Our algorithm enumerates multiple-operation-chaining path candidates before performing scheduling/ binding. Based on them, we find out optimal ones taking into account RDR floorplan information. Experimental results show that our algorithm successfully reduces the latency by up to 30.4% compared to the conventional approaches.

    DOI

  • Bit-Write-Reducing and Error-Correcting Code Generation by Clustering Error-Correcting Codewords for Non-Volatile Memories

    Tatsuro Kojo, Masashi Tawada, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2015 IEEE/ACM INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN (ICCAD)     682 - 689  2015  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Non-volatile memories are paid attention to as a promising alternative to memory design. Data stored in them still may be destructed due to crosstalk and radiation. We can restore the data by using error-correcting codes which require extra bits to correct bit errors. Further, non-volatile memories consume ten to hundred times more energy than normal memories in bit-writing. When we configure them using error-correcting codes, it is quite necessary to reduce writing bits. In this paper, we propose a method to generate a bit-write-reducing code with error-correcting ability. We first pick up an error-correcting code which can correct t-bit errors. We cluster its codeswords and generate a cluster graph satisfying the S-bit flip conditions. We assign a data to be written to each cluster. In other words, we generate one-to-many mapping from each data to the codewords in the cluster. We prove that, if the cluster graph is a complete graph, every data in a memory cell can be re-written into another data by flipping at most S bits keeping error-correcting ability to t bits. We further propose an efficient method to cluster error-correcting codewords. Experimental results demonstrate that, when we apply our bit-write-reducing code to MediaBench applications, it can reduce writing-bit counts by up to 28.2% and also energy consumption of non-volatile memory cells by up to 27.9% compared to existing error-correcting codes keeping the same error-correcting ability. This paper proposes the world-first theoretically near-optimal bit-write-reducing code with error-correcting ability based on the efficient coding theories.

    DOI

  • Effective Parallel Algorithm for GPGPU-Accelerated Explicit Routing Optimization

    Ko Kikuta, Eiji Oki, Naoaki Yamanaka, Nozomu Togawa, Hidenori Nakazato

    2015 IEEE GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONS CONFERENCE (GLOBECOM)     1 - 6  2015  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The recent development of network technologies that offer centralized control of explicit routes opens the door to the online optimization of explicit routing. For this kind of Traffic Engineering optimization, raising the calculation speeds by using multi-core processors with effective parallel algorithms is a key goal. This paper proposes an effective parallel algorithm for General purpose Programming on Graphic Processing Unit (GPGPU); its massively parallel style promises strong acceleration of calculation speed. The proposed algorithm parallelizes not only the search method of the Genetic Algorithm, but also its fitness functions, which calculate the network congestion ratio, so as to fully utilize the power of modern GPGPUs. Concurrently, each execution is designed for thread-block execution on the GPU with consideration of thread occupancy, local resources, and SIMT execution to maximize GPU performance. Evaluations show that the proposed algorithm offers, on average, a nine fold speedup compared to the conventional CPU approach.

    DOI

  • A Landmark-based Route Recommendation Method for Pedestrian Walking Strategies

    Siya Bao, Tomoyuki Nitta, Daisuke Shindou, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2015 IEEE 4TH GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON CONSUMER ELECTRONICS (GCCE)     672 - 673  2015  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a landmark-based route recommendation method for enjoyable walking atmosphere strategies by accumulating and analyzing geographical information. We utilize landmark categorization and region clustering to obtain effective elements. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method improves walking environment quality and confirm that it is applicable in both urban and rural areas.

    DOI

  • A Visible Corner-Landmark Based Route Finding Algorithm for Pedestrian Navigation

    Kengo Takeda, Tomoyuki Nitta, Daisuke Shindou, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2015 IEEE 4TH GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON CONSUMER ELECTRONICS (GCCE)     601 - 602  2015  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Although many GPS-based pedestrian navigations are released, their instructions at decision points are not sufficient. This is mainly due to the lack of landmark informations. They may cause pedestrians to pass decision points or misunderstand when to turn. This paper proposes a visible corner-landmark based route finding algorithm. The proposed algorithm is based on visibility edges for landmarks and can obtain a pedestrian route that has visible landmarks on its corner points. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can maximize the visible corner landmarks included in the generated routes.

    DOI

  • A Score-Based Classification Method for Identifying Hardware-Trojans at Gate-Level Netlists

    Masaru Oya, Youhua Shi, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2015 DESIGN, AUTOMATION & TEST IN EUROPE CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION (DATE)     465 - 470  2015  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Recently, digital ICs are often designed by outside vendors to reduce design costs in semiconductor industry, which may introduce severe risks that malicious attackers implement Hardware Trojans (HTs) on them. Since IC design phase generates only a single design result, an RT-level or gate-level netlist for example, we cannot assume an HT-free netlist or a Golden netlist and then it is too difficult to identify whether a generated netlist is HT-free or HT-inserted. In this paper, we propose a score-based classification method for identifying HT-free or HT-inserted gate-level netlists without using a Golden netlist. Our proposed method does not directly detect HTs themselves in a gate-level netlist but a net included in HTs, which is called Trojan net, instead. Firstly, we observe Trojan nets from several HT-inserted benchmarks and extract several their features. Secondly, we give scores to extracted Trojan net features and sum up them for each net in benchmarks. Then we can find out a score threshold to classify HT-free and HT-inserted netlists. Based on these scores, we can successfully classify HT-free and HT-inserted netlists in all the Trust-HUB gate-level benchmarks. Experimental results demonstrate that our method successfully identify all the HT-inserted gate-level benchmarks to be "HT-inserted" and all the HT-free gate-level benchmarks to be "HT-free" in approximately three hours for each benchmark.

  • A Bit-Write Reduction Method based on Error-Correcting Codes for Non-Volatile Memories

    Masashi Tawada, Shinji Kimura, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2015 20TH ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE (ASP-DAC)     496 - 501  2015  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Non-volatile memory has many advantages over SRAM. However, one of its largest problems is that it consumes a large amount of energy in writing. In this paper, we propose a bit-write reduction method based on error correcting codes for non-volatile memories. When a data is written into a memory cell, we do not write it directly but encode it into a codeword. We focus on error-correcting codes and generate new codes called write-reduction codes. In our write-reduction codes, each data corresponds to an information vector in an error-correcting code and an information vector corresponds not to a single codeword but a set of write-reduction codewords. Given a writing data and current memory bits, we can deterministically select a particular write-reduction codeword corresponding to a data to be written, where the maximum number of flipped bits are theoretically minimized. Then the number of writing bits into memory cells will also be minimized. We perform several experimental evaluations and demonstrate up to 72% energy reduction.

    DOI

  • Improved Monitoring-Path Selection Algorithm for Suspicious Timing Error Prediction based Timing Speculation

    Shinnosuke Yoshida, Youhua Shi, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    PROCEEDINGS OF 2015 IEEE 11TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ASIC (ASICON)     1 - 4  2015  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    As process technology is scaling down, timing speculation techniques such as Razor and STEP are emerged as alternative solutions to reduce required margins due to various variation effects. Unlike Razor, STEP is a prediction-based timing speculation method to predict suspicious timing errors before they really appear, and thus it can result in more performance improvement. Therefore, an improved monitoring-path selection algorithm for STEP-based timing speculation is proposed in this paper, in which candidate monitoring-paths are selected based on short path removement and path length estimation. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm realizes an average of 1.71X overclocking compared with worst-case based designs.

    DOI

  • A low-power soft error tolerant latch scheme

    Saki Tajima, Youhua Shi, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa

    PROCEEDINGS OF 2015 IEEE 11TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ASIC (ASICON)     1 - 4  2015  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    As process technology continues scaling, low power and reliability of integrated circuits are becoming more critical than ever before. Particularly, due to the reduction of node capacitance and operating voltage for low power consumption, it makes the circuits more sensitive to high-energy particles induced soft errors. In this paper, a soft-error tolerant latch called TSPC-SEH is proposed for soft error tolerance with low power consumption. The simulation results show that the proposed TSPC-SEH latch can achieve up to 42% power consumption reduction and 54% delay improvement compared to the existing soft error tolerant SEH and DICE designs.

    DOI

  • Small-Sized and Noise-Reducing Power Analyzer Design for Low-Power IoT Devices

    Ryosuke Kitayama, Takashi Takenaka, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    PROCEEDINGS OF 2015 IEEE 11TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ASIC (ASICON)     1 - 4  2015  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Power analysis for IoT devices is strongly required to reduce power consumption and realize secure communications, where we need a small-sized power analyzer that can reduce a wide frequency range of noises is needed. In this paper, we propose a small-sized and noise-reduced power analyzer for IoT devices. We utilize a signal averaging method to reduce a wide frequency range of noises. At that time, how to implement a synchronous process between a power analyzer and a target IoT device becomes the key problem. We solve this problem by ( a) using synchronization signals generated by a general-purpose I/O interface of a microprocessor and ( b) introducing a data-order correction process. We analyze power/energy consumption of the encryption process of LED block cipher on the IoT device and obtain an average power of 146.3mW and energy of 3.84mJ. The proposed power analyzer is just implemented on a 5cmx5cm board but these results only have 5% errors compared to a highprecision oscilloscope.

    DOI

  • Image Synthesis Circuit Design Using Selector-logic-based Alpha Blending and Its FPGA Implementation

    Keita Igarashi, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    PROCEEDINGS OF 2015 IEEE 11TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ASIC (ASICON)     1 - 4  2015  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Alpha blending is one of image synthesis techniques, which synthesizes a new image by summing up weighted input images and realizes transparent effect. In this paper, we focus on alpha blending using selector logics and implement it on an FPGA board. By applying selector logics to the alpha blending operation, its total product terms are decreased and thus a circuit size and circuit delay are improved simultaneously. In our implementation, original pixel values are stored into a memory on the FPGA board and then a new pixel value is synthesized based on input transmittance factors. We realize approximately 23% speed-up and 8% area reduction simultaneously using selector-logic based alpha blending.

    DOI

  • Clock Skew Estimate Modeling for FPGA High-level Synthesis and Its Application

    Koichi Fujiwara, Kazushi Kawamura, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    PROCEEDINGS OF 2015 IEEE 11TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ASIC (ASICON)     1 - 4  2015  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Recently, high-level synthesis (HLS) techniques for FPGA designs are required in various applications. Clock network in FPGA has already been built before implementing any circuits, which may lead a large impact of clock skews and then degrade operation frequency. In this paper, we formulate a clock skew estimate model for FPGA-HLS (CSEF). CSEF is an accurate model to estimate clock skews in HLS flow. CSEF is then integrated into a floorplan-aware HLS algorithm targeting FPGA designs. Experimental results demonstrate that our HLS algorithm can realize FPGA designs which reduce the latency by up to 19% compared with conventional approaches.

    DOI

  • Scan-Based Side-Channel Attack on the LED Block Cipher Using Scan Signatures

    Mika Fujishiro, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E97A ( 12 ) 2434 - 2442  2014.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    LED (Light Encryption Device) block cipher, one of lightweight block ciphers, is very compact in hardware. Its encryption process is composed of AES-like rounds. Recently, a scan-based side-channel attack is reported which retrieves the secret information inside the cryptosystem utilizing scan chains, one of design-for-test techniques. In this paper, a scan-based attack method on the LED block cipher using scan signatures is proposed. In our proposed method, we focus on a particular 16-bit position in scanned data obtained from an LED LSI chip and retrieve its secret key using scan signatures. Experimental results show that our proposed method successfully retrieves its 64-bit secret key using 36 plaintexts on average if the scan chain is only connected to the LED block cipher. These experimental results also show the key is successfully retrieved even if the scan chain includes additional 130,000 1-bit data.

    DOI

  • Scan-Based Attack against Trivium Stream Cipher Using Scan Signatures

    Mika Fujishiro, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E97A ( 7 ) 1444 - 1451  2014.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Trivium is a synchronous stream cipher using three shift registers. It is designed to have a simple structure and runs at high speed. A scan-based side-channel attack retrieves secret information using scan chains, one of design-for-test techniques. In this paper, a scan-based side-channel attack method against Trivium using scan signatures is proposed. In our method, we reconstruct a previous internal state in Trivium one by one from the internal state just when a ciphertext is generated. When we retrieve the internal state, we focus on a particular 1-bit position in a collection of scan chains and then we can attack Trivium even if the scan chain includes other registers than internal state registers in Trivium. Experimental results show that our proposed method successfully retrieves a plaintext from a ciphertext generated by Trivium.

    DOI

  • A Delay-variation-aware High-level Synthesis Algorithm for RDR Architectures

    Hagio Yuta, Yanagisawa Masao, Togawa Nozomu

    IMT   9 ( 4 ) 446 - 455  2014

     View Summary

    As device feature size drops, interconnection delays often exceed gate delays. We have to incorporate interconnection delays even in high-level synthesis. Using RDR architectures is one of the effective solutions to this problem. At the same time, process and delay variation also becomes a serious problem which may result in several timing errors. How to deal with this problem is another key issue in high-level synthesis. In this paper, we propose a delay-variation-aware high-level synthesis algorithm for RDR architectures. We first obtain a non-delayed scheduling/binding result and, based on it, we also obtain a delayed scheduling/binding result. By adding several extra functional units to vacant RDR islands, we can have a delayed scheduling/binding result so that its latency is not much increased compared with the non-delayed one. After that, we similarize the two scheduling/binding results by repeatedly modifying their results. We can finally realize non-delayed and delayed scheduling/binding results simultaneously on RDR architecture with almost no area/performance overheads and we can select either one of them depending on post-silicon delay variation. Experimental results show that our algorithm successfully reduces delayed scheduling/binding latency by up to 42.9% compared with the conventional approach.

    DOI CiNii

  • Scan-based attack on the LED block cipher using scan signatures

    Mika Fujishiro, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems     1460 - 1463  2014  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    LED (Light Encryption Device) block cipher, one of lightweight block ciphers, is very compact in hardware. Its encryption process is composed of AES-like rounds. Recently, a scan-based side-channel attack is reported which retrieves the secret information inside the cryptosystem utilizing scan chains, one of design-for-test techniques. In this paper, a scan-based attack method on the LED block cipher using scan signatures is proposed. In our proposed method, we focus on a particular 16-bit position in scanned data obtained from an LED LSI chip and retrieve its secret key using scan signatures. Experimental results show that our proposed method successfully retrieves its 64-bit secret key using 73 plaintexts on average if the scan chain is only connected to the LED block cipher. These experimental results also show the key is successfully retrieved even if the scan chain includes additional some 4000 1-bit registers. © 2014 IEEE.

    DOI

  • Linear and bi-linear interpolation circuits using selector logics and their evaluations

    Masashi Shio, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems     1436 - 1439  2014  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Interpolation is a technique that presumes a value between existing data, which is often used for image scaling and correction of distortion. Linear interpolation is one of the interpolation techniques which interpolates inbetween values by linearly connecting two known values. Also, bi-linear interpolation is one of interpolation techniques, which interpolates a value linearly from its four circumferences. Both of them are used practically in many cases. In this paper, we propose high-speed and small-sized linear and bi-linear interpolation circuits based on selector logics. The proposed linear and bi-linear interpolation circuits reduce carry propagation delays by using selector logics and then realize fast and small-sized circuits. We have implemented our linear interpolation circuit and bi-linear interpolation circuits in several ways and evaluated each of them. We can find out that a selector-based bi-linear interpolation circuit where its partial products are summed up by using the arithmetic operator saves its area by up to 42% and reduces its delay by up to 18% compared with a conventional design. © 2014 IEEE.

    DOI

  • Throughput Driven Check Point Selection in Suspicious Timing Error Prediction based Designs

    Hiroaki Igarashi, Youhua Shi, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2014 IEEE 5TH LATIN AMERICAN SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS (LASCAS)     1 - 4  2014  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this paper, a throughput-driven design technique is proposed, in which a suspicious timing error prediction circuit is inserted to monitor the signal transitions at some selected check points. Unlike previous works where timing errors are detected after their occurrence, the proposed method tries to use the real intermediate signal transitions for timing error prediction. The check point selection will affect both the maximal operation frequency and the suspicious timing error overestimation rate, both of which have an effect on the overall throughput, thus an analysis on the check point selection is also given. In our work, the circuit can be overclocked by a factor of 2 or more with ignorable area overhead while guarantees the always-correct output.

    DOI

  • Scan-based Attack on the LED Block Cipher Using Scan Signatures

    Mika Fujishiro, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2014 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS (ISCAS)     1460 - 1463  2014  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    LED (Light Encryption Device) block cipher, one of lightweight block ciphers, is very compact in hardware. Its encryption process is composed of AES-like rounds. Recently, a scan-based side-channel attack is reported which retrieves the secret information inside the cryptosystem utilizing scan chains, one of design-for-test techniques. In this paper, a scan-based attack method on the LED block cipher using scan signatures is proposed. In our proposed method, we focus on a particular 16-bit position in scanned data obtained from an LED LSI chip and retrieve its secret key using scan signatures. Experimental results show that our proposed method successfully retrieves its 64-bit secret key using 73 plaintexts on average if the scan chain is only connected to the LED block cipher. These experimental results also show the key is successfully retrieved even if the scan chain includes additional some 4000 1-bit registers.

    DOI

  • Linear and Bi-linear Interpolation Circuits Selector Logics and their Evaluations

    Masashi Shio, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2014 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS (ISCAS)     1436 - 1439  2014  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Interpolation is a technique that presumes a value between existing data, which is often used for image scaling and correction of distortion. Linear interpolation is one of the interpolation techniques which interpolates inbetween values by linearly connecting two known values. Also, bi-linear interpolation is one of interpolation techniques, which interpolates a value linearly from its four circumferences. Both of them are used practically in many cases. In this paper, we propose high-speed and small-sized linear and bi-linear interpolation circuits based on selector logics. The proposed linear and bi-linear interpolation circuits reduce carry propagation delays by using selector logics and then realize fast and small-sized circuits. We have implemented our linear interpolation circuit and bi-linear interpolation circuits in several ways and evaluated each of them. We can find out that a selector-based bi-linear interpolation circuit where its partial products are summed up by using the arithmetic operator saves its area by up to 42% and reduces its delay by up to 18% compared with a conventional design.

    DOI

  • In-situ Timing Monitoring Methods for Variation-Resilient Designs

    Youhua Shi, Nozomu Togawa

    2014 IEEE ASIA PACIFIC CONFERENCE ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS (APCCAS)     735 - 738  2014  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    With technology scaling, process, voltage, and temperature (PVT) variations pose great challenges on integrated circuit designs. Conventionally, LSI circuits are designed by adding pessimistic timing margin to guarantee "always correct" operations even under worst-case conditions. However, due to the increasing PVT variations, unacceptable larger design guard band should be reserved to avoid timing errors on critical paths of circuits, which will therefore lead to very inefficient designs in terms of power and performance. For this reason, in-situ timing monitoring technique has gained great research interest. In this paper, we will review existing variation-resilient design techniques with particular emphasis on in-situ timing monitoring techniques including both detection and prediction-based methods. The effectiveness of in-situ timing monitoring techniques will be discussed. Finally, we show an example of in-situ timing monitoring technique called STEP with applications to general pipeline designs.

    DOI

  • Secure scan design using improved random order and its evaluations

    Masaru Oya, Yuta Atobe, Youhua Shi, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2014 IEEE ASIA PACIFIC CONFERENCE ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS (APCCAS)     555 - 558  2014  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Scan test using scan chains is one of the most important DFT techniques. However, scan-based attacks are reported which can retrieve the secret key in crypto circuits by using scan chains. Secure scan architecture is strongly required to protect scan chains from scan-based attacks. This paper proposes an improved version of random order as a secure scan architecture. In improved random order, a scan chain is partitioned into multiple sub-chains. The structure of the scan chain changes dynamically by selecting a subchain to scan out. Testability and security of the proposed improved random order are also discussed in the paper, and the implementation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

    DOI

  • A Write-Reducing and Error-Correcting Code Generation Method for Non-Volatile Memories

    Tatsuro Kojo, Masashi Tawada, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2014 IEEE ASIA PACIFIC CONFERENCE ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS (APCCAS)     304 - 307  2014  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Data stored in non-volatile memories may be destructed due to crosstalk and radiation but we can restore their data by using error-correcting codes. However, non-volatile memories consume a large amount of energy in writing. How to reduce writing bits even using error-correcting codes is one of the challenges in non-volatile memory design. In this paper, we propose a new write-reducing and error-correcting code, called Doughnut code. Doughnut code is based on state encoding limiting maximum and minimum Hamming distances. After that, we propose a code expansion method, which improves minimum and maximum Hamming distances by expanding a write-reducing code. When we apply our code expansion method to Doughnut code, we can obtain a write-reducing code whose error-correcting ability is equal to Hamming code. Experimental results show that the proposed write-reducing code reduces the number of writing bits by up to 36% compared to Hamming code.

    DOI

  • An Area-Overhead-Oriented Monitoring-Path Selection Algorithm for Suspicious Timing Error Prediction

    Shinnosuke Yoshida, Youhua Shi, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2014 IEEE ASIA PACIFIC CONFERENCE ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS (APCCAS)     300 - 303  2014  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    As process technologies advance, the importance of timing error correction techniques is increasing as well. In this paper, We propose an area-overhead-oriented monitoring-path selection algorithm for suspicious timing error prediction circuits (STEPCs). STEPC predicts timing errors by monitoring the middle points of several speed-paths in a circuit. However, we need many STEPCs with a high area overhead to predict timing errors in an overall circuit. Our proposed method moves the STEPC insertion positions to minimize the number of inserted STEPCs. We apply a max-flow and min-cut approach to determine the optimal positions of inserted STEPCs. Our proposed algorithm reduces the required number of STEPCs to 1/19 and their area to 1/5 compared with a naive algorithm. Furthermore, our algorithm realizes 2.25X overclocking compared with just inserting STEPCs into several speed-paths.

    DOI

  • Scan-based Side-Channel Attack on Camellia Cipher Using Scan Signatures

    Huiqian Jiang, Mika Fujishiro, Hirokazu Kodera, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2014 IEEE ASIA PACIFIC CONFERENCE ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS (APCCAS)     252 - 255  2014  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Camellia, a block cipher jointly developed by Mitsubishi and NTT of Japan, is suitable for both software and hardware implementations and more secure than AES cipher. One of design-for-test techniques using scan chains is called scan-path test, in which testers can observe and control registers inside the LSI chip directly. Recently, scan-based side-channel attack is reported which retrieves the secret information from the cryptosystem using scan chains. In this paper, we propose a scan-based attack method on Camellia cipher using scan signatures. Our proposed method is based on equivalent transformation of the Camellia algorithm and key pattern reduction in order to retrieve the secret key. Experimental results show that our proposed method sucessfully retrieves its 128-bit secret key using 960 plaintexts if the scan chain is only connected to the Camellia cipher and also sucessfully retrieves its key on SASEBO-GII, which is a side-channel attack standard evaluation board.

    DOI

  • A Floorplan-Driven High-Level Synthesis Algorithm with Operation Chainings Using Chaining Enumeration

    Kotaro Terada, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2014 IEEE ASIA PACIFIC CONFERENCE ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS (APCCAS)     248 - 251  2014  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In deep-submicron era, interconnection delays are not negligible even in high-level synthesis and RDR (Regular-Distributed-Register) architecture has been proposed to cope with this problem. In this paper, we propose a high-level synthesis algorithm using operation chainings which reduces the overall latency targeting RDR architectures. Our algorithm consists of three steps: The first step enumerates candidates for chaining. The second step introduces maximal chaining distance (MCD), which gives the maximum allowable distance on RDR architecture between chaining candidate operations. The last step performs list-scheduling and binding simultaneously using the results of two preceding steps. Our algorithm enumerates feasible chaining candidates and selects the best ones for RDR architecture. Experimental results show that our algorithm reduces the latency by up to 28.6%, the number of registers by up to 37.5%, the number of multiplexers by up to 25.0%, compared to the conventional approaches.

    DOI

  • A Floorplan-Aware High-level Synthesis Algorithm for Multiplexer Reduction Targeting FPGA Designs

    Koichi Fujiwara, Shinya Abe, Kazushi Kawamura, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2014 IEEE ASIA PACIFIC CONFERENCE ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS (APCCAS)     244 - 247  2014  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Recently, high-level synthesis (HLS) techniques for FPGA designs are required in various applications such as computerized stock tradings and reconfigurable network processings. In HLS for FPGA designs, we need to consider module floorplan and reduce multiplexer's cost concurrently. In this paper, we propose a floorplan-aware HLS algorithm for multiplexer reduction targeting FPGA designs. By utilizing distirbuted-register architectures called HDR, we can easily consider module floorplan in HLS. In order to reduce multiplexer's cost, we propose two novel binding methods called datapath-oriented scheduling/FU binding and datapath-oriented register binding. Experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm can realize FPGA designs which reduces the number of slices by up to 47% and circuit delay by up to 16% compared with the conventional approach.

    DOI

  • A delay-variation-aware high-level synthesis algorithm for RDR architectures

    Yuta Hagio, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IPSJ Transactions on System LSI Design Methodology   7   81 - 90  2014  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    As device feature size drops, interconnection delays often exceed gate delays. We have to incorporate interconnection delays even in high-level synthesis. Using RDR architectures is one of the effective solutions to this problem. At the same time, process and delay variation also becomes a serious problem which may result in several timing errors. How to deal with this problem is another key issue in high-level synthesis. In this paper, we propose a delay-variation-aware high-level synthesis algorithm for RDR architectures. We first obtain a non-delayed scheduling/binding result and, based on it, we also obtain a delayed scheduling/binding result. By adding several extra functional units to vacant RDR islands, we can have a delayed scheduling/binding result so that its latency is not much increased compared with the non-delayed one. After that, we similarize the two scheduling/binding results by repeatedly modifying their results. We can finally realize non-delayed and delayed scheduling/binding results simultaneously on RDR architecture with almost no area/performance overheads and we can select either one of them depending on post-silicon delay variation. Experimental results show that our algorithm successfully reduces delayed scheduling/binding latency by up to 42.9% compared with the conventional approach.

    DOI

  • Energy-efficient high-level synthesis for HDR architecture with multi-stage clock gating

    Hiroyuki Akasaka, Shin-Ya Abe, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IPSJ Transactions on System LSI Design Methodology   7   74 - 80  2014  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    With the miniaturization and high performance of current and future LSIs, demand for portable devices has much more increased. Especially the problems of battery runtime and device overheating have occurred. In addition, with the downsize of the LSI design process, the ratio of an interconnection delay to a gate delay has continued to increase. High-level synthesis to estimate the interconnection delays and reduce energy consumption is essential. In this paper, we propose a high-level synthesis algorithm based on HDR architectures (huddle-based distributed register architectures) utilizing multi-stage clock gating. By increasing the number of clock gating stages in each huddle, we increase the number of the control steps at which we can apply the clock gating to registers. We can determine the configuration of the clock gating with optimized energy consumption. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed algorithm reduced energy consumption by up to 27.7% compared with conventional algorithms.

    DOI

  • Floorplan Driven Architecture and High-Level Synthesis Algorithm for Dynamic Multiple Supply Voltages

    Shin-ya Abe, Youhua Shi, Kimiyoshi Usami, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E96A ( 12 ) 2597 - 2611  2013.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose an adaptive voltage huddle-based distributed-register architecture (AVHDR architecture), which integrates dynamic multiple supply voltages and interconnection delay into high-level synthesis. In AVHDR architecture, voltages can be dynamically assigned for energy reduction. In other words, low supply voltages are assigned to non-critical operations, and leakage power is cut off by turning off the power supply to the sleeping functional units. Next, an AVHDR-based high-level synthesis algorithm is proposed. Our algorithm is based on iterative improvement of scheduling/binding and floorplanning. In the iteration process, the modules in each huddle can be placed close to each other and the corresponding AVHDR architecture can be generated and optimized with floorplanning information. Experimental results show that on average our algorithm achieves 43.9% energy-saving compared with conventional algorithms.

    DOI

  • A High-Speed Trace-Driven Cache Configuration Simulator for Dual-Core Processor L1 Caches

    Masashi Tawada, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E96A ( 6 ) 1283 - 1292  2013.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Recently, multi-core processors are used in embedded systems very often. Since application programs is much limited running on embedded systems, there must exists an optimal cache memory configuration in terms of power and area. Simulating application programs on various cache configurations is one of the best options to determine the optimal one. Multi-core cache configuration simulation, however, is much more complicated and takes much more time than single-core cache configuration simulation. In this paper, we propose a very fast dual-core L1 cache configuration simulation algorithm. We first propose a new data structure where just a single data structure represents two or more multi-core cache configurations with different cache associativities. After that, we propose a new multi-core cache configuration simulation algorithm using our new data structure associated with new theorems. Experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm obtains exact simulation results but runs 20 times faster than a conventional approach.

    DOI

  • Concurrent faulty clock detection for crypto circuits against clock glitch based DFA

    Hiroaki Igarashi, Youhua Shi, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems     1432 - 1435  2013  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this paper, a concurrent faulty clock detection method is proposed for crypto circuits against clock glitch based differential fault analysis (DFA). In the proposed method, a nonlogic buffer-based delay chain is inserted, and then by monitoring the delay along the delay chain, a possible clock glitch based DFA can be detected. Experimental results on an AES circuit show that the proposed method can successfully detect clock glitch based attacks, and the required area overhead is only 0.47% that is much smaller than previous works. © 2013 IEEE.

    DOI

  • An Energy-efficient High-level Synthesis Algorithm Incorporating Interconnection Delays and Dynamic Multiple Supply Voltages

    Shin-ya Abe, Youhua Shi, Kimiyoshi Usami, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2013 INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON VLSI DESIGN, AUTOMATION, AND TEST (VLSI-DAT)    2013  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose an adaptive voltage huddle-based distributed-register architecture (AVHDR architecture) that integrates dynamic multiple supply voltages and interconnection delays into high-level synthesis. Next, we propose a high-level synthesis algorithm for AVHDR architectures. Our algorithm is based on iterative improvement of scheduling/binding and floorplanning. In the iteration process, huddles, each of which abstracts modules placed close to each other, are naturally generated using floorplanning. Low-supply voltages are assigned to non-critical operations, and leakage power is cut off by turning off the power supply to the sleeping functional units. Experimental results show that our algorithm achieves 50% energy-saving compared with conventional algorithms.

  • High-Level Synthesis with Post-Silicon Delay Tuning for RDR Architectures

    Yuta Hagio, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2013 INTERNATIONAL SOC DESIGN CONFERENCE (ISOCC)     194 - 197  2013  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a high-level synthesis algorithm with post-silicon delay tuning for RDR architectures. We first obtain a non-delayed scheduling/binding result and a delayed scheduling/binding result. By adding several extra functional units to vacant RDR islands, we have a delayed scheduling/binding result so that its latency cannot be increased compared with the non-delayed one. After that, we similarize the two scheduling/binding results by repeatedly modifying their results. We can finally realize non-delayed and delayed scheduling/binding results simultaneously on RDR architecture with almost no area/performance overheads and we can select either one of them depending on post-silicon delay variation. Experimental results show that our algorithm successfully reduces delayed scheduling/binding latency by up to 42.9% compared with the conventional approach.

  • An Energy-efficient High-level Synthesis Algorithm Incorporating Interconnection Delays and Dynamic Multiple Supply Voltages

    Shin-ya Abe, Youhua Shi, Kimiyoshi Usami, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2013 INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON VLSI DESIGN, AUTOMATION, AND TEST (VLSI-DAT)     1 - 4  2013  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose an adaptive voltage huddle-based distributed-register architecture (AVHDR architecture) that integrates dynamic multiple supply voltages and interconnection delays into high-level synthesis. Next, we propose a high-level synthesis algorithm for AVHDR architectures. Our algorithm is based on iterative improvement of scheduling/binding and floorplanning. In the iteration process, huddles, each of which abstracts modules placed close to each other, are naturally generated using floorplanning. Low-supply voltages are assigned to non-critical operations, and leakage power is cut off by turning off the power supply to the sleeping functional units. Experimental results show that our algorithm achieves 50% energy-saving compared with conventional algorithms.

    DOI

  • Secure scan design with dynamically configurable connection

    Yuta Atobe, Youhua Shi, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    Proceedings of IEEE Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing, PRDC     256 - 262  2013  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Scan test is a powerful test technique which can control and observe the internal states of the circuit under test through scan chains. However, it has been reported that it's possible to retrieve secret keys from cryptographic LSIs through scan chains. Therefore new secure test methods are required to satisfy both testability and security requirements. In this paper, a secure scan design is proposed to achieve adequate security requirement as a countermeasure against scan-based attacks, while still maintain high testability like normal scan testing. In our method, the internal scan chain is divided into several sub chains, and the connection order of sub chains can be dynamically changed. In addition, how to decide the connection order of those sub chains so that it can't be identified by an attacker is also proposed in this paper. The proposed method is implemented on an AES circuit to show its effectiveness, and a security analysis is also given to show how the proposed approach can be used as a countermeasure against those known scan-based attacks. © 2013 IEEE.

    DOI

  • Suspicious Timing Error Prediction with In-Cycle Clock Gating

    Youhua Shi, Hiroaki Igarashi, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE FOURTEENTH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON QUALITY ELECTRONIC DESIGN (ISQED 2013)     335 - 340  2013  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Conventionally, circuits are designed to add pessimistic timing margin to solve delay variation problems, which guarantees "always correct" operations. However, due to the fact that such a worst-case condition occurs rarely, the traditional pessimistic design method is therefore becoming one of the main obstacles for designers to achieve higher performance and/or ultra-low power consumption. By monitoring timing error occurrence during circuit operation, adaptive timing error detection and recovery methods have gained wide interests recently as a promising solution. As an extension of existing research, in this paper, we propose a suspicious timing error prediction method for performance or energy efficiency improvement in pipeline designs. Experimental results show that with when compared with typical margin designs, the proposed method can 1) achieve up to 1.41X throughput improvement with in-situ timing error prediction ability; and 2) allow the design to be overclocked by up to 1.88X with "always correct" outputs.

    DOI

  • A partial redundant fault-secure high-level synthesis algorithm for RDR architectures

    Kazushi Kawamura, Sho Tanaka, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems     1736 - 1739  2013  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a partial redundant fault-secure high-level synthesis algorithm for RDR architectures, where we duplicate a part of the original CDFG and maximize its reliability under a timing constraint. Firstly, our algorithm allocates some new additional functional units to vacant spaces on RDR islands for recomputation and increases the number of duplicated operation nodes. Secondly, it minimizes the number of inserted comparator nodes through re-scheduling/re-binding the recomputation CDFG's nodes. As a result, we will obtain a scheduled/bound recomputation CDFG and renewed functional unit allocation with high reliability. Experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm improves reliability by up to 52% compared with the conventional approach. © 2013 IEEE.

    DOI

  • Concurrent Faulty Clock Detection for Crypto Circuits against Clock Glitch based DFA

    Hiroaki Igarashi, Youhua Shi, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2013 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS (ISCAS)     1432 - 1435  2013  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this paper, a concurrent faulty clock detection method is proposed for crypto circuits against clock glitch based differential fault analysis (DFA). In the proposed method, a non-logic buffer-based delay chain is inserted, and then by monitoring the delay along the delay chain, a possible clock glitch based DFA can be detected. Experimental results on an AES circuit show that the proposed method can successfully detect clock glitch based attacks, and the required area overhead is only 0.47% that is much smaller than previous works.

    DOI

  • Energy Evaluation for Two-level On-chip Cache with Non-Volatile Memory on Mobile Processors

    Shota Matsuno, Masashi Tawada, Masao Yanagisawa, Shinji Kimura, Nozomu Togawa, Tadahiko Sugibayashi

    2013 IEEE 10TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ASIC (ASICON)     1 - 4  2013  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    As leakage power of traditional SRAM becomes larger, a ratio of static energy in total energy of memory architecture becomes also larger. Non-volatile memory (NVM) has many advantages over SRAM, such as high density, low leakage power, and non-volatility, but consumes too much write energy. In this paper, we evaluate energy consumption of two-level cache using NVM in part on mobile processors and confirm that it effectively reduces energy consumption.

    DOI

  • Scan-based Attack against Trivium Stream Cipher Independent of Scan Structure

    Mika Fujishiro, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2013 IEEE 10TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ASIC (ASICON)     1 - 4  2013  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Trivium is a synchronous stream cipher using three shift registers running at high speed with simple structure. A scan-based side-channel attack retrieves secret information using scan chains, one of design-for-test techniques. In this paper, a scan-based side-channel attack method against Trivium using scan signatures is proposed. In our method, we focus on a particular I-bit position in a collection of scan chains and then we can attack Trivium even if the scan chain includes other registers than internal state registers in Trivium. Experimental results show that our proposed method successfully retrieves a plaintext from a ciphertext.

    DOI

  • Scan-based attack against DES and Triple DES cryptosystems using scan signatures

    Hirokazu Kodera, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    Journal of Information Processing   21 ( 3 ) 572 - 579  2013  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    A scan-path test is one of the useful design-for-test techniques, in which testers can observe and control registers inside the target LSI chip directly. On the other hand, the risk of side-channel attacks against cryptographic LSIs and modules has been pointed out. In particular, scan-based attacks which retrieve secret keys by analyzing scan data obtained from scan chains have been attracting attention. In this paper, we propose two scan-based attack methods against DES and Triple DES using scan signatures. Our proposed methods are based on focusing on particular bit-column-data in a set of scan data and observing their changes when giving several plaintexts. Based on this property, we introduce the idea of a scan signature first and apply it to DES cryptosystems. In DES cryptosystems, we can retrieve secret keys by partitioning the S-BOX process into eight independent sub-processes and reducing the number of the round key candidates from 248 to 26 × 8 = 512. In Triple DES cryptosystems, three secret keys are used to encrypt plaintexts. Then we retrieve them one by one, using the similar technique as in DES cryptosystems. Although some problems occur when retrieving the second/third secret key, our proposed method effectively resolves them. Our proposed methods can retrieve secret keys even if a scan chain includes registers except a crypto module and attackers do not know when the encryption is really done in the crypto module. Experimental results demonstrate that we successfully retrieve the secret keys of a DES cryptosystem using at most 32 plaintexts and that of a Triple DES cryptosystem using at most 36 plaintexts. © 2013 Information Processing Society of Japan.

    DOI

  • Energy-efficient High-level Synthesis for HDR Architectures with Clock Gating Based on Concurrency-oriented Scheduling.

    Hiroyuki Akasaka, Shin-ya Abe, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IPSJ Trans. System LSI Design Methodology   6   101 - 111  2013  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • A thermal-aware high-level synthesis algorithm for RDR architectures through binding and allocation

    Kazushi Kawamura, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   E96-A ( 1 ) 312 - 321  2013  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    With process technology scaling, a heat problem in ICs is becoming a serious issue. Since high temperature adversely impacts on reliability, design costs, and leakage power, it is necessary to incorporate thermal-aware synthesis into IC design flows. In particular, hot spots are serious concerns where a chip is locally too much heated and reducing the peak temperature inside a chip is very important. On the other hand, increasing the average interconnect delays is also becoming a serious issue. By using RDR architectures (Regular-Distributed-Register architectures), the interconnect delays can be easily estimated and their influence can be much reduced even in high-level synthesis. In this paper, we propose a thermal-aware high-level synthesis algorithm for RDR architectures. The RDR architecture divides the entire chip into islands and each island has uniform area. Our algorithm balances the energy consumption among islands through re-binding to functional units. By allocating some new additional functional units to vacant areas on islands, our algorithm further balances the energy consumption among islands and thus reduces the peak temperature. Experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm reduces the peak temperature by up to 9.1% compared with the conventional approach. Copyright © 2013 The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers.

    DOI

  • Scan-Based Attack on AES through Round Registers and Its Countermeasure

    Youhua Shi, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E95A ( 12 ) 2338 - 2346  2012.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Scan-based side channel attack on hardware implementations of cryptographic algorithms has shown its great security threat. Unlike existing scan-based attacks, in our work we observed that instead of the secret-related-registers, some non-secret registers also carry the potential of being misused to help a hacker to retrieve secret keys. In this paper, we first present a scan-based side channel attack method on AES by making use of the round counter registers, which are not paid attention to in previous works, to show the potential security threat in designs with scan chains. And then we discussed the issues of secure DFT requirements and proposed a secure scan scheme to preserve all the advantages and simplicities of traditional scan test, while significantly improve the security with ignorable design overhead, for crypto hardware implementations.

    DOI

  • A Locality-Aware Hybrid NoC Configuration Algorithm Utilizing the Communication Volume among IP Cores

    Seungju Lee, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E95A ( 9 ) 1538 - 1549  2012.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Network-on-chip (NoC) architectures have emerged as a promising solution to the lack of scalability in multi-processor systems-on-chips (MPSoCs). With the explosive growth in the usage of multimedia applications, it is expected that NoC serves as a multimedia server supporting multi-class services. In this paper, we propose a configuration algorithm for a hybrid bus-NoC architecture together with simulation results. Our target architecture is a hybrid bus-NoC architecture, called busmesh NoC, which is a generalized version of a hybrid NoC with local buses. In our BMNoC configuration algorithm, cores which have a heavy communication volume between them are mapped in a cluster node (CN) and connected by a local bus. CNs can have communication with each other via edge switches (ESes) and mesh routers (MRs). With this hierarchical communication network, our proposed algorithm can improve the latency as compared with conventional methods. Several realistic applications applied to our algorithm illustrate the better performance than earlier studies and feasibility of our proposed algorithm.

    DOI

  • Dynamically Changeable Secure Scan Architecture against Scan-Based Side Channel Attack

    Yuta Atobe, Youhua Shi, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2012 INTERNATIONAL SOC DESIGN CONFERENCE (ISOCC)     155 - 158  2012  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Scan test which is one of the useful design for testability techniques is effective for LSIs including cryptographic circuit. It can observe and control the internal states of the circuit under test by using scan chain. However, scan chain presents a significant security risk of information leakage for scan-based attacks which retrieves secret keys of cryptographic LSIs. In this paper, a secure scan architecture against scan-based attack which still has high testability is proposed. In our method, scan data is dynamically changed by adding the latch to any FFs in the scan chain. We show that by using proposed method, neither the secret key nor the testability of an RSA circuit implementation is compromised, and the effectiveness of the proposed method.

    DOI

  • Energy-efficient High-level Synthesis for HDR Architectures with Clock Gating

    Hiroyuki Akasaka, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2012 INTERNATIONAL SOC DESIGN CONFERENCE (ISOCC)     135 - 138  2012  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    With the miniaturization of LSIs and its increasing performance, demand for high-functional portable devices has grown significantly. At the same time, the problems for battery runtime and device overheating have occurred. On the other hand, the ratio of an interconnection delay to a gate delay has continued to increase as device feature size decreases. We have to estimate the interconnection delay and reduce energy consumption even in a high-level synthesis stage. Recently, an HDR architecture and its associated power-optimized high-level synthesis algorithm have been proposed which can effectively estimate the interconnection delays by introducing the idea of "huddles" into an LSI chip. It utilize multiple supply voltages and achieves power-optimized LSI synthesis but does not take into account the clock gatings. In this paper, we propose a high-level synthesis algorithm based on HDR architectures utilizing clock gatings. Firstly we focus on the number of the control steps at which we can apply the clock gating to registers. Secondly, we synthesize the huddles such that each of the synthesized huddles includes registers which have similar or exactly the same clock gating timings. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm reduces energy consumption by a maximum of 14.9% compared with the conventional algorithm.

    DOI

  • A Novel BMNoC Configuration Algorithm Utilizing Communication Volume and Locality among Cores

    Seungju Lee, Nozomu Togawa, Takashi Aoki, Akira Onozawa

    2012 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS (ISCAS 2012)     1668 - 1671  2012  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Network-on-chip (NoC) architectures are emerged as a promising solution to the lack of scalability in multi-processor systems-on-chips (MPSoCs). In this paper, we propose a novel BMNoC configuration algorithm together with simulation results. Our BMNoC configuration algorithm analyses the data traffic of the target application and determines which core is the right one to put into the certain cluster with its communication volume and locality. Furthermore, the simulation results illustrate the better latency than earlier studies and feasibility of BMNoC.

    DOI

  • An Energy-efficient High-level Synthesis Algorithm for Huddle-based Distributed-Register Architectures

    Shin-ya Abet, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawat

    2012 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS (ISCAS 2012)     576 - 579  2012  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this paper, we first propose a huddle-based distributed-register architecture (HDR architecture), an island-based distributed-register architecture for multi-cycle interconnect communications where we can develop several energy-saving techniques. Next, we propose an energy-efficient high-level synthesis algorithm for HDR architectures focusing on multiple supply voltages. Our algorithm is based on iterative improvement of scheduling/binding and floorplanning. In the iteration process, huddles, each of which is composed of functional units, registers, controller, and level converters, are very naturally generated using floorplanning results. By assigning high supply voltage to critical huddles and low supply voltage to non-critical huddles, we can finally have energy-efficient floorplan-aware high-level synthesis. Experimental results show that our algorithm achieves 45% energy-saving compared with the conventional distributed-register architectures and conventional algorithms.

    DOI

  • State Dependent Scan Flip-Flop with Key-Based Configuration against Scan-Based Side Channel Attack on RSA Circuit

    Yuta Atobe, Youhua Shi, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2012 IEEE ASIA PACIFIC CONFERENCE ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS (APCCAS)     607 - 610  2012  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Scan test is one of the useful design for testability techniques, which can detect circuit failure efficiently. However, it has been reported that it's possible to retrieve secret keys from cryptographic LSIs through scan chains. Therefore testability and security contradicted to each other, and there is a need to an efficient design for testability circuit so as to satisfy both testability and security requirement. In this paper, a secure scan architecture against scan-based attack is proposed to achieve high security without compromising the testability. In our method, scan structure is dynamically changed by adding the latch to any FFs in the scan chain. We made an analysis on an RSA circuit implementation to show the effectiveness of the proposed method and discussed how our approach is resistant to scan-based attack.

    DOI

  • Weighted Adders with Selector Logics for Super-resolution and Its FPGA-based Evaluation

    Hiromine Yoshihara, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2012 IEEE ASIA PACIFIC CONFERENCE ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS (APCCAS)     603 - 606  2012  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Super-resolution is a technique to remove the noise of observed images and restore its high frequencies. We focus on reconstruction-based super-resolution. Reconstruction requires large computation cost since it requires many images. In this paper, we propose a fast weighted adder for reconstruction-based super-resolution. From the viewpoint of reducing partial products, we propose two approaches to speed up a weighted adder. First, we use selector logics to halve its partial products. Second, we propose a weights-range limit method utilizing negative term. By applying our proposed approaches to a weighted adder, we can reduce carry propagations and our weighted adder can be designed by a fast circuit as compared to conventional ones. Experimental evaluations demonstrate that our weighted adder improves the performance by a maximum of 29.9% and reduces a maximum of 592 LUTs, compared to conventional implementations.

    DOI

  • Scan-based Attack against DES Cryptosystems Using Scan Signatures

    Hirokazu Kodera, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    2012 IEEE ASIA PACIFIC CONFERENCE ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS (APCCAS)     599 - 602  2012  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    With the high integration of LSI in recent years, the importance of design-for-techniques has been increasing. A scan-path test is one of the useful design-for-test techniques, in which testers can observe and control registers inside the target LSI chip directly. On the other hand, the risk of side-channel attacks against cryptographic LSIs and modules has been pointed out. In particular, scan-based attacks which retrieve secret keys by analyzing scan data obtained from scan chains has been attracting attention. In this paper, we propose a scan-based attack method against DES using scan signatures. Our proposed method are based on focusing on particular bit-column-data in a set of scan data and observing their changes when given several plaintexts. We can retrieve secret keys by partitioning the S-BOX process into eight independent sub-processes and reducing the number of the round key candidates from 2(48) to 2(6) x 8 = 512. Our proposed methods can retrieve secret keys even if a scan chain includes registers except a crypto module and attackers do not know when the encryption is really done in the crypto module. Experimental results demonstrate that we successfully retrieve the secret keys of a DES cryptosystem using at most 32 plaintexts.

    DOI

  • A Hybrid NoC Architecture Utilizing Packet Transmission Priority Control Method

    Seungju Lee, Nozomu Togawa, Yusuke Sekihara, Takashi Aoki, Akira Onozawa

    2012 IEEE ASIA PACIFIC CONFERENCE ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS (APCCAS)     404 - 407  2012  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Network-on-chip architectures have emerged as a promising solution to the lack of scalability in multi-processor systems-on-chips (MPSoCs). With the explosive growth in the usage of multimedia applications, it is expected that NoC serves as a multimedia server supporting multi-class services. Recently, a busmesh NoC (BMNoC) has been proposed. The BMNoC architecture, which analyses the data traffic and makes aware of localities between cores, improves the system performance in terms of latency as compared with conventional NoCs. In this paper, we propose a novel BMNoC utilizing packet transmission priority control methods. Our proposed BMNoC is a generalized and simplified version of a hybrid NoC which is composed of local buses and global mesh routers. Several realistic applications applied to our algorithm illustrate the better performance than previous studies and feasibility of our proposed architecture.

    DOI

  • Robust Secure Scan Design Against Scan-Based Differential Cryptanalysis

    Youhua Shi, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VERY LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION (VLSI) SYSTEMS   20 ( 1 ) 176 - 181  2012.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Scan technology carries the potential risk of being misused as a "side channel" to leak out the secrets of crypto cores. The existing scan-based attacks could be viewed as one kind of differential cryptanalysis, which takes advantages of scan chains to observe the bit changes between pairs of chosen plaintexts so as to identify the secret keys. To address such a design/test challenge, this paper proposes a robust secure scan structure design for crypto cores as a countermeasure against scan-based attacks to maintain high security without compromising the testability.

    DOI

  • Energy-efficient high-level synthesis for HDR architectures

    Shin-Ya Abe, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IPSJ Transactions on System LSI Design Methodology   5   106 - 117  2012  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    As battery runtime and overheating problems for portable devices become unignorable, energy-aware LSI design is strongly required. Moreover, an interconnection delay should be explicitly considered there because it exceeds a gate delay as the semiconductor devices are downsized. We must take account of energy efficiency and interconnection delays even in high-level synthesis. In this paper, we first propose a huddle-based distributed-register architecture (HDR architecture), an island-based distributed-register architecture for multi-cycle interconnect communications where we can develop several energy-saving techniques. Next, we propose an energy-efficient high-level synthesis algorithm for HDR architectures focusing on multiple supply voltages. Our algorithm is based on iterative improvement of scheduling/binding and floorplanning. In the iteration process, a huddle, which is composed of functional units, registers, controller, and level converters, are very naturally generated using floorplanning results. By assigning high supply voltage to critical huddles and low supply voltage to non-critical huddles, we can finally have energy-efficient floorplan-aware high-level synthesis. Experimental results show that our algorithm achieves 45% energy-saving compared with the conventional distributed-register architectures and conventional algorithms. © 2012 Information Processing Society of Japan.

    DOI

  • A fastweighted adder by reducing partial product for reconstruction in super-resolution

    Hiromine Yoshihara, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IPSJ Transactions on System LSI Design Methodology   5   96 - 105  2012  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In recent years, it is quite necessary to convert conventional low-resolution images to high-resolution ones at low cost. Super-resolution is a technique to remove the noise of observed images and restore its high frequencies. We focus on reconstruction-based super-resolution. Reconstruction requires large computation cost since it requires many images. In this paper, we propose a fast weighted adder for reconstruction-based super-resolution. From the viewpoint of reducing partial products, we propose two approaches to speed up a weighted adder. First, we use selector logics to halve its partial products. Second, we propose a weights-range limit method utilizing negative term. By applying our proposed approaches to a weighted adder, we can reduce carry propagations and our weighted adder can be designed by a fast circuit as compared to conventional ones. Experimental evaluations demonstrate that our weighted adder reduces its delay time by a maximum of 25.29% and its area to a maximum of 1/3, compared to conventional implementations. © 2012 Information Processing Society of Japan.

    DOI

  • MH4 : multiple-supply-voltages aware high-level synthesis for high-integrated and high-frequency circuits for HDR architectures

    Shin-ya Abe, Youhua Shi, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE ELECTRONICS EXPRESS   9 ( 17 ) 1414 - 1422  2012  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose multiple-supply-voltages aware high-level synthesis algorithm for HDR architectures which realizes high-speed and high-efficient circuits. We propose three new techniques: virtual area estimation, virtual area adaptation, and floorplanning-directed huddling, and integrate them into our HDR architecture synthesis algorithm. Virtual area estimation/adaptation effectively estimates a huddle area by gradually reducing it during iterations, which improves the convergence of our algorithm. Floorplanning-directed huddling determines huddle composition very effectively by performing floorplanning and functional unit assignment inside huddles simultaneously. Experimental results show that our algorithm achieves about 29% run-time-saving compared with the conventional algorithms, and obtains a solution which cannot be obtained by our original algorithm even if a very tight clock constraint is given.

    DOI

  • Greedy Algorithm for the On-Chip Decoupling Capacitance Optimization to Satisfy the Voltage Drop Constraint

    Mikiko Sode Tanaka, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Satoshi Goto

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E94A ( 12 ) 2482 - 2489  2011.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    With the progress of process technology in recent years, low voltage power supplies have become quite predominant. With this, the voltage margin has decreased and therefore the on-chip decoupling capacitance optimization that satisfies the voltage drop constraint becomes more important. In addition, the reduction of the on-chip decoupling capacitance area will reduce the chip area and, therefore, manufacturing costs. Hence, we propose an algorithm that satisfies the voltage drop constraint and at the same time, minimizes the total on-chip decoupling capacitance area. The proposed algorithm uses the idea of the network algorithm where the path which has the most influence on voltage drop is found. Voltage drop is improved by adding the on-chip capacitance to the node on the path. The proposed algorithm is efficient and effectively adds the on-chip capacitance to the greatest influence on the voltage drop. Experimental results demonstrate that, with the proposed algorithm, real size power/ground network could be optimized in just a few minutes which are quite practical. Compared with the conventional algorithm, we confirmed that the total on-chip decoupling capacitance area of the power/ground network was reducible by about 40 similar to 50%.

    DOI

  • Speeding-up exact and fast FIFO-based cache configuration simulation

    Masashi Tawada, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE ELECTRONICS EXPRESS   8 ( 14 ) 1161 - 1167  2011.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The number of sets, block size, and associativity determine processor's cache configurations. Particularly in embedded systems, their cache configuration can be optimized since their target applications are much limited. Recently, the CRCB method has been proposed for LRU-based (Least Recently Used-based) cache configuration simulation, which can calculate cache hit/miss counts accurately and very fast changing the three parameters. However many recent processors use FIFO-based (First-In-First-Out-based) caches instead of LRU-based caches due to the viewpoints of their hardware costs. In this paper, we propose a speeding-up cache configuration simulation method for embedded applications that uses FIFO as a cache replacement policy. We first prove several properties for FIFO-based caches and then propose a simulation method that can process two or more FIFO-based cache configurations with different cache associativities simultaneously. Experimental results show that our proposed method can obtain accurate cache hits/misses and runs up to 32% faster than the conventional simulators.

    DOI

  • Greedy Optimization Algorithm for the Power/Ground Network Design to Satisfy the Voltage Drop Constraint

    Mikiko Sode Tanaka, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Satoshi Goto

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E94A ( 4 ) 1082 - 1090  2011.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    With the process technological progress in recent years, low voltage power supplies have become quite predominant. With this, the voltage margin has decreased and therefore the power/ground design that satisfies the voltage drop constraint becomes more important. In addition, the reduction of the power/ground total wiring area and the number of layers will reduce manufacturing and designing costs. So, we propose an algorithm that satisfies the voltage drop constraint and at the same time, minimizes the power/ground total wiring area. The proposed algorithm uses the idea of a network algorithm [I] where the edge which has the most influence on voltage drop is found. Voltage drop is improved by changing the resistance of the edge. The proposed algorithm is efficient and effectively updates the edge with the greatest influence on the voltage drop. From experimental results, compared with the conventional algorithm, we confirmed that the total wiring area of the power/ground was reducible by about 1/3. Also, the experimental data shows that the proposed algorithm satisfies the voltage drop constraint in the data whereas the conventional algorithm cannot.

    DOI

  • Exact, Fast and Flexible L1 Cache Configuration Simulation for Embedded Systems

    Tawada Masashi, Yanagisawa Masao, Ohtsuki Tatsuo, Togawa Nozomu

    Information and Media Technologies   6 ( 4 ) 1076 - 1091  2011

     View Summary

    Since target applications running on an embedded processor are much limited in embedded systems, we can optimize its cache configuration based on the number of sets, block size, and associativities. An extremely fast cache configuration simulation method, CRCB (Configuration Reduction approach by the Cache Behavior), has been recently proposed which can calculate cache hit/miss counts accurately for possible cache configurations when the three parameters above are changed. The CRCB method assumes LRU-based (Least Recently Used-based) cache but many recent processors use FIFO-based (First In First Out-based) cache or PLRU-based (Pseudo LRU-based) cache due to its hardware cost. In this paper, we propose exact and fast L1 cache configuration simulation algorithms for embedded applications that use PLRU or FIFO as a cache replacement policy. Firstly, we prove that the CRCB method can be applied not only to LRU but also to other cache replacement policies including FIFO and PLRU. Secondly, we prove several properties for FIFO- and PLRU-based caches and we propose associated cache simulation algorithms which can simulate simultaneously more than one cache configurations with different cache associativities accurately for FIFO or PLRU. Finally, many experimental results demonstrate that our cache configuration simulation algorithms obtain accurate cache hit/miss counts and run up to 249 times faster than a conventional cache simulator.

    DOI CiNii

  • Exact and Fast L1 Cache Configuration Simulation for Embedded Systems with FIFO/PLRU Cache Replacement Policies

    Masashi Tawada, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki, Nozomu Togawa

    2011 INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON VLSI DESIGN, AUTOMATION AND TEST (VLSI-DAT)     247 - 250  2011  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Since target applications in embedded systems are limited, we can optimize its cache configuration. A very fast and exact cache simulation algorithm, CRCB, has been recently proposed. CRCB assumes LRU as a cache replacement policy but FIFO- or PLRU-based cache is often used due to its low hardware cost. This paper proposes exact and fast L1 cache simulation algorithms for PLRU- or FIFO-based caches. First, we prove that CRCB can be applied to FIFO and PLRU. Next, we show several properties for FIFO- and PLRU-based caches and propose their associated cache-simulation speed-up algorithms. Experiments demonstrate that our algorithms run up to 300 times faster than a well-known cache simulator.

  • Exact, fast and flexible L1 cache configuration simulation for embedded systems

    Masashi Tawada, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki, Nozomu Togawa

    IPSJ Transactions on System LSI Design Methodology   4   166 - 181  2011  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Since target applications running on an embedded processor are much limited in embedded systems, we can optimize its cache configuration based on the number of sets, block size, and associativities. An extremely fast cache configuration simulation method, CRCB (Configuration Reduction approach by the Cache Behavior), has been recently proposed which can calculate cache hit/miss counts accurately for possible cache configurations when the three parameters above are changed. The CRCB method assumes LRU-based (Least Recently Used-based) cache but many recent processors use FIFO-based (First In First Out-based) cache or PLRU-based (Pseudo LRU-based) cache due to its hardware cost. In this paper, we propose exact and fast L1 cache configuration simulation algorithms for embedded applications that use PLRU or FIFO as a cache replacement policy. Firstly, we prove that the CRCB method can be applied not only to LRU but also to other cache replacement policies including FIFO and PLRU. Secondly, we prove several properties for FIFO- and PLRU-based caches and we propose associated cache simulation algorithms which can simulate simultaneously more than one cache configurations with different cache associativities accurately for FIFO or PLRU. Finally, many experimental results demonstrate that our cache configuration simulation algorithms obtain accurate cache hit/miss counts and run up to 249 times faster than a conventional cache simulator. © 2011 Information Processing Society of Japan.

    DOI

  • A fault-secure high-level synthesis algorithm for RDR architectures

    Sho Tanaka, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki, Nozomu Togawa

    IPSJ Transactions on System LSI Design Methodology   4   150 - 165  2011  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    As device feature size decreases, the reliability improvement against soft errors becomes quite necessary. A fault-secure system, in which concurrent error detection is realized, is one of the solutions to this problem. On the other hand, average interconnection delays exceed gate delays which leads to a serious timing closure problem. By using regular-distributed-register architecture (RDR architecture), we can estimate interconnection delays very accurately and their influence can be much reduced even in behavioral-level design. In this paper, we propose a fault-secure high-level synthesis algorithm for an RDR architecture. In fault-secure high-level synthesis, a recomputation CDFG as well as a normal-computation CDFG must be scheduled to control steps and bound to functional units. Firstly, our algorithm re-uses vacant areas on RDR islands to allocate new function units additionally for the recomputation CDFG. Secondly, we propose an efficient edge-break algorithm which considers comparison nodes' scheduling/binding. We can have small-latency scheduling/binding for both the normal CDFG and recomputation CDFG. Our algorithm reduces the required control steps by up to 53% compared with the conventional approach. © 2011 Information Processing Society of Japan.

    DOI

  • A fast selector-based subtract-multiplication unit and its application to butterfly unit

    Youhei Tsukamoto, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki, Nozomu Togawa

    IPSJ Transactions on System LSI Design Methodology   4   60 - 69  2011  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Large-scale network and multimedia application LSIs include application specific arithmetic units. A multiply-accumulator unit or a MAC unit which is one of these optimized units arranges partial products and decreases carry propagations. However, there is no method similar to MAC to execute "subtractmultiplication". In this paper, we propose a high-speed subtract-multiplication unit that decreases latency of a subtract operation by bit-level transformation using selector logics. By using bit-level transformation, its partial products are calculated directly. The proposed subtract-multiplication units can be applied to any types of systems using subtract-multiplications and a butterfly operation in FFT is one of their suitable applications. We apply them effectively to Radix- 2 butterfly units and Radix-4 butterfly units. Experimental results show that our proposed operation units using selector logics improves the performance by up to 13.92%, compared to a conventional approach. © 2011 Information Processing Society of Japan.

    DOI

  • Scan vulnerability in elliptic curve cryptosystems

    Ryuta Nara, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    IPSJ Transactions on System LSI Design Methodology   4   47 - 59  2011  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    A scan-path test is one of the most important testing techniques, but it can be used as a side-channel attack against a cryptography circuit. Scan-based attacks are techniques to decipher a secret key using scanned data obtained from a cryptography circuit. Public-key cryptography, such as RSA and elliptic curve cryptosystem (ECC), is extensively used but conventional scan-based attacks cannot be applied to it, because it has a complicated algorithm as well as a complicated architecture. This paper proposes a scan-based attack which enables us to decipher a secret key in ECC. The proposed method is based on detecting intermediate values calculated in ECC. We focus on a 1-bit sequence which is specific to some intermediate values. By monitoring the 1-bit sequence in the scan path, we can find out the register position specific to the intermediate value in it and we can know whether this intermediate value is calculated or not in the target ECC circuit. By using several intermediate values, we can decipher a secret key. The experimental results demonstrate that a secret key in a practical ECC circuit can be deciphered using 29 points over the elliptic curve E within 40 seconds. © 2011 Information Processing Society of Japan.

    DOI

  • Scan-Based Side-Channel Attack against RSA Cryptosystems Using Scan Signatures

    Ryuta Nara, Kei Satoh, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki, Nozomu Togawa

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E93A ( 12 ) 2481 - 2489  2010.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Scan based side channel attacks retrieve a secret key in a cryptography circuit by analyzing scanned data Since they must be considerable threats to a cryptosystem LSI we have to protect cryptography circuits from them RSA is one of the most important cryptography algorithms because it effectively realizes a public key cryptography system RSA is extensively used but conventional scan based side channel attacks cannot be applied to it because It has a complicated algorithm This paper proposes a scan based side channel attack which enables us to retrieve a secret key in an RSA circuit The proposed method is based on detecting intermediate values calculated in an RSA circuit We focus on a I bit time sequence which is specific to some intermediate values By monitoring the I bit time sequence in the scan path we can find out the register position specific to the intermediate value and we can know whether this intermediate value is calculated or not in the target RSA circuit We can retrieve a secret key one bit by one bit from MSB to LSB The experimental results demonstrate that a 1 024 bit secret key used in the target RSA circuit can be retrieved using 30 2 input messages within 98 3 seconds and its 2 048 bit secret key can be retrieved using, 34 4 input within 634 0 seconds

    DOI

  • Improved Launch for Higher TDF Coverage With Fewer Test Patterns

    Youhua Shi, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS   29 ( 8 ) 1294 - 1299  2010.08  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Due to the limitations of scan structure, the second vector in transition delay test is usually applied either by shift operation or by functional launch, which possibly results in unsatisfying transition delay fault (TDF) coverage. To overcome such a limitation for higher TDF coverage, a novel improved launch delay test technique that combines the pros of launch-on-shift and launch-on-capture tests is introduced in this paper. The proposed method can achieve near perfect TDF coverage with fewer test patterns without the need for a global fast scan enable signal. Experimental results on ISCAS89 and ITC99 benchmark circuits are included to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

    DOI

  • State-dependent Changeable Scan Architecture against Scan-based Side Channel Attacks

    Ryuta Nara, Hiroshi Atobe, Youhua Shi, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    2010 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS     1867 - 1870  2010  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Scan test is a powerful and popular test technique because it can control and observe the internal states of the circuit under test. However, scan path would be used to discover the internals of crypto hardware, which presents a significant security risk of information leakage. An interesting design-for-test technique by inserting inverters into the internal scan path to complicate the scan structure has been recently presented. Unfortunately, it still carries the potential of being attacked through statistical analysis of the information scanned out from chips. Therefore, in this paper we propose secure scan architecture, called dynamic variable secure scan, against scan-based side channel attack. The modified scan flip-flops are state-dependent, which could cause the output of each State-dependent Scan FF to be inverted or not so as to make it more difficult to discover the internal scan architecture.

    DOI

  • Performance-driven High-level Synthesis with floorplan for GDR Architectures and its Evaluation

    Akira Ohchi, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    2010 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS     921 - 924  2010  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a high-level synthesis method targeting generalized distributed-register architecture in which we introduce shared/local registers and global/local controllers. Functional units on a critical path use local registers and local controllers and functional units on non-critical path use shared register and global controller in our architecture. Our method is based on iterative improvement of scheduling/binding and floorplanning. Using iterative flow, we obtains a generalized distributed-register architecture where its scheduling/binding as well as floorplanning are simultaneously optimized. Experimental results show that 8.6% performance improvement can be achieved compared to the conventional high-performance method.

    DOI

  • Scan-Based Attack against Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems

    Ryuta Nara, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    2010 15TH ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE (ASP-DAC 2010)     402 - 407  2010  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Scan-based attacks are techniques to decipher a secret key using scanned data obtained from a cryptography circuit. Public-key cryptography, such as RSA and elliptic curve cryptosystem (ECC), is extensively used but conventional scan-based attacks cannot be applied to it, because it has a complicated algorithm as well as a complicated architecture. This paper proposes a scan-based attack which enables us to decipher a secret key in ECC. The proposed method is based on detecting intermediate values calculated in ECC. By monitoring the 1-bit sequence in the scan path, we can find out the register position specific to the intermediate value in it and we can know whether this intermediate value is calculated or not in the target ECC circuit. By using several intermediate values, we can decipher a secret key. The experimental results demonstrate that a secret key in a practical ECC circuit can be deciphered using 29 points over the elliptic curve E within 40 seconds.

    DOI

  • VLSI Implementation of a Fast Intra Prediction Algorithm for H.264/AVC Encoding

    Youhua Shi, Kenta Tokumitsu, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2010 IEEE ASIA PACIFIC CONFERENCE ON CIRCUIT AND SYSTEM (APCCAS)     1139 - 1142  2010  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Intra-frame coding is one of the most important technologies in H.264/AVC, which made significant contributions to the enhancement of coding efficiency of H.264/AVC at the cost of computation complexity. To address this problem, in this paper we present an efficient VLSI implementation of a computation efficient intra prediction algorithm for H.264/AVC encoding. Unlike most of existing fast intra-mode selection techniques, in the proposed method the directional differences are computed using a few selected original pixels to obtain the candidate modes with the minimal direction cost. The proposed method is hardware-friendly and provides more processing parallelism for H.264 intra-frame encoding with less overhead and less power consumption, which is expected to be utilized as a favourable accelerator hardware module in a real-time HDTV (1920x1080p) H.264 encoder.

    DOI

  • A Fast Selector-Based Subtract-Multiplication Unit and Its Application to Radix-2 Butterfly Unit

    Youhei Tsukamoto, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki, Nozomu Togawa

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2010 IEEE ASIA PACIFIC CONFERENCE ON CIRCUIT AND SYSTEM (APCCAS)     1083 - 1086  2010  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Large-scale network and multimedia application LSIs include application specific arithmetic units. A multiplyaccumulator unit (MAC unit) which is one of these optimized units arranges partial products and decreases carry propagations. However, there is no method similar to MAC to execute "subtract-multiplication". In this paper, we propose a high-speed subtract-multiplication unit that decreases latency of a subtract operation by bit-level transformation using selector logics. By using bit-level transformation, its partial products are calculated directly. The proposed subtract-multiplication units can be applied to even any types of systems using subtract-multiplications and a butterfly operation in FFT is one of their suitable applications. Experimental results show that our proposed arithmetic units using selector logics improves the performance by 13.92%, compared to a conventional approach.

    DOI

  • BusMesh NoC: A Novel NoC Architecture Comprised of Bus-based Connection and Global Mesh Routers

    SeungJu Lee, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki, Nozomu Togawa

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2010 IEEE ASIA PACIFIC CONFERENCE ON CIRCUIT AND SYSTEM (APCCAS)     712 - 715  2010  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Network-on-chip (NoC) architectures are emerged as a promising solution to the lack of scalability in multi-processor systems-on-chips (MPSoCs). In this paper, A busmesh network-on-chip (BMNoC) architecture is proposed, together with simulation results. It is comprised of bus-based connection and global mesh routers to enhance the performance of on-chip communication. Furthermore, MPEG-4, H.264 and a hybrid application mixed MPEG-4 and H.264 on our architecture illustrates the better performance than earlier studies and feasibility of BMNoC.

    DOI

  • A Two-Level Cache Design Space Exploration System for Embedded Applications

    Nobuaki Tojo, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E92A ( 12 ) 3238 - 3247  2009.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Recently, two-level cache, L1 cache and L2 cache, is commonly used in a processor. Particularly in an embedded system whereby a single application or a class of applications is repeatedly executed on a processor, its cache configuration can be customized such that an optimal one is achieved. An optimal two-level cache configuration can be obtained which minimizes overall memory access time or memory energy consumption by varying the three cache parameters: the number of sets, a line size, and an associativity, for L1 cache and L2 cache. In this paper, we first extend the L1 cache simulation algorithm so that we can explore two-level cache configuration. Second, we propose two-level cache design space exploration algorithms: CRCB-T1 and CRCB-T2, each of which is based on applying Cache Inclusion Proper v to two-level cache configuration. Each of the proposed algorithms realizes exact cache simulation but decreases the number of cache hit/miss judgments by a factor of several thousands. Experimental results show that. by using our approach. the number of cache hit/miss judgments required to optimize a cache configurations is reduced to 1/50-1/5500 compared to the exhaustive approach. As a result, our proposed approach totally runs an average of 1398.25 times faster compared to the exhaustive approach. Our proposed cache simulation approach achieves the world fastest two-level cache design space exploration.

    DOI

  • A Scan-Based Attack Based on Discriminators for AES Cryptosystems

    Ryuta Nara, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E92A ( 12 ) 3229 - 3237  2009.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    A scan chain is one of the most important testing techniques, but it can be used as side-channel attacks against a cryptography LSI. We focus on scan-based attacks, in which scan chains are targeted for side-channel attacks. The conventional scan-based attacks only consider the scan chain composed of only the registers in a cryptography circuit. However, a cryptography LSI usually uses many circuits such as memories, micro processors and other circuits. This means that the conventional attacks cannot be applied to the practical scan chain composed of various types of registers. In this paper, a scan-based attack which enables to decipher the secret key in an AES cryptography LSI composed of an AES circuit and other circuits is proposed. By focusing on bit pattern of the specific register and monitoring its change, Our scan-based attack eliminates the influence of registers included in other circuits than AES. Our attack does not depend on scan chain architecture, and it can decipher practical AES cryptography LSIs.

    DOI

  • Floorplan-Aware High-Level Synthesis for Generalized Distributed-Register Architectures

    Akira Ohchi, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E92A ( 12 ) 3169 - 3179  2009.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    As device feature size decreases, interconnection delay becomes the dominating factor of circuit total delay. Distributed-register architectures call reduce the influence of interconnection delay. They may, however, increase circuit area because they require many local registers. Moreover original distributed-register architectures do not consider control signal delay, which may be the bottleneck in a circuit. In this paper. we propose it high-level synthesis method targeting generalized distributed-register architecture in which we introduce shared/local registers aid global/local controllers. Our method is based on iterative improvement of scheduling/binding and floorplanning. First, we prepare shared-register groups with global controllers, each of which corresponds to it single functional unit. As iterations proceed, we use local registers and local controllers for functional units on it critical path. Shared-register groups physically located close to each other are merged into a single group. Accordingly, global controllers are merged. Finally, our method obtains it generalized distributed-register architecture where its scheduling/binding as well as floorplanning are simultaneously optimized. Experimental results show that the area is decreased by 4.7% while maintaining the performance of the circuit equal with that using original distributed-register architectures.

    DOI

  • X-Handling for Current X-Tolerant Compactors with More Unknowns and Maximal Compaction

    Youhua Shi, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E92A ( 12 ) 3119 - 3127  2009.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper presents a novel X-handling technique, which removes the effect of unknowns on compacted test response with maximal compaction ratio. The proposed method combines with the current X-tolerant compactors and inserts masking cells on scan paths to selectively mask X's. By doing this, the number of unknown responses in each scan-out cycle could be reduced to a reasonable level such that the target X-tolerant compactor would tolerate with guaranteed possible error detection, It guarantees no test loss due to the effect of X's, and achieves the maximal compaction that the target response compactor could provide as well. Moreover, because the masking cells are only inserted on the scan paths, it has no performance degradation of the designs. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

    DOI

  • Unified Dual-Radix Architecture for Scalable Montgomery Multiplications in GF(P) and GF(2(n))

    Kazuyuki Tanimura, Ryuta Nara, Shunitsu Kohara, Youhua Shi, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E92A ( 9 ) 2304 - 2317  2009.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Modular multiplication is the most dominant arithmetic operation in elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), that is a type of public-key cryptography. Montgomery multiplier is commonly used to compute the modular multiplications and requires scalability because the bit length of operands varies depending on its security level. In addition, ECC is performed in GF(P) or GF(2(n)), and unified architecture for multipliers in GF(P) and GF(2(n)) is required. However, in previous works, changing frequency is necessary to deal with delay-time difference between GF(P) and GF(2(n)) multipliers because the critical path of the GF(P) multiplier is longer. This paper proposes unified dual-radix architecture for scalable Montgomery multiplications in GF(P) and GF(2(n)). This proposed architecture unifies four parallel radix-2(16) multipliers in GF(P) and a radix-2(64) multiplier in GF(2(n)) into a single unit. Applying lower radix to GF(P) multiplier shortens its critical path and makes it possible to compute the operands in the two fields using the same multiplier at the same frequency so that clock dividers to deal with the delay-time difference are not required. Moreover, parallel architecture in GF(P) reduces the clock cycles increased by dual-radix approach. Consequently, the proposed architecture achieves to compute a GF(P) 256-bit Montgomery multiplication in 0.28 mu s. The implementation result shows that the area of the proposal is almost the same as that of previous works: 39 kgates.

    DOI

  • An L1 Cache Design Space Exploration System for Embedded Applications

    Nobuaki Tojo, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E92A ( 6 ) 1442 - 1453  2009.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In an embedded system where a single application or a class of applications is repeatedly executed on a processor, its cache configuration can be customized such that an optimal one is achieved. We can have an optimal cache configuration which minimizes overall memory access time by varying the three cache parameters: the number of sets, a line size, and an associativity. In this paper, we first propose two cache simulation algorithms: CRCB1 and CRCB2, based on Cache Inclusion Property. They realize exact cache simulation but decrease the number of cache hit/miss judgments dramatically. We further propose three more cache design space exploration algorithms: CRMF1, CRMF2, and CRMF3, based on our experimental observations. They can find an almost optimal cache configuration from the viewpoint of access time. By using our approach, the number of cache hit/miss judgments required for optimizing cache configurations is reduced to 1/10-1/50 compared to conventional approaches. As a result, our proposed approach totally runs an aver-age of 3.2 times faster and a maximum of 5.3 times faster compared to the fastest approach proposed so far. Our proposed cache simulation approach achieves the world fastest cache design space exploration when optimizing total memory access time.

    DOI

  • Design-for-Secure-Test for Crypto Cores

    Youhua Shi, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    ITC: 2009 INTERNATIONAL TEST CONFERENCE     618 - 618  2009  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Scan technology carries the potential of being misused as a "side channel" to leak out the secret information of crypto cores. To address such a design challenge, this paper proposes a design-for-secure-test (DFST) solution for crypto cores by adding a stimuli-launched flip-flop into the traditional scan flip-flop to maintain the high test quality without compromising the security.

    DOI

  • Exact and Fast L1 Cache Simulation for Embedded Systems

    Nobuaki Tojo, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASP-DAC 2009: ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE 2009     817 - 822  2009  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In recent years, the gap between the cycle time of processors and memory access time has been increasing. One of the solutions to solve this problem is to use a cache. But just using a large cache may not reduce the total memory access time. We can have an optimal cache configuration which minimizes overall memory access time by varying the three cache parameters: a cache set size, a line size, and an associativity. In this paper, we propose two exact cache simulation algorithms: CRCB1 and CRCB2, based on Cache Inclusion Property. They realize exact cache simulation but increase simulation speed dramatically. By using our approach, the number of cache hit/miss judgments required for simulating all the cache configurations is reduced to 31.4%-93.6% compared to conventional approaches. As a result, our proposed approach totally runs an average of 1.8 times faster and a maximum of 3.3 times faster compared to the fastest approach proposed so far. Our proposed exact cache simulation approach achieves the world fastest L1 cache simulation.

    DOI

  • A Unified Test Compression Technique for Scan Stimulus and Unknown Masking Data with No Test Loss

    Youhua Shi, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E91A ( 12 ) 3514 - 3523  2008.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper presents a unified test compression technique for scan stimulus and unknown masking data with seamless integration of test generation, test compression and all unknown response masking for high quality manufacturing test cost reduction. Unlike prior test compression methods. the proposed approach considers the unknown responses during test pattern generation procedure, and then selectively encodes, the less specified bits (either Is or Os) in each scan slice for compression while at the same time masks the unknown responses before sending them to the response compactor. The proposed test scheme could dramatically reduce test data volume as well as the number of required test channels by using only c tester channels to drive N internal scan chains, where c = inverted right perpendicular log(2) N inverted left perpendicular + 2. In addition, because all the unknown responses could be exactly masked before entering into the response compactor, test loss due to unknown responses would be eliminated. Experimental results oil both benchmark circuits and larger designs indicated the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

    DOI

  • Floorplan-driven high-level synthesis for distributed/shared-register architectures

    Akira Ohchi, Shunitsu Kohara, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    IPSJ Transactions on System LSI Design Methodology   1   78 - 90  2008.08  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a high-level synthesis method targeting distributed/shared-register architectures. Our method repeats (1) scheduling/ FU binding, (2) register allocation, (3) register binding, and (4) module placement. By feeding back floorplan information from (4) to (1), our method obtains a distributed/shared-register architecture where its scheduling/binding as well as floorplaning are simultaneously optimized. Experimental results show that the area is decreased by 13.2% while maintaining the performance of the circuit equal with that using distributed-register architectures. © 2008 Information Processing Society of Japan.

    DOI

  • Low power LDPC code decoder architecture based on intermediate message compression technique

    Kazunori Shimizu, Nozomu Togawa, Takeshi Ikenaga, Satoshi Goto

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E91A ( 4 ) 1054 - 1061  2008.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Reducing the power dissipation for LDPC code decoder is a major challenging task to apply it to the practical digital communication systems. In this paper, we propose a low power LDPC code decoder architecture based on an intermediate message-compression technique which features as follows: (i) An intermediate message compression technique enables the decoder to reduce the required memory capacity and write power dissipation. (H) A clock gated shift register based intermediate message memory architecture enables the decoder to decompress the compressed messages in a single clock cycle while reducing the read power dissipation. The combination of the above two techniques enables the decoder to reduce the power dissipation while keeping the decoding throughput. The simulation results show that the proposed architecture improves the power efficiency up to 52% and 18% compared to that of the decoder based on the overlapped schedule and the rapid convergence schedule without the proposed techniques respectively.

    DOI

  • A secure test technique for pipelined advanced encryption standard

    Youhua Shi, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION AND SYSTEMS   E91D ( 3 ) 776 - 780  2008.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this paper, we presented a Design-for-Secure-Test (DFST) technique for pipelined AES to guarantee both the security and the test quality during testing. Unlike previous works, the proposed method can keep all the secrets inside and provide high test quality and fault diagnosis ability as well. Furthermore, the proposed DFST technique can significantly reduce test application time, test data volume, and test generation effort as additional benefits.

    DOI

  • Floorplan-Driven High-Level Synthesis for Distributed/Shared-Register Architectures

    Ohchi Akira, Kohara Shunitsu, Togawa Nozomu, Yanagisawa Masao, Ohtsuki Tatsuo

    Information and Media Technologies   3 ( 4 ) 691 - 703  2008

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a high-level synthesis method targeting distributed/shared-register architectures. Our method repeats (1) scheduling/FU binding, (2) register allocation, (3) register binding, and (4) module placement. By feeding back floorplan information from (4) to (1), our method obtains a distributed/shared-register architecture where its scheduling/binding as well as floorplaning are simultaneously optimized. Experimental results show that the area is decreased by 13.2% while maintaining the performance of the circuit equal with that using distributed-register architectures.

    DOI CiNii

  • High-level synthesis algorithms with floorplaning for distributed/shared-register architectures

    Akira Ohchi, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    2008 INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON VLSI DESIGN, AUTOMATION AND TEST (VLSI-DAT), PROCEEDINGS OF TECHNICAL PROGRAM     164 - 167  2008  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a high-level synthesis method targeting distributed/shared-register architectures. Our method repeats (1) scheduling/FU binding, (2) register allocation, (3) register binding, and (4) module placement. By feeding back floorplan information from (4) to (1), our method obtains a distributed/shared-register architecture where its scheduling/binding as well as floorplaning are simultaneously optimized. Experimental results show that the area is decreased by 13.6% while maintaining the performance of the circuit equal with that using distributed-register architectures.

  • Scalable unified dual-radix architecture for Montgomery multiplication in GF(P) and GF(2(n))

    Kazuyuki Tanimura, Ryuta Nara, Shunitsu Kohara, Kazunori Shimizu, Youhua Shi, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    2008 ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE, VOLS 1 AND 2     667 - 672  2008  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Modular multiplication is the most dominant arithmetic operation in elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), which is a type of public-key cryptography. Montgomery multiplication is commonly used as a technique for the modular multiplication and required scalability since the bit length of operands varies depending on the security levels. Also, ECC is performed in GF(P) or GF(2), and unified architectures for GF(P) and GF(2(n)) Multiplier are needed. However, in previous works, changing frequency or dual-radix architecture is necessary to deal with delay-time difference between GF(P) and GF(2(n)) circuits of the multiplier because the critical path of GF(P) circuit is longer. This paper proposes a scalable unified dual-radix architecture for Montgomery multiplication in GF(P) and GF(2(n)). The proposed architecture unifies 4 parallel radix-2(16) multipliers in GF(P) and a radix-2(64) multiplier in GF(2(n)) into a single unit Applying lower radix to GF(P) multiplier shortens its critical path and makes it possible to compute the operands in the two fields using the same multiplier at the same frequency so that clock dividers to deal with the delay-time difference are not required. Moreover, parallel architecture in GF(P) reduces the clock cycles increased by dual-radix approach. Consequently, the proposed architecture achieves to compute GF(P) 256-bit Montgomery multiplication in 0.23 mu s.

    DOI

  • GECOM: Test data compression combined with all unknown response masking

    Youhua Shi, Nozontu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    2008 ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE, VOLS 1 AND 2     537 - 542  2008  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper introduces GECOM technology, a novel test compression method with seamless integration of test GEneration, test COmpression (i.e. integrated compression on scan stimulus and masking bits) and all unknown scan responses Masking for manufacturing test cost reduction. Unlike most of prior methods, the proposed method considers the unknown responses during ATPG procedure and selectively encodes the specified 1 or 0 bits (either Is or Os) in scan slices for compression while at the same time masks the unknown responses before sending them to the response compactor. The proposed GECOM technology consists of GECOM architecture and GECOM ATPG technique. In the GECOM architecture, for a circuit with N internal scan chains, only c tester channels, where c = [log(2) N] +2, are required. GECOM ATPG generates test patterns for the GECOM architecture thus not only the scan inputs could be efficiently compressed but also all the unknown responses would be masked. Experimental results on both benchmark circuits and real industrial designs indicated the effectiveness of the proposed GECOM technique.

    DOI

  • Unknown Response Masking with Minimized Observable Response Loss and Mask Data

    Youhua Shi, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    2008 IEEE ASIA PACIFIC CONFERENCE ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS (APCCAS 2008), VOLS 1-4     1779 - +  2008  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper presents a new unknown response masking technique to minimize the effect on test loss due to over-masking. Unlike previous works where the scan responses are masked before entering the response compactor, the proposed method could mask the Xs when they are transformed on the scan path. Meanwhile, the masking cells are inserted along the scan paths, thus they would have no degradation on the performance of the designs. In addition, the test data required to mask unknown responses is only one bit for each test pattern. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

    DOI

  • Dynamically Reconfigurable Architecture for Multi-Rate Compatible Regular LDPC Decoding

    Akiyuki Nagashima, Yuta Imai, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    2008 IEEE ASIA PACIFIC CONFERENCE ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS (APCCAS 2008), VOLS 1-4     705 - 708  2008  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Recently a demand for high-speed wireless network service on mobile devices is rapidly increasing. Error correcting codes are used to enhance network communication quality. Particularly, LDPC (Low Density Parity Check) codes show high throughput and achieve information rates very close to the Shannon limit. In this paper, we propose a dynamically reconfigurable architecture for mufti-rate compatible regular LDPC decoding. Our proposed decoder deals with mufti-rate codes by introducing a mufti-rate compatible 1st-2nd minimum searching unit. The proposed decoder shows the better throughput over the wide range of S/N ratio compared to conventional rate-fixed LDPC decoders.

    DOI

  • FIR Filter Design on Flexible Engine/Generic ALU Array and Its Dedicated Synthesis Algorithm

    Ryo Tamura, Masayuki Honma, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki, Makoto Satoh

    2008 IEEE ASIA PACIFIC CONFERENCE ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS (APCCAS 2008), VOLS 1-4     701 - +  2008  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Reconfigurable processors are those whose contexts are dynamically reconfigured while they are working. We focus on a reconfigurable processor called FE-GA (Flexible Engine/Generic ALU array) for digital media processing. Currently, FE-GA does not have its dedicated behavior synthesis tool. In this paper, we design FIR filters and propose an algorithm to map them onto it automatically. For given an order and coefficients of an FIR filter, the algorithm generates a dedicated assembly code which represents a given FIR filter for FE-GA. Then an editor called FEEditor reads the generated assembly code and implements its corresponding FIR filter on FE-GA. The proposed algorithm achieves automatic mapping of FIR filters of all orders within the range of the specification of FE-GA architecture. Furthermore, it is proved that a minimum cycle is achieved to execute FIR filtering if there is no thread switching.

    DOI

  • 携帯機器向けMPEG-A Photo Playerのメタデータ生成システムのハードウェア化に関する一考察

    元橋雅人, 小原俊逸, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   VLD2006  2007.03

  • アプリケーションプロセッサ向けデータキャッシュ構成最適化システムとその評価

    堀内一央, 小原俊逸, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   VLD2006  2007.03

  • SIMD型プロセッサコア最適化設計のための多重ループに対応したSIMD命令合成手法

    中島裕貴, 小原俊逸, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   VLD2006  2007.03

  • SIMD型プロセッサコアを対象としたハードウェア/ソフトウェア分割フレームワーク

    大東真崇, 小原俊逸, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   VLD2006  2007.03

  • SIMD型プロセッサコア設計におけるプロセッシングユニット最適化手法

    繁田裕之, 小原俊逸, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   VLD2006  2007.03

  • Power-Efficient LDPC Code Decoder Architecture

    Kazunori Shimizu, Nozomu Togawa, Takeshi Ikenaga, Satoshi Goto

    ISLPED'07: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2007 INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON LOW POWER ELECTRONICS AND DESIGN     359 - 362  2007  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper proposes the power-efficient LDPC decoder architecture which features (1) a FIFO buffering based rapid convergence schedule which enables the decoder to accelerate the decoding throughput without increasing the required number of memory bits, (2) an intermediate message compression technique based on a clock gated shift register which reduces the read and write, power dissipation for the intermediate messages. Simulation results show that the proposed decoder achieves 1.66 times faster decoding throughput, and improves the power efficiency (which is defined by the power dissipation per Mbps) up to 52% compared to the decoder based on the conventional overlapped schedule.

    DOI

  • Design for secure test - A case study on pipelined Advanced Encryption Standard

    Youhua Shi, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    2007 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOLS 1-11     149 - 152  2007  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Cryptography plays an important role in the security of data transmission. To ensure the correctness of crypto hardware, we should conduct testing at fabrication and infield. However, the state-of-the-art scan-based test techniques, to achieve high test qualities, need to increase the testability of the circuit under test, which carries a potential of being misused to reveal the secret information of the crypto hardware. Thus, to develop efficient test strategies for crypto hardware to achieve high test quality without compromising security becomes an important task. In this paper we discuss the development of a Design-for-Secure-Test (DFST) technique for pipelined AES to overcome the above contradiction between security and test quality in testing crypto hardware. Unlike previous works, the proposed method can keep all the secrets inside and provide high test quality and fault diagnosis ability as well. Furthermore, the proposed DFST technique can significantly reduce test application time, test data volume, and test generation effort as additional benefits.

    DOI

  • XMLをベースとしたCDFGマニピュレーションフレームワーク: CoDaMa

    小原俊逸, 史又華, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   VLD2006-97  2007.01

  • 楕円曲線暗号向けGF(2m)上のDigit-Serial乗算器の設計

    奈良竜太, 小原俊逸, 清水一範, 戸川望, 池永剛, 柳澤政生, 後藤敏, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   VLD2006-89  2007.01

  • Power-efficient LDPC decoder architecture based on accelerated message-passing schedule

    Kazunori Shimizu, Tatsuyuki Ishikawa, Nozomu Togawa, Takeshi Ikenaga, Satoshi Goto

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E89A ( 12 ) 3602 - 3612  2006.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a power-efficient LDPC decoder architecture based on an accelerated message-passing schedule. The proposed decoder architecture is characterized as follows: (i) Partitioning a pipelined operation not to read and write intermediate messages simultaneously enables the accelerated message-passing schedule to be implemented with single-port SRAMs. (H) FIFO-based buffering reduces the number of SRAM banks and words of the LDPC. decoder based on the accelerated message-passing schedule.. The proposed LDPC decoder keeps a single message for each non-zero bit in a parity check matrix as well as a classical schedule while achieving the accelerated message-passing schedule. Implementation results in 0.18 [mu m] CMOS technology show that the proposed decoder architecture reduces an area of the LDPC decoder by 43% and a power dissipation by 29% compared to the conventional architecture based on the accelerated message-passing schedule.

    DOI

  • アプリケーションプロセッサのフォワーディングユニット最適化手法

    日浦敏俊, 小原俊逸, 史又華, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   ( VLD2006-80 )  2006.11

  • 動的再構成可能なマルチレート対応LDPC符号復号器の実装

    今井優太, 清水一範, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   RECONF2006-43  2006.11

  • 歩行者ナビゲーションにおける微小画面での視認性とユーザの迷いにくさを考慮した略地図生成手法

    二宮直也, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   ITS2006-34  2006.09

  • 屋内用歩行者ナビゲーションにおける歩行者の嗜好を反映させる経路探索手法

    荒井亨, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   ITS2006-33  2006.09

  • 屋内向け歩行者ナビゲーションにおけるユーザの嗜好性と混雑状況を考慮した目的地決定手法

    小林和馬, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   ITS2006-32  2006.09

  • 車車間・路車間通信技術を用いた車線別の渋滞情報の検出手法

    大高宏介, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   ITS2006-18  2006.09

  • H.264符号化向けDSPにおける動き予測演算器の設計

    高橋豊和, 小原俊逸, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   ( VLD2006 )  2006.06

  • アプリケーションプロセッサの面積/遅延見積もり手法

    山崎大輔, 小原俊逸, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   CAS2006-1 ( VLD2006-14, SIP2006-24 )  2006.06

  • Selective low-care coding: A means for test data compression in circuits with multiple scan chains

    YH Shi, N Togawa, S Kimura, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E89A ( 4 ) 996 - 1004  2006.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper presents a test input data compression technique, Selective Low-Care Coding (SLC), which can be used to significantly reduce input test data volume as well as the external test channel requirement for multiscan-based designs. In the proposed SLC scheme, we explored the linear dependencies of the internal scan chains, and instead of encoding all the specified bits in test cubes, only a smaller amount of specified bits are selected for encoding, thus greater compression can be expected. Experiments on the larger benchmark circuits show drastic reduction in test data volume with corresponding savings on test application time can be indeed achieved even for the well-compacted test set.

    DOI

  • Partially-parallel LDPC decoder achieving high-efficiency message-passing schedule

    K Shimizu, T Ishikawa, N Togawa, T Ikenaga, S Goto

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E89A ( 4 ) 969 - 978  2006.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a partially-parallel LDPC decoder which achieves a high-efficiency message-passing schedule. The proposed LDPC decoder is characterized as follows: (i) The column operations follow the row operations in a pipelined architecture to ensure that the row and column operations are performed concurrently. (ii) The proposed parallel pipelined bit functional unit enables the column operation module to compute every message in each bit node which is updated by the row operations. These column operations can be performed without extending the single iterative decoding delay when the row and column operations are performed concurrently. Therefore, the proposed decoder performs the column operations more frequently in a single iterative decoding, and achieves a high-efficiency message-passing schedule within the limited decoding delay time. Hardware implementation on an FPGA and simulation results show that the proposed partially-parallel LDPC decoder improves the decoding throughput and bit error performance with a small hardware overhead.

    DOI

  • Hardware architecture of efficient message-passing schedule based on modified min-sum algorithm for decoding LDPC codes

    Proc. Synthesis and System Integration of Mixed Technologies (SASIMI 2006)    2006.04

  • A pipelined functional unit generation method in HW/SW cosynthesis for SIMD processor cores

    Proc. Synthesis and System Integration of Mixed Technologies (SASIMI 2006)    2006.04

  • Partially-parallel LDPC decoder achieving high-efficiency message-passing schedule

    K Shimizu, T Ishikawa, N Togawa, T Ikenaga, S Goto

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E89A ( 4 ) 969 - 978  2006.04

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a partially-parallel LDPC decoder which achieves a high-efficiency message-passing schedule. The proposed LDPC decoder is characterized as follows: (i) The column operations follow the row operations in a pipelined architecture to ensure that the row and column operations are performed concurrently. (ii) The proposed parallel pipelined bit functional unit enables the column operation module to compute every message in each bit node which is updated by the row operations. These column operations can be performed without extending the single iterative decoding delay when the row and column operations are performed concurrently. Therefore, the proposed decoder performs the column operations more frequently in a single iterative decoding, and achieves a high-efficiency message-passing schedule within the limited decoding delay time. Hardware implementation on an FPGA and simulation results show that the proposed partially-parallel LDPC decoder improves the decoding throughput and bit error performance with a small hardware overhead.

    DOI

  • Hardware architecture of efficient message-passing schedule based on modified min-sum algorithm for decoding LDPC codes

    清水一範, 石川達之, 戸川望, 池永剛, 後藤敏

    Proc. Synthesis and System Integration of Mixed Technologies (SASIMI 2006)    2006.04

  • A pipelined functional unit generation method in HW/SW cosynthesis for SIMD processor cores

    小原俊逸, 栗原輝, 宮岡祐一郎, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    Proc. Synthesis and System Integration of Mixed Technologies (SASIMI 2006)    2006.04

  • アプリケーションプロセッサのデータキャッシュ構成最適化手法

    堀内一央, 小原俊逸, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会第19回回路とシステム軽井沢ワークショップ論文集     583 - 588  2006.04

  • FIFOバッファによる高効率Message-Passingスケジュールを用いたLDPC復号器

    清水一範, 石川達之, 戸川望, 池永剛, 後藤敏

    電子情報通信学会第19回回路とシステム軽井沢ワークショップ論文集     211 - 216  2006.04

  • Selective low-care coding: A means for test data compression in circuits with multiple scan chains

    YH Shi, N Togawa, S Kimura, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E89A ( 4 ) 996 - 1004  2006.04

     View Summary

    This paper presents a test input data compression technique, Selective Low-Care Coding (SLC), which can be used to significantly reduce input test data volume as well as the external test channel requirement for multiscan-based designs. In the proposed SLC scheme, we explored the linear dependencies of the internal scan chains, and instead of encoding all the specified bits in test cubes, only a smaller amount of specified bits are selected for encoding, thus greater compression can be expected. Experiments on the larger benchmark circuits show drastic reduction in test data volume with corresponding savings on test application time can be indeed achieved even for the well-compacted test set.

    DOI

  • Partially-parallel LDPC decoder achieving high-efficiency message-passing schedule

    K Shimizu, T Ishikawa, N Togawa, T Ikenaga, S Goto

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E89A ( 4 ) 969 - 978  2006.04

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a partially-parallel LDPC decoder which achieves a high-efficiency message-passing schedule. The proposed LDPC decoder is characterized as follows: (i) The column operations follow the row operations in a pipelined architecture to ensure that the row and column operations are performed concurrently. (ii) The proposed parallel pipelined bit functional unit enables the column operation module to compute every message in each bit node which is updated by the row operations. These column operations can be performed without extending the single iterative decoding delay when the row and column operations are performed concurrently. Therefore, the proposed decoder performs the column operations more frequently in a single iterative decoding, and achieves a high-efficiency message-passing schedule within the limited decoding delay time. Hardware implementation on an FPGA and simulation results show that the proposed partially-parallel LDPC decoder improves the decoding throughput and bit error performance with a small hardware overhead.

    DOI

  • A fast elliptic curve cryptosystem LSI embedding word-based Montgomery multiplier

    J Uchida, N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS   E89C ( 3 ) 243 - 249  2006.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Elliptic curve cryptosystems are expected to be a next standard of public-key cryptosystems. A security level of elliptic curve cryptosystems depends on a difficulty of a discrete logarithm problem on elliptic curves. The security level of a elliptic curve cryptosystem which has a public-key of 160-bit is equivalent to that of a RSA system which has a public-key of 1024-bit. We propose an elliptic curve cryptosystem LSI architecture embedding word-based Montgomery multipliers. A Montgomery multiplication is an efficient method for a finite field multiplication. We can design a scalable architecture for an elliptic curve cryptosystem by selecting structure of word-based Montgomery multipliers. Experimental results demonstrate effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed architecture. In the hardware evaluation using 0.18 mu m CMOS library, the highspeed design using 126 Kgates with 20 x 8-bit multipliers achieved operation times of 3.6 ms for a 160-bit point multiplication.

    DOI

  • A fast elliptic curve cryptosystem LSI embedding word-based Montgomery multiplier

    J Uchida, N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS   E89C ( 3 ) 243 - 249  2006.03

     View Summary

    Elliptic curve cryptosystems are expected to be a next standard of public-key cryptosystems. A security level of elliptic curve cryptosystems depends on a difficulty of a discrete logarithm problem on elliptic curves. The security level of a elliptic curve cryptosystem which has a public-key of 160-bit is equivalent to that of a RSA system which has a public-key of 1024-bit. We propose an elliptic curve cryptosystem LSI architecture embedding word-based Montgomery multipliers. A Montgomery multiplication is an efficient method for a finite field multiplication. We can design a scalable architecture for an elliptic curve cryptosystem by selecting structure of word-based Montgomery multipliers. Experimental results demonstrate effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed architecture. In the hardware evaluation using 0.18 mu m CMOS library, the highspeed design using 126 Kgates with 20 x 8-bit multipliers achieved operation times of 3.6 ms for a 160-bit point multiplication.

    DOI

  • 歩行者向け地図情報配信システムにおける道路交通標識を用いた位置特定手法

    中口智史, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   ( ITS2005-114 )  2006.03

  • SIMD型プロセッサコアの自動合成におけるパイプライン構成最適化手法

    栗原輝, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   ( VLD2005-115, ICD2005-232 )  2006.03

  • 動的フローに対応したネットワークプロセッサの改良とその評価

    田淵英孝, 小原俊逸, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   ( VLD2005-112, ICD2005-229 )  2006.03

  • 設計ナビゲーション機構を有するシステムLSI設計のためのHW/SW分割システム

    小島洋平, 戸川望, 橘昌良, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   ( VLD2005-111, ICD2005-228 )  2006.03

  • 高速移動体のためのハンドオフメッセージ数を最小化した高速ハンドオフ手法

    伊藤光司, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   ( IN2005-222 )  2006.03

  • A fast elliptic curve cryptosystem LSI embedding word-based Montgomery multiplier

    J Uchida, N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS   E89C ( 3 ) 243 - 249  2006.03

     View Summary

    Elliptic curve cryptosystems are expected to be a next standard of public-key cryptosystems. A security level of elliptic curve cryptosystems depends on a difficulty of a discrete logarithm problem on elliptic curves. The security level of a elliptic curve cryptosystem which has a public-key of 160-bit is equivalent to that of a RSA system which has a public-key of 1024-bit. We propose an elliptic curve cryptosystem LSI architecture embedding word-based Montgomery multipliers. A Montgomery multiplication is an efficient method for a finite field multiplication. We can design a scalable architecture for an elliptic curve cryptosystem by selecting structure of word-based Montgomery multipliers. Experimental results demonstrate effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed architecture. In the hardware evaluation using 0.18 mu m CMOS library, the highspeed design using 126 Kgates with 20 x 8-bit multipliers achieved operation times of 3.6 ms for a 160-bit point multiplication.

    DOI

  • ASIC implementation of LDPC decoder accelerating message-passing schedule

    IEEE International Solid State Circuits Confeference (ISSCC), DAC/ISSCC2006 Student Design Contest (Conceptual Category: 1st Place Winner), San Franscisco    2006.02

  • ASIC implementation of LDPC decoder accelerating message-passing schedule

    清水一範, 石川達之, 戸川望, 池永剛, 後藤敏

    IEEE International Solid State Circuits Confeference (ISSCC), DAC/ISSCC2006 Student Design Contest (Conceptual Category: 1st Place Winner), San Franscisco    2006.02

  • A parallel LSI architecture for LDPC decoder improving message-passing schedule

    Kazunori Shimizu, Tatsuyuki Ishikawa, Nozomu Togawa, Takeshi Ikenaga, Satoshi Gotot

    2006 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOLS 1-11, PROCEEDINGS     5099 - +  2006  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a parallel LSI architecture for LDPC decoder which improves a message-passing schedule. The proposed LDPC decoder is characterized as follows: (i) The column operations follow the row operations in a pipelined architecture to ensure that the row and column operations are performed concurrently. (ii) The proposed parallel pipelined bit functional unit enables the decoder to perform every column operation using the messages which is updated by the row operations. These column operations can be performed without extending the single iterative decoding delay. Hardware imp mentation and simulation results show that the proposed decoder improves the decoding throughput and bit error performance with a small hardware overhead.

    DOI

  • FCSCAN: An efficient multiscan-based test compression technique for test cost reduction

    Youhua Shi, Nozomu Togawa, Shinji Kimura, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    ASP-DAC 2006: 11TH ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE, PROCEEDINGS     653 - 658  2006  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a new multiscan-based test input data compression technique by employing a Fan-out Compression Scan Architecture (FCSCAN) for test cost reduction. The basic idea of FCSCAN is to target the minority specified 1 or 0 bits (either 1 or 0) in scan slices for compression. Due to the low specified bit density in test cube set, FCSCAN can significantly reduce input test data volume and the number of required test channels so as to reduce test cost. The FCSCAN technique is easy to be implemented with small hardware overhead and does not need any special ATPG for test generation. In addition, based on the theoretical compression efficiency analysis, improved procedures are also proposed for the FCSCAN to achieve further compression. Experimental results on both benchmark circuits and one real industrial design indicate that drastic reduction in test cost can be indeed achieved.

    DOI

  • An interface-circuit synthesis method with configurable processor core in IP-based SoC designs

    Shunitsu Kohara, Naoki Tomono, Jumpei Uchida, Yuichiro Miyaoka, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    ASP-DAC 2006: 11TH ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE, PROCEEDINGS     594 - 599  2006  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In SoC designs, efficient communication between the hardware IPs and the on-chip processor becomes very important, however the interface is usually affacted by the processor core specification. Thus in this paper, we focus on developing an efficient interface circuit architecture for the communications between the on-chip processor and embedded hardware IP cores. we also propose a method to synthesize it. Experimental results show that our method could obtain optimal interface circuits and works well through designing a MPEG-4 encode application.

    DOI

  • Memory-efficient accelerating schedule for LDPC decoder

    Kazunori Shimizu, Nozonm Togawa, Takeshi Ikenaga, Satoshi Goto

    2006 IEEE ASIA PACIFIC CONFERENCE ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS     1317 - +  2006  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a memory-efficient accelerating schedule for LDPC decoder. Important properties of the proposed techniques are as follows: (i) Partitioning a pipelined operation not to read and write intermediate messages simultaneously enables the accelerated message-passing schedule to be implemented with single-port memories. (ii) FIFO-based buffering reduces the number of memory banks and words for the decoder based on the accelerated message-passing schedule. The proposed decoder reduces the memories for intermediate messages by half compared to the conventional one based on the accelerated message-passing schedule.

    DOI

  • A parallel LSI architecture for LDPC decoder improving message-passing schedule

    Kazunori Shimizu, Tatsuyuki Ishikawa, Nozomu Togawa, Takeshi Ikenaga, Satoshi Gotot

    2006 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOLS 1-11, PROCEEDINGS     5099 - +  2006

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a parallel LSI architecture for LDPC decoder which improves a message-passing schedule. The proposed LDPC decoder is characterized as follows: (i) The column operations follow the row operations in a pipelined architecture to ensure that the row and column operations are performed concurrently. (ii) The proposed parallel pipelined bit functional unit enables the decoder to perform every column operation using the messages which is updated by the row operations. These column operations can be performed without extending the single iterative decoding delay. Hardware imp mentation and simulation results show that the proposed decoder improves the decoding throughput and bit error performance with a small hardware overhead.

  • Selective low-care coding: A means for test data compression in circuits with multiple scan chains

    Youhua Shi, Nozomu Togawa, Shinji Kimura, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   E89-A ( 4 ) 996 - 1003  2006

     View Summary

    This paper presents a test input data compression technique, Selective Low-Care Coding (SLC), which can he used to significantly reduce input test data volume as well as the external test channel requirement for multiscan-based designs. In the proposed SLC scheme, we explored the linear dependencies of the internal scan chains, and instead of encoding all the specified bits in test cubes, only a smaller amount of specified bits are selected for encoding, thus greater compression can be expected. Experiments on the larger benchmark circuits show drastic reduction in test data volume with corresponding savings on test application time can be indeed achieved even for the well-compacted test set. Copyright © 2006 The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers.

    DOI

  • FCSCAN: An efficient multiscan-based test compression technique for test cost reduction

    Youhua Shi, Nozomu Togawa, Shinji Kimura, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    ASP-DAC 2006: 11TH ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE, PROCEEDINGS     653 - 658  2006

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a new multiscan-based test input data compression technique by employing a Fan-out Compression Scan Architecture (FCSCAN) for test cost reduction. The basic idea of FCSCAN is to target the minority specified 1 or 0 bits (either 1 or 0) in scan slices for compression. Due to the low specified bit density in test cube set, FCSCAN can significantly reduce input test data volume and the number of required test channels so as to reduce test cost. The FCSCAN technique is easy to be implemented with small hardware overhead and does not need any special ATPG for test generation. In addition, based on the theoretical compression efficiency analysis, improved procedures are also proposed for the FCSCAN to achieve further compression. Experimental results on both benchmark circuits and one real industrial design indicate that drastic reduction in test cost can be indeed achieved.

  • An interface-circuit synthesis method with configurable processor core in IP-based SoC designs

    Shunitsu Kohara, Naoki Tomono, Jumpei Uchida, Yuichiro Miyaoka, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    ASP-DAC 2006: 11TH ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE, PROCEEDINGS     594 - 599  2006

     View Summary

    In SoC designs, efficient communication between the hardware IPs and the on-chip processor becomes very important, however the interface is usually affacted by the processor core specification. Thus in this paper, we focus on developing an efficient interface circuit architecture for the communications between the on-chip processor and embedded hardware IP cores. we also propose a method to synthesize it. Experimental results show that our method could obtain optimal interface circuits and works well through designing a MPEG-4 encode application.

  • MPEG-4形状符号化/復号化に対応したDSP組み込み向け専用演算器の設計

    古宇多朋史, 小原俊逸, 史又華, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    情報処理学会組込みシステムシンポジウム2006論文集(ESS2006)    2006

  • 連携処理を考慮したネットワークプロセッサ合成システム

    中山敬史, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    情報処理学会DAシンポジウム2006論文集    2006

  • レジスタ分散・共有併用型アーキテクチャを対象としたフロアプランを考慮した高位合成手法

    大智輝, 小原俊逸, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    情報処理学会DAシンポジウム2006論文集    2006

  • SIMD型プロセッサコアの自動合成のためのパイプライン演算ユニット生成手法

    栗原輝, 宮岡祐一郎, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    情報処理学会論文誌   vol. 47 ( no. 6 )  2006

  • H.264符号化向けDSPにおける動き予測演算器の設計

    高橋豊和, 小原俊逸, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   CAS2006-10 ( VLD2006-23, SIP2006-33 )  2006

  • A parallel LSI architecture for LDPC decoder improving message-passing schedule

    Kazunori Shimizu, Tatsuyuki Ishikawa, Nozomu Togawa, Takeshi Ikenaga, Satoshi Gotot

    2006 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOLS 1-11, PROCEEDINGS     5099 - +  2006

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a parallel LSI architecture for LDPC decoder which improves a message-passing schedule. The proposed LDPC decoder is characterized as follows: (i) The column operations follow the row operations in a pipelined architecture to ensure that the row and column operations are performed concurrently. (ii) The proposed parallel pipelined bit functional unit enables the decoder to perform every column operation using the messages which is updated by the row operations. These column operations can be performed without extending the single iterative decoding delay. Hardware imp mentation and simulation results show that the proposed decoder improves the decoding throughput and bit error performance with a small hardware overhead.

  • FCSCAN: An efficient multiscan-based data compression technique for test cost reduction

    史又華, 戸川望, 木村晋二, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    Proc. IEEE Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference 2006 (ASP-DAC 2006)     653 - 658  2006.01

  • An interface-circuit synthesizer with configurable processor core in IP-based SOC design

    小原俊逸, 友野直紀, 内田純平, 宮岡祐一郎, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    Proc. IEEE Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference 2006 (ASP-DAC 2006)     594 - 599  2006.01

  • 重回帰分析により得られた1次式によるインダクタンスを考慮した配線遅延の見積り

    鈴木康成, マルタディナタ アンワル, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   ( VLD2005-72 )  2005.12

  • レジスタ分散・共有アーキテクチャを対象としたフロアプラン指向高位合成手法

    大智輝, 戸川望, 柳澤雅夫, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   ( VLD2005-66 )  2005.12

  • SIMD型プロセッサの自動合成におけるパイプライン演算ユニット生成手法

    栗原輝, 宮岡祐一郎, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    情報処理学会DAシンポジウム2005論文集     25 - 30  2005.08

  • 画像処理向けシステムLSI設計における設計ナビゲーションを考慮したHW/SW分割システム

    小島洋平, 戸川望, 橘昌良, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    情報処理学会DAシンポジウム2005論文集     19 - 24  2005.08

  • Reconfigurable adaptive FEC system based on Reed-Solomon code with interleaving

    K Shimizu, N Togawa, T Ikenaga, S Goto

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION AND SYSTEMS   E88D ( 7 ) 1526 - 1537  2005.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a reconfigurable adaptive FEC system based on Reed-Solomon (RS) code with interleaving. In adaptive FEC schemes, error correction capability t is changed dynamically according to the communication channel condition. For given error correction capability t, we can implement an optimal RS decoder composed of minimum hardware units for each t. If the hardware units of the RS decoder can be reduced for any given error correction capability t, we can embed as large deinterleaver as possible into the RS decoder for each.t. Reconfiguring the RS decoder embedded with the expanded deinterleaver dynamically for each error correction capability t allows us to decode larger interleaved codes which are more robust error correction codes to burst errors. In a reliable transport protocol, experimental results show that our system achieves up to 65% lower packet error rate and 5.9% higher data transmission throughput compared to the adaptive FEC scheme on a conventional fixed hardware system. In an unreliable transport protocol, our system achieves up to 76% better bit error performance with higher code rate compared to the adaptive FEC scheme on a conventional fixed hardware system.

    DOI

  • A SIMD instruction set and functional unit synthesis algorithm with SIMD operation decomposition

    N Togawa, K Tachikake, Y Miyaoka, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION AND SYSTEMS   E88D ( 7 ) 1340 - 1349  2005.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper focuses on SIMD processor synthesis and proposes a SIMD instruction set/functional unit synthesis algorithm. Given an initial assembly code and a timing constraint, the proposed algorithm synthesizes an area-optimized processor core with optimal SIMD functional units. It also synthesizes a SIMD instruction set. The input initial assembly code is assumed to run on a full-resource SIMD processor (virtual processor) which has all the possible SIMD functional units. In our algorithm, we introduce the SIMD operation decomposition and apply it to the initial assembly code and the full-resource SIMD processor. By gradually reducing SIMD operations or decomposing SIMD operations, we can finally find a processor core with small area under the given timing constraint. The promising experimental results are also shown.

    DOI

  • Reconfigurable adaptive FEC system based on Reed-Solomon code with interleaving

    IEICE Trans. on Information and Systems   E88-D ( 7 ) 1538 - 1545  2005.07

    DOI

  • A SIMD instruction set and functional unit synthesis algorithm with simd operation decomposition

    IEICE Trans. on Information and Systems   E88-D ( 7 ) 1340 - 1349  2005.07

    DOI

  • Reconfigurable adaptive FEC system based on Reed-Solomon code with interleaving

    K Shimizu, N Togawa, T Ikenaga, S Goto

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION AND SYSTEMS   E88D ( 7 ) 1526 - 1537  2005.07

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a reconfigurable adaptive FEC system based on Reed-Solomon (RS) code with interleaving. In adaptive FEC schemes, error correction capability t is changed dynamically according to the communication channel condition. For given error correction capability t, we can implement an optimal RS decoder composed of minimum hardware units for each t. If the hardware units of the RS decoder can be reduced for any given error correction capability t, we can embed as large deinterleaver as possible into the RS decoder for each.t. Reconfiguring the RS decoder embedded with the expanded deinterleaver dynamically for each error correction capability t allows us to decode larger interleaved codes which are more robust error correction codes to burst errors. In a reliable transport protocol, experimental results show that our system achieves up to 65% lower packet error rate and 5.9% higher data transmission throughput compared to the adaptive FEC scheme on a conventional fixed hardware system. In an unreliable transport protocol, our system achieves up to 76% better bit error performance with higher code rate compared to the adaptive FEC scheme on a conventional fixed hardware system.

    DOI

  • A SIMD instruction set and functional unit synthesis algorithm with SIMD operation decomposition

    N Togawa, K Tachikake, Y Miyaoka, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION AND SYSTEMS   E88D ( 7 ) 1340 - 1349  2005.07

     View Summary

    This paper focuses on SIMD processor synthesis and proposes a SIMD instruction set/functional unit synthesis algorithm. Given an initial assembly code and a timing constraint, the proposed algorithm synthesizes an area-optimized processor core with optimal SIMD functional units. It also synthesizes a SIMD instruction set. The input initial assembly code is assumed to run on a full-resource SIMD processor (virtual processor) which has all the possible SIMD functional units. In our algorithm, we introduce the SIMD operation decomposition and apply it to the initial assembly code and the full-resource SIMD processor. By gradually reducing SIMD operations or decomposing SIMD operations, we can finally find a processor core with small area under the given timing constraint. The promising experimental results are also shown.

    DOI

  • レジスタ分散型アーキテクチャを対象とするフロアプランとタイミング制約を考慮した高位合成手法

    田中真, 内田純平, 宮岡祐一郎, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    情報処理学会論文誌   46 ( 6 ) 1383 - 1394  2005.05

  • Sub-operation parallelism optimization in SIMD processor core synthesis

    H Kawazu, J Uchida, Y Miyaoka, N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E88A ( 4 ) 876 - 884  2005.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    A b-bit SIMD functional unit has n k-bit sub-functional units in itself, where b = k x n. It can execute n-parallel k-bit operations. However, all the b-bit functional units in a processor core do not necessarily execute n-parallel operations. Depending on an application program, some of them just execute n/2-parallel operations or even n/4-parallel operations. This means that we can modify a b-bit SIMD functional unit so that it has n/2 k-bit sub-functional units or n/4 k-bit sub-functional units. The number of k-bit sub-functional units in a SIMD functional unit is called sub-operation parallelism. We incorporate a sub-operation parallelism optimization algorithm into SIMD functional unit optimization. Our proposed algorithm gradually reduces sub-operation parallelism of a SIMD functional unit while the timing constraint of execution time satisfied. Thereby, we can finally find a processor core with small area under the given timing constraint. We expect that we can obtain processor core configurations of smaller area in the same timing constraint rather than a conventional system. The promising experimental results are also shown.

    DOI

  • IP再利用を考慮したシステムLSI設計におけるインタフェース回路生成システム

    小原俊逸, 友野直紀, 内田純平, 宮岡祐一郎, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会第18回回路とシステム軽井沢ワークショップ論文集     581 - 586  2005.04

  • SIMD型プロセッサコア向けHW/SW協調合成システムにおけるパイプライン演算ユニット生成手法

    栗原輝, 宮岡祐一郎, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会第18回回路とシステム軽井沢ワークショップ論文集     575 - 580  2005.04

  • A selective care bits coding method for test data compression

    史又華, 戸川望, 木村晋二, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会第18回回路とシステム軽井沢ワークショップ論文集     241 - 246  2005.04

  • 信頼度の伝播効率を改善する部分並列LDPC復号器の実装と評価

    清水一範, 石川達之, 戸川望, 池永剛, 後藤敏

    電子情報通信学会第18回回路とシステム軽井沢ワークショップ論文集     181 - 186  2005.04

  • インダクタンスを考慮した配線遅延の近似式による見積もり

    鈴木康成, 宮岡祐一郎, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会第18回回路とシステム軽井沢ワークショップ論文集     1 - 6  2005.04

  • ネットワークプロセッサ合成システムの改良とその評価

    升本英行, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   VLD2004  2005.03

  • 動的フローに適応したネットワークプロセッサ設計とその評価

    細田宗一郎, 宮岡祐一郎, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   VLD2004  2005.03

  • ワードベースモンゴメリ乗算器を搭載した高速楕円曲線暗号LSI

    内田純平, 奈良竜太, 宮岡祐一郎, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   VLD2004  2005.03

  • 面積制約を考慮したマルチスレッドプロセッサの合成手法

    麻生雄一, 宮岡祐一郎, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告    2005.03

  • Sub-operation parallelism optimization in SIMD processor synthesis and its experimental evaluations

    N Togawa, Y Miyaoka, H Kawazu, M Yanagisawa, J Uchida, T Ohtsuki

    2005 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS (ISCAS), VOLS 1-6, CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS     3499 - 3502  2005  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a sub-operation parallelism optimization algorithm in SIMD) processor synthesis. Given an initial assembly code and timing constraints, our algorithm synthesizes a processor core with sub-operation parallelism optimization for SIMD) functional units. First we consider an initial processor which has sufficient hardware units for executing an initial assembly code. An initial processor core includes the maximum sub-operation parallelism for each SIMD) functional unit. By gradually reducing sub-operation parallelism, we can finally have a processor core with small area meeting a given timing constraints. We show the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm through experimental results.

    DOI

  • Partially-parallel LDPC decoder based on high-efficiency message-passing algorithm

    K Shimizu, T Ishikawa, N Togawa, T Ikenaga, S Goto

    2005 IEEE International Conference on Computer Design: VLSI in Computers & Processors, Proceedings     503 - 510  2005  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a partially-parallel LDPC decoder based on a high-efficiency message-passing algorithm. Our proposed partially-parallel LDPC decoder performs the column operations for bit nodes in conjunction with the row operations for check nodes. Bit functional unit with pipeline architecture in our LDPC decoder allows us to perform column operations for every bit node connected to each of check nodes which are updated by the row operations in parallel. Our proposed LDPC decoder improves the timing when the column operations are performed, accordingly it improves the message-passing efficiency within the limited number of iterations for decoding. We implemented the proposed partially-parallel LDPC decoder on an FPGA, and simulated its decoding performance. Practical simulation shows that our proposed LDPC decoder reduces the number of iterations for decoding, and it improves the bit error performance with a small hardware overhead.

    DOI

  • Low power test compression technique for designs with multiple scan chains

    YH Shi, N Togawa, S Kimura, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    14TH ASIAN TEST SYMPOSIUM, PROCEEDINGS     386 - 389  2005  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper presents a new DFT technique that can significantly reduce test data volume as well as scan-in power consumption for multiscan-based designs. It can also help to reduce test time and tester channel requirements with small hardware overhead In the proposed approach, we start with a pre-computed test cube set and fill the don't-cares with proper values for joint reduction of test data volume and scan power consumption. In addition we explore the linear dependencies of the scan chains to construct a fanout structure only with inverters to achieve further compression. Experimental results for the larger ISCAS'89 benchmarks show the efficiency of the proposed technique.

    DOI

  • Reconfigurable adaptive FEC system with interleaving

    Kazunori Shimizu, Nozomu Togawa, Takeshi Ikenaga, Satoshi Goto

    ASP-DAC 2005: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE, VOLS 1 AND 2     1252 - 1255  2005  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a reconfigurable adaptive FEC system with interleaving. For adaptive FEC schemes, we can implement an optimal RS decoder composed of minimum hardware units for any given error correction capability t. If the hardware units of the RS decoder can be reduced for any given t, we can embed as large deinterleaver as possible into the RS decoder for each t. Reconfiguring the RS decoder embedded with the expanded deinterleaver dynamically for each t allows us to decode larger interleaved codes which are more robust FEC codes to burst errors. Our reconfigurable adaptive FEC system with interleaving achieves better packet error rate and higher throughput than fixed hardware systems.

  • A processor core synthesis system in IP-based SoC design

    Naoki Tomono, Shunitsu Kohara, Jumpei Uchida, Yuichiro Miyaoka, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    ASP-DAC 2005: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE, VOLS 1 AND 2     286 - 291  2005  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a new design methodology for SoCs reusing hardware IPs. In our approach, after system-level HW/SW partitioning, we use IPs for hardware parts, but synthesize a new processor core instead of reusing a processor core IP. System performs efficient parallel execution of hardware and software by taking account of a response time of hardware IP obtained by the proposed calculation algorithm. We can use optimal hardware IPs selected by the proposed hardware IPs selection algorithm. The experimental results show effectiveness of our new design methodology.

  • Sub-operation parallelism optimization in SIMD processor synthesis and its experimental evaluations

    N Togawa, Y Miyaoka, H Kawazu, M Yanagisawa, J Uchida, T Ohtsuki

    2005 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS (ISCAS), VOLS 1-6, CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS     3499 - 3502  2005

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a sub-operation parallelism optimization algorithm in SIMD) processor synthesis. Given an initial assembly code and timing constraints, our algorithm synthesizes a processor core with sub-operation parallelism optimization for SIMD) functional units. First we consider an initial processor which has sufficient hardware units for executing an initial assembly code. An initial processor core includes the maximum sub-operation parallelism for each SIMD) functional unit. By gradually reducing sub-operation parallelism, we can finally have a processor core with small area meeting a given timing constraints. We show the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm through experimental results.

    DOI

  • Partially-parallel LDPC decoder based on high-efficiency message-passing algorithm

    K Shimizu, T Ishikawa, N Togawa, T Ikenaga, S Goto

    2005 IEEE International Conference on Computer Design: VLSI in Computers & Processors, Proceedings     503 - 510  2005

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a partially-parallel LDPC decoder based on a high-efficiency message-passing algorithm. Our proposed partially-parallel LDPC decoder performs the column operations for bit nodes in conjunction with the row operations for check nodes. Bit functional unit with pipeline architecture in our LDPC decoder allows us to perform column operations for every bit node connected to each of check nodes which are updated by the row operations in parallel. Our proposed LDPC decoder improves the timing when the column operations are performed, accordingly it improves the message-passing efficiency within the limited number of iterations for decoding. We implemented the proposed partially-parallel LDPC decoder on an FPGA, and simulated its decoding performance. Practical simulation shows that our proposed LDPC decoder reduces the number of iterations for decoding, and it improves the bit error performance with a small hardware overhead.

    DOI

  • Sub-operation parallelism optimization in SIMD processor core synthesis

    Hideki Kawazu, Jumpei Uchida, Yuichiro Miyaoka, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   E88-A ( 4 ) 876 - 883  2005

     View Summary

    A b-bit SIMD functional unit has n k-bit sub-functional units in itself, where b = k × n. It can execute n-parallel k-bit operations. However, all the b-bit functional units in a processor core do not necessarily execute n-parallel operations. Depending on an application program, some of them just execute n/2-parallel operations or even n/4-parallel operations. This means that we can modify a b-bit SIMD functional unit so that it has n/2 k-bit sub-functional units or n/4 k-bit sub-functional units. The number of k-bit sub-functional units in a SIMD functional unit is called sub-operation parallelism. We incorporate a sub-operation parallelism optimization algorithm into SIMD functional unit optimization. Our proposed algorithm gradually reduces sub-operation parallelism of a SIMD functional unit while the timing constraint of execution time satisfied. Thereby, we can finally find a processor core with small area under the given timing constraint. We expect that we can obtain processor core configurations of smaller area in the same timing constraint rather than a conventional system. The promising experimental results are also shown. Copyright © 2005 The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers.

    DOI

  • A processor core synthesis system in IP-based SoC design

    Naoki Tomono, Shunitsu Kohara, Jumpei Uchida, Yuichiro Miyaoka, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    ASP-DAC 2005: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE, VOLS 1 AND 2     286 - 291  2005

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a new design methodology for SoCs reusing hardware IPs. In our approach, after system-level HW/SW partitioning, we use IPs for hardware parts, but synthesize a new processor core instead of reusing a processor core IP. System performs efficient parallel execution of hardware and software by taking account of a response time of hardware IP obtained by the proposed calculation algorithm. We can use optimal hardware IPs selected by the proposed hardware IPs selection algorithm. The experimental results show effectiveness of our new design methodology.

  • Sub-operation parallelism optimization in SIMD processor synthesis and its experimental evaluations

    Nozomu Togawa, Hideki Kawazu, Jumpei Uchida, Yuichiro Miyaoka, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems     3499 - 3502  2005

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a sub-operation parallelism optimization algorithm in SIMD processor synthesis. Given an initial assembly code and timing constraints, our algorithm synthesizes a processor core with sub-operation parallelism optimization for SIMD functional units. First we consider an initial processor which has sufficient hardware units for executing an initial assembly code. An initial processor core includes the maximum sub-operation parallelism for each SIMD functional unit. By gradually reducing sub-operation parallelism, we can finally have a processor core with small area meeting a given timing constraints. We show the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm through experimental results. © 2005 IEEE.

    DOI

  • Partially-parallel LDPC decoder based on high-efficiency message-passing algorithm

    K Shimizu, T Ishikawa, N Togawa, T Ikenaga, S Goto

    2005 IEEE International Conference on Computer Design: VLSI in Computers & Processors, Proceedings     503 - 510  2005

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a partially-parallel LDPC decoder based on a high-efficiency message-passing algorithm. Our proposed partially-parallel LDPC decoder performs the column operations for bit nodes in conjunction with the row operations for check nodes. Bit functional unit with pipeline architecture in our LDPC decoder allows us to perform column operations for every bit node connected to each of check nodes which are updated by the row operations in parallel. Our proposed LDPC decoder improves the timing when the column operations are performed, accordingly it improves the message-passing efficiency within the limited number of iterations for decoding. We implemented the proposed partially-parallel LDPC decoder on an FPGA, and simulated its decoding performance. Practical simulation shows that our proposed LDPC decoder reduces the number of iterations for decoding, and it improves the bit error performance with a small hardware overhead.

    DOI

  • Sub-operation parallelism optimization in SIMD processor core synthesis

    Hideki Kawazu, Jumpei Uchida, Yuichiro Miyaoka, Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   E88-A ( 4 ) 876 - 883  2005

     View Summary

    A b-bit SIMD functional unit has n k-bit sub-functional units in itself, where b = k × n. It can execute n-parallel k-bit operations. However, all the b-bit functional units in a processor core do not necessarily execute n-parallel operations. Depending on an application program, some of them just execute n/2-parallel operations or even n/4-parallel operations. This means that we can modify a b-bit SIMD functional unit so that it has n/2 k-bit sub-functional units or n/4 k-bit sub-functional units. The number of k-bit sub-functional units in a SIMD functional unit is called sub-operation parallelism. We incorporate a sub-operation parallelism optimization algorithm into SIMD functional unit optimization. Our proposed algorithm gradually reduces sub-operation parallelism of a SIMD functional unit while the timing constraint of execution time satisfied. Thereby, we can finally find a processor core with small area under the given timing constraint. We expect that we can obtain processor core configurations of smaller area in the same timing constraint rather than a conventional system. The promising experimental results are also shown. Copyright © 2005 The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers.

    DOI

  • A Processor Core Synthesis System in IP-based SoC Design

    友野直紀, 小原俊逸, 内田純平, 宮岡祐一郎, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    Proceedings of the ASP-DAC 2005    2005.01

  • FPGA-based reconfigurable adaptive FEC

    K Shimizu, J Uchida, Y Miyaoka, N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E87A ( 12 ) 3036 - 3046  2004.12

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable adaptive FEC system. In adaptive FEC schemes, the error correction capability t is changed dynamically according to the communication channel condition. If a particular error correction capability t is given, we can implement an FEC decoder which is optimal for t by taking the number of operations into consideration. Thus, reconfiguring the optimal FEC decoder dynamically for each error correction capability allows us to maximize the throughput of each decoder within a limited hardware resource. Based on this concept, our reconfigurable adaptive FEC system can reduce the packet dropping rate more efficiently than conventional fixed hardware systems. We can improve data transmission throughput for a reliable transport protocol. Practical simulation results are also shown.

  • High-level power optimization based on thread partitioning

    J Uchida, N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E87A ( 12 ) 3075 - 3082  2004.12

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a thread partitioning algorithm in low power high-level synthesis. The algorithm is applied to high-level synthesis systems. In the systems, we can describe parallel behaving circuit blocks (threads) explicitly. First it focuses on a local register file RF in a thread. It partitions a thread into two sub-threads, one of which has RF and the other does not have RE The partitioned sub-threads need to be synchronized with each other to keep the data dependency of the original thread. Since the partitioned sub-threads have waiting time for synchronization, gated clocks can be applied to each sub-thread. Then we can synthesize a low power circuit with a low area overhead, compared to the original circuit. Experimental results demonstrate effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithm.

  • レジスタ分散型アーキテクチャを対象とするフロアプランを考慮した高位合成手法

    田中真, 内田純平, 宮岡祐一郎, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   VLD2004  2004.12

  • FPGA-based reconfigurable adaptive FEC

    K Shimizu, J Uchida, Y Miyaoka, N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E87A ( 12 ) 3036 - 3046  2004.12

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable adaptive FEC system. In adaptive FEC schemes, the error correction capability t is changed dynamically according to the communication channel condition. If a particular error correction capability t is given, we can implement an FEC decoder which is optimal for t by taking the number of operations into consideration. Thus, reconfiguring the optimal FEC decoder dynamically for each error correction capability allows us to maximize the throughput of each decoder within a limited hardware resource. Based on this concept, our reconfigurable adaptive FEC system can reduce the packet dropping rate more efficiently than conventional fixed hardware systems. We can improve data transmission throughput for a reliable transport protocol. Practical simulation results are also shown.

  • High-level power optimization based on thread partitioning

    J Uchida, N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E87A ( 12 ) 3075 - 3082  2004.12

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a thread partitioning algorithm in low power high-level synthesis. The algorithm is applied to high-level synthesis systems. In the systems, we can describe parallel behaving circuit blocks (threads) explicitly. First it focuses on a local register file RF in a thread. It partitions a thread into two sub-threads, one of which has RF and the other does not have RE The partitioned sub-threads need to be synchronized with each other to keep the data dependency of the original thread. Since the partitioned sub-threads have waiting time for synchronization, gated clocks can be applied to each sub-thread. Then we can synthesize a low power circuit with a low area overhead, compared to the original circuit. Experimental results demonstrate effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithm.

  • A sub-operation parallelism optimization algorithmin HW/SW partitioning for SIMD processor cores

    SASIMI2004     483 - 490  2004.10

  • A sub-operation parallelism optimization algorithmin HW/SW partitioning for SIMD processor cores

    川津秀樹, 内田純平, 宮岡祐一郎, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    SASIMI2004     483 - 490  2004.10

  • IP再利用を考慮したシステムLSIにおけるプロセッサコア合成システム

    友野直紀, 小原俊逸, 内田純平, 宮岡祐一郎, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    情報処理学会 DAシンポジウム 2004     19 - 24  2004.07

  • フロアプランとタイミング制約に基づくレジスタ間データ転送を考慮した高位合成手法

    田中真, 内田純平, 宮岡祐一郎, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    情報処理学会 DAシンポジウム 2004     283 - 288  2004.07

  • A hardware/software cosynthesis algorithm for processors with heterogeneous datapaths

    Y Miyaoka, N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E87A ( 4 ) 830 - 836  2004.04

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a hardware/software cosynthesis algorithm for processors with heterogeneous registers. Given a CDFG corresponding to an application program and a timing constraint, the algorithm generates a processor configuration minimizing area of the processor and an assembly code on the processor. First, the algorithm configures a datapath which can execute several DFG nodes with data dependency at one cycle. The datapath can execute the application program at the least number of cycles. The branch and bound algorithm is applied and all the number of functional units and memory banks are tried. For an assumed number of functional units and memory banks, an appropriate number of heterogeneous registers and connections to functional units and registers are explored. The experimental results show effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithm.

  • SIMD型プロセッサコア向けHW/SW分割におけるSIMD型演算最適化手法

    川津秀樹, 宮岡祐一郎, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会第17回 回路とシステム(軽井沢)ワークショップ     579 - 584  2004.04

  • A hardware/software cosynthesis algorithm for processors with heterogeneous datapaths

    Y Miyaoka, N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E87A ( 4 ) 830 - 836  2004.04

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a hardware/software cosynthesis algorithm for processors with heterogeneous registers. Given a CDFG corresponding to an application program and a timing constraint, the algorithm generates a processor configuration minimizing area of the processor and an assembly code on the processor. First, the algorithm configures a datapath which can execute several DFG nodes with data dependency at one cycle. The datapath can execute the application program at the least number of cycles. The branch and bound algorithm is applied and all the number of functional units and memory banks are tried. For an assumed number of functional units and memory banks, an appropriate number of heterogeneous registers and connections to functional units and registers are explored. The experimental results show effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithm.

  • ネットワークプロセッサ合成システム

    松浦努, 内田純平, 宮岡祐一郎, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   VLD2003-145   55 - 60  2004.03

  • HW/SW分割システムにおける仮想IP類推手法

    小田雄一, 内田純平, 宮岡祐一郎, 戸川望, 橘昌良, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   VLD2003-158   47 - 52  2004.03

  • Packed SIMD型命令を持つプロセッサ合成システムのためのリターゲッタブルコンパイラ

    加藤久晴, 内田純平, 宮岡祐一郎, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   VLD2003-157   41 - 46  2004.03

  • 面積制約を考慮したCAMプロセッサ最適化手法

    石川裕一朗, 内田純平, 宮岡祐一郎, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   VLD2003-152   13 - 18  2004.03

  • インターリーブを考慮したReconfigurable Adaptive FEC

    清水一範, 内田純平, 宮岡祐一郎, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   VLD2003-151   7 - 12  2004.03

  • 携帯機器を対象としたJava動的コンパイラにおけるプロファイリングシステム

    船田雅史, 内田純平, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    情報処理学会研究報告,2004-MBL-28     55 - 62  2004.03

  • Alternative Run-Length.Coding through scan chain reconfiguration for joint minimization of test data volume and power consumption in scan test

    YH Shi, S Kimura, N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    13TH ASIAN TEST SYMPOSIUM, PROCEEDINGS     432 - 437  2004  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Test data volume and scan power are two Major concerns in SoC test. In this paper we present an alternative run-length coding method through scan chain reconfiguration to reduce both test data volume and scan-in power consumption. The proposed method analyzes the compatibility of the internal scan cells for a given test set and then divides the scan cells into compatible classes. To extract the compatible scan cells we apply a heuristic algorithm by solving the graph coloring problem; and then a simple greedy algorithm is used to configure the scan chain for the minimization of scan power Experimental results for the larger ISCAS'89 benchmarks show that the proposed approach leads to highly reduced test data volume with significant power savings during scan test.

    DOI

  • Instruction set and functional unit synthesis for SIMD processor cores

    N Togawa, K Tachikake, Y Miyaoka, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    ASP-DAC 2004: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE     743 - 750  2004  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper focuses on SIMD processor synthesis and proposes a SIMD instruction set/functional unit synthesis algorithm. Given an initial assembly code and a timing constraint, the proposed algorithm synthesizes an area-optimized processor core with optimal SIMD functional units. It also synthesizes a SIMD instruction set. The input initial assembly code is assumed to run on a full-resource SIMD processor (virtual processor) which has all the possible SIMD functional units. In our algorithm, we introduce the SIMD operation decomposition and apply it to the initial assembly code and the full-resource SIMD processor. By gradually reducing SIMD operations or decomposing SIMD operations, we can finally find a processor core with small area under the given timing constraint. The promising experimental results are also shown.

  • A cosynthesis algorithm for application specific processors with heterogeneous datapaths

    Y Miyaoka, N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    ASP-DAC 2004: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE     250 - 255  2004  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a hardware/software cosynthesis algorithm for processors with heterogeneous registers. Given a CDFG corresponding to an application program and a timing constraint, the algorithm generates a processor configuration minimizing area of the processor and an assembly code on the processor. First, the algorithm configures a datapath which can execute several DFG nodes with data dependency at one cycle. The datapath can execute the application program at the least number of cycles. The branch and bound algorithm is applied and all the number of functional units and memory banks are tried. For an assumed number of functional units and memory banks, an appropriate number of heterogeneous registers and connections to functional units and registers are explored. The experimental results show effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithm.

  • A thread partitioning algorithm in low power high-level synthesis

    J Uchida, N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    ASP-DAC 2004: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE     74 - 79  2004  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a thread partitioning algorithm in low power high-level synthesis. The algorithm is applied to high-level synthesis systems. In the systems, we can describe parallel behaving circuit blocks(threads) explicitly. First it focuses on a local register file RF in a thread. It partitions a thread into two sub-threads, one of which has RF and the other does not have, RF. The partitioned sub-threads need to be synchronized with each other to keep the data dependency of the original thread. Since the partitioned sub-threads have waiting time for synchronization, gated clocks can be applied to each sub-thread. Then we can synthesize a low power circuit with a low area overhead, compared to the original circuit. Experimental results demonstrate effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithm.

  • A reconfigurable adaptive FEC system for reliable wireless communications

    K Shimizu, N Togawa, T Ikenaga, M Yanagisawa, S Goto, T Ohtsuki

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2004 IEEE ASIA-PACIFIC CONFERENCE ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOL 1 AND 2     13 - 16  2004

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a reconfigurable adaptive FEC system. For adaptive FEC schemes, we can implement an FEC decoder which is optimal for error correction capability t by taking the number of operations into consideration. Reconfiguring the optimal FEC decoder dynamically for each t allows us to maximize the throughput of each decoder within a limited hardware resource. Our system can reduce packet dropping rate more efficiently than conventional fixed hardware systems for a reliable transport protocol.

  • Experimental evaluation of high-level energy optimization based on thread partitioning

    J Uchida, Y Miyaoka, N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2004 IEEE ASIA-PACIFIC CONFERENCE ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOL 1 AND 2     161 - 164  2004

     View Summary

    This paper presents a thread partitioning algorithm for high-level synthesis systems which generate low energy circuits. In the algorithm, we partitions a thread into two sub-threads, one of which has RF and the other does not have RE The partitioned sub-threads need to be synchronized with each other to keep the data dependency of the original thread. Since the partitioned sub-threads have waiting time for synchronization, gated clocks can be applied to each sub-thread. We achieve 33% energy reduction when we apply our proposed algorithm to a JPEG encoder.

  • Alternative Run-Length.Coding through scan chain reconfiguration for joint minimization of test data volume and power consumption in scan test

    YH Shi, S Kimura, N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    13TH ASIAN TEST SYMPOSIUM, PROCEEDINGS     432 - 437  2004

     View Summary

    Test data volume and scan power are two Major concerns in SoC test. In this paper we present an alternative run-length coding method through scan chain reconfiguration to reduce both test data volume and scan-in power consumption. The proposed method analyzes the compatibility of the internal scan cells for a given test set and then divides the scan cells into compatible classes. To extract the compatible scan cells we apply a heuristic algorithm by solving the graph coloring problem; and then a simple greedy algorithm is used to configure the scan chain for the minimization of scan power Experimental results for the larger ISCAS'89 benchmarks show that the proposed approach leads to highly reduced test data volume with significant power savings during scan test.

    DOI

  • An efficient algorithm/architecture codesign for image encoders

    J Choi, N Togawa, T Ikenaga, S Goto, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    2004 47TH MIDWEST SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOL II, CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS     469 - 472  2004

     View Summary

    We describe the optimization of a complex video encoder systems based on target architecture. We implemented the MPEG-4 encoder using hardware/software codesign approach, mapped together based on a target architecture. We proposed a target architecture template and an optimization methodology. In our design flow, we searched for a bottleneck module constraining the system. After investigating the computational complexity, quality, and the simplicity of algorithms, we chose the best algorithm for hardware implementation, and then mapped the selected algorithm onto the hardware with different architecture, what does the best architecture for the algorithm and which is the best architecture of components. We chose one of the architectures meet the constraints and also made tradeoffs among speed, chip area, and memory bandwidth for different architecture. The proposed system architecture was used to reduce the design decisions and iterations, provided flexible and scalable systems. The evaluations resulted in effective optimization of the motion estimation module and better tradeoffs that optimized the overall system.

  • Reducing test data volume for multiscan-based designs through single/sequence mixed encoding

    Y Shi, S Kimura, N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    2004 47TH MIDWEST SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOL II, CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS     445 - 448  2004

     View Summary

    This paper presents a new test data compression technique for multiscan-based designs through dictionary-based encoding on the single or sequences scan-inputs. In spite of its simplicity, it achieves significant reduction in test data volume. Unlike some previous approaches on test data compression, our approach eliminates the need for additional synchronization and handshaking between the CUT and the ATE, so it is especially suitable to be integrated in a low cost test scheme for SoC test In addition in contrast to previous dictionary-based coding techniques, even for the CUT with a small number of scan chains, the proposed approach can achieve satisfied reduction in test data volume. Experimental results showed the proposed test scheme works particularly well for the large ISCAS'89 benchmarks.

  • Instruction set and functional unit synthesis for SIMD processor cores

    N Togawa, K Tachikake, Y Miyaoka, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    ASP-DAC 2004: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE     743 - 750  2004

     View Summary

    This paper focuses on SIMD processor synthesis and proposes a SIMD instruction set/functional unit synthesis algorithm. Given an initial assembly code and a timing constraint, the proposed algorithm synthesizes an area-optimized processor core with optimal SIMD functional units. It also synthesizes a SIMD instruction set. The input initial assembly code is assumed to run on a full-resource SIMD processor (virtual processor) which has all the possible SIMD functional units. In our algorithm, we introduce the SIMD operation decomposition and apply it to the initial assembly code and the full-resource SIMD processor. By gradually reducing SIMD operations or decomposing SIMD operations, we can finally find a processor core with small area under the given timing constraint. The promising experimental results are also shown.

  • A cosynthesis algorithm for application specific processors with heterogeneous datapaths

    Y Miyaoka, N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    ASP-DAC 2004: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE     250 - 255  2004

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a hardware/software cosynthesis algorithm for processors with heterogeneous registers. Given a CDFG corresponding to an application program and a timing constraint, the algorithm generates a processor configuration minimizing area of the processor and an assembly code on the processor. First, the algorithm configures a datapath which can execute several DFG nodes with data dependency at one cycle. The datapath can execute the application program at the least number of cycles. The branch and bound algorithm is applied and all the number of functional units and memory banks are tried. For an assumed number of functional units and memory banks, an appropriate number of heterogeneous registers and connections to functional units and registers are explored. The experimental results show effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithm.

  • A thread partitioning algorithm in low power high-level synthesis

    J Uchida, N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    ASP-DAC 2004: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE     74 - 79  2004

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a thread partitioning algorithm in low power high-level synthesis. The algorithm is applied to high-level synthesis systems. In the systems, we can describe parallel behaving circuit blocks(threads) explicitly. First it focuses on a local register file RF in a thread. It partitions a thread into two sub-threads, one of which has RF and the other does not have, RF. The partitioned sub-threads need to be synchronized with each other to keep the data dependency of the original thread. Since the partitioned sub-threads have waiting time for synchronization, gated clocks can be applied to each sub-thread. Then we can synthesize a low power circuit with a low area overhead, compared to the original circuit. Experimental results demonstrate effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithm.

  • A reconfigurable adaptive FEC system for reliable wireless communications

    K Shimizu, N Togawa, T Ikenaga, M Yanagisawa, S Goto, T Ohtsuki

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2004 IEEE ASIA-PACIFIC CONFERENCE ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOL 1 AND 2     13 - 16  2004

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a reconfigurable adaptive FEC system. For adaptive FEC schemes, we can implement an FEC decoder which is optimal for error correction capability t by taking the number of operations into consideration. Reconfiguring the optimal FEC decoder dynamically for each t allows us to maximize the throughput of each decoder within a limited hardware resource. Our system can reduce packet dropping rate more efficiently than conventional fixed hardware systems for a reliable transport protocol.

  • Experimental evaluation of high-level energy optimization based on thread partitioning

    J Uchida, Y Miyaoka, N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2004 IEEE ASIA-PACIFIC CONFERENCE ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOL 1 AND 2     161 - 164  2004

     View Summary

    This paper presents a thread partitioning algorithm for high-level synthesis systems which generate low energy circuits. In the algorithm, we partitions a thread into two sub-threads, one of which has RF and the other does not have RE The partitioned sub-threads need to be synchronized with each other to keep the data dependency of the original thread. Since the partitioned sub-threads have waiting time for synchronization, gated clocks can be applied to each sub-thread. We achieve 33% energy reduction when we apply our proposed algorithm to a JPEG encoder.

  • Alternative Run-Length.Coding through scan chain reconfiguration for joint minimization of test data volume and power consumption in scan test

    YH Shi, S Kimura, N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    13TH ASIAN TEST SYMPOSIUM, PROCEEDINGS     432 - 437  2004

     View Summary

    Test data volume and scan power are two Major concerns in SoC test. In this paper we present an alternative run-length coding method through scan chain reconfiguration to reduce both test data volume and scan-in power consumption. The proposed method analyzes the compatibility of the internal scan cells for a given test set and then divides the scan cells into compatible classes. To extract the compatible scan cells we apply a heuristic algorithm by solving the graph coloring problem; and then a simple greedy algorithm is used to configure the scan chain for the minimization of scan power Experimental results for the larger ISCAS'89 benchmarks show that the proposed approach leads to highly reduced test data volume with significant power savings during scan test.

    DOI

  • An efficient algorithm/architecture codesign for image encoders

    J Choi, N Togawa, T Ikenaga, S Goto, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    2004 47TH MIDWEST SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOL II, CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS     469 - 472  2004

     View Summary

    We describe the optimization of a complex video encoder systems based on target architecture. We implemented the MPEG-4 encoder using hardware/software codesign approach, mapped together based on a target architecture. We proposed a target architecture template and an optimization methodology. In our design flow, we searched for a bottleneck module constraining the system. After investigating the computational complexity, quality, and the simplicity of algorithms, we chose the best algorithm for hardware implementation, and then mapped the selected algorithm onto the hardware with different architecture, what does the best architecture for the algorithm and which is the best architecture of components. We chose one of the architectures meet the constraints and also made tradeoffs among speed, chip area, and memory bandwidth for different architecture. The proposed system architecture was used to reduce the design decisions and iterations, provided flexible and scalable systems. The evaluations resulted in effective optimization of the motion estimation module and better tradeoffs that optimized the overall system.

  • Reducing test data volume for multiscan-based designs through single/sequence mixed encoding

    Y Shi, S Kimura, N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    2004 47TH MIDWEST SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOL II, CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS     445 - 448  2004

     View Summary

    This paper presents a new test data compression technique for multiscan-based designs through dictionary-based encoding on the single or sequences scan-inputs. In spite of its simplicity, it achieves significant reduction in test data volume. Unlike some previous approaches on test data compression, our approach eliminates the need for additional synchronization and handshaking between the CUT and the ATE, so it is especially suitable to be integrated in a low cost test scheme for SoC test In addition in contrast to previous dictionary-based coding techniques, even for the CUT with a small number of scan chains, the proposed approach can achieve satisfied reduction in test data volume. Experimental results showed the proposed test scheme works particularly well for the large ISCAS'89 benchmarks.

  • Instruction set and functional unit synthesis for SIMD processor cores

    N Togawa, K Tachikake, Y Miyaoka, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    ASP-DAC 2004: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE     743 - 750  2004

     View Summary

    This paper focuses on SIMD processor synthesis and proposes a SIMD instruction set/functional unit synthesis algorithm. Given an initial assembly code and a timing constraint, the proposed algorithm synthesizes an area-optimized processor core with optimal SIMD functional units. It also synthesizes a SIMD instruction set. The input initial assembly code is assumed to run on a full-resource SIMD processor (virtual processor) which has all the possible SIMD functional units. In our algorithm, we introduce the SIMD operation decomposition and apply it to the initial assembly code and the full-resource SIMD processor. By gradually reducing SIMD operations or decomposing SIMD operations, we can finally find a processor core with small area under the given timing constraint. The promising experimental results are also shown.

  • A cosynthesis algorithm for application specific processors with heterogeneous datapaths

    Y Miyaoka, N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    ASP-DAC 2004: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE     250 - 255  2004

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a hardware/software cosynthesis algorithm for processors with heterogeneous registers. Given a CDFG corresponding to an application program and a timing constraint, the algorithm generates a processor configuration minimizing area of the processor and an assembly code on the processor. First, the algorithm configures a datapath which can execute several DFG nodes with data dependency at one cycle. The datapath can execute the application program at the least number of cycles. The branch and bound algorithm is applied and all the number of functional units and memory banks are tried. For an assumed number of functional units and memory banks, an appropriate number of heterogeneous registers and connections to functional units and registers are explored. The experimental results show effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithm.

  • A thread partitioning algorithm in low power high-level synthesis

    J Uchida, N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    ASP-DAC 2004: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE     74 - 79  2004

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a thread partitioning algorithm in low power high-level synthesis. The algorithm is applied to high-level synthesis systems. In the systems, we can describe parallel behaving circuit blocks(threads) explicitly. First it focuses on a local register file RF in a thread. It partitions a thread into two sub-threads, one of which has RF and the other does not have, RF. The partitioned sub-threads need to be synchronized with each other to keep the data dependency of the original thread. Since the partitioned sub-threads have waiting time for synchronization, gated clocks can be applied to each sub-thread. Then we can synthesize a low power circuit with a low area overhead, compared to the original circuit. Experimental results demonstrate effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithm.

  • A hardware/software partitioning algorithm for processor cores with packed SIMD-type instructions

    N Togawa, K Tachikake, Y Miyaoka, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E86A ( 12 ) 3218 - 3224  2003.12

     View Summary

    This letter proposes a new hardware/software partitioning algorithm for processor cores with SIMD instructions. Given a compiled assembly code including SIMD instructions and a timing constraint, the proposed algorithm synthesizes an area-optimized processor core with a new assembly code. Firstly, we assume for each operation type a super SIMD functional unit which can execute all the SIMD instructions. Secondly we reduce a SIMD instruction or "sub-function" of each super functional unit, one by one, while the timing constraint is satisfied. At the same time, we update the assembly code so that it can run on the new processor configuration. By repeating this process, we finally find SIMD functional unit configuration as well as a processor core architecture. The promising experimental results are also shown.

  • A retargetable simulator generator for DSP processor cores with packed SIMD-type instructions

    N Togawa, K Kasahara, Y Miyaoka, J Choi, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E86A ( 12 ) 3099 - 3109  2003.12

     View Summary

    A packed SIMD type operation or a SIMD operation is n-parallel b/n-bit sub-operations executed by the modified n-bit functional unit. Such a functional unit is called a SIMD functional unit and a processor core which can execute SIMD operations is called a SIMD processor core. SIMD operations can be effectively applied to image processing applications. This paper focuses on hardware/software cosynthesis of SIMD processor cores and particularly proposes a new simulator generator which simulates pipelined instructions for a SIMD processor. Generally, a SIMD functional unit has many options and then we can have so many different SIMD functional unit instances. However, since our hardware/software cosynthesis system synthesizes a special-purpose processor core for an input application program, it uses very limited SIMD functional unit instances. In the proposed approach, we consider a SIMD operation to be a set of SIMD sub-operations. By adding up the appropriate SIMD sub-operations, we construct a single SlMD operation. Then a SIMD functional unit behavior can be characterized by a collection of SIMD operations. This approach has the advantage that: if we have a small number of behavior libraries for SIMD suboperations, we can instantiate a particular SIMD functional unit behavior. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  • A hardware/software partitioning algorithm for processor cores with packed SIMD-type instructions

    N Togawa, K Tachikake, Y Miyaoka, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E86A ( 12 ) 3218 - 3224  2003.12

     View Summary

    This letter proposes a new hardware/software partitioning algorithm for processor cores with SIMD instructions. Given a compiled assembly code including SIMD instructions and a timing constraint, the proposed algorithm synthesizes an area-optimized processor core with a new assembly code. Firstly, we assume for each operation type a super SIMD functional unit which can execute all the SIMD instructions. Secondly we reduce a SIMD instruction or "sub-function" of each super functional unit, one by one, while the timing constraint is satisfied. At the same time, we update the assembly code so that it can run on the new processor configuration. By repeating this process, we finally find SIMD functional unit configuration as well as a processor core architecture. The promising experimental results are also shown.

  • A retargetable simulator generator for DSP processor cores with packed SIMD-type instructions

    N Togawa, K Kasahara, Y Miyaoka, J Choi, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E86A ( 12 ) 3099 - 3109  2003.12

     View Summary

    A packed SIMD type operation or a SIMD operation is n-parallel b/n-bit sub-operations executed by the modified n-bit functional unit. Such a functional unit is called a SIMD functional unit and a processor core which can execute SIMD operations is called a SIMD processor core. SIMD operations can be effectively applied to image processing applications. This paper focuses on hardware/software cosynthesis of SIMD processor cores and particularly proposes a new simulator generator which simulates pipelined instructions for a SIMD processor. Generally, a SIMD functional unit has many options and then we can have so many different SIMD functional unit instances. However, since our hardware/software cosynthesis system synthesizes a special-purpose processor core for an input application program, it uses very limited SIMD functional unit instances. In the proposed approach, we consider a SIMD operation to be a set of SIMD sub-operations. By adding up the appropriate SIMD sub-operations, we construct a single SlMD operation. Then a SIMD functional unit behavior can be characterized by a collection of SIMD operations. This approach has the advantage that: if we have a small number of behavior libraries for SIMD suboperations, we can instantiate a particular SIMD functional unit behavior. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  • 面積制約付きCAMプロセッサ合成手法

    石川裕一朗, 宮岡祐一郎, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   VLD2003-89  2003.11

  • 面積制約を考慮したCAMプロセッサ向けハードウェア/ソフトウェア協調設計手法

    石川裕一朗, 宮岡祐一郎, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術報告   IE2003-98   83 - 88  2003.10

  • FPGAを用いたReconfigurable Adaptive FECの実装と評価

    清水一範, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術報告   Reconf2003-9  2003.09

  • 分岐距離による再送手法選択式マルチキャスト

    山田泰弘, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術報告   CQ2003-58   29 - 32  2003.09

  • 公共空間におけるハンドオフ時間短縮を考慮したBluetoothネットワークの手順に関する一検討

    寺崎暁, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術報告   CQ2003-58   25 - 28  2003.09

  • 動的再構成可能システムによるAdaptive FECの実装

    清水一範, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    情報処理学会 DAシンポジウム 2003     25 - 30  2003.07

  • システムLSI設計における定性的側面を考慮したハードウェア/ソフトウェア分割システム

    小田雄一, 宮岡祐一郎, 戸川望, 橘昌良, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    情報処理学会 DAシンポジウム 2003     169 - 174  2003.07

  • 冗長記述を利用したVHDLへの透かし埋め込み手法

    久保ゆきこ, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    情報処理学会 DAシンポジウム 2003     37 - 42  2003.07

  • System Architecture based on Hardware/Software Codesign for Optimization of Video Encoders

    The 2003 International Technical Conference on Circuits/Systems,Computers and Communications    2003.06

  • System Architecture based on Hardware/Software Codesign for Optimization of Video Encoders

    崔鎮求, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    The 2003 International Technical Conference on Circuits/Systems,Computers and Communications    2003.06

  • A hardware/software cosynthesis system for processor cores with content addressable memories

    N Togawa, T Totsuka, T Wakui, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E86A ( 5 ) 1082 - 1092  2003.05

     View Summary

    Content addressable memory (CAM) is one of the functional memories which realize word-parallel equivalence search. Since a CAM unit is generally used in a particular application program, we consider that appropriate design for CAM units is required depending on the requirements for the application program. This paper proposes a hardware/software cosynthesis system for CAM processors. The input of the system is an application program written in C including CAM functions and a constraint for execution time (or CAM processor area). Its output is hardware descriptions of a synthesized processor and a binary code executed on it. Based on the branch-and-bound method, the system determines which CAM function is realized by a hardware and which CAM function is realized by a software with meeting the given timing constraint (or area constraint) and minimizing the CAM processor area (or execution time of the application program). We expect that we can realize optimal CAM processor design for an application program. Experimental results for several application programs show that we can obtain a CAM processor whose area is minimum with meeting the given timing constraint.

  • A hardware/software cosynthesis system for processor cores with content addressable memories

    N Togawa, T Totsuka, T Wakui, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E86A ( 5 ) 1082 - 1092  2003.05

     View Summary

    Content addressable memory (CAM) is one of the functional memories which realize word-parallel equivalence search. Since a CAM unit is generally used in a particular application program, we consider that appropriate design for CAM units is required depending on the requirements for the application program. This paper proposes a hardware/software cosynthesis system for CAM processors. The input of the system is an application program written in C including CAM functions and a constraint for execution time (or CAM processor area). Its output is hardware descriptions of a synthesized processor and a binary code executed on it. Based on the branch-and-bound method, the system determines which CAM function is realized by a hardware and which CAM function is realized by a software with meeting the given timing constraint (or area constraint) and minimizing the CAM processor area (or execution time of the application program). We expect that we can realize optimal CAM processor design for an application program. Experimental results for several application programs show that we can obtain a CAM processor whose area is minimum with meeting the given timing constraint.

  • An Instruction-Set Simulator Generator for SIMD Processor Cores

    Proceedings of workshop SASIMI2003     160 - 167  2003.04

  • ネットワークスイッチング処理を対象としたCAMプロセッサ自動合成システム

    田中英夫, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    回路とシステム(軽井沢)ワークショップ     435 - 440  2003.04

  • 不規則なデータパスを持つプロセッサのハードウェア/ソフトウェア協調合成手法

    宮岡祐一郎, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    回路とシステム(軽井沢)ワークショップ     441 - 446  2003.04

  • An Instruction-Set Simulator Generator for SIMD Processor Cores

    宮岡祐一郎, 戸川望, 笠原亨介, 崔鎮求, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    Proceedings of SASIMI2003     160 - 167  2003.04

  • 閾値検索機能付きCAMプロセッサの最適化手法

    戸塚崇夫, 宮岡祐一郎, 石川裕一朗, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術報告   VLD2002-158   19 - 24  2003.03

  • SIMD型プロセッサコア向けHW/SW分割におけるSIMD型演算最適化手法

    太刀掛宏一, 宮岡祐一郎, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術報告   VLD2002-157   13 - 18  2003.03

  • 高位合成システムにおけるスレッド分割を用いた低消費電力化手法

    内田純平, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術報告   VLD2002-156   7 - 12  2003.03

  • A hardware/software partitioning algorithm for SIMD processor cores

    K Tachikake, N Togawa, Y Miyaoka, J Choi, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    ASP-DAC 2003: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE     135 - 140  2003  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a new hardware/software partitioning algorithm for processor cores with SIMD instructions. Given a compiled assembly code including SIMD instructions, a timing constraint of execution time, and available hardware units, the proposed algorithm synthesizes an area-optimized processor core with a new assembly code. Firstly, we assume an initial processor core on which an input assembly code can run with the shortest execution time. Secondly we reduce a hardware unit added to a processor core one by one while the timing constraint is satisfied. At the same time, we update the assembly code so that it can run on the new processor configuration. By repeating this process, we finally obtain a processor core architecture with small area under the given timing constraint. We expect that we can obtain a processor core which has appropriate SIMD functional units for running the input application program. The promising experimental results are also shown.

    DOI

  • A hardware/software partitioning algorithm for SIMD processor cores

    K Tachikake, N Togawa, Y Miyaoka, J Choi, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    ASP-DAC 2003: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE     135 - 140  2003

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a new hardware/software partitioning algorithm for processor cores with SIMD instructions. Given a compiled assembly code including SIMD instructions, a timing constraint of execution time, and available hardware units, the proposed algorithm synthesizes an area-optimized processor core with a new assembly code. Firstly, we assume an initial processor core on which an input assembly code can run with the shortest execution time. Secondly we reduce a hardware unit added to a processor core one by one while the timing constraint is satisfied. At the same time, we update the assembly code so that it can run on the new processor configuration. By repeating this process, we finally obtain a processor core architecture with small area under the given timing constraint. We expect that we can obtain a processor core which has appropriate SIMD functional units for running the input application program. The promising experimental results are also shown.

    DOI

  • ハードウェアIPの応答時間を考慮したプロセッサコアのハードウェア/ソフトウェア分割手法

    田川博規, 小原俊逸, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術報告   VLD2002-136   37 - 42  2003.01

  • ハードウェアIPの応答時間を考慮したプロセッサコア合成システム

    小原俊逸, 田川博規, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術報告   VLD2002-135   31 - 36  2003.01

  • MPEG-4コアプロファイル符号化向けDSP

    石本剛, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術報告   VLD2002-134   25 - 30  2003.01

  • A hardware/software partitioning algorithm for SIMD processor cores

    K Tachikake, N Togawa, Y Miyaoka, J Choi, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    ASP-DAC 2003: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE     135 - 140  2003

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a new hardware/software partitioning algorithm for processor cores with SIMD instructions. Given a compiled assembly code including SIMD instructions, a timing constraint of execution time, and available hardware units, the proposed algorithm synthesizes an area-optimized processor core with a new assembly code. Firstly, we assume an initial processor core on which an input assembly code can run with the shortest execution time. Secondly we reduce a hardware unit added to a processor core one by one while the timing constraint is satisfied. At the same time, we update the assembly code so that it can run on the new processor configuration. By repeating this process, we finally obtain a processor core architecture with small area under the given timing constraint. We expect that we can obtain a processor core which has appropriate SIMD functional units for running the input application program. The promising experimental results are also shown.

    DOI

  • A high-level energy-optimizing algorithm for system VLSIs based on area/time/power estimation

    S Noda, N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E85A ( 12 ) 2655 - 2666  2002.12

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a high-level energy-optimizing algorithm which can synthesize low energy system VLSIs. Given an initial system hardware obtained from an abstract behavioral description, the proposed algorithm applies to it the three energy reduction techniques, 1) reducing supply voltage, 2) selecting lower energy modules, and 3) applying gated clocks. By incorporating our area/delay/power estimation, the proposed algorithm can obtain low energy system VLSIs meeting the constraints of area, delay, and execution time. The proposed algorithm has been incorporated into a high-level synthesis system and experimental results demonstrate effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithm.

  • An algorithm and a flexible architecture for fast block-matching motion estimation

    J Choi, N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E85A ( 12 ) 2603 - 2611  2002.12

     View Summary

    The motion estimation can choose the most suitable algorithm for different kinds of motion types, formats, and characteristics. The video encoding system can be optimized for quality, speed, and power consumption. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable approach to a motion estimation algorithm and hardware architecture. The proposed algorithm determines motion type and then selects adapted block-matching algorithm for different kinds of motion sequences. The quality of our algorithm is better than that of the TSS and the BBGDS algorithm, or comparable to the performance of the better of the two, and the computational complexity of our algorithm is significantly less than that of the TSS. We also propose hardware architecture for realizing two kinds of motion estimations in the same hardware. We implemented the flexible and reconfigurable hardware architecture by using address generator unit, delay unit, and parameters and by using the hardware description language (VHDL) and the SYNOPSYS synthesis design tools. We analyze the performance of the algorithm and present adapted algorithm for a low cost real time application.

  • A high-level energy-optimizing algorithm for system VLSIs based on area/time/power estimation

    S Noda, N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E85A ( 12 ) 2655 - 2666  2002.12

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a high-level energy-optimizing algorithm which can synthesize low energy system VLSIs. Given an initial system hardware obtained from an abstract behavioral description, the proposed algorithm applies to it the three energy reduction techniques, 1) reducing supply voltage, 2) selecting lower energy modules, and 3) applying gated clocks. By incorporating our area/delay/power estimation, the proposed algorithm can obtain low energy system VLSIs meeting the constraints of area, delay, and execution time. The proposed algorithm has been incorporated into a high-level synthesis system and experimental results demonstrate effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithm.

  • An algorithm and a flexible architecture for fast block-matching motion estimation

    J Choi, N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E85A ( 12 ) 2603 - 2611  2002.12

     View Summary

    The motion estimation can choose the most suitable algorithm for different kinds of motion types, formats, and characteristics. The video encoding system can be optimized for quality, speed, and power consumption. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable approach to a motion estimation algorithm and hardware architecture. The proposed algorithm determines motion type and then selects adapted block-matching algorithm for different kinds of motion sequences. The quality of our algorithm is better than that of the TSS and the BBGDS algorithm, or comparable to the performance of the better of the two, and the computational complexity of our algorithm is significantly less than that of the TSS. We also propose hardware architecture for realizing two kinds of motion estimations in the same hardware. We implemented the flexible and reconfigurable hardware architecture by using address generator unit, delay unit, and parameters and by using the hardware description language (VHDL) and the SYNOPSYS synthesis design tools. We analyze the performance of the algorithm and present adapted algorithm for a low cost real time application.

  • 閾値検索機能を持つCAMプロセッサの自動合成システム

    戸塚崇夫, 石川裕一朗, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術報告   VLD2002-113   197 - 192  2002.11

  • 動的再構成可能システムによるプロトコルブースタの実装

    清水一範, 陳暁梅, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術報告   VLD2002-103   127 - 132  2002.11

  • ストリーミングを主目的としたアクセスネットワークでの最大許容遅延を考慮した制御方式

    柳澤政生, 佐藤隆之, 戸川望, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術報告,MoMuC   2-Jul   13 - 18  2002.07

  • 仮想IP類推機構を有する動画像処理向けシステムVLSIのためのハードウェア/ソフトウェア分割システム

    小田雄一, 磯田新平, 戸川望, 橘昌良, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    情報処理学会 DAシンポジウム 2002     173 - 178  2002.07

  • A Software/Hardware Codesign for MPEG Encoder

    FIT(Forum on Information Technology)2002    2002.06

  • System-level Function and Architecture Codesign for Optimization of MPEG Encoder

    ITC-CSCC'02    2002.06

  • Packed SIMD 型命令を持つプロセッサを対象としたハードウェア/ソフトウェア協調合成システムのための並列化コンパイル手法

    鈴木伸治, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術報告   VLD2002-78   79 - 84  2002.06

  • Packed SIMD型命令セットを持った画像処理プロセッサのためのハードウェア/ソフトウェア分割手法

    太刀掛宏一, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術報告   VLD2002-53   85 - 90  2002.06

  • A Software/Hardware Codesign for MPEG Encoder

    崔鎮求, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    FIT(Forum on Information Technology)2002    2002.06

  • System-level Function and Architecture Codesign for Optimization of MPEG Encoder

    崔鎮求, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    ITC-CSCC'02    2002.06

  • モバイル環境における一対多通信 -シミュレーションによるFTPとSRMの比較-

    佐藤隆之, 柳生健吾, 戸川望, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術報告,MoMuC   2-Jun   33 - 38  2002.05

  • ディジタル信号処理向けプロセッサのためのシミュレータ生成手法

    笠原亨介, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    情報処理学会論文誌   vol.43 No.5   1202 - 1213  2002.05

  • Packed SIMD型命令を持つプロセッサを対象としたハードウェア/ソフトウェア協調合成システムのためのハードウェアユニット生成手法

    宮岡祐一郎, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    情報処理学会論文誌   vol.43 No.5   1191 - 1201  2002.05

  • High-level area/delay/power estimation for low power system VLSIs with gated clocks

    S Noda, N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E85A ( 4 ) 827 - 834  2002.04

     View Summary

    At high-level synthesis for system VLSIs, their power consumption is efficiently reduced by applying gated clocks to them. Since using gated clocks causes the reduction of power consumption and the increase of area/delay, estimating tradeoff between power and area/delay by applying gated clocks is very important. In this paper. we discuss the amount of variance of area, delay and power by applying gated clocks. We propose a simple gate-level circuit model and estimation equations. We vary parameters in our proposed circuit model, and evaluate power consumption by back-annotating gate-level simulation results to the original circuit. This paper also proposes a conditional expression for applying gated clocks The expression shows whether or not we can reduce power consumption by applying gated clocks. We confirm the accuracy of proposed estimation equations by experiments.

  • DSPプロセッサコアのハードウェア/ソフトウェア協調合成システムのための演算語長縮小化手法

    田川博規, 嶋下和宏, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    回路とシステム軽井沢ワークショップ     429 - 434  2002.04

  • High-level area/delay/power estimation for low power system VLSIs with gated clocks

    S Noda, N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E85A ( 4 ) 827 - 834  2002.04

     View Summary

    At high-level synthesis for system VLSIs, their power consumption is efficiently reduced by applying gated clocks to them. Since using gated clocks causes the reduction of power consumption and the increase of area/delay, estimating tradeoff between power and area/delay by applying gated clocks is very important. In this paper. we discuss the amount of variance of area, delay and power by applying gated clocks. We propose a simple gate-level circuit model and estimation equations. We vary parameters in our proposed circuit model, and evaluate power consumption by back-annotating gate-level simulation results to the original circuit. This paper also proposes a conditional expression for applying gated clocks The expression shows whether or not we can reduce power consumption by applying gated clocks. We confirm the accuracy of proposed estimation equations by experiments.

  • 制御処理ハードウェア高位合成のためのコントロールデータフローグラフ変形手法

    石井哲雄, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術報告   VLD2001-165   41 - 48  2002.03

  • IP再利用を考慮した動画像処理システムVLSI向けハードウェア/ソフトウェア分割設計支援システム

    磯田新平, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術報告   VLD2001-164   33 - 40  2002.03

  • Packed SIMD 型演算器を持つディジタル信号処理プロセッサのためのリターゲッタブルシミュレータ生成手法

    笠原亨介, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術報告   VLD2001-162   24 - 17  2002.03

  • VLSI architecture for a flexible motion estimation with parameters

    J Choi, N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    ASP-DAC/VLSI DESIGN 2002: 7TH ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE AND 15TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON VLSI DESIGN, PROCEEDINGS     452 - 457  2002  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    If motion estimation can choose the most suitable algorithm according to the changing characteristics of input image signals, we can get benefits, which improve quality and performance, reduce power consumption, and an optimize system. In this paper we propose a reconfigurable approach to motion estimation algorithm and architecture. The propose algorithm determines motion type and then selects adapted algorithm in order to improve quality and performance of images. We implemented the flexible and reconfigurable architecture by hardware with address generator unit, delay unit, and parameters. Our architecture supports more than one block-matching algorithm and parameters providing to optimize system. We are implementing our architecture by using hardware description language (VHDL) and synthesis design tools. We analyze the performance of architecture and present adaption to algorithm for a low cost real time application.

    DOI

  • An algorithm of hardware unit generation for processor core synthesis with packed SIMD type instructions

    Y Miyaoka, A Choi, N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    APCCAS 2002: ASIA-PACIFIC CONFERENCE ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOL 1, PROCEEDINGS     171 - 176  2002  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Let us consider to synthesize a processor core with SIMD instructions by a hardware/software cosynthesis system. The system is required to configure functional units executing SIMD instructions and obtain the area and delay of the functional units to evaluate the synthesized processor core. This paper proposes a hardware unit generation algorithm for a hardwaxe/software cosynthesis system of processors with SIMD instructions. Given a set of instructions to be executed by a hardware unit and constraints for area and delay of the hardware unit, the proposed algorithm extracts a set of subfunctions to be required by the hardware unit and generates more than one architecture candidates for the hardware unit. The algorithm also outputs the estimated area and delay of each of the generated hardware units. The execution time of the proposed algorithm is very short and thus it can be easily incorporated into the processor core synthesis system. Experimental results demonstrate effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithm.

    DOI

  • An algorithm of hardware unit generation for processor core synthesis with packed SIMD type instructions

    Y. Miyaoka, J. Choi, N. Togawa, M. Yanagisawa, T. Ohtsuki

    IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Circuits and Systems, Proceedings, APCCAS   1   171 - 176  2002

     View Summary

    The authors consider the synthesis of a processor core with SIMD instructions by a hardware/software cosynthesis system. The system is required to configure functional units executing SIMD instructions and obtain the area and delay of the functional units to evaluate the synthesized processor core. This paper proposes a hardware unit generation algorithm for a hardware/software cosynthesis system of processors with SIMD instructions. Given a set of instructions to be executed by a hardware unit and constraints for area and delay of the hardware unit, the proposed algorithm extracts a set of subfunctions to be required by the hardware unit and generates more than one architecture candidates for the hardware unit. The algorithm also outputs the estimated area and delay of each of the generated hardware units. The execution time of the proposed algorithm is very short and thus it can be easily incorporated into the processor core synthesis system. Experimental results demonstrate effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithm.

    DOI

  • An algorithm of hardware unit generation for processor core synthesis with packed SIMD type instructions

    Y Miyaoka, A Choi, N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    APCCAS 2002: ASIA-PACIFIC CONFERENCE ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOL 1, PROCEEDINGS     171 - 176  2002

     View Summary

    Let us consider to synthesize a processor core with SIMD instructions by a hardware/software cosynthesis system. The system is required to configure functional units executing SIMD instructions and obtain the area and delay of the functional units to evaluate the synthesized processor core. This paper proposes a hardware unit generation algorithm for a hardwaxe/software cosynthesis system of processors with SIMD instructions. Given a set of instructions to be executed by a hardware unit and constraints for area and delay of the hardware unit, the proposed algorithm extracts a set of subfunctions to be required by the hardware unit and generates more than one architecture candidates for the hardware unit. The algorithm also outputs the estimated area and delay of each of the generated hardware units. The execution time of the proposed algorithm is very short and thus it can be easily incorporated into the processor core synthesis system. Experimental results demonstrate effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithm.

  • ロジック入力用レベルシフトコンパレーター設計考察

    宮崎英敏, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫, 茨木栄武, 新谷悟

    電子回路研究会,ETC-02-16     13 - 17  2002.01

  • システムVLSIのための高位面積/遅延/消費電力見積もりに基づく低消費電力指向高位合成手法

    野田真一, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術報告   VLD2001-144   93 - 100  2002.01

  • A new hardware/software partitioning algorithm for DSP processor cores with two types of register files

    N Togawa, T Sakurai, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E84A ( 11 ) 2802 - 2807  2001.11

     View Summary

    This letter proposes a hardware/software partitioning algorithm for digital signal processor cores with two register files. Given a compiled assembly code and a timing constraint of execution time, the proposed algorithm generates a processor core configuration with a new assembly code running on the generated processor core. The proposed algorithm considers two register files and determines the number of registers in each of register files. Moreover the algorithm considers two or more types of functional units for each arithmetic or logical operation and assigns functional units with small area to a processor core without causing performance penalty. A generated processor core will have small area compared with processor cores which have a single register file or those which consider only one type of functional units for each operation. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  • Area and delay estimation in hardware/software cosynthesis for digital signal processor cores

    N Togawa, Y Kataoka, Y Miyaoka, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E84A ( 11 ) 2639 - 2647  2001.11

     View Summary

    Hardware/software partitioning is one of the key processes in a hardware/software cosynthesis system for digital signal processor cores. In hardware/software partitioning, area and delay estimation of a processor core plays an unportant role since the hardware/software partitioning process must determine which part of a processor core should be realized by hardware units and which part should be realized by a sequence of instructions based on execution time of an input application program and area of a synthesized processor core. This paper proposes area and delay estimation equations for digital signal processor cores. For area estimation, we show that total area for a processor core can be derived from the sum of area for a processor kernel and area for additional hardware units. Area for a processor kernel can be mainly obtained by minimum area for a processor kernel and overheads for adding hardware units and registers. Area for a hardware unit can be mainly obtained by its type and operation bit width. For delay estimation, we show that critical path delay for a processor core can be derived from the delay of a hardware unit which is on the critical path in the processor core. Experimental results demonstrate that errors of area estimation are less than 2% and errors of delay estimation are less than 2 ns when comparing estimated area and delay with logic-synthesized area and delay.

  • メモリとのインターフェース仕様を考慮した演算語長縮小に基づくプロセッサコアのハードウェア/ソフトウェア協調合成システム

    嶋下和宏, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術報告   VLD2001-110   127 - 132  2001.11

  • A new hardware/software partitioning algorithm for DSP processor cores with two types of register files

    N Togawa, T Sakurai, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E84A ( 11 ) 2802 - 2807  2001.11

     View Summary

    This letter proposes a hardware/software partitioning algorithm for digital signal processor cores with two register files. Given a compiled assembly code and a timing constraint of execution time, the proposed algorithm generates a processor core configuration with a new assembly code running on the generated processor core. The proposed algorithm considers two register files and determines the number of registers in each of register files. Moreover the algorithm considers two or more types of functional units for each arithmetic or logical operation and assigns functional units with small area to a processor core without causing performance penalty. A generated processor core will have small area compared with processor cores which have a single register file or those which consider only one type of functional units for each operation. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  • Area and delay estimation in hardware/software cosynthesis for digital signal processor cores

    N Togawa, Y Kataoka, Y Miyaoka, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E84A ( 11 ) 2639 - 2647  2001.11

     View Summary

    Hardware/software partitioning is one of the key processes in a hardware/software cosynthesis system for digital signal processor cores. In hardware/software partitioning, area and delay estimation of a processor core plays an unportant role since the hardware/software partitioning process must determine which part of a processor core should be realized by hardware units and which part should be realized by a sequence of instructions based on execution time of an input application program and area of a synthesized processor core. This paper proposes area and delay estimation equations for digital signal processor cores. For area estimation, we show that total area for a processor core can be derived from the sum of area for a processor kernel and area for additional hardware units. Area for a processor kernel can be mainly obtained by minimum area for a processor kernel and overheads for adding hardware units and registers. Area for a hardware unit can be mainly obtained by its type and operation bit width. For delay estimation, we show that critical path delay for a processor core can be derived from the delay of a hardware unit which is on the critical path in the processor core. Experimental results demonstrate that errors of area estimation are less than 2% and errors of delay estimation are less than 2 ns when comparing estimated area and delay with logic-synthesized area and delay.

  • A Hardware/Software Cosynthesis System for CAM Processors

    SASIMI2001    2001.10

  • A Hardware/Software Cosynthesis System for CAM Processors

    戸川望, 涌井達彦, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    SASIMI2001    2001.10

  • Implementation of Motion Estimation IP Core for MPEG Encoder

    ITC-CSCC 2001    2001.07

  • Packed SIMD型命令を持つプロセッサを対象としたハードウェア/ソフトウェア協調合成システムのためのハードウェアユニット生成手法

    宮岡祐一郎, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    情報処理学会 DAシンポジウム 2001     223 - 228  2001.07

  • ディジタル信号処理向けプロセッサのためのシミュレータ生成手法

    笠原亨介, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    情報処理学会 DAシンポジウム 2001     137 - 142  2001.07

  • Implementation of Motion Estimation IP Core for MPEG Encoder

    崔鎮求, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    ITC-CSCC 2001    2001.07

  • An area/time optimizing algorithm in high-level synthesis of control-based hardwares

    N Togawa, M Ienaga, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E84A ( 5 ) 1166 - 1176  2001.05

     View Summary

    This paper proposes an area/time optimizing algorithm in a high-level synthesis system for control-based hardwares. Given a call graph whose node corresponds to a control flow of an application program. the algorithm generates a set of state-transition graphs which represents the input call graph under area and timing constraint. In the algorithm. first state-transition graphs which satisfy only timing constraint are generated and second they are transformed so that they can satisfy area constraint. Since the algorithm is directly applied to control-flow graphs, it can deal with control flows such as bitwise processed and conditional branches. Further, the algorithm synthesizes more than one hardware architecture candidates from a single call graph for an application program. Designers of an application program can select several good hardware architectures among candidates depending on multiple design criteria. Experimental results for several control-based hardwares demonstrate effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithm.

  • An area/time optimizing algorithm in high-level synthesis of control-based hardwares

    N Togawa, M Ienaga, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E84A ( 5 ) 1166 - 1176  2001.05

     View Summary

    This paper proposes an area/time optimizing algorithm in a high-level synthesis system for control-based hardwares. Given a call graph whose node corresponds to a control flow of an application program. the algorithm generates a set of state-transition graphs which represents the input call graph under area and timing constraint. In the algorithm. first state-transition graphs which satisfy only timing constraint are generated and second they are transformed so that they can satisfy area constraint. Since the algorithm is directly applied to control-flow graphs, it can deal with control flows such as bitwise processed and conditional branches. Further, the algorithm synthesizes more than one hardware architecture candidates from a single call graph for an application program. Designers of an application program can select several good hardware architectures among candidates depending on multiple design criteria. Experimental results for several control-based hardwares demonstrate effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithm.

  • ディジタル信号処理向けプロセッサコアのPacked SIMD型ハードウェアユニット生成手法

    宮岡祐一郎, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術報告   VLD2001-2   7 - 13  2001.05

  • Gated Clockによる低消費電力化システムVLSIの高位面積/遅延/消費電力見積り

    野田真一, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会第14回 回路とシステム(軽井沢)ワークショップ     591 - 596  2001.04

  • ソフトIPのための保護アルゴリズム

    堀川哲郎, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会第14回 回路とシステム(軽井沢)ワークショップ     411 - 416  2001.04

  • システムLSIを対象としたハードウェア/ソフトウェア分割システム

    小田龍之介, 磯田新平, 戸川望, 橘昌良, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術報告   VLD2000-140   37 - 42  2001.03

  • 画像処理を対象としたPacked SIMD型命令セットを持つプロセッサのハードウェア/ソフトウェア協調合成システムにおける並列化Cコンパイラ

    野々垣直浩, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術報告   VLD2000-139   31 - 36  2001.03

  • 制御処理ハードウェアの高位合成システムのための面積/遅延見積もり手法

    余田貴幸, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    情報処理学会研究報告   2001-SLDM-100-4,pp.25-32   25 - 32  2001.02

  • RC等価回路に基づくクロストーク低減配線手法

    曽根原理仁, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    情報処理学会研究報告   2001-SLDM-100-3,pp.17-24   17 - 24  2001.02

  • Area/delay estimation for digital signal processor cores

    Y Miyaoka, Y Kataoka, N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASP-DAC 2001: ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE 2001     156 - 161  2001  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Hardware/software partitioning is one of the key processes in a hardware/software cosynthesis system for digital signal processor cores. In hardware/software partitioning, area and delay estimation of a processor core plays an important role since the hardware/software partitioning process must determine which part of a processor core should be realized by hardware units and which part should be realized by a sequence of instructions based on execution time of an input application program and area of a synthesized processor core. This paper proposes area and delay estimation equations for digital signal processor cores. For area estimation, we show that total area for a processor core can be derived from the sum of area for a processor kernel and area for additional hardware units. Area for a processor kernel can be mainly obtained by minimum area for a processor kernel and overheads for adding hardware units and registers. Area for a hardware unit can be mainly obtained by its type and operation bit width. For delay estimation, we show that critical path delay for a processor core can be derived from the delay of a hardware unit which is on the critical path in the processor core. Experimental results demonstrate that errors of area estimation are less than 2% and errors of delay estimation are less than 2ns when comparing estimated area and delay with logic-synthesized area and delay.

    DOI

  • 発見的算法と分枝限定法を用いた時間的予測に基づくリソースバイディング

    中村洋, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術報告   VLD2000-119   17 - 24  2001.01

  • FPGAを用いた動的再構成可能システムを対象とするスケジューリング手法

    石飛貴志, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術報告   VLD2000-115   33 - 40  2001.01

  • パラメータ付けされた動的再構成可能システムとその応用

    香西伸治, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術報告   VLD2000-114   25 - 32  2001.01

  • Area/delay estimation for digital signal processor cores

    Y Miyaoka, Y Kataoka, N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASP-DAC 2001: ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE 2001     156 - 161  2001

     View Summary

    Hardware/software partitioning is one of the key processes in a hardware/software cosynthesis system for digital signal processor cores. In hardware/software partitioning, area and delay estimation of a processor core plays an important role since the hardware/software partitioning process must determine which part of a processor core should be realized by hardware units and which part should be realized by a sequence of instructions based on execution time of an input application program and area of a synthesized processor core. This paper proposes area and delay estimation equations for digital signal processor cores. For area estimation, we show that total area for a processor core can be derived from the sum of area for a processor kernel and area for additional hardware units. Area for a processor kernel can be mainly obtained by minimum area for a processor kernel and overheads for adding hardware units and registers. Area for a hardware unit can be mainly obtained by its type and operation bit width. For delay estimation, we show that critical path delay for a processor core can be derived from the delay of a hardware unit which is on the critical path in the processor core. Experimental results demonstrate that errors of area estimation are less than 2% and errors of delay estimation are less than 2ns when comparing estimated area and delay with logic-synthesized area and delay.

    DOI

  • CAM processor synthesis based on behavioral descriptions

    N Togawa, T Wakui, T Yoden, M Terajima, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E83A ( 12 ) 2464 - 2473  2000.12

     View Summary

    CAM (Content Addressable Memory) units are generally designed so that thc) carl be applied to variety of application programs. However, if a particular application runs on CAM units, some functions in CAM units may be often used and other functions may never be used. We consider that appropriate design for CAM units is required depending on the requirements for a given application program. This paper proposes a CAM processor synthesis system based on behavioral descriptions. The input of the system is an application programs written in C including CAM functions, and its output is hardware descriptions of a synthesized processor and a binary code executed on it. Since the system determines functions in CAM units and synthesizes a CAM processor depending on the requirements of an application program, we expect that a synthesized CAM processor can execute the application program with small processor area and delay. Experimental results demonstrate its efficiency and effectiveness.

  • CAM processor synthesis based on behavioral descriptions

    N Togawa, T Wakui, T Yoden, M Terajima, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E83A ( 12 ) 2464 - 2473  2000.12

     View Summary

    CAM (Content Addressable Memory) units are generally designed so that thc) carl be applied to variety of application programs. However, if a particular application runs on CAM units, some functions in CAM units may be often used and other functions may never be used. We consider that appropriate design for CAM units is required depending on the requirements for a given application program. This paper proposes a CAM processor synthesis system based on behavioral descriptions. The input of the system is an application programs written in C including CAM functions, and its output is hardware descriptions of a synthesized processor and a binary code executed on it. Since the system determines functions in CAM units and synthesizes a CAM processor depending on the requirements of an application program, we expect that a synthesized CAM processor can execute the application program with small processor area and delay. Experimental results demonstrate its efficiency and effectiveness.

  • CAMプロセッサを対象とするハードウェア/ソフトウェア協調合成システム

    涌井達彦, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術報告   VLD2000-84   89 - 94  2000.11

  • 機能メモリを使用したプロセッサの面積/遅延見積もり手法

    余傅達彦, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術報告   VLD2000-83   83 - 88  2000.11

  • 制御処理ハードウェアの高位合成システムのための面積/時間最適化アルゴリズム

    家長真行, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    情報処理学会DAシンポジウム2000     27 - 32  2000.07

  • A Behavioral Synthesis System for Processors with Content Addressable Memories

    涌井達彦, 余傅達彦, 寺島信, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    Proc.SASIMI2000     56 - 63  2000.04

  • システムVLSIの動作合成におけるレイアウト面積・遅延見積もり手法

    諏訪勝, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会第13回回路とシステム(軽井沢)ワークショップ     125 - 130  2000.04

  • A hardware/software cosynthesis system for digital signal processor cores with two types of register files

    N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E83A ( 3 ) 442 - 451  2000.03

     View Summary

    In digital signal processing, bit width of intermediate variables should be longer than that of input and output variables in order to execute intermediate operations with high precision. Then a processor cole for digital signal processing is required to have two types of register files, one of which is used by input and output variables and the other one is used by intermediate variables. This paper proposes a hardware/software cosynthesis system for digital signal processor cores with two types of register files. Given an application program and its data, the system synthesizes a hardware description of a processor cure, an object code running on the processor core, and software environments. A synthesized processor core can be composed of a processor kernel, multiple data memory buses, hardware loop units, addressing units, and multiple functional units. Furthermore it can have two types of register files RF1 and RF2. The bit width and number of registers in RF1 or RF2 will be determined based on a given application program. Thus a synthesized processor core will have small area with keeping high precision of intermediate operations compared with a processor core with only one register file. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  • 歩行者を対象とした地図データ配信システムにおける専用プロセッサの設計と評価

    伊澤義貴, 濱未希子, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術報告   VLD99-267  2000.03

  • FPGAを用いた動的再構成可能システムと暗号化アルゴリズムへの応用

    羽切崇, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    電子情報通信学会技術報告   VLD99-266  2000.03

  • A hardware/software cosynthesis system for digital signal processor cores with two types of register files

    N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E83A ( 3 ) 442 - 451  2000.03

     View Summary

    In digital signal processing, bit width of intermediate variables should be longer than that of input and output variables in order to execute intermediate operations with high precision. Then a processor cole for digital signal processing is required to have two types of register files, one of which is used by input and output variables and the other one is used by intermediate variables. This paper proposes a hardware/software cosynthesis system for digital signal processor cores with two types of register files. Given an application program and its data, the system synthesizes a hardware description of a processor cure, an object code running on the processor core, and software environments. A synthesized processor core can be composed of a processor kernel, multiple data memory buses, hardware loop units, addressing units, and multiple functional units. Furthermore it can have two types of register files RF1 and RF2. The bit width and number of registers in RF1 or RF2 will be determined based on a given application program. Thus a synthesized processor core will have small area with keeping high precision of intermediate operations compared with a processor core with only one register file. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  • An area/time optimizing algorithm in high-level synthesis for control-based hardwares

    Nozomu Togawa, Masayuki Ienaga, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    Proceedings of the Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference, ASP-DAC     309 - 312  2000  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper proposes an area/time optimizing algorithm in high-level synthesis for control-based hardwares. Given a call graph whose node corresponds to a control flow of an application program, the algorithm generates a set of state-transition graphs which represents the input call graph under area and timing constraint. In the algorithm, first state-transition graphs which satisfy only timing constraint are generated and second they are transformed so that they can satisfy area constraint. Since the algorithm is directly applied to control-flow graphs, it can deal with control flows such as bit-wise processes and conditional branches. Further, the algorithm synthesizes more than one hardware architecture candidates from a single call graph for an application program. Designers of an application program can select several good hardware architectures among candidates depending on multiple design criteria. Experimental results for several control-based hardwares demonstrate effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithm. © 2000 IEEE.

    DOI

  • A hardware/software partitioning algorithm for digital signal processor cores with two types of register files

    N Togawa, T Sakurai, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    2000 IEEE ASIA-PACIFIC CONFERENCE ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS     544 - 547  2000

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a hardware/software partitioning algorithm for digital signal processor cores with two register files. Given a compiled assembly code and a timing constraint of execution time, the proposed algorithm generates a processor core configuration with a new assembly code running on the generated processor core. The proposed algorithm considers two register files and determines the number of registers in each of register files. Moreover the algorithm considers two or more functional units for each arithmetic or logical operation and assigns functional units with small area to a processor core without causing performance penalty. A generated processor core will have small area compared with processor cores which have a single register file or those which have only one functional unit for each operation. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  • A Behavioral Synthesis System for Processors with Content Addressable Memories

    Proc. SASIMI 2000     56 - 63  2000

  • A hardware/software partitioning algorithm for digital signal processor cores with two types of register files

    N Togawa, T Sakurai, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    2000 IEEE ASIA-PACIFIC CONFERENCE ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS   pp.544-547   544 - 547  2000

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a hardware/software partitioning algorithm for digital signal processor cores with two register files. Given a compiled assembly code and a timing constraint of execution time, the proposed algorithm generates a processor core configuration with a new assembly code running on the generated processor core. The proposed algorithm considers two register files and determines the number of registers in each of register files. Moreover the algorithm considers two or more functional units for each arithmetic or logical operation and assigns functional units with small area to a processor core without causing performance penalty. A generated processor core will have small area compared with processor cores which have a single register file or those which have only one functional unit for each operation. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  • An area/time optimizing algorithm in high-level synthesis for control-based hardwares

    戸川望, 家長真行, 柳澤政生, 大附辰夫

    Proceedings of IEEE Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference 2000 (ASP-DAC 2000)    2000.01

  • A simultaneous placement and routing algorithm for FPGAs with power optimization

    Journal of Circuits, Systems and Computers   9;1,2   99 - 112  1999.12

    DOI

  • A hardware/software cosynthesis system for digital signal processor cores

    N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E82A ( 11 ) 2325 - 2337  1999.11

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a hardware/software cosynthesis system for digital signal processor cores and a hardware/software partitioning algorithm which is one of the key issues for the system. The target processor has a VLIW-type core which can be composed of a processor kernel, multiple data memory buses (X-bus and Y-bus), hardware loop units, addressing units, and multiple functional units. The processor kernel includes five pipeline stages (RISC-type kernel) or three pipeline stages (DSP-type kernel). Given an application program written in the C language and a set of application data, the system synthesizes a processor core by selecting an appropriate kernel (RISC-type or DSP-type kernel) and required hardware units according to the application program/data and the hardware costs. The system also generates the object code for the application program and a software environment (compiler and simulator) for the processor core. The experimental results demonstrate that the system synthesizes processor cores effectively according to the features of an application program and the synthesized processor cores execute most application programs with the minimum number of clock cycles compared with several existing processors.

  • 2種類のレジスタファイルを持つディジタル信号処理向けプロセッサのハードウェア/ソフトウェア分割手法

    電子情報通信学会技術報告   VLD99-76  1999.11

  • ディジタル信号処理向けプロセッサコアの面積/遅延見積り手法

    電子情報通信学会技術報告   VLD99-75  1999.11

  • A hardware/software cosynthesis system for digital signal processor cores

    IEICE Trans. on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   E82-A;11   2325 - 2337  1999.11

  • 制御処理ハードウェアの高位合成システムのための面積/時間最適化アルゴリム

    電子情報通信学会技術報告   VLD99-66  1999.09

  • 制御処理を主体としたハードウェア記述生成手法

    情報処理学会DAシンポジウム'99論文集    1999.07

  • 制御処理を主体としたハードウェアを対象とする高位合成システムとその適用

    情報処理学会DAシンポジウム'99論文集    1999.07

  • 2種類のレジスタファイルを持ったディジタル信号処理向けプロセッサのハードウェア/ソフトウェア協調合成システム

    電子情報通信学会第12回回路とシステム軽井沢ワークショップ論文集    1999.04

  • 分枝限定法に基づく最適解を保証するリソースバインディング手法

    情報処理学会論文誌   40;4   1565 - 1577  1999.04

  • A depth-constrained technology mapping algorithm for logic-blocks composed of tree-structured LUTs

    N Togawa, K Ara, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E82A ( 3 ) 473 - 482  1999.03

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a fast depth-constrained technology mapping algorithm for logic-blocks composed of tree-structured lookup tables. First, we propose a technology mapping algorithm which minimizes the number of logic-blocks if an input Boolean network is a tree. Second, we propose a technology mapping algorithm which minimizes logic depth for any input Boolean network. Finally, we combine those two technology mapping algorithms and propose an algorithm which realizes technology mapping whose depth is bounded by a given upper bound d(c). Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  • FPGAを用いた再構成可能システムとその応用

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   VLD98;143  1999.03

  • A depth-constrained technology mapping algorithm for logic-blocks composed of tree-structured LUTs

    N Togawa, K Ara, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E82A ( 3 ) 473 - 482  1999.03

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a fast depth-constrained technology mapping algorithm for logic-blocks composed of tree-structured lookup tables. First, we propose a technology mapping algorithm which minimizes the number of logic-blocks if an input Boolean network is a tree. Second, we propose a technology mapping algorithm which minimizes logic depth for any input Boolean network. Finally, we combine those two technology mapping algorithms and propose an algorithm which realizes technology mapping whose depth is bounded by a given upper bound d(c). Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  • A simultaneous placement and global routing algorithm for FPGAS with power optimization

    N Togawa, K Ukai, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    JOURNAL OF CIRCUITS SYSTEMS AND COMPUTERS   9 ( 1-2 ) 99 - 112  1999.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a simultaneous placement and global routing algorithm for FPGAs with power optimization. The algorithm is based on hierarchical bipartitioning of layout regions and sets of logic-blocks. When bipartitioning a layout region, pseudo-blocks are introduced to preserve connections if there exist connections between bipartitioned logic-block sets. A global route is represented by a sequence of pseudo-blocks. Since pseudo-blocks and logic-blocks can be dealt with equally, placement and global routing are processed simultaneously. The algorithm gives weights to nets with high switching probabilities and attempts to assign the blocks connected by weighted nets to the same region. Thus their length is shortened and the power consumption of a whole circuit can be reduced. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithm.

    DOI

  • A simultaneous placement and global routing algorithm for FPGAS with power optimization

    N Togawa, K Ukai, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    JOURNAL OF CIRCUITS SYSTEMS AND COMPUTERS   9 ( 1-2 ) 99 - 112  1999.02

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a simultaneous placement and global routing algorithm for FPGAs with power optimization. The algorithm is based on hierarchical bipartitioning of layout regions and sets of logic-blocks. When bipartitioning a layout region, pseudo-blocks are introduced to preserve connections if there exist connections between bipartitioned logic-block sets. A global route is represented by a sequence of pseudo-blocks. Since pseudo-blocks and logic-blocks can be dealt with equally, placement and global routing are processed simultaneously. The algorithm gives weights to nets with high switching probabilities and attempts to assign the blocks connected by weighted nets to the same region. Thus their length is shortened and the power consumption of a whole circuit can be reduced. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithm.

    DOI

  • 2種類のレジスタファイルを持ったディジタル信号処理向けプロセッサのハードウェア/ソフトウェア協調合成システムとその並列化コンパイラ

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   FTS98;132  1999.02

  • A hardware/software partitioning algorithm for processor cores of digital signal processing

    N Togawa, T Sakurai, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    PROCEEDINGS OF ASP-DAC '99     335 - 338  1999  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    A hardware/software cosynthesis system for processor cores of digital signal processing has been developed. This paper focuses on a hardware/software partitioning algorithm which is one of the Rey issues in the system. Given an input assembly code generated by the compiler in the system, the proposed hardware/software partitioning algorithm first determines the types and the numbers of required hardware units, such as multiple functional units, hardware loop units, and particular addressing units, for a processor core (initial resource allocation). Second, the hardware units determined at initial resource allocation are reduced one by one while the assembly code meets a given timing constraint (configuration of a processor core). The execution time of the assembly code becomes longer but the hardware costs for a processor core to execute it becomes smaller. Finally, it outputs an optimized assembly code and a processor configuration. Experimental results demonstrate that the system synthesizes processor cores effectively according to the features of an application program/data.

    DOI

  • A hardware/software partitioning algorithm for processor cores of digital signal processing

    N Togawa, T Sakurai, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    PROCEEDINGS OF ASP-DAC '99     335 - 338  1999

     View Summary

    A hardware/software cosynthesis system for processor cores of digital signal processing has been developed. This paper focuses on a hardware/software partitioning algorithm which is one of the Rey issues in the system. Given an input assembly code generated by the compiler in the system, the proposed hardware/software partitioning algorithm first determines the types and the numbers of required hardware units, such as multiple functional units, hardware loop units, and particular addressing units, for a processor core (initial resource allocation). Second, the hardware units determined at initial resource allocation are reduced one by one while the assembly code meets a given timing constraint (configuration of a processor core). The execution time of the assembly code becomes longer but the hardware costs for a processor core to execute it becomes smaller. Finally, it outputs an optimized assembly code and a processor configuration. Experimental results demonstrate that the system synthesizes processor cores effectively according to the features of an application program/data.

  • A high-level synthesis system for digital signal processing based on data-flow graph enumeration

    N Togawa, T Hisaki, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E81A ( 12 ) 2563 - 2575  1998.12

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a high-level synthesis system for datapath design of digital signal processing hardwares. The system consists of four phases: (I) DFG (data-flow graph) generation, (2) scheduling, (3) resource binding, and (4) HDL (hardware description language) generation. In (1), the system does not generate only one best DFG representing a given behavioral description of a hardware, but more than one good DFGs representing it. In (2) and (3), several synthesis tools can be incorporated into the system depending on the required objectives. Thus we can obtain more than one datapath candidates for a behavioral description with their area and performance evaluation. In (4), the best datapath design is selected among those candidates and its hardware description is generated. The experimental results for applying the system to several benchmarks show the effectiveness and efficiency.

  • FPGAのマクロブロックを対象とした配置概略配線同時処理手法

    情報処理学会研究報告   98-DA;90  1998.12

  • A high-level synthesis system for digital signal processing based on data-flow graph enumeration

    N Togawa, T Hisaki, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E81A ( 12 ) 2563 - 2575  1998.12

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a high-level synthesis system for datapath design of digital signal processing hardwares. The system consists of four phases: (I) DFG (data-flow graph) generation, (2) scheduling, (3) resource binding, and (4) HDL (hardware description language) generation. In (1), the system does not generate only one best DFG representing a given behavioral description of a hardware, but more than one good DFGs representing it. In (2) and (3), several synthesis tools can be incorporated into the system depending on the required objectives. Thus we can obtain more than one datapath candidates for a behavioral description with their area and performance evaluation. In (4), the best datapath design is selected among those candidates and its hardware description is generated. The experimental results for applying the system to several benchmarks show the effectiveness and efficiency.

  • Maple-opt: A performance-oriented simultaneous technology mapping, placement, and global routing algorithm for FPGA's

    N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS   17 ( 9 ) 803 - 818  1998.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    A new held programmable gate array (FPGA) design algorithm, Maple-opt, is proposed for technology mapping, placement, and global routing subject to a given upper bound of critical signal path delay. The basic procedure of Maple-opt is viewed as top-down hierarchical bipartition of a layout region. In each bipartitioning step, technology mapping onto logic blocks of FPGA's, their placement, and global routing are determined simultaneously, which leads to a more congestion-balanced layout for routing, In addition, Maple-opt is capable of estimating a lower bound of the delay for a constrained path and of extracting critical paths based on the difference between the lower bounds and given constraint values in each bipartitioning step. Two delay-reduction procedures for the critical paths are applied; routing delay reduction and logic-block delay reduction, The routing delay reduction is done by assigning each constrained path to a single subregion when bipartitioning a region. The logic-block delay reduction is done by mapping each constrained path onto a smaller number of logic blocks, Experimental results for benchmark circuits demonstrate that Maple-opt reduces the maximum number of tracks per channel by a maximum of 38% compared with existing algorithms while satisfying almost all the path delay constraints.

    DOI J-GLOBAL

  • 最適解を保証するリソースバインディング手法

    情報処理学会DAシンポジウム'98論文集    1998.07

  • A fast scheduling algorithm based on gradual time-frame reduction for datapath synthesis

    N Togawa, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E81A ( 6 ) 1231 - 1241  1998.06

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a fast scheduling algorithm based on gradual lime-frame reduction for datapath synthesis of digital signal processing hardwares. The objective of the algorithm is to minimize the costs for functional units and registers and to maximize connectivity under given computation time and initiation interval. Incorporating the connectivity in a scheduling stage can reduce multiplexer counts in resource binding. The algorithm maximizes connectivity with maintaining low time complexity and obtains datapath designs with totally small hardware costs in the high-level synthesis environment. The algorithm also resolves inter-iteration data dependencies and thus realizes pipelined datapaths. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm reduces the multiplexer counts after resource binding with maintaining low costs for functional units and registers compared with eight conventional schedulers.

  • An FPGA layout reconfiguration algorithm based on global routes for engineering changes in system design specifications

    N Togawa, K Hagi, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E81A ( 5 ) 873 - 884  1998.05

     View Summary

    Rapid system prototyping is one of the main applications for field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). At the stage of rapid system prototyping, design specifications can often be changed since they cannot be determined completely. In this paper, layout design change is focused on and a layout reconfiguration algorithm is proposed for FPGAs. The target FPGA architecture is developed for transport processing. In order to implement more various circuits flexibly it has three-input lookup tables (LUTs) as minimum logic cells. Since its logic granularity is finer than that of conventional FPGAs, it requires more routing resources to connect them and minimization of routing congestion is indispensable. In layout reconfiguration, the main problem is to add LUTs to initial layouts. Our algorithm consists of two steps: For given placement and global routing of LUTs, in Step 1 an added LUT is placed with allowing that the position of the added LUT may overlap that of a preplaced LUT; Then in Step 2 preplaced LUTs are moved to their, adjacent positions so that the overlap of the LUT positions can be resolved. Global routes are updated corresponding to reconfiguration of placement. The algorithm keeps routing congestion small by evaluating global routes directly both in Steps 1 and 2. Especially in Step 2, if the minimum number of preplaced LUTs are moved to their adjacent positions, our algorithm minimizes routing congestion. Experimental results demonstrate that, if the number of added LUTs is at most 20% of the number of initial LUTs, our algorithm generates the reconfigured layouts whose routing congestion is as small as that obtained by executing a conventional placement and global routing algorithm. Run time of our algorithm is within approximately one second.

  • 分布定数回路の遅延感度解析に基づくクロック配線最適化手法

    情報処理学会研究報告   98-DA;88  1998.05

  • An FPGA layout reconfiguration algorithm based on global routes for engineering changes in system design specifications

    N Togawa, K Hagi, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E81A ( 5 ) 873 - 884  1998.05

     View Summary

    Rapid system prototyping is one of the main applications for field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). At the stage of rapid system prototyping, design specifications can often be changed since they cannot be determined completely. In this paper, layout design change is focused on and a layout reconfiguration algorithm is proposed for FPGAs. The target FPGA architecture is developed for transport processing. In order to implement more various circuits flexibly it has three-input lookup tables (LUTs) as minimum logic cells. Since its logic granularity is finer than that of conventional FPGAs, it requires more routing resources to connect them and minimization of routing congestion is indispensable. In layout reconfiguration, the main problem is to add LUTs to initial layouts. Our algorithm consists of two steps: For given placement and global routing of LUTs, in Step 1 an added LUT is placed with allowing that the position of the added LUT may overlap that of a preplaced LUT; Then in Step 2 preplaced LUTs are moved to their, adjacent positions so that the overlap of the LUT positions can be resolved. Global routes are updated corresponding to reconfiguration of placement. The algorithm keeps routing congestion small by evaluating global routes directly both in Steps 1 and 2. Especially in Step 2, if the minimum number of preplaced LUTs are moved to their adjacent positions, our algorithm minimizes routing congestion. Experimental results demonstrate that, if the number of added LUTs is at most 20% of the number of initial LUTs, our algorithm generates the reconfigured layouts whose routing congestion is as small as that obtained by executing a conventional placement and global routing algorithm. Run time of our algorithm is within approximately one second.

  • ツリー状に接続されたLUTを対象とした深さ制約付きテクノロジーマッピング手法

    電子情報通信学会第11回回路とシステム軽井沢ワークショップ論文集    1998.04

  • パイプラインプロセッサのハードウェア記述自動生成手法

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   VLD97;117  1998.03

  • ディジタル信号処理向けプロセッサの自動合成システムにおける並列化コンパイラ

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   VLD97;116  1998.03

  • ディジタル信号処理向けプロセッサのハードウェア/ソフトウェア協調合成システム

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   VLD97;115  1998.03

  • 平成9年度(第21回)丹羽記念賞

    丹羽記念会    1998.02

  • An incremental placement and global routing algorithm for field-programmable gate arrays

    N Togawa, K Hagi, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASP-DAC '98 - ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE 1998 WITH EDA TECHNO FAIR '98     519 - 526  1998  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Rapid system prototyping is one of the main applications for field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). At the stage of rapid system prototyping, design specifications can often be changed since they cannot always be determined completely. In this paper, layout design change is focused on and a layout reconfiguration algorithm is proposed for FPGAs. In layout reconfiguration, the main problem is to add LUTs to initial layouts. Our algorithm consists of two steps: For given placement and global routing of LUTs, Step 1 places an added LUT with allowing that the position of the added LUT may overlap that of a preplaced LUT; Then Step 2 moves preplaced LUTs to their adjacent positions so that the overlap of the LUT positions can be resolved. Global routes are updated corresponding to reconfiguration of placement. The algorithm keeps routing congestion small by evaluating global routes directly both in Steps 1 and 2. Especially in Step 2, if the minimum number of preplaced LUTs are moved to their adjacent positions, our algorithm minimizes routing congestion. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithm.

    DOI

  • A high-level synthesis system for digital signal processing based on enumerating data-flow graphs

    N Togawa, T Hisaki, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASP-DAC '98 - ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE 1998 WITH EDA TECHNO FAIR '98     265 - 274  1998  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a high-level synthesis system for datapath design of digital signal processing hardwares. The system consists of four phases: (1) DFG (data-flow graph) generation, (2) scheduling, (3) resource binding, and (4) HDL (hardware description language) generation. In (1), the system does not generate only one best DFG representing a given behavioral description of a hardware, but more than one good DFGs representing it. In (2) and (3), several synthesis tools can be incorporated into the system depending on the required objectives. Thus we can obtain more than one datapath candidates for a behavioral description with their area and performance evaluation. In (4), the best datapath design is selected among those candidates and its hardware description is generated. The experimental results for applying the system to several benchmarks show the effectiveness and efficiency.

    DOI

  • A Fast Scheduling Algorithm Based on Gradual Time-Frame Reduction for Datapath Synthesis

    IEICE Trans on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   E81-A/6   1231 - 1240  1998

  • A simultaneous placement and global routing algorithm for FPGAs with power optimization

    N Togawa, K Ukai, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    APCCAS '98 - IEEE ASIA-PACIFIC CONFERENCE ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS     125 - 128  1998

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a, simultaneous placement and global routing algorithm for FPGAs with power optimization. The algorithm is based on hierarchical bipartitioning of layout regions and sets of logic-blocks. When bipartitioning a layout region, pseudo-blocks are introduced to preserve connections if there exist connections between bipartitioned logic-block sets. A global route is represented by a sequence of pseudo-blocks, Since pseudo-blocks and logic-blocks can be dealt with equally, placement and global routing are processed simultaneously. The algorithm gives weights to the nets with high switching probabilities and assigns the blocks connected by weighted nets to the same region. Thus their length is shortened and the power consumption of a whole circuit can be reduced. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithm.

  • Maple-opt: A performance-oriented simultaneous technology mapping, placement, and global routing algorithm for FPGA's

    Nozomu Togawa, Masao Yanagisawa, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems   17 ( 9 ) 803 - 818  1998

     View Summary

    A new field programmable gate array (FPGA) design algorithm, Maple-opt, is proposed for technology mapping, placement, and global routing subject to a given upper bound of critical signal path delay. The basic procedure of Mapleopt is viewed as top-down hierarchical bipartition of a layout region. In each bipartitioning step, technology mapping onto logic blocks of FPGA's, their placement, and global routing are determined simultaneously, which leads to a more congestionbalanced layout for routing. In addition, Maple-opt is capable of estimating a lower bound of the delay for a constrained path and of extracting critical paths based on the difference between the lower bounds and given constraint values in each bipartitioning step. Two delay-reduction procedures for the critical paths are applied
    routing delay reduction and logic-block delay reduction. The routing delay reduction is done by assigning each constrained path to a single subregion when bipartitioning a region. The logic-block delay reduction is done by mapping each constrained path onto a smaller number of logic blocks. Experimental results for benchmark circuits demonstrate that Maple-opt reduces the maximum number of tracks per channel by a maximum of 38% compared with existing algorithms while satisfying almost all the path delay constraints. © 1998 IEEE.

    DOI

  • An incremental placement and global routing algorithm for field-programmable gate arrays

    N Togawa, K Hagi, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASP-DAC '98 - ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE 1998 WITH EDA TECHNO FAIR '98     519 - 526  1998

     View Summary

    Rapid system prototyping is one of the main applications for field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). At the stage of rapid system prototyping, design specifications can often be changed since they cannot always be determined completely. In this paper, layout design change is focused on and a layout reconfiguration algorithm is proposed for FPGAs. In layout reconfiguration, the main problem is to add LUTs to initial layouts. Our algorithm consists of two steps: For given placement and global routing of LUTs, Step 1 places an added LUT with allowing that the position of the added LUT may overlap that of a preplaced LUT; Then Step 2 moves preplaced LUTs to their adjacent positions so that the overlap of the LUT positions can be resolved. Global routes are updated corresponding to reconfiguration of placement. The algorithm keeps routing congestion small by evaluating global routes directly both in Steps 1 and 2. Especially in Step 2, if the minimum number of preplaced LUTs are moved to their adjacent positions, our algorithm minimizes routing congestion. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithm.

  • A high-level synthesis system for digital signal processing based on enumerating data-flow graphs

    N Togawa, T Hisaki, M Yanagisawa, T Ohtsuki

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASP-DAC '98 - ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE 1998 WITH EDA TECHNO FAIR '98     265 - 274  1998

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a high-level synthesis system for datapath design of digital signal processing hardwares. The system consists of four phases: (1) DFG (data-flow graph) generation, (2) scheduling, (3) resource binding, and (4) HDL (hardware description language) generation. In (1), the system does not generate only one best DFG representing a given behavioral description of a hardware, but more than one good DFGs representing it. In (2) and (3), several synthesis tools can be incorporated into the system depending on the required objectives. Thus we can obtain more than one datapath candidates for a behavioral description with their area and performance evaluation. In (4), the best datapath design is selected among those candidates and its hardware description is generated. The experimental results for applying the system to several benchmarks show the effectiveness and efficiency.

  • A performance-oriented circuit partitioning algorithm with logic-block replication for multi-FPGA systems

    N Togawa, M Sato, T Ohtsuki

    JOURNAL OF CIRCUITS SYSTEMS AND COMPUTERS   7 ( 5 ) 373 - 393  1997.10  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this paper, we extend the circuit partitioning algorithm which we had proposed for multi-FPGA systems and present a new algorithm in which the delay of each critical signal path is within a specified upper bound imposed on it. The core of the presented algorithm is recursive bipartitioning of a circuit. The bipartitioning procedure consists of three stages: (0) detection of critical paths; (1) bipartitioning of a set of primary inputs and outputs; and (2) bipartitioning of a set of logic-blocks. In (0), the algorithm computes the lower bounds of delays for paths with path delay constraints and detects the critical paths based on the difference between the lower and upper bounds dynamically in every bipartitioning procedure. The delays of the critical paths are reduced with higher priority. In (1), the algorithm attempts to assign the primary inputs and outputs on each critical path to one chip so that the critical path does not cross between chips. Finally in (2), the algorithm not only decreases the number of crossings between chips but also assigns the logic-blocks on each critical path to one chip by exploiting a network flow technique. The algorithm has been implemented and applied to MCNC PARTITIONING 93 benchmark circuits. The experimental results demonstrate that it resolves almost all path delay constraints while maintaining the maximum number of required I/O blocks per chip small compared with conventional algorithms.

    DOI

  • A performance-oriented simultaneous placement and global routing algorithm for transport-processing FPGAs

    N Togawa, M Sato, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E80A ( 10 ) 1795 - 1806  1997.10

     View Summary

    In layout design of transport-processing FPGAs, it is required that not only routing congestion is kept small but also circuits implemented on them operate with higher operation frequency. This paper extends the proposed simultaneous placement and glob al routing algorithm for transport-processing FPGAs whose objective is to minimize routing congestion and proposes a new algorithm in which the length of each critical signal path (path length) is limited within a specified upper bound imposed on it (path length constraint). The algorithm is based on hierarchical bipartitioning of layout regions and LUT (LookUp Table) sets to be placed. In each bipartitioning, the algorithm first searches the paths with tighter path length constraints by estimating their path lengths. Second the algorithm proceeds the bipartitioning so that the path lengths of critical paths can be reduced. The algorithm is applied to transport-processing circuits and compared with conventional approaches. The results demonstrate that the algorithm satisfies the path length constraints for 11 out of 13 circuits, though it increases routing congestion by an average of 20%. After detailed routing, it achieves 100% routing for all the circuits and decreases a circuit delay by an average of 23%.

  • 連想メモリを搭載したハードウェアエンジンによる故障回路並列故障シミュレーションの高速化手法

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   CPSY97;76  1997.10

  • Fast scheduling and allocation algorithms for entropy CODEC

    K Suzuki, N Togawa, M Sato, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION AND SYSTEMS   E80D ( 10 ) 982 - 992  1997.10

     View Summary

    Entropy coding/decoding are implemented on FPGAs as a fast and flexible system in which high-level synthesis technologies are key issues. In this paper, we propose scheduling and allocation algorithms for behavioral descriptions of entropy CODEC. The scheduling algorithm employs a control-flow graph as input and finds a solution with minimal hardware cost and execution time by merging nodes in the control-flow graph. The allocation algorithm assigns operations to operators with various bit lengths. As a result, register-transfer level descriptions are efficiently obtained from behavioral descriptions of entropy CODEC with complicated control flow and variable bit lengths. Experimental results demonstrate that our algorithms synthesize the same circuits as manually designed within one second.

  • A performance-oriented simultaneous placement and global routing algorithm for transport-processing FPGAs

    N Togawa, M Sato, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E80A ( 10 ) 1795 - 1806  1997.10

     View Summary

    In layout design of transport-processing FPGAs, it is required that not only routing congestion is kept small but also circuits implemented on them operate with higher operation frequency. This paper extends the proposed simultaneous placement and glob al routing algorithm for transport-processing FPGAs whose objective is to minimize routing congestion and proposes a new algorithm in which the length of each critical signal path (path length) is limited within a specified upper bound imposed on it (path length constraint). The algorithm is based on hierarchical bipartitioning of layout regions and LUT (LookUp Table) sets to be placed. In each bipartitioning, the algorithm first searches the paths with tighter path length constraints by estimating their path lengths. Second the algorithm proceeds the bipartitioning so that the path lengths of critical paths can be reduced. The algorithm is applied to transport-processing circuits and compared with conventional approaches. The results demonstrate that the algorithm satisfies the path length constraints for 11 out of 13 circuits, though it increases routing congestion by an average of 20%. After detailed routing, it achieves 100% routing for all the circuits and decreases a circuit delay by an average of 23%.

  • 機能メモリを使用したプロセッサを対象とするハードウェア/ソフトウェア協調合成システム

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   CPSY98;85  1997.09

  • ディジタル信号処理を対象とした高位合成システムにおける高速なスケジューリングアルゴリズム

    情報処理学会DAシンポジウム'97論文集    1997.07

  • スケッチレイアウトシステムにおけるBGAパッケージ配線手法

    回路実装学会誌   12;4   241 - 246  1997.07

    DOI

  • FPGAを対象とした低消費電力指向配置・概略配線同時処理手法

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   VLD97;42  1997.06

  • システム設計仕様部分的変更を実現する概略配線径路を考慮したFPGA向けレイアウト再構成手法

    電子情報通信学会第10回回路とシステム軽井沢ワークショップ論文集    1997.04

  • A circuit partitioning algorithm with path delay constraints for multi-FPGA systems

    N Togawa, M Sato, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E80A ( 3 ) 494 - 505  1997.03

     View Summary

    In this paper, we extend the circuit partitioning algorithm which we have proposed for multi-FPGA systems and present a new algorithm in which the delay of each critical signal path is within a specified upper bound imposed on it. The core of the presented algorithm is recursive bipartitioning of a circuit. The bipartitioning procedure consists of three stages: 0) detection of critical paths; 1) bipartitioning of a set of primary inputs and outputs; and 2) bipartitioning of a set of logic-blocks. In 0), the algorithm computes the lower bounds of delays for paths with path delay constraints and detects the critical paths based on the difference between the lower and upper bound dynamically in every bipartitioning procedure. The delays of the critical paths are reduced with higher priority. In 1), the algorithm attempts to assign the primary inputs and outputs on each critical path to one chip so that the critical path does not cross between chips. Finally in 2), the algorithm not only decreases the number of crossings between chips but also assigns the logic-blocks on each critical path to one chip by exploiting a network flow technique. The algorithm has been implemented and applied to MCNC PARTITIONING 93 benchmark circuits. The experimental results demonstrate that it resolves almost all path delay constraints with maintaining the maximum number of required I/O blocks per chip small compared with conventional algorithms.

  • A circuit partitioning algorithm with path delay constraints for multi-FPGA systems

    N Togawa, M Sato, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E80A ( 3 ) 494 - 505  1997.03

     View Summary

    In this paper, we extend the circuit partitioning algorithm which we have proposed for multi-FPGA systems and present a new algorithm in which the delay of each critical signal path is within a specified upper bound imposed on it. The core of the presented algorithm is recursive bipartitioning of a circuit. The bipartitioning procedure consists of three stages: 0) detection of critical paths; 1) bipartitioning of a set of primary inputs and outputs; and 2) bipartitioning of a set of logic-blocks. In 0), the algorithm computes the lower bounds of delays for paths with path delay constraints and detects the critical paths based on the difference between the lower and upper bound dynamically in every bipartitioning procedure. The delays of the critical paths are reduced with higher priority. In 1), the algorithm attempts to assign the primary inputs and outputs on each critical path to one chip so that the critical path does not cross between chips. Finally in 2), the algorithm not only decreases the number of crossings between chips but also assigns the logic-blocks on each critical path to one chip by exploiting a network flow technique. The algorithm has been implemented and applied to MCNC PARTITIONING 93 benchmark circuits. The experimental results demonstrate that it resolves almost all path delay constraints with maintaining the maximum number of required I/O blocks per chip small compared with conventional algorithms.

  • スケッチレイアウトシステムにおけるBGAパッケージ配線手法

    電子情報通信学会VLSI設計技術研究会   VLD96;96  1997.03

  • 接続コストの最小化を目的とした高速アロケーション手法

    電子情報通信学会VLSI設計技術研究会   VLD96;96  1997.03

  • A Circuit Partitioning Alglrithm with Replication Capability for Multi-FPGA Systems

    IEICE Trans,on Fundementals of Eledtronics,Communications and Computer Sciences   E78-A/13   1118 - 1123  1997

  • A performance-oriented circuit partitioning algorithm with logic-block replication for multi-FPGA systems

    Nozomu Togawa, Masao Sato, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    Journal of Circuits, Systems and Computers   7 ( 5 ) 373 - 393  1997

     View Summary

    In this paper, we extend the circuit partitioning algorithm which we had proposed for multi-FPGA systems and present a new algorithm in which the delay of each critical signal path is within a specified upper bound imposed on it. The core of the presented algorithm is recursive bipartitioning of a circuit. The bipartitioning procedure consists of three stages: (0) detection of critical paths
    (1) bipartitioning of a set of primary inputs and outputs
    and (2) bipartitioning of a set of logic-blocks. In (0), the algorithm computes the lower bounds of delays for paths with path delay constraints and detects the critical paths based on the difference between the lower and upper bounds dynamically in every bipartitioning procedure. The delays of the critical paths are reduced with higher priority. In (1), the algorithm attempts to assign the primary inputs and outputs on each critical path to one chip so that the critical path does not cross between chips. Finally in (2), the algorithm not only decreases the number of crossings between chips but also assigns the logic-blocks on each critical path to one chip by exploiting a network flow technique. The algorithm has been implemented and applied to MCNC PARTITIONING 93 benchmark circuits. The experimental results demonstrate that it resolves almost all path delay constraints while maintaining the maximum number of required I/O blocks per chip small compared with conventional algorithms.

    DOI

  • Simultaneous placement and global routing for transport-processing FPGA layout

    N Togawa, M Sato, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E79A ( 12 ) 2140 - 2150  1996.12

     View Summary

    Transport-processing FPGAs have been proposed for flexible telecommunication systems. Since those FPGAs have finer granularity of logic functions to implement circuits on them the amount of routing resources tends to increase. Tn order to keep routing congestion small, it is necessary to execute placement and routing simultaneously. This paper proposes a simultaneous placement and global routing algorithm for transport-processing FPGAs whose primary objective is minimizing routing congestion. The algorithm is based on hierarchical bipartition of layout regions and sets of LUTs (LookUp Tables) to be placed. It achieves bipartitioning which leads to small routing congestion by applying a network Bow technique to it and computing a maximum Bow and a minimum cut. If there exist connections between bipartitioned LUT sets, pairs of pseudo-terminals are introduced to preserve the connections. A sequence of pseudo-terminals represents a global route of each net. As a result, both placement of LUTs and global routing are determined when hierarchical bipartitioning procedures are finished. The proposed algorithm has been implemented and applied to practical transport-processing circuits. The experimental results demonstrate that it decreases routing congestion bq an average of 37% compared with a conventional algorithm and achieves 100% routing for the circuits for which the conventional algorithm causes unrouted nets.

  • Dharmaアーキテクチャに基づくFPGAチップの試作

    マイクロエレクトロニクス研究開発機構第15回研究交流会    1996.12

  • Scheduling and Allocation Algorithms for Entropy CODEC

    Proceedings of the Sixth Workshop on Synthesis and System Integration of Mixed Technologies (SASIMI'96)    1996.11

  • パス長制約を考慮した通信処理用FPGA向け配置・概略配線同時処理手法

    情報処理学会設計自動化研究会   DA96;81  1996.10

  • 高位合成システムを用いた画像符号化アルゴリズムのハードウェア合成法

    情報処理学会DAシンポジウム'96論文集    1996.08

  • データパス設計を対象とした高位合成システム

    情報処理学会DAシンポジウム'96論文集    1996.08

  • 安藤研究所第9回安藤博記念学術奨励賞

       1996.06

  • 通信処理用FPGAを対象とした配置・概略配線同時処理手法

    情報処理学会設計自動化研究会   DA96;80  1996.05

  • プリント配線板を対象とした二層均等化スペーシング手法

    情報処理学会設計自動化研究会   DA96;80  1996.05

  • 電子情報通信学会第8回回路とシステム軽井沢ワークショップ研究奨励賞

       1996.04

  • A simultaneous technology mapping, placement, and global routing algorithm for FPGAs with path delay constraints

    N Togawa, M Sato, T Ohtsuki

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E79A ( 3 ) 321 - 329  1996.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a new FPGA design algorithm, Maple-opt, in which technology mapping, placement, and global routing are executed so that the delay of each critical signal path in an input circuit is within a specified upper bound imposed on it. The basic algorithm of Maple-opt is top-down hierarchical bi-partitioning of regions. Technology mapping onto logic-blocks of FPGAs, their placement, and global routing are determined simultaneously in each hierarchical process. This simultaneity leads to less congested layout For routing. In addition to that, Maple-opt computes a lower bound of delay for each path with a constraint value and determines critical paths based on the difference between the lower bound and the constraint value dynamically in each hierarchical process. Two delay reduction processes are executed for the critical paths; one is routing delay reduction and the other is logic-block delay reduction. Routing delay reduction is realized such that, when bi-partitioning a region, each constrained path is assigned to one subregion. Logic-block delay reduction is realized such that each constrained path is mapped onto fewer logic-blocks. Experimental results for some benchmark circuits show its efficiency and effectiveness.

  • A simultaneous placement and global routing algorithm with path length constraints for transport-processing FPGAs

    N Togawa, M Sato, T Ohtsuki

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASP-DAC '97 - ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE 1997     569 - 578  1996  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In layout design of transport-processing FPGAs, it is required that not only routing congestion is kept small but also circuits implemented on them operate with higher operation frequency. This paper extends the proposed simultaneous placement and global routing algorithm for transport-processing FPGAs whose objective is to minimize routing congestion and proposes a new algorithm in which the length of each critical signal path (path length) is limited within a specified upper bound imposed on it (path length constraint). The algorithm is based on hierarchical bipartitioning of layout regions and LUT (LookUp Table) sets to be placed. Each bipartitioning procedure consists of three phases: (0) estimation of path lengths, (1) bipartitioning of a set of terminals, and (2) bipartitioning of a set of LUTs. After searching the paths with tighter path length constraints by estimating path lengths in (0), (1) and (2) are executed so that their path lengths are reduced with higher priority and thus path length constraints are not violated. The algorithm has been implemented and applied to transport-processing circuits compared with conventional approaches. The results demonstrate that the algorithm resolves path length constraints for 11 out of 13 circuits, though it increases routing congestion by an average of 20%. After detailed routing, it achieves 100% routing for all the circuits and decreases a circuit delay by an average of 23%.

    DOI

  • A simultaneous placement and global routing algorithm with path length constraints for transport-processing FPGAs

    N Togawa, M Sato, T Ohtsuki

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASP-DAC '97 - ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE 1997     569 - 578  1996

     View Summary

    In layout design of transport-processing FPGAs, it is required that not only routing congestion is kept small but also circuits implemented on them operate with higher operation frequency. This paper extends the proposed simultaneous placement and global routing algorithm for transport-processing FPGAs whose objective is to minimize routing congestion and proposes a new algorithm in which the length of each critical signal path (path length) is limited within a specified upper bound imposed on it (path length constraint). The algorithm is based on hierarchical bipartitioning of layout regions and LUT (LookUp Table) sets to be placed. Each bipartitioning procedure consists of three phases: (0) estimation of path lengths, (1) bipartitioning of a set of terminals, and (2) bipartitioning of a set of LUTs. After searching the paths with tighter path length constraints by estimating path lengths in (0), (1) and (2) are executed so that their path lengths are reduced with higher priority and thus path length constraints are not violated. The algorithm has been implemented and applied to transport-processing circuits compared with conventional approaches. The results demonstrate that the algorithm resolves path length constraints for 11 out of 13 circuits, though it increases routing congestion by an average of 20%. After detailed routing, it achieves 100% routing for all the circuits and decreases a circuit delay by an average of 23%.

  • A performance-oriented circuit partitioning algorithm with logic-block replication for multi-FPGA systems

    N Togawa, M Sato, T Ohtsuki

    APCCAS '96 - IEEE ASIA PACIFIC CONFERENCE ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS '96     294 - 297  1996

     View Summary

    This paper proposes a circuit partitioning algorithm in which the delay of each critical signal path is within a specified upper bound. Its core is recursive bipartitioning of a circuit which consists of three stages: 0) detection of critical paths; 1) bipartitioning of a set of primary inputs and outputs; and 2) bipartitioning of a set of logic-blocks. In 0), the algorithm detects the critical paths based on their lower bounds of delays. The delays of the critical paths are reduced with higher priority In 1), the algorithm attempts to assign the primary input and output on each critical path to one chip. In 2), the algorithm not only decreases the number of crossings between chips but also assigns the logic-blocks on each critical path to one chip by exploiting a network flow technique with logic-block replication. The experimental results demonstrate that it resolves almost all path delay constraints with maintaining the maximum number of required I/O blocks per chip small compared with conventional algorithms.

  • Maple-opt: a simultaneous technology mapping, placement, and global routing algorithm FPGAs with performance optimization.

    Nozomu Togawa, Masao Sato, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    Proceedings of the 1995 Conference on Asia Pacific Design Automation, Makuhari, Massa, Chiba, Japan, August 29 - September 1, 1995    1995  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • MAPLE - A SIMULTANEOUS TECHNOLOGY MAPPING, PLACEMENT, AND GLOBAL ROUTING ALGORITHM FOR FIELD-PROGRAMMABLE GATE ARRAYS

    N TOGAWA, M SATO, T OHTSUKI

    IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPUTER SCIENCES   E77A ( 12 ) 2028 - 2038  1994.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Technology mapping algorithms for LUT (Look Up Table) based FPGAs have been proposed to transfer a Boolean network into logic-blocks. However, since those algorithms take no layout information into account, they do not always lead to excellent results. In this paper, a simultaneous technology mapping, placement and global routing algorithm for FPGAs, Maple, is presented. Maple is an extended version of a simultaneous placement and global routing algorithm for FPGAs, which is based on recursive partition of layout regions and block sets. Maple inherits its basic process and executes the technology mapping simultaneously in each recursive process. Therefore, the mapping can be done with the placement and global routing information. Experimental results for some benchmark circuits demonstrate its efficiency and effectiveness.

  • MAPLE - A SIMULTANEOUS TECHNOLOGY MAPPING, PLACEMENT, AND GLOBAL ROUTING ALGORITHM FOR FPGAS

    N TOGAWA, M SATO, T OHTSUKI

    APCCAS '94 - 1994 IEEE ASIA-PACIFIC CONFERENCE ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS     554 - 559  1994  [Refereed]

  • A SIMULTANEOUS PLACEMENT AND GLOBAL ROUTING ALGORITHM FOR FPGAS

    N TOGAWA, M SATO, T OHTSUKI

    1994 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOL 1     A483 - A486  1994  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • A simultaneous technology mapping, placement, and global routing algorithm for field-programmable gate arrays.

    Nozomu Togawa, Masao Sato, Tatsuo Ohtsuki

    Proceedings of the 1994 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer-Aided Design, ICCAD 1994, San Jose, California, USA, November 6-10, 1994     156 - 163  1994  [Refereed]

    DOI

▼display all

Books and Other Publications

  • CMOS VLSI 回路設計 応用編

    ウェスト,ハリス著, 宇佐美公良, 池田誠, 小林和淑監訳, 戸川望他分担共訳( Part: Joint translator)

    丸善出版  2014.01 ISBN: 9784621087206

  • 組込みシステム概論

    戸川望編著

    CQ出版  2008.02 ISBN: 9784789845502

Misc

  • Hardware-Trojan Classification at Practical Trojan Netlists Utilizing Random Forests

    コンピュータセキュリティシンポジウム2021論文集     9 - 16  2021.10

    CiNii

  • Power-Analysis Based Anomalous Behavior Detection Utilizing Steady State Power Waveform Generated by LSTM with Many Output Dimentions

    コンピュータセキュリティシンポジウム2021論文集     17 - 24  2021.10

    CiNii

  • Hardware-Trojan Detection Utilizing Graph Neural Networks at Gate-Level Netlists

    コンピュータセキュリティシンポジウム2021論文集     1 - 8  2021.10

    CiNii

  • ストカスティック数を用いた絶対値関数及び不連続関数の実装と評価

    石川 遼太, 多和田 雅師, 戸川 望

    DAシンポジウム2021論文集   ( 2021 ) 65 - 70  2021.08

    CiNii

  • スマートフォンとスマートウォッチを併用したPDRによる屋内位置推定

    若泉 朋弥, 戸川 望

    マルチメディア,分散協調とモバイルシンポジウム2205論文集   ( 2020 ) 1290 - 1302  2020.06

    CiNii

  • モンテカルロ木探索を用いたユーザ個人の嗜好を考慮した経路推薦手法の高速化

    石崎 雄太, 高山 敏典, 戸川 望

    マルチメディア,分散協調とモバイルシンポジウム2206論文集   ( 2020 ) 1303 - 1310  2020.06

    CiNii

  • メタヒューリスティクスの制約なし二次形式二値変数最適化問題への適用 (システム数理と応用)

    多和田 雅師, 戸川 望

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告 = IEICE technical report : 信学技報   119 ( 470 ) 43 - 48  2020.03

    CiNii

  • イジング計算機による3次元直方体パッキング問題の解法 (VLSI設計技術)

    金丸 翔, 寺田 晃太朗, 川村 一志, 田中 宗, 富田 憲範, 戸川 望

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告 = IEICE technical report : 信学技報   119 ( 443 ) 173 - 178  2020.03

    CiNii

  • トリガ回路の性質にもとづく特徴量を利用したニューラルネットワークによるハードウェアトロイ識別 (VLSI設計技術)

    井上 智貴, 長谷川 健人, 戸川 望

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告 = IEICE technical report : 信学技報   119 ( 443 ) 227 - 232  2020.03

    CiNii

  • イジングマシンを用いたアミューズメントパークの経路最適化手法 (VLSI設計技術)

    武笠 陽介, 若泉 朋弥, 田中 宗, 戸川 望

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告 = IEICE technical report : 信学技報   119 ( 443 ) 167 - 172  2020.03

    CiNii

  • 乱数化関数を用いた乱数生成回路を共有するストカスティック数生成器 (VLSI設計技術)

    多和田 雅師, 戸川 望

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告 = IEICE technical report : 信学技報   119 ( 443 ) 163 - 166  2020.03

    CiNii

  • イジングモデルによる類似誘導部分グラフ同型問題の解法 (VLSI設計技術) -- (デザインガイア2019 : VLSI設計の新しい大地)

    吉村 夏一, 多和田 雅師, 田中 宗, 新井 淳也, 巴 徳瑪, 八木 哲志, 内山 寛之, 戸川 望

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告 = IEICE technical report : 信学技報   119 ( 282 ) 103 - 108  2019.11

    CiNii

  • ストカスティック計算におけるステップ関数の実装と評価 (VLSI設計技術) -- (デザインガイア2019 : VLSI設計の新しい大地)

    石川 遼太, 多和田 雅師, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告 = IEICE technical report : 信学技報   119 ( 282 ) 69 - 74  2019.11

    CiNii

  • 低密度パリティ検査符号復号問題を制約なし二次形式二値変数最適化問題に変換した解法

    多和田 雅師, 田中 宗, 戸川 望

    DAシンポジウム2019論文集   ( 2019 ) 45 - 50  2019.08

    CiNii

  • スリープ状態をもつ組込みシステムを対象とした電力解析にもとづく異常動作検知とその実証的評価

    長谷川 健人, 近松 聖, 戸川 望

    DAシンポジウム2019論文集   ( 2019 ) 93 - 98  2019.08

    CiNii

  • ストカスティック数を用いた再帰的分割による解像度解釈可変な画像形式 (VLSI設計技術)

    石川 遼太, 多和田 雅師, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告 = IEICE technical report : 信学技報   119 ( 154 ) 71 - 76  2019.07

    CiNii

  • モンテカルロ木探索によるユーザ個人の嗜好を考慮した経路推薦手法とその評価

    石崎 雄太, 高山 敏典, 戸川 望

    マルチメディア,分散協調とモバイルシンポジウム2019論文集   ( 2019 ) 854 - 862  2019.06

    CiNii

  • 動的な歩幅更新をベースとするマップマッチングによるPDR手法

    西村 天晴, 高山 敏典, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    マルチメディア,分散協調とモバイルシンポジウム2019論文集   ( 2019 ) 1663 - 1669  2019.06

    CiNii

  • スマートフォン搭載センサを用いた自転車の挙動認識の向上

    宇佐見 友理, 石川 和明, 高山 敏典, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    マルチメディア,分散協調とモバイルシンポジウム2019論文集   ( 2019 ) 1670 - 1675  2019.06

    CiNii

  • 2ⁿRRR : 高度な並び替えにより誤り耐性を強化したストカスティック数複製器 (VLSI設計技術) -- (デザインガイア2018 : VLSI設計の新しい大地)

    石川 遼太, 多和田 雅師, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告 = IEICE technical report : 信学技報   118 ( 334 ) 95 - 100  2018.12

    CiNii

  • 高位合成時のモジュール分割におけるバッファコスト最小化問題とその解法

    大場 諒介, 川村 一志, 田宮 豊, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    DAシンポジウム2018論文集   ( 2018 ) 63 - 68  2018.08

    CiNii

  • 低電力化電気容量検出装置を用いた動作中の不正デバイス検知

    西澤 誠人, 長谷川 健人, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    DAシンポジウム2018論文集   ( 2018 ) 112 - 117  2018.08

    CiNii

  • マイクロコントローラのスリープ状態に着目した消費電力にもとづく悪意のある機能の発現検知

    長谷川 健人, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    DAシンポジウム2018論文集   ( 2018 ) 118 - 123  2018.08

    CiNii

  • スマートフォン搭載3軸加速度センサと3軸ジャイロセンサを用いた自転車の挙動認識

    宇佐見 友理, 石川 和明, 高山 敏典, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    マルチメディア,分散協調とモバイルシンポジウム2018論文集   ( 2018 ) 32 - 42  2018.06

    CiNii

  • POIを考慮した経路長指定の複数巡回経路探索手法

    西村 天晴, 石川 和明, 高山 敏典, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    マルチメディア,分散協調とモバイルシンポジウム2018論文集   ( 2018 ) 1612 - 1621  2018.06

    CiNii

  • 再収斂による計算誤りに耐性を持つストカスティック数複製器を用いた活性化関数の実装と評価

    石川遼太, 多和田雅師, 柳澤政生, 戸川望

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   118 ( 83 ) 167 - 172  2018.06

    CiNii J-GLOBAL

  • イジング計算機によるスロット配置問題の解法

    金丸翔, 於久太祐, 多和田雅師, 田中宗, 田中宗, 林真人, 山岡雅直, 柳澤政生, 戸川望

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   118 ( 85(MSS2018 1-36) ) 161‐166  2018.06

    J-GLOBAL

  • 亜種ハードウェアトロイの設計とそのニューラルネットワークを用いた検出

    井上智貴, 長谷川健人, 小林悠記, 柳澤政生, 戸川望

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   118 ( 85(MSS2018 1-36) ) 173‐178  2018.06

    J-GLOBAL

  • 効率的なストカスティック数複製器と合成関数回路を用いたその評価

    石川遼太, 多和田雅師, 柳澤政生, 戸川望

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   117 ( 480 ) 209 - 214  2018.03

    CiNii J-GLOBAL

  • 鍵長128ビット,192ビット,256ビットの軽量暗号CLEFIAに対するスキャンベース攻撃手法

    於久太祐, 多和田雅師, 柳澤政生, 戸川望

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告   117 ( 480 ) 251 - 256  2018.03

    CiNii J-GLOBAL

  • 鍵長128ビット,192ビット,256ビットの軽量暗号CLEFIAに対するスキャンベース攻撃手法 (コンピュータシステム) -- (組込み技術とネットワークに関するワークショップETNET2018)

    於久 太祐, 多和田 雅師, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告 = IEICE technical report : 信学技報   117 ( 479 ) 251 - 256  2018.03

    CiNii

  • 複数エリアへの近接度を用いたパーティクルフィルタによる屋内測位手法の適用

    百瀬凌也, 石川和明, 柳澤政生, 戸川望

    電子情報通信学会大会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2018   ROMBUNNO.A‐14‐7  2018.03

    J-GLOBAL

  • 凍結ビットパタンの偏りを利用した高速Polar符号復号器とそのハードウェア実装の検討

    多和田雅師, 神谷典史, 井手口裕太, 井上浩明, 戸川望

    電子情報通信学会大会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2018   ROMBUNNO.A‐1‐12  2018.03

    J-GLOBAL

  • LSIの配線問題―DAシンポジウムの配線問題解法コンテスト―2 機械学習とFPGAを用いた配線問題解法への取り組み

    川村一志, 長谷川健人, 多和田雅師, 戸川望

    情報処理   59 ( 3 ) 228‐231  2018.02

    J-GLOBAL

  • 低周波圧電エネルギーハーベスティングにおけるMOSs SP‐SSHI手法

    杉山貴紀, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, SHI Youhua

    回路とシステムワークショップ論文集(CD-ROM)   31st   ROMBUNNO.A2‐1  2018

    J-GLOBAL

  • リーク削減による低消費電力SRAMの設計

    伊藤卓, 戸川望, 柳澤政生, SHI Youhua

    回路とシステムワークショップ論文集(CD-ROM)   31st   ROMBUNNO.C4‐3  2018

    J-GLOBAL

  • トリガ条件の異なるハードウェアトロイの設計とSVMを用いた検出 (VLSI設計技術) -- (デザインガイア2017 : VLSI設計の新しい大地)

    井上 智貴, 長谷川 健人, 小林 悠記, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告 = IEICE technical report : 信学技報   117 ( 273 ) 133 - 138  2017.11

    CiNii

  • 暗号回路に挿入されたハードウェアトロイとその抑止回路のFPGA実装 (VLSI設計技術) -- (デザインガイア2017 : VLSI設計の新しい大地)

    長谷川 健人, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告 = IEICE technical report : 信学技報   117 ( 273 ) 139 - 144  2017.11

    CiNii

  • 環境発電動作を想定した揮発・不揮発レジスタ併用型フロアプラン指向高位合成手法

    浅井 大輝, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    DAシンポジウム2017論文集   ( 2017 ) 57 - 62  2017.08

    CiNii

  • 高ポイント高速数論変換に対する高位合成のためのループ構造最適化

    川村 一志, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    DAシンポジウム2017論文集   ( 2017 ) 63 - 68  2017.08

    CiNii

  • スキャンシグネチャを用いた周辺回路を含む軽量暗号CLEFIAに対するスキャンベース攻撃

    於久 太祐, 多和田 雅師, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    DAシンポジウム2017論文集   ( 2017 ) 116 - 121  2017.08

    CiNii

  • 不揮発性メモリを対象とした低書き込みメモリ暗号化手法

    多和田 雅師, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    DAシンポジウム2017論文集   ( 2017 ) 122 - 126  2017.08

    CiNii

  • ネットの周辺情報を考慮した機械学習によるハードウェアトロイ識別

    長谷川 健人, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    DAシンポジウム2017論文集   ( 2017 ) 127 - 132  2017.08

    CiNii

  • 20KスピンCMOSアニーリングマシンを対象とした完全結合イジングモデルマッピング手法と評価

    寺田 晃太朗, 田中 宗, 林 真人, 山岡 雅直, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    DAシンポジウム2017論文集   ( 2017 ) 163 - 168  2017.08

    CiNii

  • セレクタ論理を適用したFFTプロセッサのFPGA実装評価

    平井 勇也, 川村 一志, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    DAシンポジウム2017論文集   ( 2017 ) 180 - 185  2017.08

    CiNii

  • 遅延変動に対しロバストなAES暗号回路の設計

    矢作 裕基, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    DAシンポジウム2017論文集   ( 2017 ) 210 - 215  2017.08

    CiNii

  • 乱数によるビット並び替えに基づくストカスティック数複製器

    石川 遼太, 多和田 雅師, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    DAシンポジウム2017論文集   ( 2017 ) 169 - 174  2017.08

    CiNii

  • 近接度を用いたパーティクルフィルタによる高精度屋内測位手法

    百瀬 凌也, 新田 知之, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    マルチメディア,分散協調とモバイルシンポジウム2017論文集   ( 2017 ) 514 - 522  2017.06

    CiNii

  • 疎な GPS 測位情報を対象にした測位精度と短時間滞在除去に基づく滞在地推定手法

    岩田 紗瑛, 新田 知之, 高山 敏典, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    マルチメディア,分散協調とモバイルシンポジウム2017論文集   ( 2017 ) 523 - 531  2017.06

    CiNii

  • 連続してハッシュ値を出力しないHMAC-SHA-256回路へのスキャンベース攻撃手法 (ディペンダブルコンピューティング) -- (組込み技術とネットワークに関するワークショップETNET2017)

    於久 太祐, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告 = IEICE technical report : 信学技報   116 ( 511 ) 129 - 134  2017.03

    CiNii

  • 連続してハッシュ値を出力しないHMAC-SHA-256回路へのスキャンベース攻撃手法 (コンピュータシステム) -- (組込み技術とネットワークに関するワークショップETNET2017)

    於久 太祐, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告 = IEICE technical report : 信学技報   116 ( 510 ) 129 - 134  2017.03

    CiNii

  • ネットの特徴量を用いた多層ニューラルネットワークによるハードウェアトロイ識別 (コンピュータシステム) -- (組込み技術とネットワークに関するワークショップETNET2017)

    長谷川 健人, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告 = IEICE technical report : 信学技報   116 ( 510 ) 135 - 140  2017.03

    CiNii

  • Proposal of pH-sensor device capable of operating only with NFC energy harvesting

    MIYABAYASHI Shun, OSAKA Tetsuya, TAWADA Masashi, TOGAWA Nozomu, KATAOKA Kosuke, ASAHI Toru, IWATA Hiroyasu, HAYATA Hiroki, IWASE Eiji, FUJIE Toshinori, TAKEOKA Shinji, OHASHI Keishi, SATO Shin, KUROIWA Shigeki, MOMMA Toshiyuki

    The Proceedings of JSME annual Conference on Robotics and Mechatronics (Robomec)   2017 ( 0 ) 1A1 - L10  2017

     View Summary

    <p>Skin-attachable devices are essential to the realization of personalized skin health through continuously monitoring individual's skin surface pH. This paper describes an approach to measure the skin surface pH no matter when or where, just holding a NFC enable phone over the pH-sensor device capable of operating only with NFC energy harvesting. Since NFC can generate the power and batteries are replaced, the proposed device becomes smaller, lighter and thinner. Therefore, it could be attached on the skin by using the ultrathin polymer film called nanosheet. Moreover, the low-power circuit is proposed which implements the constant current circuit and the function of wireless communication.</p>

    DOI CiNii

  • セレクタ論理に帰着させたバタフライ演算器のFPGA実装評価 (VLSI設計技術) -- (デザインガイア2016 : VLSI設計の新しい大地)

    伊東 光希, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告 = IEICE technical report : 信学技報   116 ( 330 ) 67 - 72  2016.11

    CiNii

  • 動作中のIoTデバイスに対する電気容量変化の測定を用いた不正改変検知装置の設計 (VLSI設計技術) -- (デザインガイア2016 : VLSI設計の新しい大地)

    北山 遼育, 竹中 崇, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告 = IEICE technical report : 信学技報   116 ( 330 ) 129 - 134  2016.11

    CiNii

  • 経年劣化を考慮したフロアプラン統合化高位合成手法 (VLSI設計技術) -- (デザインガイア2016 : VLSI設計の新しい大地)

    井川 昂輝, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告 = IEICE technical report : 信学技報   116 ( 330 ) 141 - 146  2016.11

    CiNii

  • スキャンシグネチャを用いたスキャンデータ解析に基づくHMAC-SHA-256ハッシュ回路のスキャンベース攻撃

    於久 太祐, 多和田 雅師, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    DAシンポジウム2016論文集   2016 ( 2 ) 2 - 7  2016.09

    CiNii

  • Random Forestを用いたネットリスト特徴選択と機械学習によるハードウェアトロイ識別

    長谷川 健人, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    DAシンポジウム2016論文集   2016 ( 3 ) 8 - 13  2016.09

    CiNii

  • リードソロモン符号に基づいたマルチレベルセル不揮発性メモリ書き込み削減

    多和田 雅師, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    DAシンポジウム2016論文集   2016 ( 31 ) 163 - 168  2016.09

    CiNii

  • From the EDA Perspective

      99 ( 9 ) 901 - 906  2016.09

    CiNii

  • 歩行者の方向判断基準を用いた腕時計型ウェアラブル端末向け略地図生成手法

    河野 圭亮, 新田 知之, 石川 和明, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    マルチメディア,分散協調とモバイルシンポジウム2016論文集   ( 2016 ) 411 - 418  2016.07

    CiNii

  • 眼鏡型ウェアラブル端末を用いたランドマーク確認に基づく屋外歩行者ナビゲーション

    矢野 椋也, 新田 知之, 石川 和明, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    マルチメディア,分散協調とモバイルシンポジウム2016論文集   ( 2016 ) 419 - 427  2016.07

    CiNii

  • 歩行者の視点情報に基づく屋内経路案内

    岩名地 良太, 新田 知之, 石川 和明, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    マルチメディア,分散協調とモバイルシンポジウム2016論文集   ( 2016 ) 1748 - 1756  2016.07

    CiNii

  • A-6-4 Improvement and Evaluation of Selector-logic-based Volume Rendering Circuits for FPGAs

    Igarashi Keita, Yanagisawa Masao, Togawa Nozomu

    Proceedings of the IEICE Engineering Sciences Society/NOLTA Society Conference   2016   78 - 78  2016.03

    CiNii

  • A-6-5 Evaluation of A Floorplan-aware High-level Synthesis Algorithm Optimizing Critical Path for FPGA Designs

    Fujiwara Koichi, Kawamura Kazushi, Yanagisawa Masao, Togawa Nozomu

    Proceedings of the IEICE Engineering Sciences Society/NOLTA Society Conference   2016   79 - 79  2016.03

    CiNii

  • A-3-7 Worst-case Bit-Write-Reducing and Error-Correcting Code Generation by One-to-many Mapping for Non-Volatile Memories

    Kojo Tatsuro, Tawada Masashi, Yanagisawa Masao, Togawa Nozomu

    Proceedings of the IEICE Engineering Sciences Society/NOLTA Society Conference   2015   52 - 52  2015.08

    CiNii

  • A-9-2 Low-power soft-error tolerant New-SEH latch scheme

    TAJIMA Saki, SHI Youhua, TOGAWA Nozomu, YANAGISAWA Masao

    Proceedings of the IEICE Engineering Sciences Society/NOLTA Society Conference   2015   106 - 106  2015.08

    CiNii

  • AES Encryption Circuit against Clock Glitch based Fault Analysis

      2015 ( 10 ) 1 - 5  2015.05

     View Summary

    Recently, fault analysis has attracted a lot of attentions as a new kind of side channel attack methods, in which malicious faults are generally injected by attackers through clock glitch generation, voltage change, or laser manipulation during the execution of a crypto circuit. As existing countermeasures against fault analysis, area-redundant and time-redundant methods have been proposed. However they will cause large area overhead or time overhead. Therefore, in this paper, we proposed an AES circuit design that can detect timing faults caused by malicious clock glitches. Experimental results show that the proposed method can detect 100% timing faults at only 4.9% post-layout area overhead.

    CiNii

  • Improved scan-based side-channel attack on the LED block cipher

    FUJISHIRO MIKA, YANAGISAWA MASAO, TOGAWA NOZOMU

    IEICE technical report. Dependable computing   114 ( 507 ) 149 - 154  2015.03

     View Summary

    LED (Light Encryption Device) block cipher, one of lightweight block ciphers, is very compact in hardware. Although the conventional scan-based side-channel attack method on the LED can retrieve a 64-bit secret key, it would not retrieve a 128-bit secret key. In this paper, an improved scan-based attack method on the LED block cipher is proposed. Experimental results show that our proposed method successfully retrieves its 128-bit secret key using 145 plaintexts on average if the scan chain is only connected to the LED block cipher.

    CiNii

  • Improved scan-based side-channel attack on the LED block cipher

    FUJISHIRO MIKA, YANAGISAWA MASAO, TOGAWA NOZOMU

    IEICE technical report. Computer systems   114 ( 506 ) 149 - 154  2015.03

     View Summary

    LED (Light Encryption Device) block cipher, one of lightweight block ciphers, is very compact in hardware. Although the conventional scan-based side-channel attack method on the LED can retrieve a 64-bit secret key, it would not retrieve a 128-bit secret key. In this paper, an improved scan-based attack method on the LED block cipher is proposed. Experimental results show that our proposed method successfully retrieves its 128-bit secret key using 145 plaintexts on average if the scan chain is only connected to the LED block cipher.

    CiNii

  • A low-power soft error tolerant latch scheme

    TAJIMA Saki, SHI Youhua, TOGAWA Nozomu, YANAGISAWA Masao

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   114 ( 476 ) 55 - 60  2015.03

     View Summary

    In recent technology scaling, reduction of reliability by soft-error and increase power has appeared as an inevitable problem for logic circuits. We propose a low-power and high soft-error tolerant latch called TSPC-SEH latch based Soft Error Hardened (SEH) latch and True Single Phase Clock (TSPC). To compere SEH latch and DICE latch, the proposed latch archives 42% power reduction, and 54%s delay reduction.

    DOI CiNii

  • A Score-Based Hardware-Trojan Identification Method for Gate-Level Netlists

    OYA Masaru, SHI Youhua, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   114 ( 476 ) 165 - 170  2015.03

     View Summary

    Recently, digital ICs are designed by outside vendors to reduce costs in semiconductor industry. This circumstance introduces risks that malicious attackers can implement Hardware Trojans (HTs) on them. In this paper, we propose an HT identification method for gate-level netlists without using a Golden netlist. Firstly, we extract several their features specific to Trojan nets using several HT-inserted benchmarks. Secondly, we give scores to Trojan net features and sum up them for each net in benchmarks. Then we can find out a score threshold to identify HTs. Experimental results demonstrate that our method successfully identify all the HT-inserted gate-level benchmarks to be HT-inserted and all the HT-free gate-level benchmarks to be HT-free in approximately three hours for each benchmark.

    CiNii

  • Improved scan-based side-channel attack on the LED block cipher

      2015 ( 47 ) 1 - 6  2015.02

     View Summary

    LED (Light Encryption Device) block cipher, one of lightweight block ciphers, is very compact in hardware. Although the conventional scan-based side-channel attack method on the LED can retrieve a 64-bit secret key, it would not retrieve a 128-bit secret key. In this paper, an improved scan-based attack method on the LED block cipher is proposed. Experimental results show that our proposed method successfully retrieves its 128-bit secret key using 145 plaintexts on average if the scan chain is only connected to the LED block cipher.

    CiNii

  • 製造ばらつきと配線遅延を同時に考慮した低レイテンシ指向のマルチシナリオ高位合成の評価

    井川 昂輝, 阿部 晋矢, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    情報処理学会研究報告. SLDM, [システムLSI設計技術]   2015 ( 48 ) 1 - 6  2015.02

     View Summary

    増大を続ける製造ばらつきや配線遅延への解決策として,HDR アーキテクチャを対象としたマルチシナリオ高位合成手法を提案している.チップ全体をハドルと呼ばれる配線遅延の影響のない範囲に分割することで高位合成段階における適切な配線遅延の予測が可能となる.加えて製造ばらつきによる演算器の遅延ばらつきをシナリオとして扱う.演算器の遅延が Typical ケースの場合の Typical シナリオ,Worst ケースの場合の Worst シナリオを同時に 1 つのチップ上に高位合成し,製造されたチップの特性に応じてシナリオを切り替えることで高い歩留りと高い性能の両立が可能となる.提案手法は各シナリオの動作コントロールステップ数を最小化し,ハドル間データ通信やモジュール間結線をシナリオ間で揃える共通化と呼ばれる処理により全体の面積を削減する.本稿では,計算機実験により各動作条件におけるレイテンシを従来手法と比較し評価する.また,演算器の遅延分布から Typical シナリオで動作可能な確率を算出し,レイテンシの期待値も評価する.提案手法は従来手法と比較し,レイテンシの期待値を最大 35% 削減できることを確認した.

    CiNii

  • A-3-1 Interconnection Delay Modeling for Floorplan-Driven High-Level Synthesis Targeting FPGAs

    Fujiwara Koichi, Yanagisawa Masao, Togawa Nozomu

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2015   80 - 80  2015.02

    CiNii

  • A-3-8 Implementation and Evaluation of Selector-logic-based Alpha Blending Circuits for FPGAs

    Igarashi Keita, Yanagisawa Masao, Togawa Nozomu

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2015   87 - 87  2015.02

    CiNii

  • A Hardware Trojan Detection Method based on Trojan Net Features

    OYA Masaru, SHI Youhua, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   114 ( 426 ) 157 - 162  2015.01

     View Summary

    Recently, digital ICs are designed by outside vendors to reduce costs in semiconductor industry. This circumstance introduces risks that malicious attackers can implement Hardware Trojans (HTs) on them. Particularly HTs can be easily inserted during design phase but their detection is too difficult during this phase. This is why we have to assume Golden Netlists and activation of HTs in previous researches. This paper proposes an HT detection method based on Trojan net features. Most of nets in HTs have several features and our method detects the nets having these features. Our approach does not assume Golden netlists nor activation of HTs. We can succesfully detect a Trojan net in each of the HT-inserted gate-level netlists from the Trust-HUB benchmark. It takes approximately thirty minutes to detect Trojan nets in each benchmark.

    CiNii

  • A Hardware Trojan Detection Method based on Trojan Net Features

    OYA Masaru, SHI Youhua, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    IEICE technical report. Computer systems   114 ( 427 ) 157 - 162  2015.01

     View Summary

    Recently, digital ICs are designed by outside vendors to reduce costs in semiconductor industry. This circumstance introduces risks that malicious attackers can implement Hardware Trojans (HTs) on them. Particularly HTs can be easily inserted during design phase but their detection is too difficult during this phase. This is why we have to assume Golden Netlists and activation of HTs in previous researches. This paper proposes an HT detection method based on Trojan net features. Most of nets in HTs have several features and our method detects the nets having these features. Our approach does not assume Golden netlists nor activation of HTs. We can succesfully detect a Trojan net in each of the HT-inserted gate-level netlists from the Trust-HUB benchmark. It takes approximately thirty minutes to detect Trojan nets in each benchmark.

    CiNii

  • A Hardware Trojan Detection Method based on Trojan Net Features

    大屋 優, 史 又華, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    情報処理学会研究報告. SLDM, [システムLSI設計技術]   2015 ( 28 ) 1 - 6  2015.01

     View Summary

    Recently, digital ICs are designed by outside vendors to reduce costs in semiconductor industry. This circumstance introduces risks that malicious attackers can implement Hardware Trojans (HTs) on them. Partic ularly HTs can be easily inserted during design phase but their detection is too difficult during this phase. This is why we have to assume Golden Netlists and activation of HTs in previous researches. This paper proposes an HT detection method based on Trojan net features. Most of nets in HTs have several features and our method detects the nets having these features. Our approach does not assume Golden netlists nor activation of HTs. We can succesfully detect a Trojan net in each of the HT-inserted gate-level netlists from the Trust-HUB benchmark. It takes approximately thirty minutes to detect Trojan nets in each benchmark.

    CiNii

  • A Field Data Extractor Configuration Based on Multiplexer Tree Partitioning

    ITO Koki, KAWAMURA Kazushi, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu, TAMIYA Yutaka

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   114 ( 328 ) 197 - 202  2014.11

     View Summary

    As seen in packet analysis of TCP/IP offload engine and stream data processing of encoder/decoder for video data, it is often necessary to extract a part of data from data changed field dynamically, where we can use a field-data extractor. Particularly, an (M, N) field-data extractor reads out any consecutive N bytes from an M-byte register by connecting its input/output using multiplexers. However, the number of required multiplexers increases too much as the input/output byte lengths increase. How to reduce the number of its required multiplexers is a major challenge. In this paper, we propose an efficient multiplexer-tree configuration method for an (M, N) field-data extractor. Our method is based on inserting a (N+B-1)-byte virtual intermediate-register into a multiplexer tree and partitioning it into an upper tree and a lower tree. Then our method theoretically reduces the number of required multiplexers without increasing the multiplexer-tree depth. We also propose how to determine the size of the virtual intermediate-register that minimizes the number of required multiplexers. Experimental results show that our method reduces the required number of gates to implement a field-data extractor by up to 92% compared with the one using a naive multiplexer-tree configuration.

    CiNii

  • An Effective Robust Design Using Improved Checkpoint Insertion Algorithm for Suspicious Timing-Error Prediction Scheme and its Evaluations

    YOSHIDA Shinnosuke, SHI Youhua, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   114 ( 328 ) 57 - 62  2014.11

     View Summary

    As process technologies advance, process and delay variation causes a complex timing design and in-situ timing error correction techniques are strongly required. Suspicious timing error prediction (STEP) predicts timing errors by monitoring checkpoints by STEP circuits (STEPCs) and how to insert checkpoints is very important. We have proposed a network-flow-based checkpoint insertion algorithm for STEP. However, our algorithm may ignore long paths and insert checkpoints near the output. In this paper, we improve how to ignore short paths and set labels by estimating path lengths. Then, we can ignore only short paths and insert checkpoints into near the center of all long paths. We evaluate our algorithm by applying it to four benchmark circuits. Experimental results show that our proposed algorithm realizes an average of 1.71X overclocking compared with just inserting no STEPC. Furthermore, our improved algorithm realizes an average of 1.15X overclocking compared with our original algorithm.

    CiNii

  • Energy-efficient High-level Synthesis Algorithm targeting HDR-mcv Architecture with Multiple Clock Domains and Multiple Supply Voltages

    ABE Shin-ya, SHI Youhua, USAMI Kimiyoshi, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   114 ( 328 ) 203 - 208  2014.11

     View Summary

    An HDR-mcv architecture, which integrates multiple supply voltages and multiple clock domains into high-level synthesis and enables us to estimate interconnection delay effects during high-level synthesis, has been proposed with the corresponding synthesis algorithm. They assign voltages and clock frequencies to huddles which are the partitions for interconnection delay estimation during high-level synthesis. However, the voltage and clock assignment may have some energy overheads due to the increased clock trees. In this paper, we propose a new HDR-mcv architecture in which supply voltages are assigned to functional logics and clock synchronization logics separately. Next, we propose a high-level synthesis algorithm for the architecture, which can assign clock frequencies and supply voltages on the bases of the placement and energy informations. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves 50% energy-saving compared with the conventional HDR-mcv architecture and 60% energy-saving compared with the existing high-level synthesis methods.

    CiNii

  • A Process-Variation-Tolerant and Low-Latency Multi-Scenario High-Level Synthesis Algorithm for HDR Architectures

    IGAWA Koki, ABE Shinya, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   114 ( 328 ) 105 - 110  2014.11

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a process-variation-tolerant and low-latency multi-scenario high-level synthesis algorithm for HDR architectures. We assume two scenarios, which are a typical-case scenario and a worst-case scenario, and realize them on a single chip. By using distributed-register architectures called HDR architectures, we can take into account interconnection delays in high-level syntesis. We first schedule/bind each of the scenarios independently. After that, we commonize a typical-case scenario and a worst-case scenario and synthesize a commonized scheduling/binding result. Experimental results show that our algorithm reduces the latency of typical-case scenario by up to 33% compared with previous methods.

    CiNii

  • Energy evaluation of bit-write reduction method based on state encoding limiting maximum and minimum Hamming distances for non-volatile memories

    KOJO Tatsuro, TAWADA Masashi, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   114 ( 328 ) 221 - 226  2014.11

     View Summary

    Data stored in non-volatile memories may be destructed due to crosstalk and radiation but we can restore their data by using error-correcting codes. However, non-volatile memories consume a large amount of energy in writing. How to reduce writing bits even when using error-correcting codes is one of the challenges in non-volatile memory design. We have proposed a Doughnut code, which is a new bit-write-reducing and error-correcting code. In addition, we have proposed a code expansion method. When we apply our code expansion method to Doughnut code, we can obtain expanded Doughnut codes. Expanded Doughnut codes are error-correcting codes which can reduce the number of writing bits. In this paper, we demonstrate experimental evaluations from the viewpoint of energy reduction of our proposed expanded Doughnut codes. Experimental results show that the write-reducing code reduces energy consumption by up to 32% compared to Hamming code.

    CiNii

  • Small-Sized Encoder/Decoder Circuit Design for Bit-Write Reduction Targeting Non-Volatile Memories

    TAWADA Masashi, KIMURA Shinji, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   114 ( 328 ) 227 - 232  2014.11

     View Summary

    Non-volatile memory has many advantages such as low leakage power and non-volatility. However, there are problems that a non-volatile memory consumes a large amount of energy in writing and that the maximum number of bit re-writings is limited. We have proposed a Hamming-code based bit-write reduction method using data encoding/decoding but its encoder/decoder becomes too much large. In this paper, we propose small-sized encoder/decoder circuit design for the bit-write reduction codes. In this design, we simplify data encoding/decoding by using code redundancy. Experimental results show the efficiency of our encoder/decoder design.

    CiNii

  • Data Dependent Optimization using Suspicious Timing Error Prediction for Reconfigurable Approximation Circuits

    KAWAMURA Kazushi, ABE Shinya, SHI Youhua, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   114 ( 328 ) 51 - 56  2014.11

     View Summary

    The propagation delay along each path inside an LSI widely varies depending on input data, and this property can be exploited to design high-performance approximation circuit with a negligible error rate. In this paper, we propose a novel approximation circuit design algorithm, which identifies paths to be optimized based on input data and reconfigures these paths. Our algorithm first identifies the optimized paths by incorporating timing error prediction circuits into a target circuit and running them in practice. These paths are then dynamically reconfigured within an accuracy constraint with the objective of maximizing its performance. Experimental results targeting a set of basic adders show that our algorithm can achieve performance increase by up to 18.5% within acceptable error of 2.1% compared with conventional design techniques.

    CiNii

  • Design of Flip-Flop with Timing Error Tolerance

    SUZUKI Taito, SHI Youhua, TOGAWA Nozomu, USAMI Kimiyoshi, YANAGISAWA Masao

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   114 ( 328 ) 45 - 50  2014.11

     View Summary

    Under the influence of the miniaturization of the integrated circuit, the variation of the operation condition of the circuit becomes bigger, and margins of the supply voltage and the clock frequency necessary for a design increase. For the mitigation of the margin, the structure of the circuit with the timing error tolerance is studied flourishingly. In this paper, we propose two new Time Borrowing Flip-Flops (TBFF) in transistor level to realize timing error tolerance by switching from flip-flop to latch dynamically. HSPICE simulation results show that the proposed TBFF can achieve up to 28.1% power reduction when compared with existing works.

    CiNii

  • A Floorplan-aware High-level Synthesis Algorithm Utilizing Interconnection Delay Characteristics in FPGA Designs

    FUJIWARA Koichi, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   114 ( 328 ) 99 - 104  2014.11

     View Summary

    Recently, high-level synthesis (HLS) techniques for FPGA designs are required such as in image processing and computerized stock tradings. With recent process scaling in FPGAs, interconnection delays become dominant in total circuit delays nevertheless I/O buffers and wire buffers are provided and each FPGA has a different interconnection delay characteristics. We need to consider interconnection delays based on interconnection delay characteristics in FPGA designs. In this paper, we propose a floorplan-aware high-level synthesis algorithm utilizing interconnection delay characteristics targeting FPGA designs. Our target architecture is HDR, one of distributed-register architectures, and then we can estimate interconnection delays correctly by utilizing interconnection delay characteristics in an FPGA chip. Further, we reduce multiplexers generated and also limit the total number of inputs to multiplexers in HLS process. Experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm can realize FPGA designs which reduce the latency by up to 6% compared with our previous approach.

    CiNii

  • High speed design of sub-threshold circuit by using DTMOS

    FUKUDOME Yuji, SHI Youhua, TOGAWA Nozomu, USAMI Kimiyoshi, YANAGISAWA Masao

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   114 ( 328 ) 117 - 121  2014.11

     View Summary

    Low power consumption is achieved by operating circuits in sub-threshold region. However, in subthreshold region, the operating speed becomes slow, and the tradeoff between power and speed should be considered carefully. In this work, we present DTMOS implementations to realize high speed and low power in subthreshold region. Transistor level simulation results show that the operating speed can be improved by 30 %-45 %, and on average 15 % energy reduction can be achieved when V_&lt;dd&gt; ranges 0.2-0.3V.

    CiNii

  • A Hardware Trojans Detection Method focusing on Nets in Hardware Trojans in Gate-Level Netlists

    OYA Masaru, SHI Youhua, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   114 ( 328 ) 135 - 140  2014.11

     View Summary

    Recently, digital ICs are designed by outside vendors to reduce design costs in semiconductor industry. This circumstance introduces risks that malicious attackers implement Hardware Trojans (HTs) into ICs. HTs are easily inserted in particular during design phase, but HTs detection is too difficult during this phase. This is why we have to assume Golden Netlists and activation of HTs in previous researches. This paper proposes an HT detection method through detecting LSLG nets, which have low switching probabilities. Our approach does not assume Golden netlists nor activation of HTs. We succesfully find out that all HT-inserted gate-level netlists from Trust-HUB benchmarks include a small number of LSLG nets. It takes approximately ten minutes to detect LSLG nets in each benchmark.

    CiNii

  • A High-level Synthesis Algorithm with Delay Variation Tolerance Optimization for RDR Architectures

    HAGIO Yuta, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   114 ( 328 ) 209 - 214  2014.11

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a high-level synthesis algorithm with delay variation tolerance optimization for RDR architectures. We first obtain a non-delayed scheduling/binding result and a delayed scheduling/binding result independently. When we obtain two scheduling/binding results, we use two variation rates, the typical variation rate and the worst variation rate, and maximize them without increasing the latency. By adding several extra functional units to vacant RDR islands, we have a delayed scheduling/binding result so that its latency cannot be increased compared with the non-delayed one. After that, we similarize the two scheduling/binding results by repeatedly modifying their results. We can finally realize non-delayed and delayed scheduling/binding results simultaneously on RDR architecture with almost no area/performance overheads and we can select either one of them depending on post-silicon delay variation. Experimental results show that our algorithm successfully reduces delayed scheduling/binding latency by up to 16.7% compared with the conventional approach.

    CiNii

  • Design of Flip-Flop with Timing Error Tolerance

    SUZUKI Taito, SHI Youhua, TOGAWA Nozomu, USAMI Kimiyoshi, YANAGISAWA Masao

    IEICE technical report. Dependable computing   114 ( 329 ) 45 - 50  2014.11

     View Summary

    Under the influence of the miniaturization of the integrated circuit, the variation of the operation condition of the circuit becomes bigger, and margins of the supply voltage and the clock frequency necessary for a design increase. For the mitigation of the margin, the structure of the circuit with the timing error tolerance is studied flourishingly. In this paper, we propose two new Time Borrowing Flip-Flops (TBFF) in transistor level to realize timing error tolerance by switching from flip-flop to latch dynamically. HSPICE simulation results show that the proposed TBFF can achieve up to 28.1% power reduction when compared with existing works.

    CiNii

  • A Floorplan-aware High-level Synthesis Algorithm Utilizing Interconnection Delay Characteristics in FPGA Designs

    FUJIWARA Koichi, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    IEICE technical report. Dependable computing   114 ( 329 ) 99 - 104  2014.11

     View Summary

    Recently, high-level synthesis (HLS) techniques for FPGA designs are required such as in image processing and computerized stock tradings. With recent process scaling in FPGAs, interconnection delays become dominant in total circuit delays nevertheless I/O buffers and wire buffers are provided and each FPGA has a different interconnection delay characteristics. We need to consider interconnection delays based on interconnection delay characteristics in FPGA designs. In this paper, we propose a floorplan-aware high-level synthesis algorithm utilizing interconnection delay characteristics targeting FPGA designs. Our target architecture is HDR, one of distributed-register architectures, and then we can estimate interconnection delays correctly by utilizing interconnection delay characteristics in an FPGA chip. Further, we reduce multiplexers generated and also limit the total number of inputs to multiplexers in HLS process. Experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm can realize FPGA designs which reduce the latency by up to 6% compared with our previous approach.

    CiNii

  • High speed design of sub-threshold circuit by using DTMOS

    FUKUDOME Yuji, SHI Youhua, TOGAWA Nozomu, USAMI Kimiyoshi, YANAGISAWA Masao

    IEICE technical report. Dependable computing   114 ( 329 ) 117 - 121  2014.11

     View Summary

    Low power consumption is achieved by operating circuits in sub-threshold region. However, in sub-threshold region, the operating speed becomes slow, and the tradeoff between power and speed should be considered carefully. In this work, we present DTMOS implementations to realize high speed and low power in subthreshold region. Transistor level simulation results show that the operating speed can be improved by 30 %-45 %, and on average 15 % energy reduction can be achieved when V_&lt;dd&gt; ranges 0.2-0.3V.

    CiNii

  • A Hardware Trojans Detection Method focusing on Nets in Hardware Trojans in Gate-Level Netlists

    OYA Masaru, SHI Youhua, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    IEICE technical report. Dependable computing   114 ( 329 ) 135 - 140  2014.11

     View Summary

    Recently, digital ICs are designed by outside vendors to reduce design costs in semiconductor industry. This circumstance introduces risks that malicious attackers implement Hardware Trojans (HTs) into ICs. HTs are easily inserted in particular during design phase, but HTs detection is too difficult during this phase. This is why we have to assume Golden Netlists and activation of HTs in previous researches. This paper proposes an HT detection method through detecting LSLG nets, which have low switching probabilities. Our approach does not assume Golden netlists nor activation of HTs. We succesfully find out that all HT-inserted gate-level netlists from Trust-HUB benchmarks include a small number of LSLG nets. It takes approximately ten minutes to detect LSLG nets in each benchmark.

    CiNii

  • A High-level Synthesis Algorithm with Delay Variation Tolerance Optimization for RDR Architectures

    HAGIO Yuta, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    IEICE technical report. Dependable computing   114 ( 329 ) 209 - 214  2014.11

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a high-level synthesis algorithm with delay variation tolerance optimization for RDR architectures. We first obtain a non-delayed scheduling/binding result and a delayed scheduling/binding result independently. When we obtain two scheduling/binding results, we use two variation rates, the typical variation rate and the worst variation rate, and maximize them without increasing the latency. By adding several extra functional units to vacant RDR islands, we have a delayed scheduling/binding result so that its latency cannot be increased compared with the non-delayed one. After that, we similarize the two scheduling/binding results by repeatedly modifying their results. We can finally realize non-delayed and delayed scheduling/binding results simultaneously on RDR architecture with almost no area/performance overheads and we can select either one of them depending on post-silicon de- lay variation. Experimental results show that our algorithm successfully reduces delayed scheduling/binding latency by up to 16.7% compared with the conventional approach.

    CiNii

  • Data Dependent Optimization using Suspicious Timing Error Prediction for Reconfigurable Approximation Circuits

    Author not found

    研究報告システムとLSIの設計技術(SLDM)   2014 ( 2 ) 1 - 6  2014.11

     View Summary

    LSI 内部の各パス遅延は入力データに応じて様々に変動する.この性質を利用することで,計算精度をわずかに落としながらも高速に動作する LSI の設計が可能になる.本稿では,入力データ群にもとづき特定された最適化すべきパスをリコンフィギュレーションし最適化する,新たな回路設計アルゴリズムを提案する.提案アルゴリズムは最適化対象の回路にタイミングエラー予測回路を挿入し動作させることで被最適化パスを特定,動的に再構成し与えられたエラー制約内で動作クロック周期の最小化を図る.本アルゴリズムを加算器に対して適用した結果,通常のクリティカルパス最小化の設計と比較し,2.1 %以下のエラーを許容する制約下で最大 18.5%の高速化に成功した.The propagation delay along each path inside an LSI widely varies depending on input data, and this property can be exploited to design high-performance approximation circuit with a negligible error rate. In this paper, we propose a novel approximation circuit design algorithm, which identifies paths to be optimized based on input data and reconfigures these paths. Our algorithm first identifies the optimized paths by incorporating timing error prediction circuits into a target circuit and running them in practice. These paths are then dynamically reconfigured within an accuracy constraint with the objective of maximizing its performance. Experimental results targeting a set of basic adders show that our algorithm can achieve performance increase by up to 18.5% within acceptable error of 2.1% compared with conventional design techniques.

    CiNii

  • Local pulse generation in variable stages pipeline designs for low energy consumption

    NII Takayuki, SHI Youhua, TOGAWA Nozomu, USAMI Kimiyoshi, YANAGISAWA Masao

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   114 ( 231 ) 7 - 12  2014.10

     View Summary

    The increase of energy consumption due to improved performance has become a problem in the mobile terminal, and various low energy design techniques have been proposed. Variable Stages Pipeline(VSP) technique is one of them, which can reduce glitches by using a special LDS-cell(Latch D-FF selector-cell). However, glitches that occur during the low clock phase will still be propagated to next stages. In this paper, we propose a method for variable stages pipeline designs by applying local pulse generation and clock gating in LE mode for further energy reduction. We implemented the proposed method to a multiplier and experimental results show that the energy is reduced by 3.08% when compared to conventional VSP.

    CiNii

  • Local pulse generation in variable stages pipeline designs for low energy consumption

    NII Takayuki, SHI Youhua, TOGAWA Nozomu, USAMI Kimiyoshi, YANAGISAWA Masao

    IEICE technical report. Image engineering   114 ( 233 ) 7 - 12  2014.10

     View Summary

    The increase of energy consumption due to improved performance has become a problem in the mobile terminal, and various low energy design techniques have been proposed. Variable Stages Pipeline(VSP) technique is one of them, which can reduce glitches by using a special LDS-cell(Latch D-FF selector-cell). However, glitches that occur during the low clock phase will still be propagated to next stages. In this paper, we propose a method for variable stages pipeline designs by applying local pulse generation and clock gating in LE mode for further energy reduction. We implemented the proposed method to a multiplier and experimental results show that the energy is reduced by 3.08% when compared to conventional VSP.

    CiNii

  • Local pulse generation in variable stages pipeline designs for low energy consumption

    NII Takayuki, SHI Youhua, TOGAWA Nozomu, USAMI Kimiyoshi, YANAGISAWA Masao

    Technical report of IEICE. ICD   114 ( 232 ) 7 - 12  2014.10

     View Summary

    The increase of energy consumption due to improved performance has become a problem in the mobile terminal, and various low energy design techniques have been proposed. Variable Stages Pipeline(VSP) technique is one of them, which can reduce glitches by using a special LDS-cell(Latch D-FF selector-cell). However, glitches that occur during the low clock phase will still be propagated to next stages. In this paper, we propose a method for variable stages pipeline designs by applying local pulse generation and clock gating in LE mode for further energy reduction. We implemented the proposed method to a multiplier and experimental results show that the energy is reduced by 3.08% when compared to conventional VSP.

    CiNii

  • Local pulse generation in variable stages pipeline designs for low energy consumption

    Takayuki Nii, Youhua Shi, Nozomu Togawa, Kimiyoshi Usami, Masao Yanagisawa

    研究報告システムとLSIの設計技術(SLDM)   2014 ( 2 ) 1 - 6  2014.09

     View Summary

    The increase of energy consumption due to improved performance has become a problem in the mobile terminal, and various low energy design techniques have been proposed. Variable Stages Pipeline(VSP) technique is one of them, which can reduce glitches by using a special LDS-cell(Latch D-FF selector-cell). However, glitches that occur during the low clock phase will still be propagated to next stages. In this paper, we propose a method for variable stages pipeline designs by applying local pulse generation and clock gating in LE mode for further energy reduction. We implemented the proposed method to a multiplier and experimental results show that the energy is reduced by 3.08% when compared to conventional VSP.

    CiNii

  • A-3-12 Low Area Overhead Fault-Secure High-Level Synthesis for Floorplan-Driven Architectures

    Kawamura Kazushi, Yanagisawa Masao, Togawa Nozomu

    Proceedings of the Society Conference of IEICE   2014   56 - 56  2014.09

    CiNii

  • A-3-13 A High-level Synthesis Algorithm with Delay Variation Tolerance Maximization for RDR Architectures

    Hagio Yuta, Yanagisawa Masao, Togawa Nozomu

    Proceedings of the Society Conference of IEICE   2014   57 - 57  2014.09

    CiNii

  • A-17-10 Start/Target-Point Determination Methods for Indoor Pedestrain Navigation System based on Visibility Graphs

    Machida Satoshi, Yanagisawa Masao, Togawa Nozomu, Nitta Tomoyuki, Shindo Daisuke, Tanaka Kiyotaka

    Proceedings of the Society Conference of IEICE   2014  2014.09

    CiNii

  • A-17-11 Indoor Positioning System using Sensors and Bluetooth Beacons based on Visibility Graphs for Mobile Devices

    Fujita Hiroshi, Yanagisawa Masao, Togawa Nozomu, Nitta Tomoyuki, Shindo Daisuke, Tanaka Kiyotaka

    Proceedings of the Society Conference of IEICE   2014  2014.09

    CiNii

  • A-17-12 A Link Shaping Algorithm based on Feature Point Extraction using Cubic Bezier Curve

    Orihara Terutaka, Yanagisawa Masao, Togawa Nozomu, Nitta Tomoyuki, Shindou Daisuke, Tanaka Kiyotaka

    Proceedings of the Society Conference of IEICE   2014  2014.09

    CiNii

  • A Floorplan-driven High-Level Synthesis Algorithm for Reducing Multiplexer Inputs Targeting FPGAs

    FUJIWARA Koichi, ABE Shinya, KAWAMURA Kazushi, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告 = IEICE technical report : 信学技報   114 ( 126 ) 219 - 224  2014.07

     View Summary

    Recently, high-level synthesis (HLS) techniques for FPGA designs are required in situations when it is need to improve specifications in a short time such as computerized stock tradings. In HLS for FPGA designs, we need to consider module floorplan and reduce multiplexer&#039;s cost concurrently. In this paper, we propose a floorplan-aware HLS algorithm for reducing multiplexer inputs targeting FPGA designs. By utilizing a distirbuted-register architecture called HDR, we can easily consider module floorplan in HLS. In order to reduce multiplexer inputs, we propose a novel binding methods called datapath-oriented register binding. Experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm can realize FPGA designs which reduce the number of slices by up to 33% and 13% on average compared with the conventional approach.

    CiNii

  • A Floorplan-driven High-Level Synthesis Algorithm for Reducing Multiplexer Inputs Targeting FPGAs

    FUJIWARA Koichi, ABE Shinya, KAWAMURA Kazushi, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    Mathematical Systems Science and its Applications : IEICE technical report   114 ( 125 ) 219 - 224  2014.07

     View Summary

    Recently, high-level synthesis (HLS) techniques for FPGA designs are required in situations when it is need to improve specifications in a short time such as computerized stock tradings. In HLS for FPGA designs, we need to consider module floorplan and reduce multiplexer&#039;s cost concurrently. In this paper, we propose a floorplan-aware HLS algorithm for reducing multiplexer inputs targeting FPGA designs. By utilizing a distirbuted-register architecture called HDR, we can easily consider module floorplan in HLS. In order to reduce multiplexer inputs, we propose a novel binding methods called datapath-oriented register binding. Experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm can realize FPGA designs which reduce the number of slices by up to 33% and 13% on average compared with the conventional approach.

    CiNii

  • A Floorplan-driven High-Level Synthesis Algorithm for Reducing Multiplexer Inputs Targeting FPGAs

    FUJIWARA Koichi, ABE Shinya, KAWAMURA Kazushi, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    IEICE technical report. Circuits and systems   114 ( 122 ) 219 - 224  2014.07

     View Summary

    Recently, high-level synthesis (HLS) techniques for FPGA designs are required in situations when it is need to improve specifications in a short time such as computerized stock tradings. In HLS for FPGA designs, we need to consider module floorplan and reduce multiplexer&#039;s cost concurrently. In this paper, we propose a floorplan-aware HLS algorithm for reducing multiplexer inputs targeting FPGA designs. By utilizing a distirbuted-register architecture called HDR, we can easily consider module floorplan in HLS. In order to reduce multiplexer inputs, we propose a novel binding methods called datapath-oriented register binding. Experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm can realize FPGA designs which reduce the number of slices by up to 33% and 13% on average compared with the conventional approach.

    CiNii

  • A Floorplan-driven High-Level Synthesis Algorithm for Reducing Multiplexer Inputs Targeting FPGAs

    FUJIWARA Koichi, ABE Shinya, KAWAMURA Kazushi, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   114 ( 123 ) 219 - 224  2014.07

     View Summary

    Recently, high-level synthesis (HLS) techniques for FPGA designs are required in situations when it is need to improve specifications in a short time such as computerized stock tradings. In HLS for FPGA designs, we need to consider module floorplan and reduce multiplexer&#039;s cost concurrently. In this paper, we propose a floorplan-aware HLS algorithm for reducing multiplexer inputs targeting FPGA designs. By utilizing a distirbuted-register architecture called HDR, we can easily consider module floorplan in HLS. In order to reduce multiplexer inputs, we propose a novel binding methods called datapath-oriented register binding. Experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm can realize FPGA designs which reduce the number of slices by up to 33% and 13% on average compared with the conventional approach.

    CiNii

  • Improved scan-based side-channel attack on the LED block cipher independent of scan structure

    FUJISHIRO Mika, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   113 ( 454 ) 31 - 36  2014.03

     View Summary

    LED (Light Encryption Device) block cipher, one of lightweight block ciphers, is very compact in hard-ware. The conventional scan-based side-channel attack method on the LED would not retrieve the secret key if the scan chain length in the LED LSI is about 30,000 bits or more. In this paper, an improved scan-based attack method on the LED block cipher independent of scan structure is proposed. Experimental results show that our proposed method successfully retrieves its 64-bit secret key using 36 plaintexts on average if the scan chain is only connected to the LED block cipher. These experimental results also show the key is successfully retrieved even if the scan chain includes additional 130,000 1-bit registers.

    CiNii

  • Latch-based AES Encryption Circuit Against Fault Analysis

    SHI Youhua, TANIGUCHI Hiroaki, TOGAWA Nozomu, YANAGISAWA Masao

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   113 ( 454 ) 37 - 42  2014.03

     View Summary

    In general, cryptography is considered to be secure because it is based on complicated mathematical theories. In recent year, however, attacks on not crypto algorithms but hardware implementations such as fault analysis methods have posed new security threats. Cryptographic circuits are prone to fault analysis that intend to retrieve secret data by means of malicious fault injection. Clock-adjustment, voltage change, and laser manipulation can be used to inject malicious faults during the execution of a crypto circuit. As countermeasures against fault analysis, area-redundant methods such as triple modular redundant(TMR) and timing-redundant methods have been proposed at the cost of area or throughput. In this paper, we proposed a latch-based AES encryption circuit, with 18.1% area overhead and 5% throughput improvement, which can detect all the possible errors during the fault analysis region of clock glitch based fault analysis. In addition to fault analysis detection, the proposed method can also prevent the transmission and the use of erroneous results, and then can guarantee the correctness of the final encrypted outputs.

    CiNii

  • Secure scan design using improved random order scans and its evaluations

    OYA Masaru, ATOBE Yuta, SHI Youhua, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   113 ( 454 ) 43 - 48  2014.03

     View Summary

    Scan test using scan chains is one of the most important DFT techniques. On the other hand, scan-based attacks are reported which can retrieve the secret key in crypto circuits by using scan chains. Secure scan architecture is strongly required to protect scan chains from scan-based attacks. In this paper, we propose an improved version of random order scans as a secure scan architecture. In our improved random order scans, a scan chain is partitioned into multiple sub-chains. The structure of the scan chain changes dynamically by selecting a subchain to scan out using enable signals. We also discuss testability and security of our improved random order scans and demonstrate their effectiveness through implementation results.

    CiNii

  • Exposure source optimization by clustering for lithography

    TAWADA Masashi, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu, HASHIMOTO Takaki, SAKANUSHI Keishi, NOJIMA Shigeki, KOTANI Toshiya

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   113 ( 454 ) 105 - 110  2014.03

     View Summary

    In lithography, we generate patterns on a wafer through a photomask, where patterns generated have to be close to ideal patterns by optimizing a photomask as well as an exposure source. One of the most important tasks here is to speed-up exposure source optimization to have overall optimized photomask and exposure source. In this paper, we propose a speeding-up method for exposure source optimization by clustering for lithography. In our method, we cluster several source grid-points utilizing the lithography property and reduce the number of parameters to be optimized simultaneously. Experimental results demonstrate that our method achieves 8X speed-up compared with a conventional method.

    CiNii

  • Experiment and Analysis on Temperature Dependence of Delay and Energy for Subthreshold Circuits

    KUSHIDA Hiroki, SHI Youhua, TOGAWA Nozomu, USAMI Kimiyoshi, YANAGISAWA Masao

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   113 ( 454 ) 147 - 151  2014.03

     View Summary

    Low voltage design has been used in order to reduce the energy dissipation of mobile network equipment. However, as supply voltage reduces into subthreshold region, performance degradation and environment variations become the primary design challenges. In this paper, we implemented a super-pipelined multiplier for subthreshold supply voltage. With super-pipeline, the performance and energy efficiency can be improved. Moreover, experimental evaluations on the temperature dependences of delay and energy are also conducted for analysis.

    CiNii

  • A Locality-Driven Task Mapping Algorithm for Multi-FPGA Systems

    KATANO Hiroki, LEE SeungJu, TOGAWA Nozomu, AOKI Takashi, SEKIHARA Yusuke, NAKANISHI Mamoru

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   113 ( 416 ) 143 - 148  2014.01

     View Summary

    Recently, a scalable and reconfigurable multi-FPGA system has been proposed which consists of two or more boards, each of which consists of one router FPGA chip and five general-purpose FPGA chips. The five general-purpose FPGA chips are connected to form a ring and the router FPGA chip performs inter-board communications. How to map a task graph onto such a multi-FPGA system is one of the challenging problems. In this paper, we propose a task mapping algorithm for a multi-FPGA system. Since the multi-FPGA system has a hierarchical structure, we have to find out locality in a given task graph. In our proposed algorithm, we focus on the communication rate between tasks and try to assign the ones with many communications between them to the same FPGA chip one by one. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm.

    CiNii

  • An Area Constraint-Based Fault-Secure HLS Algorithm for RDR Architectures Considering Trade-Off between Reliability and Time Overhead

    KAWAMURA Kazushi, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    IEICE technical report. Dependable computing   113 ( 321 ) 129 - 134  2013.11

     View Summary

    With process technology scaling, decreasing reliability caused by soft errors as well as increasing the average interconnection delays are becoming serious issues. The fault-secure design technique which utilizes concurrent error detection is one of the approaches to overcome reliability degradation, and we can design systems based on trade-off between reliability and several kinds of overhead by giving a partial redundancy to operations. In this paper, we propose a partial redundant fault-secure high-level synthesis algorithm for RDR architectures. Our proposed algorithm receives a fixed area constraint and various time constrains as inputs, and aims at maximizing reliability under them. Experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm improves reliability by up to 44% with zero time and area overhead compared with the conventional approach. They also show that we can realize complete duplication of operations with zero area overhead and about 50% time overhead.

    CiNii

  • Suspicious timing error prediction using check points

    IGARASHI Hiroaki, SHI Youhua, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    IEICE technical report. Dependable computing   113 ( 321 ) 39 - 44  2013.11

     View Summary

    Due to advance process technologies, timing design of LSIs has become more difficult and the importance of timing error countermeasure techniques is increasing as well. Existing timing error detection/correction methods have difficulties in timing design since they have complex structure. Furthermore, their error correction is realized by re-run operation which results in low throughput. We have proposed a suspicious timing error prediction method (STEP method) which predicts timing error and corrects it with simple structure. STEP is based on checking timing errors by observing several checkpoints on signal paths. Since STEP is a timing error prediction method, we may have false positives and reduction of them is one of the largest problems. In this paper, we propose a method to reduce the false positives to optimize the checkpoints. The experimental results show that an operational frequency is increased by up to 2.4 times and its throughput is improved by up to 45%.

    CiNii

  • Energy Evaluation of Writing Reduction Method for Non-Volatile Memory

    TAWADA Masashi, KIMURA Shinji, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    IEICE technical report. Dependable computing   113 ( 321 ) 141 - 146  2013.11

     View Summary

    Non-volatile memory has many advantages over SRAM, such as high density, low leakage power, and non-volatility. However, one of its largest problems is that it consumes a large amount of energy in writing. It is quite necessary to reduce the number of writing bits and thus decrease its writing energy. We have proposed a memory writing reduction method based on error correcting codes. When a data is written into a memory, we do not write it directly but encode it into a codeword. Then the number of writing bits into memory is also limited in data writing. In this paper, we demonstrate several experimental evaluations from the viewpoints of energy reduction and discuss the effectiveness of our proposed writing-reduction codes.

    CiNii

  • Clock Energy-efficient High-level Synthesis and Experimental Evaluation for HDR-mcd Architecture

    ABE Shin-ya, SHI Youhua, USAMI Kimiyoshi, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    IEICE technical report. Dependable computing   113 ( 321 ) 263 - 268  2013.11

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a clock energy-efficient high-level synthesis algorithm for HDR-mcd architecture. In HDR-mcd, an entire chip is divided into several huddles. Huddles can realize synchronization between different clock domains in which interconnection delay is required and should be considered during high-level synthesis. In our iterative improvement based algorithm, low-frequency clocks are assigned to non-critical huddles under resource and latency constraints for energy efficiency improvement. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves 20% clock energy-saving and 10% total energy-saving compared with the existing methods considering clock gating.

    CiNii

  • Scan-based Attack on the LED Block Cipher Using Scan Signatures

    FUJISHIRO Mika, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    IEICE technical report. Image engineering   113 ( 237 ) 47 - 52  2013.10

     View Summary

    LED (Light Encryption Device) block cipher, one of lightweight block ciphers, is very compact in hardware. Its encryption process is composed of AES-like rounds. Recently, scan-based side-channel attacks are reported. It retrieves the secret information inside the cryptosystem utilizing scan chains, one of design-for-test techniques. In this paper, a scan-based attack method on the LED block cipher using scan signatures is proposed. In our proposed method, we focus on a particular 16-bit position in scanned data obtained from an LED LSI and retrieve its secret key using scan signatures. Experimental results show that our proposed method successfully retrieves its 64-bit secret key using 73 plaintexts on average. These experimental results also show the key is successfully retrieved even if the scan chain includes additional some 4000 1-bit registers.

    CiNii

  • Scan-based Attack on the LED Block Cipher Using Scan Signatures

    FUJISHIRO Mika, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    Technical report of IEICE. ICD   113 ( 236 ) 47 - 52  2013.10

     View Summary

    LED (Light Encryption Device) block cipher, one of lightweight block ciphers, is very compact in hardware. Its encryption process is composed of AES-like rounds. Recently, scan-based side-channel attacks are reported. It retrieves the secret information inside the cryptosystem utilizing scan chains, one of design-for-test techniques. In this paper, a scan-based attack method on the LED block cipher using scan signatures is proposed. In our proposed method, we focus on a particular 16-bit position in scanned data obtained from an LED LSI and retrieve its secret key using scan signatures. Experimental results show that our proposed method successfully retrieves its 64-bit secret key using 73 plaintexts on average. These experimental results also show the key is successfully retrieved even if the scan chain includes additional some 4000 1-bit registers.

    CiNii

  • A High-Level Synthesis Algorithm with Post-Silicon Delay Tuning for RDR Architectures and its Experimental Evaluations

    HAGIO Yuta, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   113 ( 235 ) 41 - 46  2013.09

     View Summary

    As device feature size drops, interconnection delays often exceed gate delays. We have to incorporate interconnection delays even in high-level synthesis. Using RDR architectures is one of the effective solutions to this problem. At the same time, process and delay variation also becomes a serious problem which may result in several timing errors. How to deal with this problem is another key issue in high-level synthesis. Thus, we have proposed a high-level synthesis algorithm with post-silicon delay tuning for RDR architectures. In this paper, we evaluate our high-level synthesis algorithm comparing several existing algorithms considering several situations. Experimental results show that our algorithm successfully reduces delayed scheduling/binding latency by up to 42.9% compared with the conventional approach.

    CiNii

  • Scan-based Attack on the LED Block Cipher Using Scan Signatures

    FUJISHIRO Mika, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   113 ( 235 ) 47 - 52  2013.09

     View Summary

    LED (Light Encryption Device) block cipher, one of lightweight block ciphers, is very compact in hardware. Its encryption process is composed of AES-like rounds. Recently, scan-based side-channel attacks are reported. It retrieves the secret information inside the cryptosystem utilizing scan chains, one of design-for-test techniques. In this paper, a scan-based attack method on the LED block cipher using scan signatures is proposed. In our proposed method, we focus on a particular 16-bit position in scanned data obtained from an LED LSI and retrieve its secret key using scan signatures. Experimental results show that our proposed method successfully retrieves its 64-bit secret key using 73 plaintexts on average. These experimental results also show the key is successfully retrieved even if the scan chain includes additional some 4000 1-bit registers.

    CiNii

  • A Bi-Linear Interpolation Unit Using Selector Logics

    SHIO Masashi, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   113 ( 235 ) 53 - 58  2013.09

     View Summary

    Bi-Linear interpolation is one of interpolation techniques, which interpolates a value linearly from its four circumferences. Bi-Linear interpolation is often used for image scaling and correction of distortion. In this paper, we propose a high-speed bi-linear interpolation circuit reducing carry propagation delay by using selector logics. We have implemented our bi-linear interpolation circuit in several ways and evaluated each of them.

    CiNii

  • A Road-network Shaping Algorithm for Smoothly-connected Deformed Map Generation

    Orihara Terutaka, Yanagisawa Masao, Togawa Nozomu

    Proceedings of the Society Conference of IEICE   2013   143 - 143  2013.09

    CiNii

  • Data Recoverable AES Circuit Against Differential Fault Analysis

    Taniguchi Hiroaki, Shi Youhua, Togawa Nozomu, Yanagisawa Masao

    Proceedings of the Society Conference of IEICE   2013   49 - 49  2013.09

    CiNii

  • A Comsideration on Hardware Trojan Detection Specifying Trojan Path

    Atobe Yuta, Shi Youhua, Yanagisawa Masao, Togawa Nozomu

    Proceedings of the Society Conference of IEICE   2013  2013.09

    CiNii

  • Evaluation of energy consumption for two-level cache using Non-Volatile Memory for IL1 and UL2 caches

    MATSUNO Shota, TAWADA Masashi, YANAGISAWA Masao, KIMURA Shinji, TOGAWA Nozomu, SUGIBAYASHI Tadahiko

    Mathematical Systems Science and its Applications : IEICE technical report   113 ( 121 ) 89 - 94  2013.07

     View Summary

    A non-volatile memory has advantages such as low leak energy and non-volatility compared with SRAM or DRAM has high leak energy. It is strongly expected to use a non-volatile memory for realizing normally-off systems. A non-volatile memory, however, consumes more energy to write than SRAM or DRAM. In this paper, we evaluate energy consumption of a cache memory in an embedded processor with non-volatile memories. In our evaluation, we assume that their write energy is 1.0x to 10.0x higher than that of SRAM. Experimental evaluations demonstrate that using non-volatile memories in a cache is better choice in some cases, even when write energy of non-volatile memories is 10.0x higher than that of SRAM.

    CiNii

  • A non-volatile memory writing reduction method based on state encoding limiting maximum Hamming distance

    TAWADA Masashi, KIMURA Shinji, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    Mathematical Systems Science and its Applications : IEICE technical report   113 ( 121 ) 95 - 100  2013.07

     View Summary

    Non-volatile memory has many advantages over SRAM, such as high density, low leakage power, and non-volatility. However, one of its largest problems is that it consumes a large amount of energy in writing. It is quite necessary to reduce the number of writing bits and thus decrease its writing energy. In this paper, we propose a memory writing reduction method based on state encoding limiting maximum Hamming distance. When a data is written into a memory, we do not write it directly but encode it into a codeword. Then we write the codeword into a memory. At this time, we encode a data into a codeword limiting its maximum Hamming distance from another codeword. If the maximum Hamming distance is limited among all the codewords, the number of flipped bits are also limited and then the number of writing bits will be reduced. We show several experimental evaluations and discuss the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm.

    CiNii

  • Evaluation of energy consumption for two-level cache using Non-Volatile Memory for IL1 and UL2 caches

    MATSUNO Shota, TAWADA Masashi, YANAGISAWA Masao, KIMURA Shinji, TOGAWA Nozomu, SUGIBAYASHI Tadahiko

    IEICE technical report. Circuits and systems   113 ( 118 ) 89 - 94  2013.07

     View Summary

    A non-volatile memory has advantages such as low leak energy and non-volatility compared with SRAM or DRAM has high leak energy. It is strongly expected to use a non-volatile memory for realizing normally-off systems. A non-volatile memory, however, consumes more energy to write than SRAM or DRAM. In this paper, we evaluate energy consumption of a cache memory in an embedded processor with non-volatile memories. In our evaluation, we assume that their write energy is 1.0x to 10.0x higher than that of SRAM. Experimental evaluations demonstrate that using non-volatile memories in a cache is better choice in some cases, even when write energy of non-volatile memories is 10.0x higher than that of SRAM.

    CiNii

  • A non-volatile memory writing reduction method based on state encoding limiting maximum Hamming distance

    TAWADA Masashi, KIMURA Shinji, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    IEICE technical report. Circuits and systems   113 ( 118 ) 95 - 100  2013.07

     View Summary

    Non-volatile memory has many advantages over SRAM, such as high density, low leakage power, and non-volatility. However, one of its largest problems is that it consumes a large amount of energy in writing. It is quite necessary to reduce the number of writing bits and thus decrease its writing energy. In this paper, we propose a memory writing reduction method based on state encoding limiting maximum Hamming distance. When a data is written into a memory, we do not write it directly but encode it into a codeword. Then we write the codeword into a memory. At this time, we encode a data into a codeword limiting its maximum Hamming distance from another codeword. If the maximum Hamming distance is limited among all the codewords, the number of flipped bits are also limited and then the number of writing bits will be reduced. We show several experimental evaluations and discuss the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm.

    CiNii

  • Evaluation of energy consumption for two-level cache using Non-Volatile Memory for IL1 and UL2 caches

    MATSUNO Shota, TAWADA Masashi, YANAGISAWA Masao, KIMURA Shinji, TOGAWA Nozomu, SUGIBAYASHI Tadahiko

    IEICE technical report. Signal processing   113 ( 120 ) 89 - 94  2013.07

     View Summary

    A non-volatile memory has advantages such as low leak energy and non-volatility compared with SRAM or DRAM has high leak energy. It is strongly expected to use a non-volatile memory for realizing normally-off systems. A non-volatile memory, however, consumes more energy to write than SRAM or DRAM. In this paper, we evaluate energy consumption of a cache memory in an embedded processor with non-volatile memories. In our evaluation, we assume that their write energy is 1.0x to 10.0x higher than that of SRAM. Experimental evaluations demonstrate that using non-volatile memories in a cache is better choice in some cases, even when write energy of non-volatile memories is 10.0x higher than that of SRAM.

    CiNii

  • Evaluation of energy consumption for two-level cache using Non-Volatile Memory for IL1 and UL2 caches

    MATSUNO Shota, TAWADA Masashi, YANAGISAWA Masao, KIMURA Shinji, TOGAWA Nozomu, SUGIBAYASHI Tadahiko

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   113 ( 119 ) 89 - 94  2013.07

     View Summary

    A non-volatile memory has advantages such as low leak energy and non-volatility compared with SRAM or DRAM has high leak energy. It is strongly expected to use a non-volatile memory for realizing normally-off systems. A non-volatile memory, however, consumes more energy to write than SRAM or DRAM. In this paper, we evaluate energy consumption of a cache memory in an embedded processor with non-volatile memories. In our evaluation, we assume that their write energy is 1.0x to 10.0x higher than that of SRAM. Experimental evaluations demonstrate that using non-volatile memories in a cache is better choice in some cases, even when write energy of non-volatile memories is 10.0x higher than that of SRAM.

    CiNii

  • A Linear Interpolation Unit Using Selector Logics

    SHIO Masashi, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   113 ( 30 ) 49 - 54  2013.05

     View Summary

    Interpolation is a technique that presumes a value between existing data, which is often used for image scaling and correction of distortion. A linear interpolation is one of the interpolation techniques which interpolates inbetween values by linearly connecting two known values. It is used practically in many cases because there are comparatively small computation cost. In this paper, we propose a high-speed linear interpolation circuit based on selector logics. The proposed linear interpolation circuit reduces carry propagation delay by using selector logics and then realizes a fast operation. We have implemented our linear interpolation circuit in several ways and evaluated each of them. We can find out that a selector-based linear interpolation circuit where its partial products are summed up by using the arithmetic operator reduces its delay by a maximum of 16% compared with a linear interpolation circuit synthesized by using arithmetic operators only.

    CiNii

  • Scan-based Attack against Trivium Stream Cipher Using Scan Signatures

    FUJISHIRO Mika, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   113 ( 30 ) 61 - 66  2013.05

     View Summary

    Trivium is a synchronous stream cipher using three shift registers. It is designed to have a simple structure and runs at high speed. A scan-based side-channel attack retrieves secret information using scan chains, one of design-for-test techniques. Since a conventional scan-based attack against Trivium assumes that a scan chain connects just registers in Trivium, it is difficult to apply it to a practical Trivium LSI chip. In this paper, a scan-based attack method against Trivium using scan signatures is proposed. In our method, we focus on a particular 1-bit position in a collection of scan chains and then we can attack Trivium even if the scan chain includes other registers than internal state registers in Trivium. Experimental results show that our proposed method successfully retrieves a plaintext from a ciphertext.

    CiNii

  • A Zero Time and Area Overhead Fault-Secure High-Level Synthesis Algorithm for RDR Architectures

    KAWAMURA Kazushi, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   113 ( 30 ) 67 - 72  2013.05

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a zero time and area overhead fault-secure high-level synthesis algorithm for RDR architectures. We duplicate some operations under a given time and area constraint and improve reliability by detecting the faults caused by soft errors. Experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm improves reliability by up to 37.73% with zero time and area overhead compared with the conventional approach.

    CiNii

  • A Zero Time and Area Overhead Fault-Secure High-Level Synthesis Algorithm for RDR Architectures

    Kazushi Kawamura, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    研究報告システムLSI設計技術(SLDM)   2013 ( 12 ) 1 - 6  2013.05

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose a zero time and area overhead fault-secure high-level synthesis algorithm for RDR architectures. We duplicate some operations under a given time and area constraint and improve reliability by detecting the faults caused by soft errors. Experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm improves reliability by up to 37.73% with zero time and area overhead compared with the conventional approach.

    CiNii

  • A Linear Interpolation Unit Using Selector Logics

    Masashi Shio, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    研究報告システムLSI設計技術(SLDM)   2013 ( 9 ) 1 - 6  2013.05

     View Summary

    Interpolation is a technique that presumes a value between existing data, which is often used for image scaling and correction of distortion. A linear interpolation is one of the interpolation techniques which interpolates inbetween values by linearly connecting two known values. It is used practically in many cases because there are comparatively small computation cost. In this paper, we propose a high-speed linear interpolation circuit based on selector logics. The proposed linear interpolation circuit reduces carry propagation delay by using selector logics and then realizes a fast operation. We have implemented our linear interpolation circuit in several ways and evaluated each of them. We can find out that a selector-based linear interpolation circuit where its partial products are summed up by using the arithmetic operator reduces its delay by a maximum of 16% compared with a linear interpolation circuit synthesized by using arithmetic operators only.

    CiNii

  • Scan-based Attack against Trivium Stream Cipher Using Scan Signatures

    Mika Fujishiro, Masao Yanagisawa, Nozomu Togawa

    研究報告システムLSI設計技術(SLDM)   2013 ( 11 ) 1 - 6  2013.05

     View Summary

    Trivium is a synchronous stream cipher using three shift registers. It is designed to have a simple structure and runs at high speed. A scan-based side-channel attack retrieves secret information using scan chains, one of design-for-test techniques. Since a conventional scan-based attack against Trivium assumes that a scan chain connects just registers in Trivium, it is difficult to apply it to a practical Trivium LSI chip. In this paper, a scan-based attack method against Trivium using scan signatures is proposed. In our method, we focus on a particular 1-bit position in a collection of scan chains and then we can attack Trivium even if the scan chain includes other registers than internal state registers in Trivium. Experimental results show that our proposed method successfully retrieves a plaintext from a ciphertext.

    CiNii

  • Accuracy Evaluation of Trace-based Cache Simulation for Two-core L1 Caches

    MASASHI TAWADA, MASAO YANAGISAWA, NOZOMU TOGAWA

    IEICE technical report. Dependable computing   112 ( 482 ) 85 - 90  2013.03

     View Summary

    In trace-based cache simulation, we perform cache simulation based on a particular memor/access trace obtained by cycle-accurate memory simulation. While cycle-accurate simulation takes too many time to run, trace-based cache simulation runs very fast and then we can evaluate many cache configurations in a short time. Let us consider a multi-core processor cache. We can obtain a memory access trace by using a cycle-accurate memory simulation but it can be changed when we consider another multi-core processor cache configuration. One of the main concerns in trace-based cache simulation applied to multi-core processor caches is its accuracy when the cache configuration that the memory access trace assumed is different from those the trace-based cache simulation targets. In this paper, we evaluate how much memory access traces affect cache configuration simulation when cache configurations simulated are different from the one that memory access traces assume, using several benchmark applications.

    CiNii

  • フロアプランを考慮したマルチクロックドメイン指向の低電力化高位合成手法 (コンピュータシステム 組込み技術とネットワークに関するワークショップETNET2013)

    阿部 晋矢, 史 又華, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告 : 信学技報   112 ( 481 ) 115 - 120  2013.03

     View Summary

    本稿では,マルチクロックドメイン適用へ向け,HDRアーキテクチャを拡張したHDR-mcdを提案する.続いてHDR-mcdを対象にマルチクロックドメイン指向の低電力化高位合成を提案する.提案手法はフロアプラン情報をフィードバックし,反復改良する合成フローを取る.その際,1クロック内の通信が保障されるパドルと呼ぶ区画を利用し,配線遅延の影響を予測,異なるクロック間の同期を考慮した高位合成を実現する.クロックはパドル毎に割り当て,資源制約と時間制約を満たす範囲で低い周波数のクロックを割り当てることで低電力化する.計算機実験により提案手法は従来の単一クロックのみを考慮したレジスタ分散型アーキテクチャと比較し25%程度消費エネルギーを削減できることを確認した.

    CiNii

  • Accuracy Evaluation of Trace-based Cache Simulation for Two-core L1 Caches

    MASASHI TAWADA, MASAO YANAGISAWA, NOZOMU TOGAWA

    IEICE technical report. Computer systems   112 ( 481 ) 85 - 90  2013.03

     View Summary

    In trace-based cache simulation, we perform cache simulation based on a particular memor/access trace obtained by cycle-accurate memory simulation. While cycle-accurate simulation takes too many time to run, trace-based cache simulation runs very fast and then we can evaluate many cache configurations in a short time. Let us consider a multi-core processor cache. We can obtain a memory access trace by using a cycle-accurate memory simulation but it can be changed when we consider another multi-core processor cache configuration. One of the main concerns in trace-based cache simulation applied to multi-core processor caches is its accuracy when the cache configuration that the memory access trace assumed is different from those the trace-based cache simulation targets. In this paper, we evaluate how much memory access traces affect cache configuration simulation when cache configurations simulated are different from the one that memory access traces assume, using several benchmark applications.

    CiNii

  • フロアプランを考慮したマルチクロックドメイン指向の低電力化高位合成手法

    阿部晋矢, 史又華, 柳澤政生, 戸川望

    研究報告組込みシステム(EMB)   2013 ( 20 ) 1 - 6  2013.03

     View Summary

    本稿では,マルチクロックドメイン適用へ向け,HDRアーキテクチャを拡張したHDR-mcdを提案する.続いてHDR-mcdを対象にマルチクロックドメイン指向の低電力化高位合成を提案する.提案手法はフロアプラン情報をフィードバックし,反復改良する合成フローを取る.その際,1クロック内の通信が保障されるハドルと呼ぶ区画を利用し,配線遅延の影響を予測,異なるクロック間の同期を考慮した高位合成を実現する.クロックはハドル毎に割り当て,資源制約と時間制約を満たす範囲で低い周波数のクロックを割り当てることで低電力化する.計算機実験により提案手法は従来の単一クロックのみを考慮したレジスタ分散型アーキテクチャと比較し25%程度消費エネルギーを削減できることを確認した.

    CiNii

  • Accuracy Evaluation of Trace-based Cache Simulation for Two-core L1 Caches

    多和田 雅師, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    研究報告システムLSI設計技術(SLDM)   2013 ( 15 ) 1 - 6  2013.03

     View Summary

    一般にプロセッサ上でアプリケーションを走らせた場合にキャッシュがどのように動作するかサイクル精度でシミュレーションすると時間がかかる.そこで,特定のキャッシュ構成を想定してサイクル精度でシミュレーションすることによりメモリアクセストレースを入手し,メモリアクセストレースを用いてキャッシュ動作をトレースベースシミュレーションするとシミュレーション時間を極めて短くできる.ここでキャッシュのトレースベースシミュレーションとは,メモリアクセストレースに従ってプロセッサがメモリアクセスすると仮定し,キャッシュがどのように動作するかのシミュレーションである.ところが,マルチコアアーキテクチャではメモリアクセスは原理的に,想定するキャッシュ構成によって変化する.トレースベースシミュレーションをマルチコアアーキテクチャに適用した場合,メモリアクセストレースを入手するときに想定したキャッシュ構成とトレースベースシミュレーションで想定したキャッシュ構成が異なるとトレースベースシミュレーション結果はサイクル精度シミュレーション結果と一致しない.本稿では,メモリアクセストレースを入手するときに想定したキャッシュ構成とトレースベースシミュレーションで想定したキャッシュ構成が異なるとき,トレースベースシミュレーションがどの程度,サイクル精度シミュレーションと一致するかを評価する.In trace-based cache simulation, we perform cache simulation based on a particular memory access trace obtained by cycle-accurate memory simulation. While cycle-accurate simulation takes too many time to run, trace-based cache simulation runs very fast and then we can evaluate many cache configurations in a short time. Let us consider a multi-core processor cache. We can obtain a memory access trace by using a cycle-accurate memory simulation but it can be changed when we consider another multi-core processor cache configuration. One of the main concerns in trace-based cache simulation applied to multi-core processor caches is its accuracy when the cache configuration that the memory access trace assumed is different from those the trace-based cache simulation targets. In this paper, we evaluate how much memory access traces affect cache configuration simulation when cache configurations simulated are different from the one that memory access traces assume, using several benchmark applications.

    CiNii

  • Accuracy Evaluation of Trace-based Cache Simulation for Two-core L1 Caches

    多和田 雅師, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    研究報告組込みシステム(EMB)   2013 ( 15 ) 1 - 6  2013.03

     View Summary

    一般にプロセッサ上でアプリケーションを走らせた場合にキャッシュがどのように動作するかサイクル精度でシミュレーションすると時間がかかる.そこで,特定のキャッシュ構成を想定してサイクル精度でシミュレーションすることによりメモリアクセストレースを入手し,メモリアクセストレースを用いてキャッシュ動作をトレースベースシミュレーションするとシミュレーション時間を極めて短くできる.ここでキャッシュのトレースベースシミュレーションとは,メモリアクセストレースに従ってプロセッサがメモリアクセスすると仮定し,キャッシュがどのように動作するかのシミュレーションである.ところが,マルチコアアーキテクチャではメモリアクセスは原理的に,想定するキャッシュ構成によって変化する.トレースベースシミュレーションをマルチコアアーキテクチャに適用した場合,メモリアクセストレースを入手するときに想定したキャッシュ構成とトレースベースシミュレーションで想定したキャッシュ構成が異なるとトレースベースシミュレーション結果はサイクル精度シミュレーション結果と一致しない.本稿では,メモリアクセストレースを入手するときに想定したキャッシュ構成とトレースベースシミュレーションで想定したキャッシュ構成が異なるとき,トレースベースシミュレーションがどの程度,サイクル精度シミュレーションと一致するかを評価する.In trace-based cache simulation, we perform cache simulation based on a particular memory access trace obtained by cycle-accurate memory simulation. While cycle-accurate simulation takes too many time to run, trace-based cache simulation runs very fast and then we can evaluate many cache configurations in a short time. Let us consider a multi-core processor cache. We can obtain a memory access trace by using a cycle-accurate memory simulation but it can be changed when we consider another multi-core processor cache configuration. One of the main concerns in trace-based cache simulation applied to multi-core processor caches is its accuracy when the cache configuration that the memory access trace assumed is different from those the trace-based cache simulation targets. In this paper, we evaluate how much memory access traces affect cache configuration simulation when cache configurations simulated are different from the one that memory access traces assume, using several benchmark applications.

    CiNii

  • A-17-13 Universal Navigation System Using Landmarks on Mobile Terminal

    Ishida Tsuyoshi, Yanagisawa Masao, Togawa Nozomu

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2013   244 - 244  2013.03

    CiNii

  • A-17-7 Pedestrian Friendly Route for Small Display Device using Deforrned Map

    Tsuji Kazuki, Yanagisawa Masao, Togawa Nozumu

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2013   238 - 238  2013.03

    CiNii

  • B-6-56 Duty Cycle Optimization for SMAC Protocol Minimizing Energy Consumption in Sensor NetWorks

    Ohgishi Ryuji, Yanagisawa Masao, Togawa Nozumu

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2013 ( 2 ) 56 - 56  2013.03

    CiNii

  • A Temperature-A ware High-Level Synthesis Algorithm for Regular-Distributed-Register Architectures based on Accurate Energy Consumption Estimation

    KAWAMURA Kazushi, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   112 ( 320 ) 13 - 18  2012.11

     View Summary

    With process technology scaling, heat problems in IC chips as well as increasing the average interconnection delays are becoming serious issues. Recently, we have proposed a binding and allocation algorithm for regular-distributed-register architectures (RDR architectures) with the objective of minimizing the peak temperature. In this paper, we propose an improved thermal-aware high-level synthesis algorithm for RDR architectures. The RDR architecture divides the entire chip into islands regularly. Firstly, our algorithm balances the energy consumption among islands through re-binding to functional units. Secondly, it accurately estimates the energy consumption in each island and minimizes the maximum energy consumption among islands through re-allocating new additional functional units. Experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm reduces the peak temperature by up to 15.42% compared with the conventional approaches.

    CiNii

  • Secure Scan Architecture Using State Dependent Scan Flip-Flop with Key-Based Configuration against Scan-Based Attack

    ATOBE Yuta, SHI Youhua, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   112 ( 320 ) 45 - 50  2012.11

     View Summary

    Secure cryptographic LSIs is intensively used in order to perform confidential operation. Scan test has become the most widely adopted test technique to ensure the correctness of manufactured LSIs, in which through the scan chains the internal states of the circuit under test (CUT) can be controlled and observed externally. However, scan chains using scan test might carry the risk of being misused for secret information leakage. Therefore a secure scan architecture using SDSFF (State Dependent Scan Flip-Flop) against scan-based attack which achieves high security without compromising the testability is proposed. In SDSFF, there is a problem which is the update timing of the latch which added to the scan FF. In this paper, we propose the update timing to online test without sacrificing the security. In our method, the latches are updated by result which the value of KEY which decided when designed compared with any FFs in a scan chain. We show that by using proposed method, neither the secret key nor the testability of vairous crypto circuits implementation is compromised, and the effectiveness of the proposed method. Experimental results on various crypto implementations show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

    CiNii

  • Scan-based Attack against Camellia Cryptosystems

    KODERA Hirokazu, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   112 ( 320 ) 51 - 56  2012.11

     View Summary

    Camellia is a common key cryptosystem and it has higher tolerance for cryptoanalysis than AES. In addition, Camellia has a processing speed which is equivalent to AES. Because Camellia can share encryption processing with decryption processing and it doesn&#039;t use arithmetic operation, it can be implemented hardware with the small number of gates. Recently, scan-based attacks are reported which retrieve secret keys with scanned data obtained from scan chain. There are no reports on scan-based attack against Camellia. In this paper, we propose a scan-based attack method against Camellia. Camellia has an 18-round Feistel structure which repeats the round function 18 times. In our proposed method, attackers input two plaintexts to a Camellia cryptosystem LSI and obtain two scanned data. By XORing them, influence of S-funtion in the round function can be removed. We focus on specific bit column data of XORed scanned data and, by observing transition of correspoding registers. Then, attackers retrieve four equivalent keys and restore a secret key in Camellia. We showed that secret keys of Camellia are restored with our proposed method.

    CiNii

  • Energy-efficient High-level Synthesis Considering Clock Design for HDR Architectures

    AKASAKA Hiryuki, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   112 ( 320 ) 129 - 134  2012.11

     View Summary

    With the miniaturization of LSIs and its increasing performance, demand for high-functional portable devices has grown significantly. At the same time, the problems for battery runtime and device overheating have occurred. On the other hand, the ratio of an interconnection delay to a gate delay has continued to increase as device feature size decreases. We have to estimate the interconnection delay and reduce energy consumption even in a high-level synthesis stage. In this paper, we propose high-level synthesis considering clock design for HDR architectures with concurrency-oriented scheduling. Firstly we focus on the number of the control steps at which we can apply the clock gating to registers and we schedule and bind operations to be performed at the same time. By adjusting the clock gating timings in a high-level synthesis stage, we enhance the effect of clock gatings than applying clock gatings after logic synthesis. Secondly, we determine the clock gating timings to minimize all energy consumption including clock tree energy. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm reduces energy consumption by a maximum of 21.2% compared with several conventional algorithms.

    CiNii

  • SAAV:Energy-efficient High-level Synthesis Algorithm targeting Adaptive Voltage Huddle-based Distributed Register Architecture with Dynamic Multiple Supply Voltages

    ABE Shin-ya, SHI Youhua, USAMI Kimiyoshi, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   112 ( 320 ) 135 - 140  2012.11

     View Summary

    An adaptive voltage huddle-based distributed-register architecture (AVHDR architecture), which integrates dynamic multiple supply voltages and interconnection delays into high-level synthesis, and a synthesis algorithm for AVHDR architectures have been proposed. This algorithm is based on iterative improvement of scheduling/binding and floorplanning and can converge without oscillation by using virtual-area-based iterative refinement flow. However, virtual areas may have some area and interconnection delay overheads. In this paper, we propose virtual area adaptation which relaxes these overheads as the iteration proceeds. Experimental results show that our algorithm achieves 6.2% energy saving compared with conventional algorithm for AVHDR architectures and 65.7% energy saving compared with conventional algorithms.

    CiNii

  • A Temperature-A ware High-Level Synthesis Algorithm for Regular-Distributed-Register Architectures based on Accurate Energy Consumption Estimation

    KAWAMURA Kazushi, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    IEICE technical report. Dependable computing   112 ( 321 ) 13 - 18  2012.11

     View Summary

    With process technology scaling, heat problems in IC chips as well as increasing the average interconnection delays are becoming serious issues. Recently, we have proposed a binding and allocation algorithm for regular-distributed-register architectures (RDR architectures) with the objective of minimizing the peak temperature. In this paper, we propose an improved thermal-aware high-level synthesis algorithm for RDR architectures. The RDR architecture divides the entire chip into islands regularly. Firstly, our algorithm balances the energy consumption among islands through re-binding to functional units. Secondly, it accurately estimates the energy consumption in each island and minimizes the maximum energy consumption among islands through re-allocating new additional functional units. Experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm reduces the peak temperature by up to 15.42% compared with the conventional approaches.

    CiNii

  • Secure Scan Architecture Using State Dependent Scan Flip-Flop with Key-Based Configuration against Scan-Based Attack

    ATOBE Yuta, SHI Youhua, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    IEICE technical report. Dependable computing   112 ( 321 ) 45 - 50  2012.11

     View Summary

    Secure cryptographic LSIs is intensively used in order to perform confidential operation. Scan test has become the most widely adopted test technique to ensure the correctness of manufactured LSIs, in which through the scan chains the internal states of the circuit under test (CUT) can be controlled and observed externally. However, scan chains using scan test might carry the risk of being misused for secret information leakage. Therefore a secure scan architecture using SDSFF (State Dependent Scan Flip-Flop) against scan-based attack which achieves high security without compromising the testability is proposed. In SDSFF, there is a problem which is the update timing of the latch which added to the scan FF. In this paper, we propose the update timing to online test without sacrificing the security. In our method, the latches are updated by result which the value of KEY which decided when designed compared with any FFs in a scan chain. We show that by using proposed method, neither the secret key nor the testability of vairous crypto circuits implementation is compromised, and the effectiveness of the proposed method. Experimental results on various crypto implementations show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

    CiNii

  • Scan-based Attack against Camellia Cryptosystems

    KODERA Hirokazu, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    IEICE technical report. Dependable computing   112 ( 321 ) 51 - 56  2012.11

     View Summary

    Camellia is a common key cryptosystem and it has higher tolerance for cryptoanalysis than AES. In addition, Camellia has a processing speed which is equivalent to AES. Because Camellia can share encryption processing with decryption processing and it doesn&#039;t use arithmetic operation, it can be implemented hardware with the small number of gates. Recently, scan-based attacks are reported which retrieve secret keys with scanned data obtained from scan chain. There are no reports on scan-based attack against Camellia. In this paper, we propose a scan-based attack method against Camellia. Camellia has an 18-round Feistel structure which repeats the round function 18 times. In our proposed method, attackers input two plaintexts to a Camellia cryptosystem LSI and obtain two scanned data. By XORing them, influence of S-funtion in the round function can be removed. We focus on specific bit column data of XORed scanned data and, by observing transition of correspoding registers. Then, attackers retrieve four equivalent keys and restore a secret key in Camellia. We showed that secret keys of Camellia are restored with our proposed method.

    CiNii

  • Energy-efficient High-level Synthesis Considering Clock Design for HDR Architectures

    AKASAKA Hiryuki, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    IEICE technical report. Dependable computing   112 ( 321 ) 129 - 134  2012.11

     View Summary

    With the miniaturization of LSIs and its increasing performance, demand for high-functional portable devices has grown significantly. At the same time, the problems for battery runtime and device overheating have occurred. On the other hand, the ratio of an interconnection delay to a gate delay has continued to increase as device feature size decreases. We have to estimate the interconnection delay and reduce energy consumption even in a high-level synthesis stage. In this paper, we propose high-level synthesis considering clock design for HDR architectures with concurrency-oriented scheduling. Firstly we focus on the number of the control steps at which we can apply the clock gating to registers and we schedule and bind operations to be performed at the same time. By adjusting the clock gating timings in a high-level synthesis stage, we enhance the effect of clock gatings than applying clock gatings after logic synthesis. Secondly, we determine the clock gating timings to minimize all energy consumption including clock tree energy. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm reduces energy consumption by a maximum of 21.2% compared with several conventional algorithms.

    CiNii

  • SAAV:Energy-efficient High-level Synthesis Algorithm targeting Adaptive Voltage Huddle-based Distributed Register Architecture with Dynamic Multiple Supply Voltages

    ABE Shin-ya, SHI Youhua, USAMI Kimiyoshi, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    IEICE technical report. Dependable computing   112 ( 321 ) 135 - 140  2012.11

     View Summary

    An adaptive voltage huddle-based distributed-register architecture (AVHDR architecture), which integrates dynamic multiple supply voltages and interconnection delays into high-level synthesis, and a synthesis algorithm for AVHDR architectures have been proposed. This algorithm is based on iterative improvement of scheduling/binding and floorplanning and can converge without oscillation by using virtual-area-based iterative refinement flow. However, virtual areas may have some area and interconnection delay overheads. In this paper, we propose virtual area adaptation which relaxes these overheads as the iteration proceeds. Experimental results show that our algorithm achieves 6.2% energy saving compared with conventional algorithm for AVHDR architectures and 65.7% energy saving compared with conventional algorithms.

    CiNii

  • Secure Scan Architecture Using State Dependent Scan Flip-Flop with Key-Based Configuration on RSA Circuit

    ATOBE Yuta, SHI Youhua, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    Technical report of IEICE. ICD   112 ( 247 ) 95 - 100  2012.10

     View Summary

    Scan test is one of the useful design for testability techniques, which can detect circuit failure efficiently. However, it has been reported that it&#039;s possible to retrieve secret keys from cryptographic LSIs through scan chains. Therefore a secure scan architecture using SDSFF (State Dependent Scan Flip-Flop) against scan-based attack which achieves high security without compromising the testability is proposed. In SDSFF, there is a problem which is the update timing of the latch which added to the scan FF. In this paper, we propose the update timing to online test without sacrificing the security. In our method, the latches are updated by result which the value of KEY which decided when designed compared with any FFs in a scan chain. We show that by using proposed method, neither the secret key nor the testability of an RSA circuit implementation is compromised, and the effectiveness of the proposed method According the result, even with 100 SDSFFs, the introduced area overhead is 0.555% which less than the conventional method.

    CiNii

  • Secure Scan Architecture Using State Dependent Scan Flip-Flop with Key-Based Configuration on RSA Circuit

    ATOBE Yuta, SHI Youhua, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告. ICD, 集積回路   112 ( 247 ) 95 - 100  2012.10

    CiNii

  • Secure Scan Architecture Using State Dependent Scan Flip-Flop with Key-Based Configuration on RSA Circuit

    ATOBE Yuta, SHI Youhua, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    IEICE technical report. Signal processing   112 ( 246 ) 95 - 100  2012.10

     View Summary

    Scan test is one of the useful design for testability techniques, which can detect circuit failure efficiently. However, it has been reported that it&#039;s possible to retrieve secret keys from cryptographic LSIs through scan chains. Therefore a secure scan architecture using SDSFF (State Dependent Scan Flip-Flop) against scan-based attack which achieves high security without compromising the testability is proposed. In SDSFF, there is a problem which is the update timing of the latch which added to the scan FF. In this paper, we propose the update timing to online test without sacrificing the security. In our method, the latches are updated by result which the value of KEY which decided when designed compared with any FFs in a scan chain. We show that by using proposed method, neither the secret key nor the testability of an RSA circuit implementation is compromised, and the effectiveness of the proposed method According the result, even with 100 SDSFFs, the introduced area overhead is 0.555% which less than the conventional method.

    CiNii

  • Secure Scan Architecture Using State Dependent Scan Flip-Flop with Key-Based Configuration on RSA Circuit

    ATOBE Yuta, SHI Youhua, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   112 ( 245 ) 95 - 100  2012.10

     View Summary

    Scan test is one of the useful design for testability techniques, which can detect circuit failure efficiently. However, it has been reported that it&#039;s possible to retrieve secret keys from cryptographic LSIs through scan chains. Therefore a secure scan architecture using SDSFF (State Dependent Scan Flip-Flop) against scan-based attack which achieves high security without compromising the testability is proposed. In SDSFF, there is a problem which is the update timing of the latch which added to the scan FF. In this paper, we propose the update timing to online test without sacrificing the security. In our method, the latches are updated by result which the value of KEY which decided when designed compared with any FFs in a scan chain. We show that by using proposed method, neither the secret key nor the testability of an RSA circuit implementation is compromised, and the effectiveness of the proposed method According the result, even with 100 SDSFFs, the introduced area overhead is 0.555% which less than the conventional method.

    CiNii

  • Secure Scan Architecture Using State Dependent Scan Flip-Flop with Key-Based Configuration on RSA Circuit

    ATOBE Yuta, SHI Youhua, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    IEICE technical report. Image engineering   112 ( 248 ) 95 - 100  2012.10

     View Summary

    Scan test is one of the useful design for testability techniques, which can detect circuit failure efficiently. However, it has been reported that it&#039;s possible to retrieve secret keys from cryptographic LSIs through scan chains. Therefore a secure scan architecture using SDSFF (State Dependent Scan Flip-Flop) against scan-based attack which achieves high security without compromising the testability is proposed. In SDSFF, there is a problem which is the update timing of the latch which added to the scan FF. In this paper, we propose the update timing to online test without sacrificing the security. In our method, the latches are updated by result which the value of KEY which decided when designed compared with any FFs in a scan chain. We show that by using proposed method, neither the secret key nor the testability of an RSA circuit implementation is compromised, and the effectiveness of the proposed method According the result, even with 100 SDSFFs, the introduced area overhead is 0.555% which less than the conventional method.

    CiNii

  • A-17-7 Pedestrian Navigation Considering Easiness of Route Understranding using Deformed-map

    Tsuji Kazuki, Yanagisawa Masao, Togawa Nozumu

    Proceedings of the Society Conference of IEICE   2012   166 - 166  2012.08

    CiNii

  • A-3-4 AES Cryptosystem Using Clock Falling Edge Against DFA

    Igarashi Hiroaki, Shi Youhua, Yanagisawa Masao, Togawa Nozomu

    Proceedings of the Society Conference of IEICE   2012   51 - 51  2012.08

    CiNii

  • A-3-1 Evaluation of L1 and L2 Caches Configuration using Non-Volatile Memory for IL1 and UL2 Caches

    Matsuno Shota, Tawada Masashi, Yanagisawa Masao, Togawa Nozomu

    Proceedings of the Society Conference of IEICE   2012  2012.08

    CiNii

  • A-3-5 Secure Scan Architecture Using State Dependent Scan Flip-Flop with Feedback

    Atobe Yuta, Shi Youhua, Yanagisawa Masao, Togawa Nozomu

    Proceedings of the Society Conference of IEICE   2012  2012.08

    CiNii

  • Multiple Supply Voltage aware High-level Synthesis for High-integrated and High-frequency Circuits

    阿部 晋矢, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    回路とシステムワークショップ論文集 Workshop on Circuits and Systems   25   160 - 165  2012.07

    CiNii

  • Data Structures Representing Multiple Cache Configurations and Its Associated Fast and Exact Two-core Cache Configuration Simulation

    多和田 雅師, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    回路とシステムワークショップ論文集 Workshop on Circuits and Systems   25   414 - 419  2012.07

    CiNii

  • Secure Scan Architecture on RSA Circuit Using State Dependent Scan Flip Flop against Scan-Based Side Channel Attack

    ATOBE Yuta, SHI Youhua, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    IEICE technical report. Signal processing   112 ( 115 ) 115 - 120  2012.06

     View Summary

    Scan test that is one of the useful design for testability tecniques, which can control and observe the FFs(Flip Flops) inside LSIs, can detect circuit failure efficiently. On the other hand, a scan-based attack using scan chain which retrieves secret keys of cryptographic LSIs is considered. Generaly testability and security are contradictory, there is a need for an efficient design for testability circuit to satisfy both testability and security. In this paper, a secure scan architecture against scan-based attack which have high testability is proposed. In our method, scan data is state-dependent changed unintelligible data to attackers by adding the latch to any FFs in the scan chain. Changing the value of the FFs can dynamically change the scan data. The tester can test as a normal scan test because they know the structure of the extended circuit. We made an analysis on an RSA implementation to show the effectiveness of the proposed method and discussed how our approach is resistant to scan-based attack.

    CiNii

  • Secure Scan Architecture on RSA Circuit Using State Dependent Scan Flip Flop against Scan-Based Side Channel Attack

    ATOBE Yuta, SHI Youhua, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    Mathematical Systems Science and its Applications : IEICE technical report   112 ( 116 ) 115 - 120  2012.06

     View Summary

    Scan test that is one of the useful design for testability tecniques, which can control and observe the FFs(Flip Flops) inside LSIs, can detect circuit failure efficiently. On the other hand, a scan-based attack using scan chain which retrieves secret keys of cryptographic LSIs is considered. Generaly testability and security are contradictory, there is a need for an efficient design for testability circuit to satisfy both testability and security. In this paper, a secure scan architecture against scan-based attack which have high testability is proposed. In our method, scan data is state-dependent changed unintelligible data to attackers by adding the latch to any FFs in the scan chain. Changing the value of the FFs can dynamically change the scan data. The tester can test as a normal scan test because they know the structure of the extended circuit. We made an analysis on an RSA implementation to show the effectiveness of the proposed method and discussed how our approach is resistant to scan-based attack.

    CiNii

  • Secure Scan Architecture on RSA Circuit Using State Dependent Scan Flip Flop against Scan-Based Side Channel Attack

    ATOBE Yuta, SHI Youhua, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    IEICE technical report. Circuits and systems   112 ( 113 ) 115 - 120  2012.06

     View Summary

    Scan test that is one of the useful design for testability tecniques, which can control and observe the FFs(Flip Flops) inside LSIs, can detect circuit failure efficiently. On the other hand, a scan-based attack using scan chain which retrieves secret keys of cryptographic LSIs is considered. Generaly testability and security are contradictory, there is a need for an efficient design for testability circuit to satisfy both testability and security. In this paper, a secure scan architecture against scan-based attack which have high testability is proposed. In our method, scan data is state-dependent changed unintelligible data to attackers by adding the latch to any FFs in the scan chain. Changing the value of the FFs can dynamically change the scan data. The tester can test as a normal scan test because they know the structure of the extended circuit. We made an analysis on an RSA implementation to show the effectiveness of the proposed method and discussed how our approach is resistant to scan-based attack.

    CiNii

  • Secure Scan Architecture on RSA Circuit Using State Dependent Scan Flip Flop against Scan-Based Side Channel Attack

    ATOBE Yuta, SHI Youhua, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   112 ( 114 ) 115 - 120  2012.06

     View Summary

    Scan test that is one of the useful design for testability tecniques, which can control and observe the FFs(Flip Flops) inside LSIs, can detect circuit failure efficiently. On the other hand, a scan-based attack using scan chain which retrieves secret keys of cryptographic LSIs is considered. Generaly testability and security are contradictory, there is a need for an efficient design for testability circuit to satisfy both testability and security. In this paper, a secure scan architecture against scan-based attack which have high testability is proposed. In our method, scan data is state-dependent changed unintelligible data to attackers by adding the latch to any FFs in the scan chain. Changing the value of the FFs can dynamically change the scan data. The tester can test as a normal scan test because they know the structure of the extended circuit. We made an analysis on an RSA implementation to show the effectiveness of the proposed method and discussed how our approach is resistant to scan-based attack.

    CiNii

  • Multiple-supply-voltages aware high-speed and high-efficiency high-level synthesis for HDR architecture

    阿部 晋矢, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    研究報告システムLSI設計技術(SLDM)   2012 ( 2 ) 1 - 6  2012.05

     View Summary

    高集積,高機能な LSI 加工技術の出現により,エネルギー効率と配線遅延を意識した LSI 設計が求められる.低電力化技術の 1 つである複数電源電圧は,設計の上位工程で意識するほど効果が高いまた,設計の下位工程であるフロアプランまで意識し,配線遅延の影響を考えた高位合成が必要となっている.複数電源電圧と配線遅延を高位合成に統合するプラットフォームとして HDR アーキテクチャが提案された本稿では,HDR アーキテクチャを対象に高速かつ効率的な複数電源電圧指向の高位合成を提案する.高速かつ効率的に解を得るため,「高収束な面積見積もり」 と 「フロアプラン指向ハドル合成」 を提案する.「高収束な面積見積もり」 は,従来手法において収束の妨げとなっていた反復中の面積の振動を削減する.「フロアプラン指向ハドル合成」 は,ハドルに所属する演算器をフロアプランと同時に決定することで効率的にハドルの構成を決定する.計算機実験結果より提案手法は従来手法と比較し,約 40% 実行時間が削減された.HDR architecture has been proposed as a platform that integrates energy-efficiency and interconnection delays into high-level synthesis. In this paper, we propose new multiple-supply-voltages aware high-speed and highefficiency high-level synthesis for HDR architectures. We propose two new techniques, &quot;virtual area estimation&quot; and &quot;floorplanning directed huddling&quot;, and integrate them into an HDR architecture synthesis algorithm. &quot;Virtual area estimation&quot; reduces huddles&#039; area oscillating during iterations, which impedes convergence of conventional methods. &quot;Floorplanning directed huddling&quot; determines huddle structure effectively by resolving floorplanning and functional unit assignment inside huddles at the same time. Experimental results show that our algorithm achieves about 40% run-time-saving compared with the conventional methods.

    CiNii

  • Multiple-supply-voltages aware high-speed and high-efficiency high-level synthesis for HDR architecture

    ABE Shin-ya, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   112 ( 71 ) 7 - 12  2012.05

     View Summary

    HDR architecture has been proposed as a platform that integrates energy-efficiency and interconnection delays into high-level synthesis. In this paper, we propose new multiple-supply-voltages aware high-speed and high-efficiency high-level synthesis for HDR architectures. We propose two new techniques, &quot;virtual area estimation&quot; and &quot;floorplanning directed huddling&quot;, and integrate them into an HDR architecture synthesis algorithm. &quot;Virtual area estimation&quot; reduces huddles&#039; area oscillating during iterations, which impedes convergence of conventional methods. &quot;Floorplanning directed huddling&quot; determines huddle structure effectively by resolving floorplanning and functional unit assignment inside huddles at the same time. Experimental results show that our algorithm achieves about 40% run-time-saving compared with the conventional methods.

    CiNii

  • A-3-7 Control Method for Image Recognition Hardware with Multiple Video Inputs

    Otsuka Takuya, Hosoya Eiichi, Aoki Takashi, Onozawa Akira, Lee Seungju, Togawa Nozomu

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2012  2012.03

    CiNii

  • Fast and Exact Cache Configuration Simulation for Two-core L1 Cache

    多和田 雅師, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    研究報告システムLSI設計技術(SLDM)   2012 ( 3 ) 1 - 6  2012.02

     View Summary

    近年,複数のコアをもつ組込みプロセッサが増えている.アプリケーションが限定される組込みシステムでは,速度や電力,面積の点で最適なキャッシュメモリが存在する.限定されたアプリケーションに対して複数のキャッシュ構成それぞれで動作シミュレーションを行うことで,キャッシュメモリ設計時に最適なキャッシュ構成を判定できる.マルチコアキャッシュ構成のシミュレーションは複雑になりシングルコアキャッシュ構成のシミュレーションよりも時間がかかってしまう.シングルコアプロセッサのキャッシュ構成ではシミュレーションの高速化手法が研究されているが,マルチコアプロセッサのキャッシュ構成ではシミュレーション高速化手法の研究は進んでいない.本稿では 2 コアプロセッサ L1 キャッシュのキャッシュ構成シミュレーションの高速化手法を提案する.マルチコアプロセッサではキャッシュコヒーレンシプロトコルがあり,複数の似たキャッシュ構成であっても内部状態が異なる場合が多い.そこでキャッシュコヒーレンシプロトコルの状態遷移とキャッシュ連想度に関する性質を利用することで 1 つのデータ構造で連想度の異なる複数のキャッシュ構成を表現する手法を提案する.複数のキャッシュ構成を 1 つのデータ構造で表し探索や更新の範囲を少なくすることで,シミュレーションの高速化を図る.Recently, multiple-core processors are used in embedded systems very often. Since application programs running are much limited on embedded systems, there must exist an optimal cache memory in terms of power and area. Simulating application programs on various cache configurations is one of the best options to determine the optimal cache configuration. Multicore cache configuration simulation, however, is much more complicated and takes much more time than single-core cache configuration simulation. In this paper, we propose a very fast two-core L1 cache configuration simulation algorithm. We first propose a new data structure where just a single data structure represents two or more multicore cache configurations with different cache associativities. After that, we propose a new multicore cache configuration simulation algorithm using our new data structure associated with new theorems.

    CiNii

  • Partial Redundant Fault Secure High Level Synthesis for RDR Architecture

    田中 翔, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    研究報告システムLSI設計技術(SLDM)   2012 ( 4 ) 1 - 6  2012.02

     View Summary

    半導体の微細化技術の向上に伴い,ソフトエラーによる信頼性低下が問題となっている.そのため,LSI にエラー検出機能を組み込むフォールトセキュア設計の必要性が高まっている.一方,微細化技術の向上によりゲート遅延より配線遅延が支配的となったため,高位合成段階で配線遅延を予測する必要が生じている.配線長が不定である従来のレジスタ集中型アーキテクチャに対し,レジスタをチップ内に均等に配置することで配線長を一定とする RDR アーキテクチャが提案されている.本稿では RDR アーキテクチャを対象とした,部分 2 重化によるフォールトセキュア高位合成手法を提案する.提案手法では入力 CDFG の演算ノードを一部 2 重化することで,レイテンシ制約内で信頼性を最大化する.RDR アーキテクチャで生じる空き領域をフォールトセキュア設計に利用することで面積効率を向上させると同時に,2 重化可能な演算ノード数を増加させる.続いて,挿入比較ノード数を最小化するスケジューリング・バインディングを行うことで余分な演算器動作を抑制し,信頼性向上を図る.計算機実験により提案手法は,フォールトセキュア設計を利用しない手法と比して最大 57% 信頼性を向上させるフォールトセキュア高位合成が可能であることを確認した.As device feature size decreases, the reliability improvement against soft errors becomes quite necessary. A fault-secure system, in which concurrent error detection is realized, is one of the solutions to this problem. On the other hand, the average interconnect delay exceeds the gate delay which leads to the timing closure problem. By using regular-distributed-register architecture (RDR architecture), we can estimate interconnection delays very accurately and influence of their interconnect can be much reduced even in the behavioral level. In this paper, we propose a partial redundant fault-secure high-level synthesis algorithm for an RDR architecture. In fault-secure high-level synthesis, a re-computation CDFG a part of normal-computation CDFG must be scheduled and bound to functional units. Firstly, our algorithm re-uses vacant areas on RDR islands to allocate new function units additionally for the re-computation CDFG.Secondly, we propose a scheduling algorithm which minimize the number of insert comparator nodes. We show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm through experimental results. Our algorithm reduces the soft error rate by an average of 57% compared with the non fault-secure approach.

    CiNii

  • A Fast Interpolation Unit Using Selector Logics

    岩田 愛実, 吉原 弘峰, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    研究報告システムLSI設計技術(SLDM)   2012 ( 7 ) 1 - 6  2012.02

     View Summary

    補間演算は既知のデータ列を基にして各区間の範囲内を埋める数値または関数を求める演算で,画像の拡大,縮小や魚眼画像の補正といった処理に利用される.キュービックスプライン補間は周囲 4 点から 3 次関数を用いることで補間を行うため精度が高く,より滑らかな補間ができるため実用的に用いられる.しかし,キュービックスプライン補間では扱う既知データが多く,計算が複雑なために処理に時間がかかる.そのため,補間演算処理をリアルタイムに行うには演算の高速化が必要である.本稿では,補間演算器にセレクタ論理を組み込むことで桁上げ伝搬遅延を削減し,演算器を高速化する手法を提案する.周囲 2 点を基に補間を行う線形補間では,算術演算子を用いて設計した従来の線形補間演算器に比べ,遅延時間は最大15%削減された.キュービックスプライン補間演算では,従来のキュービックスプライン補間演算器に比べ,遅延時間は最大 25% 削減された.Interpolation is a technique that fills the gaps between existing data, which is often applied to image scaling and superresolution. Cubic spline interpolation, one of the interpolation techniques, obtains a cubic function based on the four existing points and fills their gaps very smoothly and precisely. However, it takes a lot of time because it requires many data and complex calculation. Speeding-up cubic spline interpolation is the key to realize a practical image scaling system. In this paper, we firstly focus on linear interpolation and propose a high-speed linear interpolation circuit based on &quot;selector logics.&quot; Secondly, we propose a high-speed cubic spline interpolation circuit composed of our proposed linear interpolation circuits. Experimental results demonstrate that our linear interpolation circuit improves the performance by 15% and that our cubic interpolation circuit improves the performance by 25 %, compared to a conventional interpolation design.

    CiNii

  • Fast and Exact Cache Configuration Simulation for Two-core L1 Cache

    多和田 雅師, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    研究報告組込みシステム(EMB)   2012 ( 3 ) 1 - 6  2012.02

     View Summary

    近年,複数のコアをもつ組込みプロセッサが増えている.アプリケーションが限定される組込みシステムでは,速度や電力,面積の点で最適なキャッシュメモリが存在する.限定されたアプリケーションに対して複数のキャッシュ構成それぞれで動作シミュレーションを行うことで,キャッシュメモリ設計時に最適なキャッシュ構成を判定できる.マルチコアキャッシュ構成のシミュレーションは複雑になりシングルコアキャッシュ構成のシミュレーションよりも時間がかかってしまう.シングルコアプロセッサのキャッシュ構成ではシミュレーションの高速化手法が研究されているが,マルチコアプロセッサのキャッシュ構成ではシミュレーション高速化手法の研究は進んでいない.本稿では 2 コアプロセッサ L1 キャッシュのキャッシュ構成シミュレーションの高速化手法を提案する.マルチコアプロセッサではキャッシュコヒーレンシプロトコルがあり,複数の似たキャッシュ構成であっても内部状態が異なる場合が多い.そこでキャッシュコヒーレンシプロトコルの状態遷移とキャッシュ連想度に関する性質を利用することで 1 つのデータ構造で連想度の異なる複数のキャッシュ構成を表現する手法を提案する.複数のキャッシュ構成を 1 つのデータ構造で表し探索や更新の範囲を少なくすることで,シミュレーションの高速化を図る.Recently, multiple-core processors are used in embedded systems very often. Since application programs running are much limited on embedded systems, there must exist an optimal cache memory in terms of power and area. Simulating application programs on various cache configurations is one of the best options to determine the optimal cache configuration. Multicore cache configuration simulation, however, is much more complicated and takes much more time than single-core cache configuration simulation. In this paper, we propose a very fast two-core L1 cache configuration simulation algorithm. We first propose a new data structure where just a single data structure represents two or more multicore cache configurations with different cache associativities. After that, we propose a new multicore cache configuration simulation algorithm using our new data structure associated with new theorems.

    CiNii

  • Partial Redundant Fault Secure High Level Synthesis for RDR Architecture

    田中 翔, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    研究報告組込みシステム(EMB)   2012 ( 4 ) 1 - 6  2012.02

     View Summary

    半導体の微細化技術の向上に伴い,ソフトエラーによる信頼性低下が問題となっている.そのため,LSI にエラー検出機能を組み込むフォールトセキュア設計の必要性が高まっている.一方,微細化技術の向上によりゲート遅延より配線遅延が支配的となったため,高位合成段階で配線遅延を予測する必要が生じている.配線長が不定である従来のレジスタ集中型アーキテクチャに対し,レジスタをチップ内に均等に配置することで配線長を一定とする RDR アーキテクチャが提案されている.本稿では RDR アーキテクチャを対象とした,部分 2 重化によるフォールトセキュア高位合成手法を提案する.提案手法では入力 CDFG の演算ノードを一部 2 重化することで,レイテンシ制約内で信頼性を最大化する.RDR アーキテクチャで生じる空き領域をフォールトセキュア設計に利用することで面積効率を向上させると同時に,2 重化可能な演算ノード数を増加させる.続いて,挿入比較ノード数を最小化するスケジューリング・バインディングを行うことで余分な演算器動作を抑制し,信頼性向上を図る.計算機実験により提案手法は,フォールトセキュア設計を利用しない手法と比して最大 57% 信頼性を向上させるフォールトセキュア高位合成が可能であることを確認した.As device feature size decreases, the reliability improvement against soft errors becomes quite necessary. A fault-secure system, in which concurrent error detection is realized, is one of the solutions to this problem. On the other hand, the average interconnect delay exceeds the gate delay which leads to the timing closure problem. By using regular-distributed-register architecture (RDR architecture), we can estimate interconnection delays very accurately and influence of their interconnect can be much reduced even in the behavioral level. In this paper, we propose a partial redundant fault-secure high-level synthesis algorithm for an RDR architecture. In fault-secure high-level synthesis, a re-computation CDFG a part of normal-computation CDFG must be scheduled and bound to functional units. Firstly, our algorithm re-uses vacant areas on RDR islands to allocate new function units additionally for the re-computation CDFG.Secondly, we propose a scheduling algorithm which minimize the number of insert comparator nodes. We show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm through experimental results. Our algorithm reduces the soft error rate by an average of 57% compared with the non fault-secure approach.

    CiNii

  • A Fast Interpolation Unit Using Selector Logics

    岩田 愛実, 吉原 弘峰, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    研究報告組込みシステム(EMB)   2012 ( 7 ) 1 - 6  2012.02

     View Summary

    補間演算は既知のデータ列を基にして各区間の範囲内を埋める数値または関数を求める演算で,画像の拡大,縮小や魚眼画像の補正といった処理に利用される.キュービックスプライン補間は周囲 4 点から 3 次関数を用いることで補間を行うため精度が高く,より滑らかな補間ができるため実用的に用いられる.しかし,キュービックスプライン補間では扱う既知データが多く,計算が複雑なために処理に時間がかかる.そのため,補間演算処理をリアルタイムに行うには演算の高速化が必要である.本稿では,補間演算器にセレクタ論理を組み込むことで桁上げ伝搬遅延を削減し,演算器を高速化する手法を提案する.周囲 2 点を基に補間を行う線形補間では,算術演算子を用いて設計した従来の線形補間演算器に比べ,遅延時間は最大15%削減された.キュービックスプライン補間演算では,従来のキュービックスプライン補間演算器に比べ,遅延時間は最大 25% 削減された.Interpolation is a technique that fills the gaps between existing data, which is often applied to image scaling and superresolution. Cubic spline interpolation, one of the interpolation techniques, obtains a cubic function based on the four existing points and fills their gaps very smoothly and precisely. However, it takes a lot of time because it requires many data and complex calculation. Speeding-up cubic spline interpolation is the key to realize a practical image scaling system. In this paper, we firstly focus on linear interpolation and propose a high-speed linear interpolation circuit based on &quot;selector logics.&quot; Secondly, we propose a high-speed cubic spline interpolation circuit composed of our proposed linear interpolation circuits. Experimental results demonstrate that our linear interpolation circuit improves the performance by 15% and that our cubic interpolation circuit improves the performance by 25 %, compared to a conventional interpolation design.

    CiNii

  • Fast and Exact Cache Configuration Simulation for Two-core L1 Cache

    TAWADA MASASHI, YANAGISAWA MASAO, TOGAWA NOZOMU

    IEICE technical report. Dependable computing   111 ( 462 ) 13 - 18  2012.02

     View Summary

    Recently, multiple-core processors are used in embedded systems very often. Since application programs running are much limited on embedded systems, there must exist an optimal cache memory in terms of power and area. Simulating application programs on various cache configurations is one of the best options to determine the optimal cache configuration. Multicore cache configuration simulation, however, is much more complicated and takes much more time than single-core cache configuration simulation. In this paper, we propose a very fast two-core L1 cache configuration simulation algorithm. We first propose a new data structure where just a single data structure represents two or more multicore cache configurations with different cache associativities. After that, we propose a new multicore cache configuration simulation algorithm using our new data structure associated with new theorems.

    CiNii

  • Partial Redundant Fault Secure High Level Synthesis for RDR Architecture

    TANAKA SHO, YANAGISAWA MASAO, TOGAWA NOZOMU

    IEICE technical report. Dependable computing   111 ( 462 ) 19 - 24  2012.02

     View Summary

    As device feature size decreases, the reliability improvement against soft errors becomes quite necessary. A fault-secure system, in which concurrent error detection is realized, is one of the solutions to this problem. On the other hand, the average interconnect delay exceeds the gate delay which leads to the timing closure problem. By using regular-distributed-register architecture (RDR architecture), we can estimate interconnection delays very accurately and influence of their interconnect can be much reduced even in the behavioral level. In this paper, we propose a partial redundant fault-secure high-level synthesis algorithm for an RDR architecture. In fault-secure high-level synthesis, a recomputation CDFG a part of normal-computation CDFG must be scheduled and bound to functional units. Firstly, our algorithm re-uses vacant areas on RDR islands to allocate new function units additionally for the re-computation CDFG.Secondly, we propose a scheduling algorithm which minimize the number of insert comparator nodes. We show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm through experimental results. Our algorithm reduces the soft error rate by an average of 57% compared with the non fault-secure approach.

    CiNii

  • A Fast Interpolation Unit Using Selector Logics

    IWATA MANAMI, YOSHIHARA HIROMINE, YANAGISAWA MASAO, TOGAWA NOZOMU

    IEICE technical report. Dependable computing   111 ( 462 ) 37 - 42  2012.02

     View Summary

    Interpolation is a technique that fills the gaps between existing data, which is often applied to image scaling and superresolution. Cubic spline interpolation, one of the interpolation techniques, obtains a cubic function based on the four existing points and fills their gaps very smoothly and precisely. However, it takes a lot of time because it requires many data and complex calculation. Speeding-up cubic spline interpolation is the key to realize a practical image scaling system. In this paper, we firstly focus on linear interpolation and propose a high-speed linear interpolation circuit based on &quot;selector logics.&quot; Secondly, we propose a high-speed cubic spline interpolation circuit composed of our proposed linear interpolation circuits. Experimental results demonstrate that our linear interpolation circuit improves the performance by 15 % and that our cubic interpolation circuit improves the performance by 25 %, compared to a conventional interpolation design.

    CiNii

  • Fast and Exact Cache Configuration Simulation for Two-core L1 Cache

    TAWADA MASASHI, YANAGISAWA MASAO, TOGAWA NOZOMU

    IEICE technical report. Computer systems   111 ( 461 ) 13 - 18  2012.02

     View Summary

    Recently, multiple-core processors are used in embedded systems very often. Since application programs running are much limited on embedded systems, there must exist an optimal cache memory in terms of power and area. Simulating application programs on various cache configurations is one of the best options to determine the optimal cache configuration. Multicore cache configuration simulation, however, is much more complicated and takes much more time than single-core cache configuration simulation. In this paper, we propose a very fast two-core L1 cache configuration simulation algorithm. We first propose a new data structure where just a single data structure represents two or more multicore cache configurations with different cache associativities. After that, we propose a new multicore cache configuration simulation algorithm using our new data structure associated with new theorems.

    CiNii

  • Partial Redundant Fault Secure High Level Synthesis for RDR Architecture

    TANAKA SHO, YANAGISAWA MASAO, TOGAWA NOZOMU

    IEICE technical report. Computer systems   111 ( 461 ) 19 - 24  2012.02

     View Summary

    As device feature size decreases, the reliability improvement against soft errors becomes quite necessary. A fault-secure system, in which concurrent error detection is realized, is one of the solutions to this problem. On the other hand, the average interconnect delay exceeds the gate delay which leads to the timing closure problem. By using regular-distributed-register architecture (RDR architecture), we can estimate interconnection delays very accurately and influence of their interconnect can be much reduced even in the behavioral level. In this paper, we propose a partial redundant fault-secure high-level synthesis algorithm for an RDR architecture. In fault-secure high-level synthesis, a recomputation CDFG a part of normal-computation CDFG must be scheduled and bound to functional units. Firstly, our algorithm re-uses vacant areas on RDR islands to allocate new function units additionally for the re-computation CDFG.Secondly, we propose a scheduling algorithm which minimize the number of insert comparator nodes. We show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm through experimental results. Our algorithm reduces the soft error rate by an average of 57% compared with the non fault-secure approach.

    CiNii

  • A Fast Interpolation Unit Using Selector Logics

    IWATA MANAMI, YOSHIHARA HIROMINE, YANAGISAWA MASAO, TOGAWA NOZOMU

    IEICE technical report. Computer systems   111 ( 461 ) 37 - 42  2012.02

     View Summary

    Interpolation is a technique that fills the gaps between existing data, which is often applied to image scaling and superresolution. Cubic spline interpolation, one of the interpolation techniques, obtains a cubic function based on the four existing points and fills their gaps very smoothly and precisely. However, it takes a lot of time because it requires many data and complex calculation. Speeding-up cubic spline interpolation is the key to realize a practical image scaling system. In this paper, we firstly focus on linear interpolation and propose a high-speed linear interpolation circuit based on &quot;selector logics.&quot; Secondly, we propose a high-speed cubic spline interpolation circuit composed of our proposed linear interpolation circuits. Experimental results demonstrate that our linear interpolation circuit improves the performance by 15 % and that our cubic interpolation circuit improves the performance by 25 %, compared to a conventional interpolation design.

    CiNii

  • Scan-based Attack against Triple DES Cryptosystems Using Scan Signatures

    KODERA Hirokazu, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    Technical report of IEICE. VLD   111 ( 324 ) 7 - 12  2011.11

     View Summary

    Scan-path test is one of the useful design-for-test techniques, which can observe and control registers inside LSIs. On the other hand, a scan-based attack which retrieves secret keys from scanned data is considered to be one of the strongest side-channel attacks. In this paper, a scan-based attack method against Triple DES cryptosystems using a &quot;scan signature&quot; is proposed. In our method, several plaintexts are inputted into a Triple DES module and an attacker obtains scanned data. Then, an attacker observes a specific bit line (scan signature) of these scanned data to retrieve a secret key. The Triple DES algorithm uses three secret keys. The first secret key can be retrieved as in the same way as we can retrieve a secret key from a DES module. How to retrieve the second and third secret keys is the most concern. In our proposed method, we retrieve the second and third secret keys by using the retrieved first key and setting an appropriate scan signature. Experimental results show that our proposed method successfully retrieve three secret keys in a Triple DES module using up to 43 plaintexts.

    CiNii

  • Scan-based Attack against Triple DES Cryptosystems Using Scan Signatures

    KODERA Hirokazu, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    IEICE technical report. Dependable computing   111 ( 325 ) 7 - 12  2011.11

     View Summary

    Scan-path test is one of the useful design-for-test techniques, which can observe and control registers inside LSIs. On the other hand, a scan-based attack which retrieves secret keys from scanned data is considered to be one of the strongest side-channel attacks. In this paper, a scan-based attack method against Triple DES cryptosystems using a &quot;scan signature&quot; is proposed. In our method, several plaintexts are inputted into a Triple DES module and an attacker obtains scanned data. Then, an attacker observes a specific bit line (scan signature) of these scanned data to retrieve a secret key. The Triple DES algorithm uses three secret keys. The first secret key can be retrieved as in the same way as we can retrieve a secret key from a DES module. How to retrieve the second and third secret keys is the most concern. In our proposed method, we retrieve the second and third secret keys by using the retrieved first key and setting an appropriate scan signature. Experimental results show that our proposed method successfully retrieve three secret keys in a Triple DES module using up to 43 plaintexts.

    CiNii

  • Scan-based Attack against Triple DES Cryptosystems Using Scan Signatures

    KODERA Hirokazu, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告. DC, ディペンダブルコンピューティング : IEICE technical report   111 ( 325 ) 7 - 12  2011.11

    CiNii

  • Scan-based Attack against Triple DES Cryptosystems Using Scan Signatures

    KODERA Hirokazu, YANAGISAWA Masao, TOGAWA Nozomu

    電子情報通信学会技術研究報告. VLD, VLSI設計技術   111 ( 324 ) 7 - 12  2011.11

    CiNii

  • Scan-based Attack against Triple DES Cryptosystems Using Scan Signatures

    小寺 博和, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    研究報告システムLSI設計技術(SLDM)   2011 ( 2 ) 1 - 6  2011.11

     View Summary

    テスト容易化技術の 1 つであるスキャンパステストは,LSI のレジスタを外部から直接観測・制御することが可能であるため LSI の検証に非常に役立つ.一方で,暗号モジュールや暗号 LSI に対するサイドチャネル攻撃の危険性が指摘されており,その中でもスキャンパステストで使用するテスト用スキャンチェインから取得可能なスキャンデータから秘密鍵を解読するスキャンベース攻撃が注目されている.従来研究として,共通鍵暗号 DES や AES,公開鍵暗号 RSA や楕円曲線暗号に対するスキャンベース攻撃手法が提案されているが,共通鍵暗号 Triple DES に対するスキャンベース攻撃手法は報告されていない.本稿では,共通鍵暗号 Triple DES に対するスキャンシグネチャを用いたスキャンベース攻撃手法を提案する.提案手法では,暗号 LSI に複数の平文を入力したときのスキャンデータの特定のビット列に着目し,対応するレジスタの変化を観察することで秘密鍵を解読する.暗号 LSI 以外のレジスタがスキャンチェインに含まれる場合や,暗号 LSI の動作タイミングが不明な場合でも秘密鍵の解読が可能となる.Triple DES は暗号化のために秘密鍵を 3 つ使用するため,最初に解読した秘密鍵を用いて他の秘密鍵の解読を行うことで 3 つの秘密鍵の解読を実行する.提案手法では,多くても 43 個の平文で Triple DES の秘密鍵解読をできる結果が得られた.Scan-path test is one of the useful design-for-test techniques, which can observe and control registers inside LSIs. On the other hand, a scan-based attack which retrieves secret keys from scanned data is considered to be one of the strongest side-channel attacks. In this paper, a scan-based attack method against Triple DES cryptosystems using a &quot;scan signature&quot; is proposed. In our method, several plaintexts are inputted into a Triple DES module and an attacker obtains scanned data. Then, an attacker observes a specific bit line (scan signature) of these scanned data to retrieve a secret key. The Triple DES algorithm uses three secret keys. The first secret key can be retrieved as in the same way as we can retrieve a secret key from a DES module. How to retrieve the second and third secret keys is the most concern. In our proposed method, we retrieve the second and third secret keys by using the retrieved first key and setting an appropriate scan signature. Experimental results show that our proposed method successfully retrieve three secret keys in a Triple DES module using up to 43 plaintexts.

    CiNii

  • Scan-based Attack against DES Cryptosystems Independent of Scan-structure

    KODERA HIROKAZU, YANGISAWA MASAO, TOGAWA NOZOMU

    IEICE technical report. Signal processing   111 ( 257 ) 61 - 66  2011.10

     View Summary

    Side-channel attacks against crypto modules and LSIs become a practical threat these days. Especially, a scan-based attack which retrieves secret keys from scan data is considered to be one of the strongest side-channel attacks. In this paper, a scan-based attack method against DES cryptosystems is proposed. In our method, several plain texts are inputted into a DES module. After that, an attacker retrieves a secret key by observing a specific bit line of these scanned data. Because the values of a specific bit line dependent on the secret key, an attacker can analyze secret key using these values. Even when an attacker does not know scan chain structure implemented on a DES module and even when scan chain includes registers other than DES crypto modules, our proposed method can successfully retrieve its secret key. Several Experimental evaluations are demonstrated to confirm the effectiveness of our proposed method.

    CiNii

  • Multiple Supply Voltages aware High-level Synthesis for HDR architecture

    ABE SHIN-YA, YANAGISAWA MASAO, TOGAWA NOZOMU

    IEICE technical report. Signal processing   111 ( 257 ) 95 - 100  2011.10

     View Summary

    As buttery runtime and overheating problems for portable devices become unignorable, energy-aware LSI design is strongly required. Moreover, an interconnect delay should be explicitly considered there because it exceeds a gate delay as the semiconductor devices are downsized. We must take account of energy efficiency and interconnect delay even in high-level synthesis. Recently, a huddle-based distributed-register architecture (HDR architecture), which is a kind of island-based distributed-register architecture for multi-cycle interconnect communications, and its associated synthesis algorithm have been proposed. The algorithm is composed of scheduling/FU binding, huddling, unhuddling, and floorplanning. However, the original scheduling/FU binding does not minimize energy consumption directly but minimizes execution time. In this paper we propose a new scheduling/FU binding algorithm whose purpose is the minimization of energy consumption considering multiple supply voltages for HDR architectures. Experimental results show that our algorithm achieves 45.1 % energy-saving compared with the conventional distributed-register architectures and conventional algorithms, and 15.9 % energy-saving compared with the conventional algorithm for HDR architecture.

    CiNii

  • Scan-based Attack against DES Cryptosystems Independent of Scan-structure

    KODERA HIROKAZU, YANGISAWA MASAO, TOGAWA NOZOMU

    IEICE technical report. Image engineering   111 ( 259 ) 61 - 66  2011.10

     View Summary

    Side-channel attacks against crypto modules and LSIs become a practical threat these days. Especially, a scan-based attack which retrieves secret keys from scan data is considered to be one of the strongest side-channel attacks. In this paper, a scan-based attack method against DES cryptosystems is proposed. In our method, several plain texts are inputted into a DES module. After that, an attacker retrieves a secret key by observing a specific bit line of these scanned data. Because the values of a specific bit line dependent on the secret key, an attacker can analyze secret key using these values. Even when an attacker does not know scan chain structure implemented on a DES module and even when scan chain includes registers other than DES crypto modules, our proposed method can successfully retrieve its secret key. Several Experimental evaluations are demonstrated to confirm the effectiveness of our proposed method.

    CiNii

  • Multiple Supply Voltages aware High-level Synthesis for HDR architecture

    ABE SHIN-YA, YANAGISAWA MASAO, TOGAWA NOZOMU

    IEICE technical report. Image engineering   111 ( 259 ) 95 - 100  2011.10

     View Summary

    As buttery runtime and overheating problems for portable devices become unignorable, energy-aware LSI design is strongly required. Moreover, an inter-connect delay should be explicitly considered there because it exceeds a gate delay as the semiconductor devices are downsized. We must take account of energy efficiency and interconnect delay even in high-level synthesis. Recently, a huddle-based distributed-register architecture (HDR architecture), which is a kind of island-based distributed-register architecture for multi-cycle interconnect communications, and its associated synthesis algorithm have been proposed. The algorithm is composed of scheduling/FU binding, huddling, unhuddling, and floorplanning. However, the original scheduling/FU binding does not minimize energy consumption directly but minimizes execution time. In this paper we propose a new scheduling/FU binding algorithm whose purpose is the minimization of energy consumption considering multiple supply voltages for HDR architectures. Experimental results show that our algorithm achieves 45.1 % energy-saving compared with the conventional distributed-register architectures and conventional algorithms, and 15.9 % energy-saving compared with the conventional algorithm for HDR architecture.

    CiNii

  • Scan-based Attack against DES Cryptosystems Independent of Scan-structure

    KODERA HIROKAZU, YANGISAWA MASAO, TOGAWA NOZOMU

    Technical report of IEICE. ICD   111 ( 258 ) 61 - 66  2011.10

     View Summary

    Side-channel attacks against crypto modules and LSIs become a practical threat these days. Especially, a scan-based attack which retrieves secret keys from scan data is considered to be one of the strongest side-channel attacks. In this paper, a scan-based attack method against DES cryptosystems is proposed. In our method, several plain texts are inputted into a DES module. After that, an attacker retrieves a secret key by observing a specific bit line of these scanned data. Because the values of a specific bit line dependent on the secret key, an attacker can analyze secret key using these values. Even when an attacker does not know scan chain structure implemented on a DES module and even when scan chain includes registers other than DES crypto modules, our proposed method can successfully retrieve its secret key. Several Experimental evaluations are demonstrated to confirm the effectiveness of our proposed method.

    CiNii

  • Multiple Supply Voltages aware High-level Synthesis for HDR architecture

    ABE SHIN-YA, YANAGISAWA MASAO, TOGAWA NOZOMU

    Technical report of IEICE. ICD   111 ( 258 ) 95 - 100  2011.10

     View Summary

    As buttery runtime and overheating problems for portable devices become unignorable, energy-aware LSI design is strongly required. Moreover, an interconnect delay should be explicitly considered there because it exceeds a gate delay as the semiconductor devices are downsized. We must take account of energy efficiency and interconnect delay even in high-level synthesis. Recently, a huddle-based distributed-register architecture (HDR architecture), which is a kind of island-based distributed-register architecture for multi-cycle interconnect communications, and its associated synthesis algorithm have been proposed. The algorithm is composed of scheduling/FU binding, huddling, unhuddling, and floorplanning. However, the original scheduling/FU binding does not minimize energy consumption directly but minimizes execution time. In this paper we propose a new scheduling/FU binding algorithm whose purpose is the minimization of energy consumption considering multiple supply voltages for HDR architectures. Experimental results show that our algorithm achieves 45.1 % energy-saving compared with the conventional distributed-register architectures and conventional algorithms, and 15.9 % energy-saving compared with the conventional algorithm for HDR architecture.

    CiNii

  • A-3-1 Adaptive parallel interpolation archetecture using motion vectors

    Kurioka Daiki, Yanagisawa Masao, Togawa Nozomu

    Proceedings of the Society Conference of IEICE   2011  2011.08

    CiNii

  • A-3-3 Super-resolution by Using Weighted Adders with Selector Logics and Its Experimental Comparisons

    Yoshihara Hiromine, Yanagisawa Masao, Togawa Nozumu

    Proceedings of the Society Conference of IEICE   2011  2011.08

    CiNii

  • A-3-11 A consider of exact cache configuration simulation for two-core processors

    Tawada Masashi, Yanagisawa Masao, Togawa Nozomu

    Proceedings of the Society Conference of IEICE   2011  2011.08

    CiNii

  • A-3-13 Performance comparison between shared bus and bus matrix in network processors

    Deguchi Kensuke, Yanagisawa Masao, Togawa Nozomu

    Proceedings of the Society Conference of IEICE   2011  2011.08

    CiNii

  • Reconstruction Hardware Design in Super-resolution Using Weighted Adders with Selector Logics

    吉原 弘峰, 柳澤 政生, 戸川 望

    回路とシステムワークショップ論文集 Workshop on Circuits and Systems   24 ( 266 ) 431 - 436  2011.08

    CiNii

  • Super-resolution by Using Weighted Adders with Selector Logics

    YOSHIHARA Hiromine, YANAGISAWA Masao, OHTSUKI Tatsuo, TOGAWA Nozomu

    IEICE technical report   111 ( 40 ) 27 - 32  2011.05

     View Summary

    In recent years the popularity of television sets and computers with large screens has let to more opportunities to watch moving picture on high-resolution liquid crystal display (LCD) where it is quite necessary to convert low-resolution images to high-resolution ones at low cost. Super-resolution is a technique to remove the noise of observed images and restore the high frequencise of ones. We focus on reconstruction-based super-resolution because it can restore their own brightnesses. It produces a high-resolution image from a set of low-resolution images. Reconstruction requires large computation cost because it requires many images. However, it is necessary to improve arithmetic circuits&#039; performance specific to reconstruction-based super-resolution since the reconstruction-based algorithms need more information on images. In this paper, we propose a reconstruction-based super-resolution using a weighted adder. Our weighted adder is implemented by using selector logics so that we can reduce carry propagations and improve the performance of reconstruction-based super-resolution. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that our proposed weighted adder circuit improves the performance by 13 % and reduces the area by 32 %, compared to conventional weighted adders.

    CiNii

  • DS-2-4 Fast Angular Intra-Prediction Mode Decision Method based on Edge Information

    Tokumitsu Kenta, Chono Keiichi, Senzaki Kenta, Senda Yuzo, Togawa Nozomu, Yanagisawa Masao, Ohtsuki Tatsuo

    Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference   2011 ( 2 ) "S - 7"  2011.02

    CiNii

  • Exact, Fast and Flexible Two-level Cache Simulation for Embedded Systems

    TAWADA Masashi, YANAGISAWA Masao, OHTSUKI Tatsuo, TOGAWA Nozomu

    IEICE technical report   110 ( 432 ) 13 - 18  2011.02

     View Summary

    In hierarchical cache configurations, L1 cache uses LRU as cache replacement policy but L2 and/or L3 caches use FIFO due to its low hardware cost. This paper proposes a fast cache configuration simulation method for hierarchical cache configurations composed of LRU-based L1-cache and FIFO-based L2-cache. In our proposed method, we fix L1 data cache and simulate several L1 instruction cache configurations and L2 unified cache configurations simultaneously with varying their cache parameters. By using L1/L2 cache properties, we can skip to simulate several cache configurations but can obtain exact cache hit/miss counts for all the L1/L2 cache configurations. Experimental evaluations demonstrate that our proposed method boosts up the simulation speed by up to 1900 times.

    CiNii

  • An Energy-efficient ASIP Synthesis Method Using Scratchpad Memory and Code Placement Optimization

    SHIMADA Yoshinori, SHI Youhua, TOGAWA Nozomu, YANAGISAWA Masao, OHTSUKI Tatsuo

    IEICE technical report   110 ( 432 ) 25 - 30  2011.02

     View Summary

    In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient ASIP synthesis method using scratchpad memory. Due to the fact that a significant amount of power is consumed in the instruction memory, how to develop energy-efficient memory structure becomes important in reducing the overall power consumption of the system. Our method is based on the idea of using scratchpad memory with code placement optimization. The proposed memory architecture can copy data from instruction memory to scratchpad meory under the control of on-chip program counter. With an inputted application CFG, the proposed code placement optimization is used to decide both the code allocations and the required scratchpad memory size for energy minimization. By doing this, the total energy consumption could be reduced as the number of instruction memory accesses is reduced. Experimental results on Mediabench are included to show the effectiveness of the proposed method, in which on average 47.9% energy consumption could be reduced.

    CiNii

  • Speeding-up Exact and Fast L1 Cache Configuration Simulation based on FIFO Replacement Policy

    TAWADA Masashi, YANAGISAWA Masao, OHTSUKI Tatsuo, TOGAWA Nozomu

    IEICE technical report   110 ( 317 ) 55 - 60  2010.11

     View Summary

    The number of sets, block size and associativity determine processor&#039;s cache configuration. Particularly in embedded systems, cache configuration can be optimized due to the limitation of target applications. For LRU cache replacement policy, Recently, the CRCB approach has been proposed for LRU-based cache configuration simulation, that can calculate cache hit/miss rate accurately and very fast changing the three parameters described above. However many recent processors use FIFO-based caches instead of LRU-based caches. In this paper, we propose a faster cache configuration simulation method for embedded applications that uses FIFO as a cache replacement policy. We first prove several properties for FIFO-based caches and then we propose a simulation method that can process two or more FIFO-based cache configurations with different cache associativity simultaneously. Experimental results show that our proposed method can obtain accurate cache hits/misses and an average of 18% faster than the conventional simulators.

    CiNii

  • Speeding-up Exact and Fast L1 Cache Configuration Simulation based on FIFO Replacement Policy

    TAWADA Masashi, YANAGISAWA Masao, OHTSUKI Tatsuo, TOGAWA Nozomu

    IEICE technical report   110 ( 316 ) 55 - 60  2010.11

     View Summary

    The number of sets, block size and associativity determine processor&#039;s cache configuration. Particularly in embedded systems, cache configuration can be optimized due to the limitation of target applications. For LRU cache replacement policy, Recently, the CRCB approach has been proposed for LRU-based cache configuration simulation, that can calculate cache hit/miss rate accurately and very fast changing the three parameters described above. However many recent processors use FIFO-based caches instead of LRU-based caches. In this paper, we propose a faster cache configuration simulation method for embedded applications that uses FIFO as a cache replacement policy. We first prove several properties for FIFO-based caches and then we propose a simulation method that can process two or more FIFO-based cache configurations with different cache associativity simultaneously. Experimental results show that our proposed method can obtain accurate cache hits/misses and an average of 18% faster than the conventional simulators.

    CiNii

  • A-3-6 Evaluation experiment on scan-based attack against RSA cryptosystem

    Nara Ryuta, Yanagisawa Masao, Ohtsuki Tatsuo, Togawa Nozomu

    Proceedings of the Society Conference of IEICE   2010  2010.08

    CiNii

  • Advances in VLSI Technologies for Ultra-Low-Power Computing : Ultra Low Power SoC Design Technologies for Media Processing

    GOTO Satoshi, IKENAGA Takeshi, YOSHIMURA Takeshi, KIMURA Shinji, TOGAWA Nozomu

    IPSJ Magazine   51 ( 7 ) 837 - 845  2010.07

    CiNii

  • High-Level Synthesis with Floorplan for GDR Architectures and its Evaluation

    OHCHI Akira, TOGAWA Nozomu, YANAGISAWA Masao, OHTSUKI Tatsuo

    IEICE technical report   110 ( 36 ) 19 - 24  2010.05

     View Summary

    Abstract As device feature size decreases, interconnection delay becomes the dominating factor of circuit total delay. It is necessary to deal with floorplan information such as placement and interconnection delay even in high-level synthesis stage. In this paper, we propose a high-level synthesis method targeting generalized distributed-register (GDR) architecture in which we introduce shared/local registers and global/local controllers. In GDR architecture, by adding local register/controller to bottlenecked FU, we can obtain high performance circuit. By sharing register/controller between non-bottlenecked FUs, we can reduce circuit area. Our method automatically selects register/controller configuration by target application and constraints. Experimental results show that 7.6% area reduction can be achieved compared to the conventional floorplan-aware high-level synthesis method.

    CiNii

  • A Pedestrian Positioning System Using Road Traffic Signs and Landmarks

    児島 伴幸, 山根 和也, 柳澤 政生, 大附 辰夫, 戸川 望

    情報処理学会論文誌   51 ( 3 ) 899 - 913  2010.03

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    携帯電話を用いた歩行者の位置特定は一般的に携帯電話に搭載されたGPS(携帯GPSと呼ぶ)を用いているが,携帯GPSはマルチパスなどの影響により測位誤差が生じる可能性がある.一方,携帯GPSの測位誤差を調べた調査結果が公開されていることが少ない.本論文ではまず都市部と住宅地の両方が存在する高田馬場駅周辺において携帯GPSの測位誤差を調査した.調査の結果,携帯GPSは最大で80m程度の測位誤差が生じた.都市部における80mの測位誤差は道路2.3本分の誤差に対応するため,歩行者に混乱を与えかねない.次に,携帯GPSの測位誤差を0に近づけるため,道路標識とランドマークを用いて携帯GPSの測位を補正する位置特定手法を提案する.既存インフラである道路標識・ランドマークと,近い将来に社会インフラ化される携帯GPSを用いるため,インフラ設備を最小限に抑えることができる.提案手法は利用者の現在地を道路標識の位置と同一視し,利用者が見つけた道路標識の位置を知ることにより,利用者の位置を特定するものである.処理の流れは携帯GPSにより大まかな位置を特定した後に,利用者が見つけた道路標識を選択することにより現在地候補を5個以下に絞る.現在地候補の近辺に存在するランドマークを選択することにより唯一の現在地を特定する.提案手法をCGI環境で実装し,NTTドコモ社とKDDI社の携帯電話を用いて評価実験した.実地調査を通じて98%の精度で利用者の現在地を特定できることを実証し,提案手法が有効な手法であることを確認した.Mobile-GPS is generally used for pedestrian positioning on mobile devices such as mobile phones and PDAs. Positioning errors of mobile-GPS might be caused by several factors, such as &quot;multipath,&quot; however, positioning errors of mobile-GPS have been not investigated sufficiently. In this paper, we first investigate positioning errors of mobile-GPS at Takadanobaba station and its environs which have both urban and residential areas. Our investigation results show that positioning errors of mobile-GPS can cause approximately 80-meter error at the maximum. Secondly we propose a highly accurate pedestrian positioning method using road traffic signs and landmarks. Our proposed method does not require any infrastructure construction as we already have infrastructure of road traffic signs, landmarks and mobile-GPS on mobile devices. Assuming that a user is positioned at the traffic sign, our proposed method determine the user position by finding out several nearby road traffic signs and sending their colors and shapes to a server. Our method start with locating approximately position of a user using mobile-GPS. Next, it locates user position by selecting road traffic sings and landmarks. Our method is implemented with CGI and investigated using mobile phones of NTT Docomo and au by KDDI. By this investigation, the accuracy of this method was 98% and we succeeded to confirm effectiveness of the proposed method through this evaluation investigation.

    CiNii

  • Changing Organization through Continuous Data Collection with Business Microscope

    ARA Koji, SATO Nobuo, YANO Kazuo, TOGAWA Nozomu, YANAGISAWA Masao, OHTSUKI Tatsuo

    IEICE technical report   109 ( 462 ) 43 - 47  2010.03

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    We demonstrate how sensor technology change our business through observation of human behavior.

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  • A Pedestrian Positioning System Using Road Traffic Signs and Landmarks Based on Current Location Recognition

    KOJIMA Tomoyuki, YANAGISAWA Masao, OHTSUKI Tatsuo, TOGAWA Nozomu

    IEICE technical report   109 ( 414 ) 153 - 158  2010.02

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    Mobile-GPS is generally used for pedestrian positioning on mobile devices such as mobile phones and PDAs. However mobile-GPS can cause approximately 100-meter error by serious influences such as &quot;multipath&quot; in urban areas. When the present location plot is far away from approximately 100-meter on the map, Mobile-GPS may give the pedestrian serious confusion. In this paper, we propose an improved pedestrian positioning system using mobile-GPS, road traffic signs and landmarks based on current location recognition. At first, our system determines the position of the road traffic signs using the road traffic signs and a landmark which the pedestrian finds in the real world. Secondly, our system displays the position of the road traffic signs and the landmark on the map. Then, the pedestrian recognize the present location easily on the map because the real world corresponds to the map on which the road traffic sign and landmark are displayed. Our system assumes the same road traffic signs in a small area to be one cluster and partitions urban areas into high-rise building areas and others. The system usability is improved based on the original system by selecting a road traffic sign only twice in high-rise building areas and only once in other areas in urban area. Finally, we confirm effectiveness of the improved system through simulation investigation.

    CiNii

  • A Pedestrian Positioning System Using Road Traffic Signs and Landmarks Based on Current Location Recognition

    KOJIMA Tomoyuki, YANAGISAWA Masao, OHTSUKI Tatsuo, TOGAWA Nozomu

    IEICE technical report   109 ( 415 ) 153 - 158  2010.02

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    Mobile-GPS is generally used for pedestrian positioning on mobile devices such as mobile phones and PDAs. However mobile-GPS can cause approximately 100-meter error by serious influences such as &quot;multipath&quot; in urban areas. When the present location plot is far away from approximately 100-meter on the map, Mobile-GPS may give the pedestrian serious confusion. In this paper, we propose an improved pedestrian positioning system using mobile-GPS, road traffic signs and landmarks based on current location recognition. At first, our system determines the position of the road traffic signs using the road traffic signs and a landmark which the pedestrian finds in the real world. Secondly, our system displays the position of the road traffic signs and the landmark on the map. Then, the pedestrian recognize the present location easily on the map because the real world corresponds to the map on which the road traffic sign and landmark are displayed. Our system assumes the same road traffic signs in a small area to be one cluster and partitions urban areas into high-rise building areas and others. The system usability is improved based on the original system by selecting a road traffic sign only twice in high-rise building areas and only once in other areas in urban area. Finally, we confirm effectiveness of the improved system through simulation investigation.

    CiNii

  • Connectivity-based and load-balanced cluster routing for mobile ad hoc networks

    板橋 裕介, 戸川 望, 柳澤 政生

    IEICE technical report   109 ( 381 ) 85 - 90  2010.01

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  • Multicast routing protocol with collision avoidance in multi-group wireless ad-hoc networks

    竹内 博是, 戸川 望, 柳澤 政生

    IEICE technical report   109 ( 381 ) 95 - 100  2010.01

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  • A Dedicated Functional Unit Synthesis Algorithm with MISO Structures based on Partial Matching

    HASHIMOTO Norihiro, TOGAWA Nozomu, YANAGISAWA Masao, OHTSUKI Tatsuo

    IEICE technical report   109 ( 395 ) 89 - 94  2010.01

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    Requirement for application-specific processor is really increasing recently, however, it takes much time to design a processor for each application. Therefore, we require an automatic synthesis system for application-specific processors. In this paper, we propose a dedicated functional unit sy