Updated on 2024/05/21


Faculty of International Research and Education, Graduate School of Asia Pacific Studies
Job title
PhD ( シカゴ大学 )
PhD ( University of Chicago )
Master of Law ( Waseda University )
修士 ( シカゴ大学 )
Master of Arts ( University of Chicago )

Education Background


    University of Chicago  


    Waseda University   Faculty of Laws  

Professional Memberships


    Japan Association of International Relations





Research Areas

  • International relations

Research Interests

  • Diplomatic History, Intellectual History on War and Peace, Law and Politics in International Relations, Quincy Wright, the League of Nations, History of US-Japan Relations


  • 大隈学術記念奨励賞


  • アメリカ学会清水博賞




  • International Law and World War I

    Hatsue Shinohara

    DIPLOMATIC HISTORY   38 ( 4 ) 880 - 893  2014.09  [Refereed]



  • From the Study of Internastional Law to the Theory of International Politics: American Scholarly Discourse in Transition

    Hatsue Shinohara

    International Relations     27 - 40  2014.03  [Refereed]  [Invited]

  • 国際法学から国際政治学理論へー1930年代から1950年代後半のアメリカ学界


    国際政治   175   27 - 40  2014.03

  • From the Study of International Law to the Theory of International Politics: American Scholarly Discourse in Transition

    SHINOHARA Hatsue

    International Relations   2014 ( 175 ) 175_27 - 175_40  2014

     View Summary

    Utopian-liberalism in International Relations (IR) represented by reform-minded international lawyers was dominant in the interwar years. For instance, lawyers such as Quincy Wright and Charles Fenwick endeavored to establish a more progressive international order through their academic discussions and activities. James T. Shotwell, an internationalist scholar of Columbia University, also joined in the movement, defining the study of IR as a vehicle of enhancing international cooperation among nations. The two volumes on the general academic state of IR in the US that were edited by Edith Ware under the supervision of Shotwell and published in 1934 and 1937 naturally epitomized liberal orientation, defining the field as inter and multi-disciplinary, but still explicitly highlighting international law's significance in the field. However, toward the late 1930s, critical voices against progressive international law started to grow. Most notably, Hans Morgenthau argued that the reformers' understanding of international law was oriented too much toward formalism.After the war, Wright sought to reaffirm the importance of international law in IR, but his claim encountered severe challenges. While IR as an independent discipline was gaining more recognition and popularity in response to changing international circumstances, some argued that more emphasis should be laid on international politics. In 1946 the Council of Foreign Relations (CFR) sponsored a series of conferences in six US cities that discussed how IR should be taught and what kind of disciplines should form IR. Even though the CFR conference report noted the growing importance of IR, it was defined as a multi-disciplinary field mainly composed of international law, international organization, and international politics.What made the situation more complex was growing popularity of the behavioral sciences in American academia at that time. Scholars such as Morgenthau were not supportive of such an approach and instead stressed the importance of the political theory approach to IR.In 1954 the Rockefeller Foundation sponsored a conference on international politics. Its participants included not only renowned scholars—Morgenthau, Kenneth Thompson, and Arnold Wolfers— but also former officials, such as Dean Acheson and Paul Nitze. The conference theme was the relevance and possibility of theory building in IR, but no clear viewpoint came out of it. Some pointed out the difficulty of generalization from historical cases, while others addressed the need for a specific theory applicable to actual policy making. In the meantime, Wright still advocated the desirability of a comprehensive, eclectic, and multi-disciplinary approach in IR.Thus, American scholarly discussions of IR at the end of the 1950s were in the state of confusion. Scholars had to wait another decade or so for the emergence and dominance of a 'scientific' approach which gave explicit priority to political science over international law.


  • アメリカ国際政治学者の戦争批判


    思想(岩波書店)   1020 ( 1020 ) 235 - 249  2009.04


  • 書評『ウィルソン外交と日本』


    国際政治   153   193 - 196  2008.11

  • 外交史・国際関係史と国際政治学理論ー国際関係論における学際アプローチの可能性へ向けて


    アジア太平洋討究   ( 11 ) 185 - 198  2008.10

  • 国際法学者・学説の役割ー戦争違法化を事例として


    国際法外交雑誌   106 ( 3 )  2007.11

  • コンストラクティヴィズムと歴史研究


    アジア太平洋討究   ( 8 )  2005.10

  • グローバル・アイデンティティの創生ー国際連盟と国際連合

    国連大学湘南セミナー報告    2004.09

  • トーマス・ベイティ博士没後50年記念セミナー「戦間期の国際法学説史におけるベイティ博士の位置」

    国際法協会    2004.04

  • Teaching of the Atomic Bomb as History: A Challege to Transnational History

    What is to be Written ?: Workshop Proceedings, 明治学院学院大学国際学部付属研究所発行    2004.03

  • 「日米の国際法観をめぐる相克」、『戦争の法から平和の法へ』

    『日本史文献事典』弘文堂    2003.12

  • 伊香俊哉『近代日本と戦争違法化体制』


    『史学雑誌』   112編9号  2003.09

  • 文化としての連盟と国連—20世紀におけるひとつの国際神話


    国際政治   ( 129 )  2002.02

  • 権力政治を超えて-文化国際主義と世界秩序-


    岩波書店    1998

  • W・W・ウィロビーと戦間期米中関係


    国際政治   ( 118 )  1998

  • An Intellectual Foundation for the Road to Pearl Harbor : Quincy Wright and Tachi Sakutaro

    Hatsue Shinohara

    Keisen College Bulletin   ( 8 )  1996

  • Forgotten Crusade : The Quest for a New International Law

    Hatsue Sninohara

    UMI    1996

  • Toward a More Ambitious International Law : American Academic Discussions in the 1920s

    Hatsue Shinohara

    Keisen College Bulletin   ( 6 )  1994

  • Rise of a New International Law in America

    Hatsue Shinohara

    Japanese Journal of American Studies   ( 5 )  1994

  • ポール・ラインシュとトーマス・ベイティ:1911年における接点


    外交時報   ( 1308 )  1994

  • 日米の国際法観をめぐる相克:戦間期における戦争・集団的枠組に関する議論の一系譜


    国際政治   ( 102 )  1993.02

  • Highway versus Development : Railroads in Korea under the Japanese Colonial Rule

    Hatsue Shinohara

    Chicago Occasional Papers on Korea    1991

  • 太平洋戦争の起源


    東京大学出版会    1991

  • アメリカの対日禁諭に関する一考察:アメリカ議会と世論の動向


    早稲田大学大学院法研論集   ( 43 )  1987

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Books and Other Publications

  • Portraits of Women in International Law

    Immi Tallgren, ed.( Part: Contributor, Marjorie Whiteman)

    2023 ISBN: 9780198868453

  • East Asians in the League of Nations : actors, empires and regions in early global politics

    Hughes, Christopher R, Hatsue Shinohara( Part: Joint editor, Introduction, Japan's Diplomats in the League Council)

    Palgrave Macmillan  2023 ISBN: 9789811970665

  • International law and empire : historical explorations

    Koskenniemi, Martti, Rech, Walter, Jiménez Fonseca, Manuel( Part: Contributor, Drift towar Empire: American International Lawyers in the Cold War)

    Oxford University Press  2017.03 ISBN: 0198795572


  • Mineichiro Adatchi

    Masaharu Yanagihara, Hatsue Sh, inohara( Part: Joint editor)

    University of Tokyo Press  2017.03 ISBN: 9784130362597

  • Beyond 1917: The United States and the Global Legacies of the Greeat War Chap.15 "International Law and World War I"

    Hatsue Shinohara, Thomas Zeier, David Ekbladh, Benjamin Montoya ed( Part: Contributor)

    Oxford University Press  2017

  • 『日本の外交』第1巻「国際連盟外交ーヨーロッパ国際政治と日本」


    岩波書店  2013.02 ISBN: 9784000285919

  • US International Lawyers in the Interwar Years: A Forgotten Crusade

    Hatsue Shinohara

    Cambridge University Press  2012.09 ISBN: 9781107016439

  • 『東アジア近現代通史』第6巻『アジア太平洋戦争と「大東亜共栄券」』、分担執筆「原爆投下と国際秩序」


    岩波書店  2011.01

  • 『現代アメリカ』、分担執筆「日米関係とはどのような2国間関係か」

    渡辺靖編, 篠原初枝著

    有斐閣  2010.11 ISBN: 9784641124196

  • 国際連盟


    中央公論新社  2010.05

  • 『戦争のあとに』、分担執筆「戦間期国際秩序における国際連盟」

    田中孝彦, 青木人志編, 篠原初枝著

    勁草書房  2008.10

  • アメリカ研究の越境、第5巻、『グローバリゼーションと帝国』、分担執筆「アメリカ正戦論」

    紀平英作, 油井大三郎編, 篠原初枝著

    ミネルヴァ書房  2006.12

  • グローバル・コミュニティ


    早稲田大学出版部  2006.01

  • 戦争の法から平和の法へー戦間期のアメリカ国際法学者


    東京大学出版会  2003.05

  • International Law and Empire Chap. 13 "Drift towards an Empire? The Trajectory of American Reformers in the Cold War."

    Hatsue Shinohara, Martti Koskenniemi, Walter Rech, Manuel Jimenez, Fonseca, eds( Part: Contributor)

    Oxford University Press  1917 ISBN: 9780198795575

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  • International Norm Change: Outlawry of War in the Interwar Years

    Hatsue Shinohara  [Invited]

    Fred Halliday Memorial Lecture  (London)  London School of Economics

    Presentation date: 2016.11

  • Japan and the League of Nations: A Balance Sheet

    The Committee of History of International Relations, Tokyo Conference 

    Presentation date: 2014.12

  • 国際連盟と少数民族


    Presentation date: 2014.11

  • 第一次世界大戦と国際法学

    第一次世界大戦と東アジアの国際秩序をめぐる国際会議、 北京、香山飯店 

    Presentation date: 2014.10

  • A Drift Toward Empire? American Legal Discourse in the Cold War

    Workshop on Empire and Internaitonal Law 

    Presentation date: 2014.04

  • Debates over the postwar International Organization

    Japanese Association of the United Nations 

    Presentation date: 2011.06

  • Theory of International Politics and History: Is Theory Useful for History Writing?

    Japan Association of International Relations 

    Presentation date: 2007.10

  • Outlawry of War in the Interwar Period: Activism, International Lawyers, Policy

    Japanese Society of International Law 

    Presentation date: 2007.05

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Research Projects

  • The Council of the League of Nations: Norms and Collective Legitimization

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research

    Project Year :


  • The League of Nations in Asia-Pacific Region

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research

    Project Year :


    Shinohara Hatsue

     View Summary

    Our discussions among members, panel presentation at an academic association, and international workshop successfully led to presenting a new perspective to the study of the League of Nations. The League was supposed to represent something idealistic and future-oriented: the idea and practice of Globalism that facilitated international cooperation and norm-building. In East Asia, such programs as public health, legal internationalism, international intellectual cooperation epitomized such orientations. In contrast, regional dimensions challenged the positive side of the League. In the region, imperial order had existed, member states―China, Siam, and Japan―respectively different attitudes towards the League. And, after all, the tension between Globalism and Region erupted in the Manchurian Affairs.

  • A comprehensive analysis of contemporary US foreign policy - Historical assumptions and perspectives

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research

    Project Year :


    Nishizaki Fumiko

     View Summary

    This project aims to analyze the process with which various U.S. foreign policy perspectives have been formulated, transmitted, and transformed in recent U.S. history. It poses questions such as how policymakers and intellectuals defined the role of the U.S. in international history; how they perceived, judged, and interacted with various governments abroad (especially in Asia and the Middle East); and how they sought to control and utilize international organizations such as the U.N. By exploring those issues that affected U.S. perceptions of its own role in the world, this project seeks to examine critically the strengths and shortcomings of U.S. foreign policy in recent years.

  • US International Lawyers in Cold War years

    Project Year :


     View Summary

    The research supported by this fund aimed to explore the discussions and thoughts of American international lawyers, such as Quincy Wright, Manley O.Hudson and Charles G. Fenwick. As the tension between the US and the Soviet Union intensified, those international lawyers engaged in active debates over what kind of policy the country should take in accordance with international law.This researcher participated in an international research projected headed by Prof. Martti Koskenniemi of Helsinki University, and final outcome was published as a chapter of a book entitled as International Law and Empire

  • Exploring the Intellectual Foundations of American Society --From Interdisciplinary and Comparative Perspectives

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research

    Project Year :


    NISHIZAKI Fumiko, FURUYA Jun, SAKAI Tetsuya, SUGITA Atsushi, SHINOHARA Hatsue, CHUJO Ken, LI XiaoDong, ENDO Seiji, NAKANO Katsuro, KAWASAKI Osamu, MASUI Shitsuyo, MICHAEL Adas, ZUNZ Olivier

     View Summary

    The purpose of this project is to explore the intellectual foundations of American society --both contemporary and historical -- by incorporating the findings in the field of American Studies with those in the fields of history, politics, political thought, and international law. The members, while pursuing their own projects in their respective disciplines, sought to undertake one of the following research agenda: 1) analyzing the key concepts indispensable in understanding the intellectual foundations of American Society, such as religion, conservatism, populism and racial politics 2) analyzing the characteristics of the American approaches to academic disciplines, as exemplified in political science, the theory of international politics, international law and diplomacy, 3) analyzing the interchange of ideas between the academics and public intellectuals in the United States and in other parts of the world, for example in China, Japan and Europe

  • The Formation of Global Identity: Analysis of Public Relations Documents Published by the League of Nations and the United Nations

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research

    Project Year :


    SHINOHARA Hatsue

  • Japan and Asia in Transition : Dynamism of Economics, Politics. International Relations, and Culture

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research

    Project Year :


    IGARASHI Akio, KURATA Hideya, SHINOHARA Hatsue, NAKATSUJI Keiji, MURASHIMA Eiji, HIYANE Teruo, MITA Munesuke, NOMURA Kohichi, CHOI Chung-moo, ADAMS Robert, TWU Jaw-Yann, MOLUSKY Michael, RAFAEL Vicente, WUN'GEO Surichai, FIELD Norma

     View Summary

    Igarashi Akio
    In my capacity as chief representative of the above named collaborative research project, I served to coordinate the various aspects of the research as well as to provide the project with both its general and concluding remarks. To this end, I organized the various arguments raised during our several research meetings, carried out on-site surveys testing these arguments, and analyzed the survey results. For example, I explored a number of associated phenomena that provide the backdrop to what has recently been referred to as "Japanization" : 1) the international economy of East Asia, 2) the receptivity to Japanese mass culture on the part of Southeast Asia and South Korea, 3) the economy of Taiwan and other regions, 4) the conditions of social development in each region, 4) the emergence of a "new middle class" and associated life-styles ; 5) and, looking backward, the traditional culture of each region and the manner in which foreign culture has been accepted. In addition, I asked what kinds of inpacts the acceptance of Japanese mass culture has had in each region. On this crucial and central issue-which lends itself to verification only with the greatest of difficulty-I conducted surveys and focused much of our analysis.
    As a result of this research, I concluded that the crucial period in this so called Japanization begins with an internationalizing economy, specifically the penetration of Southeast Asia by the Japanese economy after the Plaza Agreement of 1985 and extends through the transformations of the 1990 : s in the directional flow of the international economy in East Asia. However, on the question of the "commonalities" shared by, and resonances between, Japan and other East Asian cultures I was not able to reach definitive conclusions : but several propositions did, in fact, begin to emerge from the survey research. Provisionally, my research suggests that the impact of acceptance of Japanese culturevaries greatly depending on a number of factors : the particular cultural content, the region and the conditions therein, the generation, etc. Because this research, ranging as it does across a variety of disciplines and a number of regions, focuses widely on a theme that, by its very nature, possesses a plurality of aspects, the task of providing both an overview and conclusion has not been an easy one. Nevertheless, I hope to present this research in the near future in a manner that does justice to the various issues that have emerged in the course of the project.
    Kurata Hideya
    My specialization is Korean politics, its achievements in the past in two major topical areas : 1) the history of internal politics and constitutional history ; and 2) international politics and security guarantees. I have dealt with the first topic in a co-authored book in which we explore constitutional history in South Korea largely from a political angle. In a recent article, I devote a great deal of attention to the analysis of the relation between debated over constitutional revision of the Diet-Cabinet system and arguments for installing a new political administration. In the last analysis, the relation between these two areas of debate will constitute a major portion of research designed to demonstrate the process by which the mechanism of political change in Korea is becoming established. In the course of this research, I have consulted a variety of materials, with emphasis on published works on constitutional history and political history, materials published by the Office of the Presidential Secretariat, journals specializing in political institutions, and memoires of party politicians.
    On the second topic area, in a number of articles--published largely in conference proceedings, both japanese and international--I have analyzed the security guarantees surrounding North--South Korea relations and the relations of the Korean Peninsula with other countries from the perspective of Korean unification and diplomatic relations. The issues involved have varied over the course of a period beginning with the first North--South Korean dialogue in the early 1970's and continuing up to conditions in a post--Cold present. In any case, I have endeavored to write about Korean issues based on structural analysis and conceptual understanding rather than simply amassing descriptive detail on events and figures. In particular, on complex issues such as nuclear proliferation and the aftermath of the Korean War, the critical analysis has focused heavily on points of contact with contiguous regions in the area. In this regard, my research materials have included everything from government and party newsletters and journals published in South and North Korea to U.S.State Department materials as well as newspapers and internal military publications in Russian and Chinese.
    KEYWORDS (1) Korean politics (2Korean politics (3)Korean Constitution (4)party politics (5)North-South Korean relations (6)unification issue (7)nuclear Gssue (8)peace system (9)multinational conference
    Mita Munesuke
    My research focuses on theories of expansion of information and consumption as exemplary tendencies of modern societies. Moreover, I focus on the relations between these two phenomena of an expanding information society and a diversifying consumer society ; environmental issues--polution, natural resoource and energy--associated with the external effects of these two phenomena ; and the linkage between the "North--South question" and so-called issues of "development, " "population, " "poverty, " etc. In an attempt to suggest new directions for the resolution of these various issues, I have worked to construct a comprehensive theoretical framework.
    KEYWORDS(1)expansion of information (2)expansion of consumption (3)notural resourse (4)energy issues (5)environmental issues (6)North-Sorth question
    Nomura Kohichi
    While the radical transformations in contemporary China begin in the 1980's, the contemporary era of reform and liberation extends back through a process of nearly twenty years. Nevertheless, these trends are still little understood. 1) On the economic front, while China's remarkable growth in CHina is universally recognized, and, at least to a certain degree, macro-control has gradually begun to function sucessfully ; the contradictions accompanying growth are still conspicuously present, in particular, an almost unimaginable widening of the discrepancies in regional economies against a backdrop of expanding national territory and a population numbering twelve hundred million. 2) On the political front, the leadership continues to strive for stability with the smooth transition of political power as a major objective ; however, the pursuit of this objective appears to be leading China toward confrontation in the international arena and toward increasing conservatism at home. In 1994, realizing the necessity of premising any exploration of the cultural and intellectual dynamics in Cnina on an understanding of this current economic and political situation, I conducted a number of survers in various locals. In my provisional conclusions, I focused on the return to " traditional culture" that had its source in a sense of loss and destabilization. (I DON'T UNDERSTAND THIS LAST SENTENCE) From this point of view, as the chief investigator, I became intensely aware of the importance of contextualizing current vicissitudes within a much longer time span. My book, "The Study of China : Current Perspectives" was one effort to do precisely that. As part of this project, "Japanization" has occupied a significant place. It seems to me that lurking just behind the surface of what is commonly referred to as Japanization are a number of unarticulated views--on the one hand, a particular evaluation of Japan's historical modernization, and on the other hand, a certain sense of contempt or disdain. At present, the cultural impact on China of Japan, as a neighboring country, is no doubt considerable. Nevertheless, the fact that this actually has an ambiguous meaning for China has not been adequately explored.
    KEYWORDS(1)reform-liberation (2)reform to tradition (3)modernization (4)worldiness

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Overseas Activities

  • 戦争違法化をめぐる国際法学者の役割、アメリカ正戦論、グローバル・アイデンティティの創生


    フランス   Science Politique UNESCO Library


  • Affiliated organization   Global Education Center

Internal Special Research Projects

  • 国際連盟から国際連合へ、第二次世界大戦中の国際組織構想

    2023   篠原初枝

     View Summary

    国際連盟が第二次世界大戦中にいかなる活動をおこない、それがどのように国際連合に継承されていったかを課題として研究した。まずは、2次資料の検討では、連盟が戦争中に、アメリカのプリンストン、ロンドンなどに分かれて統計収集などをしていることがわかった。2月にイギリス、ロンドンのThe National Archives での資料収集によって、1939年秋、ヨーロッパでの戦争勃発後、今後の連盟をどうするかについての議論が、参加可能な加盟国によってなされていることがわかった。それによれば、連盟は、集団安全保障が機能しなかったことで、今後は「ブルース報告」で提起されていたように、むしろ、社会経済問題に中心をすえて活動を行うべきだという議論が多かった。ただし、ヨーロッパでの議論は、戦争の激化によって中断されたようである。その後、国際連合の設立をめぐって、アメリカのリーダーシップのもとに国連設立構想が進んでいくなかで、イギリス外務省を中心として、国際連盟の専門機関を継承する形で国際連合構想をしていることが下記の文書でわかった。“Report of theCommittee on the Future of the League of Nations”   15th March, 1945この文書によれば、国際連盟期に実績を積み重ねた、「事務局」、「保健衛生活動」、「難民問題専門機関」は戦後の国際連合に継承されるべきであると議論されていた。国際連合で新たにこれらの活動を立ち上げることには労力がかかり、人的資源の継承という点でも、連盟の実績を国連につなげるべきだという議論がされていた。この文書からは、国際連盟の社会経済面での活動を国際連合につなげる役割を果たしたのは、イギリス外務省であることが推察された。すなわち、国連安全保障理事会という安全保障の大きな枠組はアメリカ側から提起されたものである一方で、連盟時代の実務を評価し国連の制度につなげたのはイギリス外務省という役割分担があったと推察される。

  • 国際連盟理事会における規範形成と集団的正当性

    2022   篠原初枝

     View Summary

    国際連盟における理事会の役割について、英語のBook chapter, "Jspan'sDiplomats in the League Council: The Challenge of Managing Power and Ideals inthe Pacific Settlement of Disputes," を記した。その内容は以下である。国際連盟の理事会は1920年代に、組織的に発展し、連盟規約にはないreporter という制度を生み出し、紛争が起きるとこのreporter を紛争地域に派遣し、紛争の解決に努めた。理事会の議論を見る限りでは、理事会代表者が、連盟規約を進歩的に解釈しようとした事例や、議論をしていく中で合意2)共編著であるEast Asians in the League of Nations: Actors, Empires and Regions inEarly Global Politics として、Palgrave Macmillan 社から出版した。

  • 国際連盟理事会の再検討、規範および集団的正当性の視点から


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  • 国際連盟と日本


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  • 国際連盟における理事会の役割と安達峰一郎


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    国際連盟において、日本の連盟代表を務めた安達峰一郎については、これまでその少数民族問題での活躍が議論されてきた。安達は、理事会においてその語学的能力と豊富な法律的知識を用いて、ドイツ・ポーランド間の上部シレジア問題、トランシルヴァニア問題等について、あるときは直接交渉を主導し、あるときは理事会での議論を先導し、問題の解決に寄与したのである。国際連盟においては、創設時の連盟規約においては、理事会において「報告者」を設けることは定められてはいない。しかしながら、1920年代の半ばころから、各問題事項に「報告者」をあらかじめ割り振っていくことで、理事会での議論を円滑に進め、問題の解決を模索することとした。本研究では、どの国がどの問題を担当したかを、連盟の公式文書である Official Journal から調べた。その結果、ヴェネズエラやキューバといった中小国も、理事会の報告者となっていたことがわかった。

  • 国際連盟再考―国際機構史構築へ向けて

    2016   篠原初枝

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     国際連盟の研究について、安達峰一郎という日本の外交官であり、国際連盟の理事会で活躍し、その後常設国際司法裁判所の所長となった人物についての研究を深めた。安達は、戦前の日本が生んだ国債は外交官として活躍していたがこれまであまり研究されてこなかった。安達を多面的に掘り下げるということで、国際法および国際政治の研究者が集まり、安達をとりまく時代状況や国際法上の議論を探求した。 筆者は、安達の国際連盟理事会における活躍に焦点をあて、少数民族問題という当時のヨーロッパにおいて重要な課題を安達がどのように処理したかを、国際連盟の文書から分析した。安達は、法的な知識を基礎としつつ、理事会の議論では、当意即妙に応じるなど、連盟理事会において高く評価されていたことがわかった。また、理事会においては、国際連盟特有の「報告者」が制度的にいかに重要であるかも明らかにした。

  • 法的議論は国際関係論にいかに貢献できるのか―Global Ethics の視点から


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    国際関係論において法的アプローチはいかなる位置づけを得るべきなのかという課題をこの研究課題で追求した。この課題追及にあたり、ひとつは理論的な考察を行い、近年欧米で進んでいる法と政治にかかわる文献を読み込み、このテーマにかかわる研究の現況を確認した。また、具体的な課題として、ヘルシンキ大学コスケニエミ教授のもとでの共同研究に参加したプロジェクトがある。このプロジェクトでは "Trajectory of American Reformers in the Cold War: Draft Toward Empire" という論文を書き、それをプロジェクト全体の成果物である著作に投稿した。すでに、この著作の出版は決定している。この論文では、戦間期においては改革派として名を馳せたライト(Quincy Wright) やフェンウィック(Charles Fenwick )等の国際法学者が、冷戦期においてどのようにその議論や立場を変遷させていったかを論じた。興味深いことに、キューバ危機を転換として、ライトとフェンウィックの間には、その立場に相違が生じ、ライトはアメリカ政府が行った政策を国際法違反だとしたのに対し、フェンウィックは合法だと論じた。

  • 活かされる国際制度ー「政治的意思」の視点から


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    この課題を探求するに当たり、二つの大きな論点を考察した。それはいかに「制度」と「政治的意思」を定義するかである。制度については、国際関係においては、大別するのならば国際組織と法という二つが考えられる。国際組織は、たとえば国際連盟・国際連合などの普遍的政府間国際組織、あるいはEUなどの地域的な政府間組織もある。しかし、当研究において筆者があえて探求を深めたかったのは、そのような組織ではなく、制度としての法規範、具体的には国際法という制度である。国際社会に、絶対的な権力を有する中心的な政府が存在しないため、国際法は国家の遵守において自主性に頼る制度である。そのような法規範がいかに形成され継続されるのか、また、なぜある法規範体系はより遵守されるのに対し、他の法規範は度重なる「違反」を問われるのか、それがこの研究の根本をなす命題である。国際法規範という「制度」について、ではどのような政治的意思がはたらくのか、このような政治的意思は、政治家や外交官という政策に携わるものによってもたらされるのか。それが2番目の論点である。すなわち、政治的意思の発露にあたるアクターの問題である。政治家や官僚、外交官などの政策決定者による「政治的意思」の表明はむろん、国際法規反の形成やその発展に不可欠な要件である。国際連盟規約が、アメリカ大統領ウィルソンの指導によって作成されたように、政策決定者の役割は大きい。しかしながら、筆者があえて問題として論じたいのは、国際法規反をささえる規範意識としての「政治的意思」なのであり、この場合、政治家や政策決定者の意思が重要であることはもちろんであるが、規範意識を生み出す国際法学者の役割に筆者は注目してきたのである。中心政府が存在しない国際社会において、ある国際法規範が重要である、侵犯してはならないという意識形成に、国際法学およびその解釈者、実行者である国際法学者が果たす役割は決して小さくはないのである。より具体的なテーマとして、筆者が取り組んだのは、戦間期に国際法改革を叫んだアメリカ国際法学者がどのように戦後その議論を変遷させていったかである。戦間期に「戦争違法化」に取り組んだQuincy Wright, Chales Fenwick, Manley Hudson らの指導的学者が、冷戦、アメリカの超大国化という時代的文脈の中で、どのような政治的意思を有し、国際法の議論をおこなったかを検証した。きわめて、興味深かったのは、キューバ危機を境として、アメリカの帝国的な行動を擁護するような学説、すなわち政治的意思がが展開されてきたことである。このような実証的な発見は、国際法規範構築にあたり、どこまで国際法学者の政治的意思が、ナショナルな文脈を離れて展開されるのかという大きな問題につながると、あらためて考えさせられた。

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