2022/01/28 更新

写真a

イシバシ ヒロユキ
石橋 弘之
所属
人間科学学術院 人間科学部
職名
助教
 

研究分野

  • 地域研究

論文

  • カンボジア西部カルダモン産地の地域史にみる「禁忌の森」の伐採と焼畑休閑地の権利

    石橋 弘之

    東南アジア研究   59 ( 1 ) 146 - 191  2021年07月

     概要を見る

    <p>This article explores land-use transformation in a highland community in the Cardamom Mountains in western Cambodia, focusing not only on agricultural land used for subsistence but also on land used for producing a non-timber forest product, cardamom, as a commercial product. Taking account of the historical context in a cardamom production site, the article examines how people who lived in the highlands from the prewar period and migrants from the lowlands during the postwar period acquired agricultural land.</p><p>Forestland in the early 1990s was "forbidden forest"; since the prewar period there was a taboo against clearing forests that were used for cardamom production. Both highland people and migrants from the lowlands were aware of the taboo, and some of them avoided clearing the cardamom forest, where the land was most fertile. However, from the late 1990s onward cardamom forest was cleared. Internal factors to this were land rights, including rights to fallow, claimed within the community by early and late returnees and newcomers. External factors such as the construction of logging roads and a hydroelectric dam, the expansion of agricultural cash crops, and the privatization of land by outsiders became additional drivers that pushed people to clear the cardamom forest.</p><p>The trajectory of land-use transformation shows that forests were initially used for producing cardamom as a commercial product in the prewar period, later served a subsistence purpose for rice production, and then served a commercial purpose for cash crop production in the postwar period. The changes indicate that the land-use purpose did not simply change from subsistence to commercial in the highland community in the Cardamom Mountains, unlike in other highland communities in Cambodia.</p>

    DOI CiNii

  • Subjective Well-Being as a Potential Policy Indicator in the Context of Urbanization and Forest Restoration

    Takuya Takahashi, Yukiko Uchida, Hiroyuki Ishibashi, Noboru Okuda

    SUSTAINABILITY   13 ( 6 )  2021年03月

     概要を見る

    The enhancement of human well-being is one of the ultimate goals of resource management; however, it is not explicitly considered by forest policy indicators. Our previous studies examined how Japanese citizens in the Yasu River watershed of the Shiga Prefecture perceived subjective well-being related to forests (forest SWB). We found a negative correlation between forest SWB and forest ownership, suggesting dissatisfaction with the low profitability of forest ownership. Based on this result, in this paper, we argue that forest SWB can be an important indicator for policymaking in the context of urbanization and forest restoration and can complement existing forest indicators focusing mainly on physical and objective properties. First, we propose that a direct measurement of well-being (e.g., forest SWB) is preferable over an indirect measurement (e.g., GDP), for policymaking processes related to forests. Second, forest SWB can reflect the quality of our interactions with forests, which is important in urbanized societies which tend to have reduced experiences with nature. Third, forest SWB could identify inequalities between the users of forest ecosystem services and forest managers. Overall, forest SWB can be a holistic indicator to capture a variety of perspectives held by citizens.

    DOI

  • 森林に関わる主観的幸福度に影響を及ぼす要因の実証的検討:―滋賀県野洲川上流域を対象として―

    高橋 卓也, 内田 由紀子, 石橋 弘之, 奥田 昇

    日本森林学会誌   103 ( 2 ) 122 - 133  2021年

     概要を見る

    <p>森林に関わる主観的幸福度を測定し,得られた結果とその要因について検討した。滋賀県野洲川上流域を対象として,2018年に一般世帯を対象とするアンケート調査を実施した。因子分析の結果を踏まえ,森林に関する幸福度を満足度,充実感,プラスの感情,マイナスの感情の4種類に分類し,森林との関わりについての説明変数等による回帰分析を行った。農業,林業への従事は森林充実感と,個人所有林およびボランティアでの森林管理は森林満足度や充実感と正の相関が見られた。一方,地元の山の森林管理はプラスの感情と負の相関を示した。居住地域の森林比率と幸福度との間の相関は特定できなかった。森林所有は4種類すべての森林幸福度と負の関係が見られたが,これは森林の資産価値が低下し,森林管理の負担感が大きくなっていることを示すものと推測される。森林資源の量的な再生がある程度達成され,質的な面での改善が求められている日本の現状において,個々人が森林とどのように関わり,個人およびコミュニティの幸福度をいかに促進するか検討する上で,森林幸福度の構造的な(種類別の)把握が政策課題としても必要とされることを論じる。</p>

    DOI CiNii

  • カンボジアの森をめぐる移動と交流―カルダモン山脈と中央平野部の地域間関係史

    石橋弘之

    東京大学大学院農学生命科学研究科農学国際専攻    2017年03月  [査読有り]

  • Historical change in the traditional use of forests and its association with belief in tiger spirits in the Cardamom Mountains, Cambodia: The impact of war and wildlife trade on the relationship between humans and tigers

    TROPICS   24 ( 3 ) 105 - 204  2015年12月  [査読有り]

    DOI

Misc

  • 暮らしの中の熱帯(その10)カルダモンからみる水源林の開発と消失

    石橋 弘之

    グリーン・パワー   ( 490 ) 26 - 27  2019年10月

    CiNii

  • 近現代カンボジアの社会変動下におけるカルダモン利用の動態:――収穫現場の統率者,販売制度,保全活動をめぐる地域環境史――

    石橋 弘之

    東南アジア研究   48 ( 2 ) 155 - 204  2010年

     概要を見る

    Cardamom (Amomum kravanh) has been used as a medicinal plant, a food and as a source of revenue in the Cardamom Mountain region in south west Cambodia, from at least the late 19th century. Harvesting of this plant entailed a ceremony to open the season, conducted by a harvest leader (dângkhaw), who took responsibility in leading the harvest group in harvest activities. Production of this plant was also controlled by the then French colonial government in order to secure state revenue by reforming the taxation system and organizing a marketing cooperative system managed by local administration which used a similar system in 1950s and 1960s.<br>&emsp;However, the use of cardamom was interrupted in 1970s and 1980s due to civil war that broke out under the Pol Pot regime. Although its use and management restarted after the establishment of a new government in 1990 alongside the creation of protected forest in 2002 through conservation activities, the author has observed that its use has changed and diversified between both the northern and southern part of the central mountains. That is in the north, ceremony, harvest and selling is still practiced, whereas in the south, people don't practice ceremony and are inclined to refrain from harvest and selling.<br>&emsp;This paper will explore how the use of cardamom differed and changed due to historical transitions and social and environmental conditions between the two research sites correlating it with the harvesting leader, marketing system and conservation activities. It then discusses factors effecting its continuous use.<br>&emsp;The following two points were the core internal factors that supported the continuous use of cardamom in the northern part of the mountains. (1) A fundamental system for practicing harvest custom formed by interaction between characteristics of dângkhaw (a. Commitment to on the ground activity, b. A hereditary role in transferring knowledge and experiences among kin, c. The adjustment of the harvesting period to collect well ripened fruits with a good market price) and the environmental setting of the area where cardamom was abundant. (2) The dângkhaw and his family who managed this system reconstructed and maintained harvest customs even under conditions of rapid social change and historical transitions. In addition to this, (3) External intervention through the introduction of a marketing system and conservation activities that linked with the internal harvesting system, formed a system connecting both the inside and outside world of the community through maintaining conditions for selling the harvest.

    DOI CiNii

  • カンボジア南西部山地におけるカルダモン利用の変化と地域差 : カルダモンの利用継続の背景要因の考察(自由研究発表要旨,第82回研究大会報告)

    石橋 弘之

    東南アジア学会会報   ( 92 )  2010年

    CiNii

 

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