2022/08/17 更新

写真a

ヒグチ ミツル
樋口 満
所属
スポーツ科学学術院
職名
名誉教授

学歴

  •  
    -
    1977年

    東京大学大学院   教育学研究科   体育学  

  •  
    -
    1971年

    名古屋大学   理学部   化学科・生物化学専攻  

学位

  • 東京大学   教育学博士

経歴

  • 2003年04月
    -
     

    : 早稲田大学 スポーツ科学学術院 スポーツ医科学科 教授

  • 1997年05月
    -
    2000年02月

    : 東京大学大学院 教育学研究科 客員教授(併任)

  • 1987年07月
    -
     

    : 国立栄養研究所 健康増進部 健康指標研究 室長

  • 1984年
    -
     

    : 国立栄養研究所 健康増進部 主任研究官

  • 1982年05月
    -
    1983年05月

    : 米国ワシントン大学医学部(セントルイス) 客員研究員

  • 1978年01月
    -
     

    : 国立栄養研究所 健康増進部 研究員

  •  
     
     

    : 独立行政法人 国立健康・栄養研究所 健康増進研究部 部長

▼全件表示

所属学協会

  •  
     
     

    日本ビタミン学会

  •  
     
     

    日本動脈硬化学会

  •  
     
     

    日本体力医学会

  •  
     
     

    日本体育学会

  •  
     
     

    日本栄養食糧学会

  •  
     
     

    日本栄養改善学会

  •  
     
     

    日本運動生理学会

  •  
     
     

    ACSM(米国)

▼全件表示

 

研究分野

  • スポーツ科学

  • 栄養学、健康科学

研究キーワード

  • 健康増進、運動、栄養、スポーツ生化学、スポーツ栄養学

論文

  • Dietary Whey Protein Hydrolysates Increase Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Levels via Activation of Glycogen Synthase in Mice.

    Kanda A, Morifuji M, Fukasawa T, Koga J, Kanegae M, Kawanaka K, Higuchi M

    J Agric Food Chem.   60 ( 45 ) 11403 - 11408  2012年11月

  • Rowing as an aerobic and resistance exercise for elderly people

    Meiko Asaka, Hiroshi Kawano, Mitsuru Higuchi

    The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine   1 ( 2 ) 227 - 234  2012年09月

  • Prediction of Maximal Oxygen Uptake From a 3-Minute Walk Based on Gender, Age, and Body Composition.

    Cao ZB, Miyatake N, Aoyama T, Higuchi M, Tabata I

    J Phys Act Health.    2012年06月

  • アクアビクスの基本動作における運動強度とその決定要因

    峯田真悠子, 河野寛, 丸藤祐子, 浅香明子, 樋口満

    水泳水中運動科学   15 ( 1 ) 1 - 10  2012年05月

  • Association between dietary intake of micronutrients and cardiorespiratory fitness in Japanese men

    Zhen-Bo Caoa, Azusa Sasaki, Taewoong Oh, Nobuyuki Miyatake, Kazuyo Tsushita, Mitsuru Higuchi, Satoshi Sasaki, Izumi Tabata

    Journal of Nutritional Science   1   1 - 6  2012年

  • Associations between muscular fitness and metabolic syndrome: Cross-sectional study of Japanese women and men

    A Tanaka, ZB Cao, Y Saito, Y Kobori, M Higuchi

    Health   4 ( 10 ) 838 - 844  2012年

  • Post-exercise ingestion of different amounts of protein affects plasma insulin concentration in humans

    Masashi Morifuji, Tomoko Aoyama, Ai Nakata, Chiaki Sambongi, Jinichiro Koga, Kunihiko Kurihara, Minoru Kanegae, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Mitsuru Higuchi

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SPORT SCIENCE   12 ( 2 ) 152 - 160  2012年

     概要を見る

    The synergistic stimulating effect of combined intake of carbohydrate and protein on plasma insulin concentration has been reported previously. However, it remains unclear whether the amount of protein ingested after exercise affects the concentrations of plasma insulin and amino acids. This study of trained men compared the effects of post-exercise co-ingestion of carbohydrate plus different amounts of whey protein hydrolysates (WPHs) with carbohydrate alone on (1) blood biochemical parameters of carbohydrate metabolism during the post-exercise phase, and (2) endurance performance. Eight trained men exercised continuously for 70 min. Immediately after exercise and 30, 60, 90, and 120 min later, the participants received supplements containing: (1) 17.5 g carbohydrate, (2) 3.0 g WPHs and 17.5 g carbohydrate (L-WPH), or (3) 8.0 g WPHs and 17.5 g carbohydrate (H-WPH). After a 2-h recovery period, the participants performed an endurance performance test. The concentrations of blood glucose were lower and plasma insulin significantly higher in the H-WPH trial compared with the carbohydrate trial. The concentrations of plasma amino acids were increased in a dose-dependent manner following ingestion of different amounts of WPHs with carbohydrate. Endurance performance was not significantly different between the three trials. Co-ingestion of carbohydrate and H-WPH was more effective than ingestion of carbohydrate alone for stimulating insulin secretion and increasing the availability of plasma amino acids. These results suggest that plasma concentrations of amino acids during the recovery period are determined by the amount of dietary protein ingested, and that it is necessary to increase the concentration of plasma amino acids above a certain level to stimulate insulin secretion.

    DOI

  • Appetite after rope skipping may differ between males and females

    Hiroshi Kawanoa, Fumiya Motegib, Takafumi Andoc, Yuko Gando, Mayuko Mineta, Shigeharu Numao, Masashi Miyashita, Shizuo Sakamoto, Mitsuru Higuchi

    Obesity Research & Clinical Practice   6 ( 2 ) 121 - 127  2012年

  • Polymorphisms in the control region of mitochondrial DNA associated with elite Japanese athlete status

    E. Mikami, N. Fuku, H. Takahashi, N. Ohiwa, Y. P. Pitsiladis, M. Higuchi, T. Kawahara, M. Tanaka

    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports    2012年

  • Habitual rowing exercise is associated with high physical fitness without affecting arterial stiffness in older men

    Hiroshi Kawano, Motoyuki Iemitsu, Yuko Gando, Toshimichi Ishijima, Meiko Asaka, Tomoko Aoyama, Takafumi Ando, Ken Tokizawa, Motohiko Miyachi, Shizuo Sakamoto, Mitsuru Higuchi

    JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCES   30 ( 3 ) 241 - 246  2012年

     概要を見る

    The present study elucidated the effects of habitual rowing exercise on arterial stiffness and plasma levels of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 and the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) in older men. Eleven rowers (68.0 +/- 1.6 years) and 11 sedentary control older men (64.9 +/- 1.1 years) were studied. Peak oxygen uptake (36.0 +/- 1.7 vs. 27.7 +/- 1.9 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1)), leg press power (1346 +/- 99 vs. 1077 +/- 68 W), and HDL-cholesterol (75 +/- 5 vs. 58 +/- 3 mg . ml(-1)) were higher and triglyceride (78 +/- 9 vs. 120 +/- 14 mg . ml(-1)) was lower in rowers than in control participants (all P < 0.05). Arterial stiffness indices (carotid beta-stiffness and cardio-ankle vascular index) and plasma endothelin-1 and NOx (nitrite+nitrate) levels did not differ between the two groups. These results suggest that habitual rowing exercise in older men is associated with high muscle power and aerobic capacity, and favourable blood lipid profile without affecting arterial stiffness or plasma levels of endotheline-1 and NO.

    DOI

  • Post-exercise ingestion of different amounts of protein affects plasma insulin concentration in humans

    Masashi Morifuji, Tomoko Aoyama, Ai Nakata, Chiaki Sambongi, Jinichiro Koga, Kunihiko Kurihara, Minoru Kanegae, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Mitsuru Higuchi

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SPORT SCIENCE   12 ( 2 ) 152 - 160  2012年

     概要を見る

    The synergistic stimulating effect of combined intake of carbohydrate and protein on plasma insulin concentration has been reported previously. However, it remains unclear whether the amount of protein ingested after exercise affects the concentrations of plasma insulin and amino acids. This study of trained men compared the effects of post-exercise co-ingestion of carbohydrate plus different amounts of whey protein hydrolysates (WPHs) with carbohydrate alone on (1) blood biochemical parameters of carbohydrate metabolism during the post-exercise phase, and (2) endurance performance. Eight trained men exercised continuously for 70 min. Immediately after exercise and 30, 60, 90, and 120 min later, the participants received supplements containing: (1) 17.5 g carbohydrate, (2) 3.0 g WPHs and 17.5 g carbohydrate (L-WPH), or (3) 8.0 g WPHs and 17.5 g carbohydrate (H-WPH). After a 2-h recovery period, the participants performed an endurance performance test. The concentrations of blood glucose were lower and plasma insulin significantly higher in the H-WPH trial compared with the carbohydrate trial. The concentrations of plasma amino acids were increased in a dose-dependent manner following ingestion of different amounts of WPHs with carbohydrate. Endurance performance was not significantly different between the three trials. Co-ingestion of carbohydrate and H-WPH was more effective than ingestion of carbohydrate alone for stimulating insulin secretion and increasing the availability of plasma amino acids. These results suggest that plasma concentrations of amino acids during the recovery period are determined by the amount of dietary protein ingested, and that it is necessary to increase the concentration of plasma amino acids above a certain level to stimulate insulin secretion.

    DOI

  • Mitochondrial haplogroups associated with elite Japanese athlete status

    Mikami E, Fuku N, Takahashi H, Ohiwa N, Scott RA, Pitsiladis YP, Higuchi M, Kawahara T, Tanaka M

    Br J Sports Med.   45 ( 15 ) 1179 - 83  2011年12月

  • Preexercise Ingestion of carbohydrate plus whey protein hydrolysate attenuates skeletal muscle glycogen depletion during exercise in rats

    Masashi Morifuji, Atsushi Kanda, Jinichiro Koga, Kentaro Kawanaka, Mitsuru Higuchi

    Nutrition   27   833 - 837  2011年08月

  • Preexercise ingestion of carbohydrate plus whey protein hydrolysates attenuates skeletal muscle glycogen depletion during exercise in rats

    Masashi Morifuji, Atsushi Kanda, Jinichiro Koga, Kentaro Kawanaka, Mitsuru Higuchi

    NUTRITION   27 ( 7-8 ) 833 - 837  2011年07月

     概要を見る

    Objective: Depletion of glycogen stores is associated with fatigue during both sprint and endurance exercises and therefore it is considered important to maintain adequate tissue stores of glycogen during exercise. The aims of the present study in rats were therefore to investigate the effects of preexercise supplementation with carbohydrate and whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) on glycogen content, and phosphorylated signaling molecules of key enzymes that regulate glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis during exercise.
    Methods: Male SD rats were used in the study (n = 7/group). Prior to exercise, one group of rats was sacrificed, whereas the other groups were given either water, glucose, or glucose plus WPH solutions. After ingestion of the test solutions, glycogen-depleting exercise was carried out for 60 min. The rats were then sacrificed and the triceps muscles excised quickly.
    Results: Compared to water or glucose only, preexercise ingestion of glucose plus WPH caused a significant attenuation of muscle glycogen depletion during the postexercise period. Coingestion of glucose and WPH also significantly lowered phosphorylated glycogen synthase levels compared to ingestion of water only. In the glucose plus WPH group, the levels of phosphorylated Akt were increased significantly compared to the group ingesting water only, while the levels of phosphorylated PKC were significantly higher than in the groups ingesting only water or glucose.
    Conclusion: Taken together, these results indicate that, compared to ingestion of glucose or water only, preexercise ingestion of carbohydrate plus WPH activates skeletal muscle proteins of key enzymes that regulate glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis during exercise, thereby attenuating exercise-induced glycogen depletion. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Normal Adaptations to Exercise Despite Protection Against Oxidative Stress

    Kazuhiko Higashida, Sang HyunKim, Mitsuru Higuchi, John Holloszy, Dong-Ho Han

    Am J Physiol Metab    2011年07月

  • Resting Energy Expenditure Can Be Assessed by Fat-Free Mass in Female Athletes Regardless of Body Size

    Motoko Taguchi, Kazuko Ishikawa-Takata, Wakako Tatsuta, Chisa Katsuragi, Chiyoko Usui, Shizuo Sakamoto, Mitsuru Higuchi

    JOURNAL OF NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE AND VITAMINOLOGY   57 ( 1 ) 22 - 29  2011年02月

     概要を見る

    Energy requirements can be estimated from resting energy expenditure (REE). However, little is known about factors influencing REE in Japanese female athletes. This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between REE and body composition in Japanese female athletes with a wide range of body sizes. Ninety-three athletes (age 20.3 +/- 1.2y, height 162.8 +/- 6.4 cm, body weight (BW) 57.0 +/- 9.2 kg, fat-free mass (FFM) 45.4 +/- 6.2 kg) were classified into three groups according to BW: small-size (S) (n=34), medium-size (M) (n=34), and large-size (L) (n=25). Systemic and regional body compositions (skeletal muscle (SM), fat mass (FM), bone mass (BM), and residual mass (RM)) were estimated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Measured resting energy expenditure (REEm) was evaluated by indirect calorimetry. Marked differences were found in REEm (S: 1,111 +/- 150, M: 1,242 +/- 133, L: 1,478 +/- 138 kcal/d), and systemic and regional body compositions among the three groups. REEm was strongly correlated with PPM, and absolute values of RM and SM increased significantly according to body size. There was good agreement between REEm and estimated REE (REEe) from the specific metabolic rates of four major organ tissue level compartments. These data indicate that REE for female athletes can be attributed to changes in organ tissue mass, and not changes in organ tissue metabolic rate. That is, change in REE can be explained mainly by the change in PPM, and REE can be assessed by PPM in female athletes regardless of body size.

  • Characteristics of Body Composition and Resting Energy Expenditure in Lean Young Women

    Ayana Hasegawa, Chiyoko Usui, Hiroshi Kawano, Shizuo Sakamoto, Mitsuru Higuchi

    JOURNAL OF NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE AND VITAMINOLOGY   57 ( 1 ) 74 - 79  2011年02月

     概要を見る

    The number of lean young women has been increasing. Fear of being fat may induce unnecessary attempts to reduce body weight, which can cause several types of illness. Many investigations have demonstrated dysfunction of the hypothalamus and metabolic differences in patients with anorexia nervosa. However, it is unclear whether there are any differences in physical characteristics between women with lower body weight and no illness compared to those of normal body weight. In this study, we investigated the differences in body composition, biochemical parameters, and resting energy expenditure (REE) between young women with low and normal body mass index (BMI). Twenty lean women (BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2)) and 20 normal women (18.5 <= BMI < 25 kg/m(2)) were recruited for this study. Body composition, biochemical parameters, and REE (REEm: measurement of REE) were measured, and the REE (REEe: estimation of REE) was estimated by using a prediction model. Marked differences were found in body composition. All of the values of blood analysis were in the normal ranges in both groups REEm (kcal/d and kcal/kg BW/d) was significantly lower in lean than in normal women, but there were no significant differences in the REEm to fat free mass (PPM) ratio between the two groups. In addition, there was good agreement between REEm and REEe obtained from the specific metabolic rates of four tissue organs. These data indicate that the lean women without any illness have normal values of biochemical parameters and energy metabolism compared to women with normal BMI.

  • 除脂肪量を用いた女性競技者の基礎代謝量推定式の妥当性

    田口 素子, 高田和子, 大内志織, 樋口満

    体力科学   61 ( 4 ) 423 - 432  2011年

  • 運動指針2006の体力基準値とメタボリックシンドローム

    青山友子, 樋口

    体育の科学   61 ( 2 )  2011年

  • C.R.エディントン M-K.チン 樋口満:保健と体育:新しい世界的な合意声明—日本における取り組みを交えてー

    体育の科学   61 ( 11 )  2011年

  • ACTN3遺伝子のR577Xナンセンスアレルはエリートレベルの日本人中長距離走選手において頻度が低い60(4):443-451(2011)

    斎藤 太一, 三上恵里, 福典之, 田中雅嗣, 川原 貴, 田中宏暁, 樋口満

    体力科学   60 ( 4 ) 443 - 451  2011年

  • 低強度・長時間水泳運動トレーニングによりラット骨格筋で発現するタンパク質のプロテミクス;2D-DIG解析

    山口 航, 藤本恵里, 樋口満 田畑泉

    体力科学   60 ( 5 ) 511 - 518  2011年

  • Habitual rowing exercise is associated with high physical fitness without affecting arterial stiffness in older older men

    Sports Sciences

       2011年

  • Fat-free mass can utilized to assess resting energy expenditure for male athletes of different body size

    Satomi Oshima, Sakiho Miyuchi, Hiroshi Kawano, Toshimichi Ishijima, Meiko Asaka, Motoko Taguchi, Suguru Torii, Mitsuru Higuchi

    J Nutr Sci Vitaminol   ( 57 ) 394 - 400  2011年

  • Attenuated age-related carotid arterial remodeling in adults with a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness.J Atheroscler Thromb

    Gando Y, Yamamoto K, Kawano H, Murakami, H, Ohmori Y, Kawakami R, Sanada K, Higuchi M, Tabata I, Miyachi M

      28;18 ( 3 ) 248 - 254  2011年

  • Association between muscular strength metabolic risk in Japanease women, but not in men

    Tomoko Aoyama, Meiko Asaka, Toshimichi Ishijima, Hiroshi Kawano, Zhen-Bo Cao, Shizuo Sakamoto, Izumi Tabata, Mitsuru Higuchi

      ( 30 ) 133 - 139  2011年

  • Appetite after rope skipping may differ males and females

    Hiroshi Kawano, Fumiya Motegi, Takafumi Ando, Yuko Gando, Mayuko Mineta, Shigeharu Numao, Masashi Miyshita, Shizuo Sakamoto, Mitsuru Higuchi

    Obesity Research & Clinical Pracice    2011年

  • Longer Time Spent in Light Physical Activity Is Associated With Reduced Arterial Stiffness in Older Adults

    Yuko Gando, Kenta Yamamoto, Haruka Murakami, Yumi Ohmori, Ryoko Kawakami, Kiyoshi Sanada, Mitsuru Higuchi, Izumi Tabata, Motohiko Miyachi

    HYPERTENSION   56 ( 3 ) 540 - 546  2010年09月

     概要を見る

    Habitual moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity attenuates arterial stiffening. However, it is unclear whether light physical activity also attenuates arterial stiffening. It is also unclear whether light physical activity has the same effects in fit and unfit individuals. This cross-sectional study was performed to determine the relationships between amount of light physical activity determined with a triaxial accelerometer and arterial stiffness. A total of 538 healthy men and women participated in this study. Subjects in each age category were divided into either high-light or low-light physical activity groups based on daily time spent in light physical activity. Arterial stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. Two-way ANOVA indicated a significant interaction between age and time spent in light physical activity in determining carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (P<0.05). In the older group, carotid femoral pulse wave velocity was higher in the low-light physical activity level group than in the high-light physical activity level group (945 +/- 19 versus 882 +/- 16 cm/s; P<0.01). The difference remained significant after normalizing carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity for amounts of moderate and vigorous physical activity. The carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (r=-0.47; P<0.01) was correlated with daily time spent in light physical activity in older unfit subjects. No relationship was observed in older fit subjects. These results suggested that longer time spent in light physical activity is associated with attenuation of arterial stiffening, especially in unfit older people. (Hypertension. 2010;56:540-546.)

    DOI

  • A DIGE proteomic analysis for high-intensity exercise-trained rat skeletal muscle

    Wataru Yamaguchi, Eri Fujimoto, Mitsuru Higuchi, Izumi Tabata

    JOURNAL OF BIOCHEMISTRY   148 ( 3 ) 327 - 333  2010年09月

     概要を見る

    Exercise training induces various adaptations in skeletal muscles. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we conducted 2D-DIGE proteomic analysis, which has not yet been used for elucidating adaptations of skeletal muscle after high-intensity exercise training (HIT). For 5 days, rats performed HIT, which consisted of 14 20-s swimming exercise bouts carrying a weight (14% of the body weight), and 10-s pause between bouts. The 2D-DIGE analysis was conducted on epitrochlearis muscles excised 18 h after the final training exercise. Proteomic profiling revealed that out of 800 detected and matched spots, 13 proteins exhibited changed expression by HIT compared with sedentary rats. All proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/MS. Furthermore, using western immunoblot analyses, significantly changed expressions of NDUFS1 and parvalbumin (PV) were validated in relation to HIT. In conclusion, the proteomic 2D-DIGE analysis following HIT-identified expressions of NDUFS1 and PV, previously unknown to have functions related to exercise-training adaptations.

    DOI

  • Comparison of Different Sources and Degrees of Hydrolysis of Dietary Protein: Effect on Plasma Amino Acids, Dipeptides, and Insulin Responses in Human Subjects

    Masashi Morifuji, Mihoko Ishizaka, Seigo Baba, Kumiko Fukuda, Hitoshi Matsumoto, Jinichiro Koga, Minoru Kanegae, Mitsuru Higuchi

    JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY   58 ( 15 ) 8788 - 8797  2010年08月

     概要を見る

    The effect of protein fractionation on the bioavailability of amino acids and peptides and insulin response and whether the protein source influences these effects in humans are poorly understood. This study compared the effects of different sources and degrees of hydrolysis of dietary protein, independent of carbohydrate, on plasma amino acid and dipeptide levels and insulin responses in humans. Ten subjects were enrolled in the study, with five subjects participating in trials on either soy or whey protein and their hydrolysates. Protein hydrolysates were absorbed more rapidly as plasma amino acids compared to nonhydrolyzed protein. Whey protein also caused more rapid increases in indispensable amino acid and branched-chain amino acid concentrations than soy protein. In addition, protein hydrolysates caused significant increases in Val-Leu and lle-Leu concentrations compared to nonhydrolyzed protein. Whey protein hydrolysates also induced significantly greater stimulation of insulin release than the other proteins. Taken together, these results demonstrate whey protein hydrolysates cause significantly greater increases in the plasma concentrations of amino acids, dipeptides, and insulin.

    DOI

  • Comparison of Different Sources and Degrees of Hydrolysis of Dietary Protein:Effect on plasma Amino Acids Dipeptides, and Insulin Responses in Human Subjects

    Masashi Morifuji, Mihoko Ishizaki, Seigo Baba, Kuumiko Fukuda, Hitoshi Matsumoto, Jinichiro KOga, Minoru Kanegae, Mitsuru HIfuchi

    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry   58 ( 15 ) 8788 - 8797  2010年07月

  • Post-exercise carbohydrate plus whey protein hydrolysates supplementation increases skeletal muscle glycogen level in rats

    Masashi Morifuji, Atsushi Kanda, Jinichiro Koga, Kentaro Kawanaka, Mitsuru Higuchi

    AMINO ACIDS   38 ( 4 ) 1109 - 1115  2010年04月

     概要を見る

    Recent studies showed that a combination of carbohydrate and protein was more effective than carbohydrate alone for replenishing muscle glycogen after exercise. However, it remains to be unclear whether the source or degree of hydrolysis of dietary protein influences post-exercise glycogen accumulation. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of dietary protein type on glycogen levels in the post-exercise phase, and to investigate the effects of post-exercise carbohydrate and protein supplementation on phosphorylated enzymes of Akt/PKB and atypical PKCs. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, trained for 3 days, swam with a 2% load of body weight for 4 h to deplete skeletal muscle glycogen. Immediately after the glycogen-depleting exercise, one group was killed, whereas the other groups were given either glucose or glucose plus protein (whey protein, whey protein hydrolysates (WPH), casein hydrolysates or branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) solutions. After 2 h, the rats were killed, and the triceps muscles quickly excised. WPH caused significant increases in skeletal muscle glycogen level (5.01 +/- A 0.24 mg/g), compared with whey protein (4.23 +/- A 0.24 mg/g), BCAA (3.92 +/- A 0.18 mg/g) or casein hydrolysates (2.73 +/- A 0.22 mg/g). Post-exercise ingestion of glucose plus WPH significantly increased both phosphorylated Akt/PKB (131%) and phosphorylated PKC zeta (154%) levels compared with glucose only. There was a significant positive correlation between skeletal muscle glycogen content and phosphorylated Akt/PKB (r = 0.674, P < 0.001) and PKC zeta (r = 0.481, P = 0.017). Post-exercise supplementation with carbohydrate and WPH increases skeletal muscle glycogen recovery by activating key enzymes such as Akt/PKB and atypical PKCs.

    DOI

  • Fasting-related autophagic response in slow- and fast-twitch skeletal muscle

    Tomonori Ogata, Yasuharu Oishi, Mitsuru Higuchi, Isao Muraoka

    BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS   394 ( 1 ) 136 - 140  2010年03月

     概要を見る

    This study investigated regulation of autophagy in slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch plantaris muscles in fasting-related atrophy. Male Fischer-344 rats were subjected to fasting for 1, 2, or 3 days. Greater weight loss was observed in plantaris muscle than in soleus muscle in response to fasting. Western blot analysis demonstrated that LC3-II, a marker protein for macroautophagy, was expressed at a notably higher level in plantaris than in soleus muscle, and that the expression level was fasting duration-dependent. To identify factors related to LC3-II enhancement, autophagy-related signals were examined in both types of muscle. Phosphorylated mTOR was reduced in plantaris but not in soleus muscle. FOXO3a and ER stress signals were unchanged in both muscle types during fasting. These findings suggest that preferential atrophy of fast-twitch muscle is associated with induction of autophagy during fasting and that differences in autophagy regulation are attributable to differential signal regulation in soleus and plantaris muscle. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Effects of nonexhaustive bouts of high-intensity intermittent swimming training on GLUT-4 expression in rat skeletal muscle

    Eri Fujimoto, Shuichi Machida, Mitsuru Higuchi, Izumi Tabata

    JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES   60 ( 2 ) 95 - 101  2010年03月

     概要を見る

    We previously reported that 14 bouts of exhaustive high-intensity intermittent training [20 s periods of swimming while carrying a weight (14% of body weight), separated by pauses of 10 s] is the highest stimuli in terms of exercise training-induced glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4) expression in rat epitrochlearis (EPI) muscles. In the present study, we found that the GLUT-4 protein content in the skeletal muscle of male Sprague-Dawley rats (age 5 weeks old; body weight 90-110 g) that underwent intermittent exercise training of 3 and 14 bouts of 20 s swimming for 5 days was increased over age-matched sedentary control rats by 75 and 71%, respectively, 18 h after the last bout of exercise. These results suggest that GLUT-4 content in rat EPI muscle increases dramatically after very short (60 s) and nonexhaustive high-intensity intermittent exercise training.

    DOI

  • Age and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with arterial stiffening and left ventricular remodelling

    Y. Gando, H. Kawano, K. Yamamoto, K. Sanada, M. Tanimoto, T. Oh, Y. Ohmori, M. Miyatani, C. Usui, E. Takahashi, I. Tabata, M. Higuchi, M. Miyachi

    JOURNAL OF HUMAN HYPERTENSION   24 ( 3 ) 197 - 206  2010年03月

     概要を見る

    Arterial stiffening, hypertension and left ventricular (LV) remodelling are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with cardiovascular function and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness, arterial stiffness, blood pressure (BP) and LV remodelling in women. On the basis of peak oxygen uptake, a total of 159 premenopausal (young) and postmenopausal (older) women were categorized into either low (unfit) or high (fit) cardiorespiratory fitness groups. The arterial stiffness and LV remodelling were measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and carotid augmentation index (AI) and LV relative wall thickness (RWT). Two-way analysis of variance indicated a significant interaction between age and cardiorespiratory fitness in baPWV, carotid AI, BP and RWT. In the older group, arterial stiffness (baPWV; 1401 +/- 231 vs 1250 +/- 125cms(-1), P<0.01, AI; 32.9 +/- 9.9 vs 24.8 +/- 10.1%, P<0.01), systolic blood pressure (SBP) (130 +/- 22 vs 117 +/- 15mmHg, P<0.01) and RWT (0.47 +/- 0.08 vs 0.42 +/- 0.04, P<0.05) in fit women were lower than in unfit women. In older women, RWT was significantly related to baPWV (r = 0.46, P<0.01), carotid AI (r = 0.29, P<0.05), SBP (r = 0.57, P<0.01). (V) over dot(2peak) (r = -0.32, P<0.05). In young women, they were not significant correlations, except for a weak correlation between RWT and SBP (r = 0.21, P<0.05). These results suggest that higher cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with lower arterial stiffness, BP and RWT in older women. Journal of Human Hypertension (2010) 24, 197-206; doi:10.1038/jhh.2009.57; published online 16 July 2009

    DOI

  • 中高年男性における心配体力と身体活動の量およびその強度との関係(2010)59,191-198

    青山友子, 浅香明子, 金子香織, 石島寿道, 河野寛, 坂本静男, 田畑泉, 樋口満

    体力科学   59   191 - 198  2010年

  • 中高年男性における心肺体力と身体活動の量およびその強度との関係

    青山友子, 浅香明子, 金子香織, 石島寿道, 河野寛, 坂本静男, 田畑泉, 樋口満

    体力科学   59 ( 2 ) 191 - 198  2010年

  • 競技特性の異なる女子スポーツ選手の安静時代謝Vol.68 No.5 289-297(2010)

    田口 素子, 辰田和佳子, 樋口満

    栄養学雑誌   68 ( 5 ) 289 - 297  2010年

  • Visceral fat is a strong predictor of insulin resistance regardless of cardiorespiratory fitness in non-diabetic people

    Usui C, Asaka M, Kawano H, Aoyama T, Ishijima T, Sakamoto S, Higuchi M

    Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology   56 ( 2 ) 104 - 108  2010年

  • Predicting (V) over dotO(2max) with an Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Japanese Women

    Zhen-Bo Cao, Nobuyuki Miyatake, Mitsuru Higuchi, Motohiko Miyachi, Kazuko Ishikawa-Takata, Izumi Tabata

    MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE   42 ( 1 ) 179 - 186  2010年01月

     概要を見る

    CAO Z., N. MIYATAKE. M. HIGUCHI, M. MIYACHI, K. ISHIKAWA-TAKATA, and I. TABATA. Predicting (V)over dotO(2max) with an Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Japanese women. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 42. No. 1 pp. 179-186, 2010. Purpose: To investigate the use of the accelerometer-determined physical activity (PA) intensity variables as the objective PA variables for estimating (V)over dotO(2max) in Japanese adult women. Methods: The subjects Of this Study were 148 Japanese women aged 20 to 69 yr. Maximal oxygen Uptake was measured with a maximal incremental test oil a bicycle ergometer. Daily step Counts (SC) and file amount Spent ill moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and Vigorous PA (VPA) were measured using accelerometer-based activity monitors for 7 consecutive days. Using data of age. SC, MVPA, or VPA, and either body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC), the nonexercise (V)over dotO(2max) prediction models Were derived as BMI model(MVPA), WC models(MVPA), BMI models(VPA), and WC models(VPA), and cross-validated by using two separate cross-validation procedures. Results: SC, MVPA, and VPA were significantly related to (V)over dotO(2max) (r = 0.43, r = 0.52, and r = 0.58, respectively), The Multiple correlation coefficients for the BMI and WC models(MVPA) were 0.83and 0.85, respectively and for the BMI and WC models(MVPA), they were 0.85 and 0.86. respectively. The SEE Was 3.3 and 3.1 mL.kg(-1).min(-1) for the BMI and WC models(MVPA), respectively, and it Was 3.1 and 3.0 mL.kg(-1).min(-1) for the BMI and WC models(VPA), respectively, All regression models demonstrated a high level of cross-validity Supported by the minor shrinkage of the coefficient of determination and the increment of SEE in file predicted residual sum of squares procedure, and by small constant errors for the Subgroups of age, SC, and (V)over dotO(2max) between 25 and 35 mL.kg(-1).min(-1). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that multiple regression models using data of MVPA or VPA were useful in predicting for Japanese adult women.

    DOI

  • Predicting VO2max with an objectively measured physical activity in Japanese men

    Cao ZB, Miyatake N, Higuchi M, Miyachi M, Tabata

    European Journal of Applied Physiology    2010年

  • Mitochondrial haplogroups associated with elite Japanese athlete status

    Mikami E, Fuku N, Takahashi H, Ohiwa N, Scott RA, Pitsiladis YP, Higuchi M, Kawahara T, Tanaka

    Br J Sports Med    2010年

  • Greater forearm venous compliance in resistance-trained men

    Kawano H, Tanimoto M, Yamamoto K, Gando Y, Sanada K, Tabata I, Higuchi M, Miyachi M

    Eur J Appl Physiol    2010年

  • Elderly oarsmen have larger trunk and thigh muscles and greater strength than age-matched untrained men

    Asaka M, Usui C, Ohta M, Takai Y, Fukunaga T, Higuchi M

    European Journal of Applied Physiology   108 ( 6 ) 1239 - 1245  2010年

  • A cross-sectional study of sarcopenia in Japanese men and women: reference values and association with cardiovascular risk factors

    Sanada K, Miyachi M, Tanimoto M, Yamamoto K, Murakami H, Okumura S, Gando Y, Suzuki K, Tabata I, Higuchi M

    European Journal of Applied Physiology    2010年

  • The Different Effects of Fluid with and without Carbohydrate Ingestion on Subjective Responses of Untrained Men during Prolonged Exercise in a Hot Environment

    Toshimichi Ishijima, Hideki Hashimoto, Katsuhiko Satou, Isao Muraoka, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Mitsuru Higuchi

    JOURNAL OF NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE AND VITAMINOLOGY   55 ( 6 ) 506 - 510  2009年12月

     概要を見る

    This study examined the effects of maintaining euhydration by ingesting fluids with or without carbohydrate on subjective responses of untrained men during prolonged exercise in a hot environment. Six healthy untrained subjects completed 90 min of cycling exercises at 55% maximal oxygen consumption (V(O2max)) in a hot environment (temperature: 28 degrees C. humidity: 50%) under three different experimental conditions. During the first trial. subjects did not ingest fluids during exercise (dehydration (DH) trial). In the second and third trials, subjects received mineral water (MW) and hypotonic fluid containing carbohydrate (HF), respectively, in amounts equaling their weight loss in the DH trial. At the end of exercise, the overall rating of perceived exertion (RPE-O) was lower in the MW and HF trials than in the DH trial (14.3+/-1.0 and 13.7+/-0.6 vs 17.7+/-1.0. p<0.05. respectively). RPE-cardiovascular and RPE-legs were lower at the end of exercise in the HF trial compared with the DH trial. V(O2), heart rate (HR), and rectal temperature increased during exercise in the three trials. At the end of exercise, the drift in V(O2) was lower in the MW and HF trials than in the DH trial (304+/-41 and 339+/-40 vs 458+/-33 mL, p<0.05. respectively). HR at the end of exercise in the HF trial was lower than in the DH. trial (158+/-5 vs 173+/-7 bpm. p<0.05). These results suggest that maintaining euhydration during prolonged exercise in untrained men could attenuate RPE-O and that hypotonic electrolyte-carbohydrate solution could attenuate RPE-legs during exercise.

  • Dissociation between PGC-1 alpha and GLUT-4 Expression in Skeletal Muscle of Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Kazuhiko Higashida, Mitsuru Higuchi, Shin Terada

    JOURNAL OF NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE AND VITAMINOLOGY   55 ( 6 ) 486 - 491  2009年12月

     概要を見る

    It has recently been reported that a 4-wk high-fat diet gradually increases skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1 alpha) protein content, which has been suggested to regulate GLUT-4 gene transcription. However, it has not been reported that a high-fat diet enhances GLUT-4 mRNA expression and protein content in skeletal muscle, suggesting that an increase in PGC-1 alpha protein content is not sufficient to induce muscle GLUT-4 biogenesis in a high-fat fed animal. Therefore, we first evaluated the relationship between PGC-1 alpha and GLUT-4 expression in skeletal muscle of rats fed a high-fat diet for 4 wk. The PGC-1 alpha protein content in rat epitrochlearis muscle significantly increased by twofold after the 4-wk high-fat diet feeding. However, the high-fat diet had no effect on GLUT-4 protein content and induced a 30% decrease in GLUT-4 mRNA expression in rat skeletal muscle (p<0.05). To clarify the mechanism by which a high-fat diet downregulates GLUT-4 rnRNA expression, we next examined the effect of PPAR delta activation. which is known to occur in response to a high-fat diet. on GLUT-4 rnRNA expression in L6 myotubes. Incubation with 500 nm GW501516 (PPAR delta activator) for 24 h significantly decreased GLUT-4 rnRNA in L6 myotubes. Taken together, these findings suggest that a high-fat diet downregulates GLUT-4 mRNA, possibly through the activation of PPAR delta, despite an increase in PGC-1 alpha protein content in rat skeletal muscle, and that a posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism maintains GLUT-4 protein content in skeletal muscle of rats fed a high-fat diet.

  • Effect of combined resistance and aerobic training on reactive hyperemia in men

    Hiroshi Kawano, Kouhei Fujimoto, Mitsuru Higuchi, Motohiko Miyachi

    JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES   59 ( 6 ) 457 - 464  2009年11月

     概要を見る

    Reduced response to reactive hyperemia (RH) in the extremities reflects impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation of the microvasculature. The aims of the present study were to determine whether resistance training and a combination of aerobic and resistance training increase the endothelial vasodilation of the forearm assessed by RH. A total of 39 young men were assigned to either high-intensity resistance training (HIR; six types of exercises, 80% 1RM x 10 repetitions x 3 sets, n = 14) or moderate-intensity resistance training (MIR; six types of exercises, 50% 1RM x 16 repetitions x 3 sets, n = 14) or a combination of high-intensity resistance training and moderate-intensity endurance training (COMBO; HIR and 60% maximal heart rate x 30 min, n = 11) groups. We measured forearm blood flow response to RH before and after 4 months of exercise intervention. All training groups increased maximal strength in all muscle groups tested (all P < 0.05). After 4 months of training, the forearm blood flow during RH increased significantly in the MIR and COMBO groups, from 57 +/- 4 to 66 +/- 7 ml/min per 100 ml tissue and from 59 +/- 6 to 74 +/- 8 ml/min per 100 ml tissue, respectively (both P < 0.05). There was no change in the response to RH in the HIR groups. In conclusion, the findings in this study demonstrate that combined resistance and aerobic training may affect the vasoreactivity response to RH in the forearm, but not resistance training alone.

    DOI

  • Differential cell death regulation between adult-unloaded and aged rat soleus muscle

    Tomonori Ogata, Shuichi Machida, Yasuharu Oishi, Mitsuru Higuchi, Isao Muraoka

    MECHANISMS OF AGEING AND DEVELOPMENT   130 ( 5 ) 328 - 336  2009年05月

     概要を見る

    Sarcopenia is characterized by increased regenerating myofibres and decreased myofibre size. Sarcopenia progression might be partially regulated by ageing-related signals associated with necrotic fibre disruption and nuclear apoptosis. This study sought to identify ageing-related signals in aged atrophying skeletal muscle by comparison with unloaded muscle atrophy in adults. Adult (6-month) and old (32-month) rats were used. Some adult rats were subjected to 2 weeks of hindlimb unloading (6-month-HU). Histological analysis found that regenerating fibres increased by about 30-fold only in 32-month aged soleus muscle compared with 6-month rats. The number of apoptotic DNA fragmented nuclei was increased by 3.9-fold in 6-month-HU and 2.8-fold in 32-month rats. Cleaved caspase-3 was observed at high levels on basal membranes and in nuclei in 32-month rats. By Western blot analysis additional ageing-related signals could be identified since (1) phosphorylated Bcl-2 content was increased in both cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions; (2) ER stress signal proteins caspase-12, CHOP/GADD153, and GRP78 were increased; and (3) stress-inducible chaperone HSP70 was decreased in soleus muscle from 32-month but not changed in 6-month-HU rats. We conclude that activation of ageing-related signals may mediate necrotic myofibre disruption and nuclear apoptosis induction that contribute to progression of sarcopenia. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Resting energy expenditure can be assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in women regardless of age and fitness

    C. Usui, E. Takahashi, Y. Gando, K. Sanada, J. Oka, M. Miyachi, I. Tabata, M. Higuchi

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION   63 ( 4 ) 529 - 535  2009年04月

     概要を見る

    Objective: To evaluate the possibility that measurement of the magnitude and distribution of fundamental somatic heat-producing units using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can be used to estimate resting energy expenditure (REE) in both young and elderly women with different aerobic fitness levels.
    Subjects and methods: Peak oxygen uptake (VO(2) peak) and REE(m) were directly measured in 116 young (age: 22.3 +/- 2.1 years) and 72 elderly (63.3 +/- 6.4 years) women. The subjects were divided into four groups according to categories of age and VO(2) peak; young: high fitness (YH, n = 58); low fitness (YL, n = 58); elderly: high fitness (EH, n = 37) and low fitness (EL, n = 35). Using DXA, systemic and regional body compositions were measured, and REE(e) was estimated from the sum of tissue organ weights multiplied by corresponding metabolic rate.
    Results: Although there were remarkable differences in systemic and regional body compositions, no significant differences were observed between REE(m) and REE(e) in the four groups. REE(e) significantly correlated with REE(m) in elderly as well as young women; the slopes and intercepts of the two regression lines were statistically not different between the elderly and young groups (elderly: y = 0.60x+472, r = 0.667; young: y = 0.78x+250, r = 0.798; P < 0.001, respectively). A Bland-Altman analysis did not indicate bias in calculation of REE for all the subjects.
    Conclusion: These results suggest that REE can be estimated from tissue organ components in women regardless of age and aerobic fitness.

    DOI

  • Muscle mass and bone mineral indices: does the normalized bone mineral content differ with age?

    K. Sanada, M. Miyachi, I. Tabata, M. Miyatani, M. Tanimoto, T-w Oh, K. Yamamoto, C. Usui, E. Takahashi, H. Kawano, Y. Gando, M. Higuchi

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION   63 ( 4 ) 465 - 472  2009年04月

     概要を見る

    Objective: To investigate the relationships between regional skeletal muscle mass (SM mass) and bone mineral indices and to examine whether bone mineral content (BMC) normalized to SM mass shows a similar decrease with age in young through old age.
    Subjects/Methods: One hundred and thirty-eight young and postmenopausal women aged 20-76 years participated in this study and were divided into three groups: 61 young women, 49 middle-aged postmenopausal women and 28 older postmenopausal women. Muscle thickness (MTH) was determined by ultrasound, and regional SM mass (arm, trunk and leg) was estimated based on nine sites of MTH. Whole-body and regional lean soft tissue mass (LSTM), bone mineral density (BMD) and BMC (whole body, arms, legs and lumbar spine) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.
    Results: Ultrasound spectroscopy indicated that SM mass is significantly correlated with site-matched regional bone mineral indices and these relationships correspond to LSTM. The BMC and BMD in older women were significantly lower than those in middle-aged women. When BMC was normalized to site-matched regional SM mass, BMC normalized to SM mass in arm and trunk region were significantly different with age; however, whole-body and leg BMC normalized to SM mass showed no significant difference between middle-aged and older postmenopausal women.
    Conclusions: The age-related differences in BMC were found to be independent of the ageing of SM mass in the arm and trunk region. However, differences in BMC measures of the leg and whole body were found to correspond to age-related decline of SM mass in postmenopausal women.

    DOI

  • Branched-Chain Amino Acid-Containing Dipeptides, Identified from Whey Protein Hydrolysates, Stimulate Glucose Uptake Rate in L6 Myotubes and Isolated Skeletal Muscles

    Masashi Morifuji, Jinichiro Koga, Kentaro Kawanaka, Mitsuru Higuchi

    JOURNAL OF NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE AND VITAMINOLOGY   55 ( 1 ) 81 - 86  2009年02月

     概要を見る

    In earlier studies we showed that dietary whey protein increased skeletal muscle and liver glycogen content in exercise-trained rats. However, little is known about whether ingredients of whey protein stimulate skeletal muscle glycogen accumulation. The aim of this Study was to identify bioactive peptides in whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) which stimulated glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis rate in skeletal muscles. Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA)-containing dipeptides in WPH were identified using LC/MS/MS. L6 myotubes and isolated epitrochlearis muscles were used for the glucose uptake assays. The myotubes and muscles were incubated with or without 1 mM dipeptides, LY294002 a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) inhibitor. or GF102903X an atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) inhibitor, followed by measurement of 2-deoxyglucosc uptake. Isolated muscles were incubated for 3 h with or without 1 mM Ile-Leu to determine glycogen synthesis rate. The BCAA-containing dipeptides, Ile-Val, Leu-Val, Val-Leu, Ile-Ile, Leu-Ile, Ile-Leu, and Ile-Leu were detected in the WPH. by LC/MS/MS. These dipeptides caused significant stimulation in glucose uptake rate in the L6 myotubes. Ile-Leu. the main component in WPH, also stimulated glucose uptake in isolated skeletal muscles. Stimulation of glucose uptake by Ile-Leu was completely inhibited by treatment with either LY294002, or GF109203X in both L6 cells and isolated muscles. Ile-Leu increased glycogen contents in isolated muscles. These results suggest that BCAA-containing bioactive dipeptides in WPH stimulate glucose uptake in skeletal Muscles via the P13-kinase and aPKC pathways, resulting in increased skeletal muscle glycogen contents.

  • 中高年者における心肺体力とメタボリックシンドローム危険因子との関係−“健康づくりのための運動基準2006”を用いた検討−

    青山友子, 浅香明子, 石島寿道, 河野寛, 薄井澄誉子, 坂本静男, 田畑泉, 樋口満

    体力科学   58 ( 3 ) 341 - 352  2009年

  • 3分間歩行テストによる最大酸素摂取量推定式の開発に関する研究

    曹振波, 宮武伸行, 樋口満, 田畑泉

    体力科学   58 ( 5 ) 527 - 535  2009年

  • Prolonged exercise training induces long-term enhancement of HSP70 expression in rat plantaris muscle

    Ogata T, Oishi Y, Higashida K, Higuchi M, Muraoka I

    American Journal of Physiology, Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology   296 ( 5 ) R1557 - 1563  2009年

  • Prediction of VO(2max) with daily step counts for Japanese adult women

    Zhen-Bo Cao, Nobuyuki Miyatake, Mitsuru Higuchi, Kazuko Ishikawa-Takata, Motohiko Miyachi, Izumi Tabata

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY   105 ( 2 ) 289 - 296  2009年01月

     概要を見る

    The purpose of the study was to develop a new non-exercise VO(2max) prediction model using a physical activity (PA) variable determined by pedometer-determined step counts (SC, steps day(-1)) in Japanese women aged 20-69 years old. Eighty-seven and 102 subjects were used to develop the prediction model, and to validate the new model, respectively. VO(2max) was measured using a maximal incremental test on a bicycle ergometer. SC was significantly related to VO(2max) (partial correlation coefficient r = 0.40, P < 0.001) after adjusting for BMI (kg m(-2)) and age (years). When the new prediction equation developed by multiple regression to estimate VO(2max) from age, BMI, and SC (R = 0.71, SEE = 5.3 ml kg(-1) min(-1), P < 0.001) was applied to the Validation group, predicted VO(2max) correlated well with measured VO(2max) (r = 0.81, P < 0.001), suggesting that SC is a useful PA variable for non-exercise prediction of VO(2max) in Japanese women.

    DOI

  • Poor trunk flexibility is associated with arterial stiffening. American journal of physiology

    Yamamoto K, Kawano H, Gando Y, Iemitsu M, Murakami H, Sanada K, Tanimoto M, Ohmori Y, Higuchi M, Tabata I, Miyachi M

    Heart and Circulatory Physiology   297 ( 4 ) H1314 - 1318  2009年

  • Differences in body composition and risk of lifestyle-related diseases between young and older male rowers and sedentary controls

    Kiyoshi Sanada, Motohiko Miyachi, Izumi Tabata, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Kenta Yamamoto, Hiroshi Kawano, Chiyoko Usui, Mitsuru Higuchi

    JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCES   27 ( 10 ) 1027 - 1034  2009年

     概要を見る

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare body composition and risk factors of lifestyle-related diseases between young and older male rowers and sedentary controls. Healthy males aged 19-73 years participated in the study, and were divided into four groups: 26 young rowers, 24 senior rowers, 23 young sedentary controls, and 22 senior sedentary controls. Total and regional lean soft tissue, fat mass, and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The HDL-cholesterol of senior rowers (67.4 +/- 13.4 mg . dl(-1)) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of senior sedentary controls (59.2 +/- 11.9 mg . dl(-1)), while HDL-cholesterol was similar in senior rowers and young rowers (66.1 +/- 10.8 mg . dl(-1)). Arm, leg, and trunk lean soft tissue mass were significantly higher in senior rowers (5.6 +/- 0.6 kg, 18.2 +/- 1.8 kg, and 27.3 +/- 3.2 kg respectively) than in senior sedentary controls (5.1 +/- 0.4 kg, 16.3 +/- 1.4 kg, and 24.6 +/- 1.7 kg respectively; P < 0.05). Bone mineral density was also significantly higher in senior rowers than in senior sedentary controls (ribs, lumbar spine, and pelvic segments; P < 0.05). We conclude that age-related increases in the risk of lifestyle-related diseases, such as osteoporosis and sarcopenia, are attenuated in male rowers. These results suggest that regular rowing exercise may have a positive influence in the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases in older Japanese people.

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  • The effects of acute exercise-induced cortisol on CCR2 expression on human monocytes

    Mitsuharu Okutsu, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Toshimichi Ishijima, Jonathan Peake, Mitsuru Higuchi

    BRAIN BEHAVIOR AND IMMUNITY   22 ( 7 ) 1066 - 1071  2008年10月

     概要を見る

    CC-chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) and its ligand, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, also known as CCL2), are crucial for the recruitment of monocytes/macrophages to sites of inflammation. We conducted a series of experiments to investigate the relationship between stress, monocyte CCR2 expression and migration activity. First, we collected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from untrained subjects (n = 8) and measured CCR2 expression on CD14(+) monocytes cultured with cortisol, epinephrine and norepinephrine. Second, we collected PBMC from the subjects before and after they cycled for 60 min at 70% peak O-2 uptake (V-O2peak), and measured alterations in CCR2 expression on monocytes following exercise. Third, we cultured PBMC with serum obtained before and after exercise and the glucocorticoid antagonist RU-486 to determine the effect of cortisol on CCR2 expression in vitro. Last, we measured the ability of PBMC treated with serum or cortisol to migrate through membrane filters in response to CCL2. Cortisol (but not epinephrine or norepinephrine) increased CCR2 expression on monocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Exercise did not influence CCR2 expression on PBMC, whereas incubation of PBMC with post-exercise serum significantly increased CCR2 expression. Both cortisol and post-exercise serum increased the migration of PBMC toward CCL2. The increase in CCR2 expression on PBMC following stimulation with cortisol and serum was blocked by the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU-486. In conclusion, cortisol released during exercise increased monocyte CCR2 expression and migration activity in vitro. These alterations may influence inflammation and regeneration of damaged tissue after acute stress. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Attenuated increases in blood pressure by dynamic resistance exercise in middle-aged men

    Hiroshi Kawano, Hitomi Nakagawa, Sho Onodera, Mitsuru Higuchi, Motohiko Miyachi

    HYPERTENSION RESEARCH   31 ( 5 ) 1045 - 1053  2008年05月

     概要を見る

    The present study was performed to test the hypothesis that the blood pressure (BP) response to resistance exercise in middle-aged men with stiffening arteries is greater than that in young men with compliant arteries. The BP responses to acute dynamic resistance exercise (leg press) at individual relative (low, moderate and high) and absolute intensities were investigated in both young and middle-aged men. A total of 21 sedentary healthy normotensive men, 21-25 years of age (young) and 41-59 years of age (middle-aged), were included in the study. At rest, the arterial compliance (simultaneous ultrasound and applanation tonometry) and muscle strength (leg press) were lower, and indices of arterial stiffness and BP were higher in the middle-aged men than in the young men (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in height, body mass, or heart rate between the two groups. During exercise, the systolic BP of the middle-aged men at 80% one-repetition maximum (1RM) was significantly lower than that of the young men for the last half of the exercise period (p < 0.05). The amounts of change in systolic and diastolic BP from baseline to the end of resistance exercise were lower in the middle-aged men than in the young men at individual relative intensities (p < 0.05) and at individual absolute intensity. In contrast to our hypothesis, these findings indicated that the BP response during dynamic resistance exercise using large muscle groups may be attenuated in middle-aged men relative to young men.

  • Resistance training in men is associated with increased arterial stiffness and blood pressure but does not adversely affect endothelial function as measured by arterial reactivity to the cold pressor test

    Hiroshi Kawano, Michiya Tanimoto, Kenta Yamamoto, Kiyoshi Sanada, Yuko Gando, Izumi Tabata, Mitsuru Higuchi, Motohiko Miyachi

    EXPERIMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY   93 ( 2 ) 296 - 302  2008年02月

     概要を見る

    Resistance training is a popular mode of exercise, but may result in stiffening of the central arteries. Changes in carotid artery diameter were determined using the cold pressor test (CPT), which results in production of nitric oxide via sympathetic activation and is one of the novel methods available for assessing endothelial function in the carotid artery. To investigate the effect of resistance training on endothelial function, we designed a cross-sectional study of carotid arterial vasoreactivity to CPT in men participating in regular resistance training with increased carotid arterial stiffness compared with age-matched control subjects. Twelve resistance-trained middle-aged men (age 38.7 +/- 1.7 years) and 17 age-matched control subjects (age 36.8 +/- 1.2 years) were studied. The direction and magnitude of changes in carotid artery diameter were measured by B-mode ultrasonography during sympathetic stress induced by submersion of the foot in ice slush for 90 s. Carotid arterial beta-stiffness index, and systolic and mean arterial blood pressure were higher (7.7 +/- 0.7 versus 6.0 +/- 0.4 arbitrary units, 116 +/- 2 versus 131 +/- 4 mmHg and 86 +/- 2 versus 95 +/- 2 mmHg, respectively, all P < 0.05) in the resistance training group compared with control subjects. There were, however, no significant differences in the amount or percentage change in carotid artery diameter in CPT between the two groups (resistance training group, 0.33 +/- 0.07 mm and 5.2 +/- 1.1%; control group, 0.37 +/- 0.06 mm and 5.8 +/- 0.9%, respectively). These findings suggest that while carotid arterial stiffening and higher blood pressure are observed in regular resistance-trained men, these are not associated with abnormalities in carotid arterial vasoreactivity to sympathetic stimulus, which implies intact endothelial function.

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  • Required muscle mass for preventing lifestyle-related diseases in Japanese women

    Miyatani M, Kawano H, Masani K, Gando Y, Yamamoto K, Tanimoto M, Oh T, Usui C, Sanada K, Higuchi M, Tabata I, Miyachi M

    BMC Public Health   18 ( 8 ) 291  2008年

  • Potential role of lipin-1 in exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis

    Higashida K, Higuchi M, Terada S

    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications   374 ( 3 ) 587 - 591  2008年  [国際誌]

    DOI PubMed

  • Relationship between blood adipocytokines and resting energy expenditure in young and elderly women

    Chiyoko Usui, Eri Takahashi, Yuko Gando, Kiyoshi Sanada, Jun Oka, Motohiko Miyachi, Izumi Tabata, Mitsuru Higuchi

    JOURNAL OF NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE AND VITAMINOLOGY   53 ( 6 ) 529 - 535  2007年12月

     概要を見る

    It has been demonstrated in a previous study that resting energy expenditure (REE) is associated with adiponectin levels in the blood. However, body composition was not taken into consideration in that study. The purpose of the present study was to again investigate the relationship between blood adipocytokines and REE, adjusted by body composition, in both young and elderly women. REE and blood adipocytokines were measured in 115 young (age: 22.3 +/- 2.1 y, BMI: 21.3 +/- 1.9 kg/ml) and 71 elderly (63.4 +/- 6.5 y, 22.9 +/- 2.3 kg/m(2)) women. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure percent body fat. Fat mass and fat free mass (FFM) were calculated. REE (kcal/d and kcal/kg BW/d) was lower in elderly women than in young women, but no significant difference was observed in REE, expressed as kcal/kg FFM/d, between the two groups. Although elderly women had a higher percent body fat and higher serum leptin concentrations than young women, plasma adiponectin concentrations did not differ between young and elderly women. In elderly women, REE (kcal/d) was significantly and inversely correlated with plasma adiponectin concentration (r = -0.386, p<0.001), but REE expressed per kilogram of BW or FFM was not significantly correlated. Furthermore, no significant correlation was observed between REE (kcal/d) and concentrations of plasma adiponectin or serum leptin, after adjusting for potential confounders such as body composition and hormones, in either age group. These results suggest that adipocytokines do not influence REE in adult women.

  • Effects of age on ventilatory threshold and peak oxygen uptake normalised for regional skeletal muscle mass in Japanese men and women aged 20-80 years

    Kiyoshi Sanada, Tsutomu Kuchiki, Motohiko Miyachi, Kelly McGrath, Mitsuru Higuchi, Hiroshi Ebashi

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY   99 ( 5 ) 475 - 483  2007年03月

     概要を見る

    Ventilatory threshold (VT) is an important predictor of cardiorespiratory fitness, such as peak oxygen uptake (<(V)over dot >(O2peak)) and is a valuable index of aerobic exercise intensity. However, little is known about the role of skeletal muscle ( SM) mass in the ageassociated decline of VT. Therefore, the present study was performed to investigate the effects of age on cardiopulmonary fitness normalised for regional SM mass in 1,463 Japanese men and women, and to determine the relevance of VT normalised to SM mass based on age and gender. Total, trunk and thigh SM mass were measured using an ultrasound method, while <(V)over dot >(O2pea)k and VT were determined during treadmill walking. <(V)over dot >(O2peak) was estimated using the predicted maximum heart rate ( HR) and the HR-<(V)over dot >(O2) relationship for sub- maximal treadmill walking. There were significant negative correlations between VT normalised for body mass and age in men and women ( P < 0.001). Age- associated declines were also observed in VT normalised for body mass in both men and women; however, VT normalised for SM mass was not significantly different with age. Significant correlations were also observed between thigh SM mass and VT in both men and women. These results suggest that thigh SM mass is closely associated with <(V)over dot >(O2peak) and/ or VT in both men and women, and the decrease in VT with age is predominantly due to an age- related decline of SM mass. Moreover, this study provides normative cardiorespiratory fitness data regarding VT normalised SM mass in healthy men and women aged 20 - 80 years.

    DOI

  • 若年成人女性の基礎代謝量と身体組成

    高橋恵理, 樋口満, 細川優, 田畑泉

    栄養学雑誌   65 ( 5 ) 241 - 247  2007年

  • Muscle cross-sectional areas and performance power of limbs and trunk in the rowing motion

    Kanta Tachibana, Kazuya Yashiro, Jun Miyazaki, Yasuo Ikegam, Mitsuru Higuchi

    SPORTS BIOMECHANICS   6 ( 1 ) 44 - 58  2007年01月

     概要を見る

    Although it is clear that rowers have a large muscle mass, their distribution of muscle mass and which of the main motions in rowing mediates muscle hypertrophy in each body part are unclear. We examine the relationships between partial motion power in rowing and muscle cross-sectional area of the thigh, lower back, and upper arms. Sixty young rowers (39 males and 21 females) participated in the study. joint positions and forces were measured by video cameras and rowing ergometer software, respectively. One-dimensional motion analysis was performed to calculate the power of leg drive, trunk swing, and arm pull motions. Muscle cross-sectional areas were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Multiple regression analyses were carried out to determine the association of different muscle cross-sectional areas with partial motion power. The anterior thigh best explained the power demonstrated by leg drive (r(2) = 0.508), the posterior thigh and lower back combined best explained the power demonstrated by the trunk swing(r(2) = 0.493), and the elbow extensors best explained the power demonstrated by the arm pull (r(2) = 0.195). Other correlations, such as arm muscles with leg drive power (r(2) = 0.424) and anterior thigh with trunk swing power (r(2) = 0.335), were also significant. All muscle cross-sectional areas were associated with rowing performance either through the production of power or by transmitting work. The results imply that rowing motion requires a well-balanced distribution of muscle mass throughout the body.

    DOI

  • Effects of isoflavone and exercise on BMD and fat mass in postmenopausal Japanese women: A 1-year randomized placebo-controlled trial

    J Wu, J Oka, Tabata, I, M Higuchi, T Toda, N Fuku, J Ezaki, F Sugiyama, S Uchiyama, K Yamada, Y Ishimi

    JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH   21 ( 5 ) 780 - 789  2006年05月

     概要を見る

    The combined intervention of isoflavone intake and walking exercise over 1 year in postmenopausal Japanese women exhibited a trend for a greater effect on prevention of bone loss at the total hip and Ward's triangle regions.
    Introduction: The additive effects of isoflavones and exercise on bone and lipid metabolism have been shown in estrogen-deficient animals. In this study, we determined the effects of isoflavone intake, walking exercise, and their interaction on bone, fat mass, and lipid metabolism over I year in postmenopausal Japanese women.
    Materials and Methods: A total of 136 postmenopausal women at < 5 years after the onset of menopause were randomly assigned to four groups: (1) placebo, (2) walking (45 minutes/day, 3 days/week) with placebo, (3) isoflavone intake (75 mg of isoflavone conjugates/day), and (4) combination of isoflavone plus walking. BMD, fat mass, serum lipid, and serum and urinary isoflavone concentrations were assessed.
    Results: A significant main effect of isoflavone on the reduction in trunk fat mass was obtained at 12 months. Significant main effects of walking on the reduction in fat mass in the whole body and the trunk were observed at 3, 6, and 12 months and that in the legs and arms at 6 and 12 months. Serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration significantly increased by 12 months after the walking and the combined intervention. After 12 months, a significant main effect of isoflavone on BMD was observed only at Ward's triangle. Walking prevented bone loss at the total hip and the Ward's triangle to significant degrees. The effect of the combined intervention on BMD at total hip and Ward's triangle regions was greater than that of either alone. No significant interaction was observed between isoflavone and walking in any measurements recorded during the study.
    Conclusions: Our study suggest that combined intervention of 75 mg/day of isoflavone intake and walking exercise 3 times/week for I year showed a trend for a greater effect on BMD at total hip and Ward's triangle regions than either alone. Intervention with isoflavone in postmenopausal Japanese women showed a modest effect on BMD compared with those in Westerners. Further studies over longer treatment duration that include assessment of BMD at various regions are necessary to ascertain the clinical significance of the combined intervention of isoflavone plus walking in postmenopausal women.

    DOI

  • Cooperative effects of isoflavones and exercise on bone and lipid metabolism in postmenopausal Japanese women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    J Wu, J Oka, M Higuchi, Tabata, I, T Toda, M Fujioka, N Fuku, T Teramoto, T Okuhira, T Ueno, S Uchiyama, K Urata, K Yamada, Y Ishimi

    METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL   55 ( 4 ) 423 - 433  2006年04月

     概要を見る

    Cooperative effects of isoflavones and exercise on bone and lipid metabolism have been exhibited in estrogen-deficient animals; however, results from clinical trials have not been published. In this study, we determined the effects of isoflavone intake and walking and their interaction on bone and lipid metabolism in postmenopausal women over 24 weeks. The bioavailability and metabolism of isoflavones (daidzein in particular) were also examined to clarify the mechanism of their bone-protective effects in humans. One hundred twenty-eight Subjects were randomly assigned to 4 groups: placebo; placebo combined with walking (3 times per week); isoflavone intake (75 mg of isoflavones conjugates per day); and isoflavone combined with walking. The Subjects were classified by equol status (producers or nonproducers) as identified using production of equol from daidzein in fecal Culture. Bone mineral density (BMD), body composition, and serum concentrations of isoflavones were assessed. Scrum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration significantly increased (6.1%, P = .03), and fat mass in the whole body significantly decreased (-4.3%, P = .0003) from the baseline in the combined intervention group. There were no significant differences in BMD between baseline and postintervention in any of the treatment groups. However, the percent changes in BMD in equol producers were -0.53% and +0.13% in the sub-whole body and total hip, respectively. This was significantly different compared with -1.35 and -1.77 for the sub-whole body and total hip, respectively, in nonproducers in the isoflavone group (P = .049 and .040, respectively). The mean scrum equol concentration was significantly higher in equol producers than in nonproducers in the isoflavone groups, but not in the placebo group. The combination of isoflavones and exercise exhibited favorable effects on serum lipid and body composition of postmenopausal women. The findings of this study suggest that the preventive effects of isoflavones on bone loss depend on the individual's intestinal flora for equol production. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • 運動・加齢と活性酸素の問題

    木村 典代, 樋口 満

    臨床スポーツ医学   23 ( 1 ) 33 - 39  2006年01月

  • 中高年男女スポーツ愛好者の身体組成と基礎代謝量

    薄井 澄誉子, 金子 香織, 岡 純, 田畑 泉, 樋口 満

    栄養学雑誌   63 ( 1 ) 21 - 25  2005年

     概要を見る

    The basal metabolic rate (BMR) in 46 fit older people (age: 66&plusmn;3yrs., height: 163.3&plusmn;9.5cm, body weight (BW): 59.0&plusmn;10.4kg; mean&plusmn;SD) was evaluated in relation to the body composition (body fat mass (FM): 15.3&plusmn; 4.0kg, lean body mass (LBM): 43.7&plusmn;9.5kg). BMR for all the subjects was 1, 328&plusmn;218kcal/day, 22.6&plusmn;1.9kcal/kgBW/day, and 30.9&plusmn;3.6kcal/kgLBM/day. BMR (kcal/day) was significantly correlated with BW (r=0.87, p<0.001) and LBM (r=0.85, p<0.001). The height, BW, BMI and LBM were significantly higher in the males than in the females (p<0.01, respectively). No difference was apparent in FM between the two sexes. BMR (kcal/day) was higher in the males than in the females (p<0.01), but the males had lower BMR in terms of kcal/kgBW/day and kcal/kgLBM/day than the females (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). No significant difference was apparent in the adjusted BMR (kcal/(kgLBM&plusmn;24.5)/day) between the males and females. A multiple-regression analysis showed the most powerful predictor to be LBM and the second most powerful to be FM of BMR in fit older people.

    DOI CiNii

  • 身体運動と糖尿病の関連 トレーニング効果の生化学的評価:分子生物学的観点より

    寺田 新, 田畑 泉, 樋口 満

    臨床スポーツ医学   22   121 - 128  2005年

  • スポーツ用サプリメントの有効性と有害性

    宮地 元彦, 樋口 満

    成人病と生活習慣病、東京医学社   35 ( 9 ) 1015 - 1019  2005年

  • スポーツ選手の推定エネルギー必要量

    小清水 孝子, 柳沢 香絵, 樋口 満

    Journal of Training Science for Exercise and Sport (日本トレーニング科学)   17 ( 4 ) 245 - 250  2005年

  • A single bout of exercise influences natural killer cells in elderly women, especially those whose are habitually active

    Ogawa K, Oka J, Yamakawa J, Higuchi M

    Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research (J Strength Cond. Res.)   19 ( 1 ) 45 - 50  2005年01月

  • A single bout of exercise influences natural killer cells in elderly women, especially those whose are habitually active

    Ogawa K, Oka J, Yamakawa J, Higuchi M

    Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research (J Strength Cond. Res.)   19 ( 1 ) 45 - 50  2005年01月

  • Combined intervention of soy isoflavone and moderate exercise prevents boby fat elevation and bone loss in ovariectomized mice

    Wu J, Wang X, Chiba H, Higuchi M, Nakatani T, Ezaki O, Cui H, Yamada K, Ishimi Y

    Metabolism   53 ( 7 ) 942 - 948  2004年07月

  • Combined intervention of soy isoflavone and moderate exercise prevents boby fat elevation and bone loss in ovariectomized mice

    Wu J, Wang X, Chiba H, Higuchi M, Nakatani T, Ezaki O, Cui H, Yamada K, Ishimi Y

    Metabolism   53 ( 7 ) 942 - 948  2004年07月

  • High bone mass gained by exercise in growing male mice is increased by subsequent reduced exercise

    Wu J, Wang XX, Higuchi M, Yamada K, Ishimi Y

    American journal of physiology   97 ( 3 ) 806 - 810  2004年03月

  • High bone mass gained by exercise in growing male mice is increased by subsequent reduced exercise

    Wu J, Wang XX, Higuchi M, Yamada K, Ishimi Y

    American journal of physiology   97 ( 3 ) 806 - 810  2004年03月

  • 食事条件がウォーキング中のエネルギー代謝に及ぼす影響

    青山 友子, 成田 知代, 薄井 澄誉子

    ウォーキング研究   8 ( 8 ) 177 - 181  2004年

    CiNii

  • 運動と基礎代謝

    薄井 澄誉子, 樋口 満

    体育の科学   54   792 - 796  2004年

  • Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism, folic acid and riboflavin are important determinants of genome stability in cultured human lymphocytes

    M Kimura, K Umegaki, M Higuchi, P Thomas, M Fenech

    JOURNAL OF NUTRITION   134 ( 1 ) 48 - 56  2004年01月

     概要を見る

    We tested the hypothesis that methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism, folic acid deficiency and riboflavin deficiency, independently or interactively, are important determinants of genomic stability, cell death, cell proliferation and homocysteine (Hcy) concentration in 9-d human lymphocyte cultures. Lymphocytes of seven wild-type (CC) and seven mutant (TT) homozygotes were cultured under the four possible combinations of deficiency and sufficiency of riboflavin (0 and 500 nmol/L) and folic acid (20 and 100 nmol/L) at a constant L-methionine concentration of 50 mumol/L. Viable cell growth was 25% greater in TT than in CC cells (P &lt; 0.05) and 32% greater at 100 nmol/L folic acid than at 20 nmol/L folic acid (P = 0.002). The comprehensive cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay was used to measure micronuclei (MNi; a marker for chromosome breakage and loss), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPB; a marker of chromosome rearrangement) and nuclear buds (NBUD, a marker of gene amplification). The MNi levels were 21% higher in TT cells than in CC cells (P &lt; 0.05) and 42% lower in the high folic acid medium than in the low folic acid medium (P &lt; 0.0001). The NBUD levels were 27% lower in TT cells than in CC cells (P &lt; 0.05) and 45% lower in the high folic acid medium than in the low folic acid medium (P &lt; 0.0001). High riboflavin concentration (500 nmol/L) increased NBUD levels by 25% (compared with 0 nmol/L riboflavin) in folate-deficient conditions (20 nmol/L folic acid medium; P &lt; 0.05), and there was an interaction between folic acid and riboflavin that affected NBUD levels (P = 0.042). This preliminary investigation suggests that MTHFR C677T polymorphism and riboflavin affect genome instability; however, the effect is relatively small compared with that of folic acid.

  • Effect of high-intensity intermittent swimming training on fatty acid oxidation enzyme activity in rat skeletal muscle

    Terada S, Tabata I, Higuchi M

    Japanese Journal of Physiology   54 ( 1 ) 47 - 52  2004年01月

     概要を見る

    We previously reported that high-intensity exercise training significantly increased citrate synthase (CS) activity, a marker of oxidative enzyme, in rat skeletal muscle to a level equaling that attained after low-intensity prolonged exercise training (Terada et al., J Appl Physiol 90: 2019–2024, 2001). Since mitochondrial oxidative enzymes and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) enzymes are often increased simultaneously, we assessed the effect of high-intensity intermittent swimming training on FAO enzyme activity in rat skeletal muscle. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (3 to 4 weeks old) were assigned to a 10-day period of high-intensity intermittent exercise training (HIT), low-intensity prolonged exercise training (LIT), or sedentary control conditions. In the HIT group, the rats repeated fourteen 20 s swimming sessions with a weight equivalent to 14–16% of their body weight. Between the exercise sessions, a 10 s pause was allowed. Rats in the LIT group swam 6 h/day in two 3 h sessions separated by 45 min of rest. CS activity in the triceps muscle of rats in the HIT and LIT groups was significantly higher than that in the control rats by 36 and 39%, respectively. Furthermore, 3-β hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD) activity, an important enzyme in the FAO pathway in skeletal muscle, was higher in the two training groups than in the control rats (HIT: 100%, LIT: 88%). No significant difference in HAD activity was observed between the two training groups. In conclusion, the present investigation demonstrated that high-intensity intermittent swimming training elevated FAO enzyme activity in rat skeletal muscle to a level similar to that attained after 6 h of low-intensity prolonged swimming exercise training.<br>

    DOI CiNii

  • Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism, folic acid and riboflavin are important determinants of genome stability in cultured human lymphocytes

    M Kimura, K Umegaki, M Higuchi, P Thomas, M Fenech

    JOURNAL OF NUTRITION   134 ( 1 ) 48 - 56  2004年01月

     概要を見る

    We tested the hypothesis that methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism, folic acid deficiency and riboflavin deficiency, independently or interactively, are important determinants of genomic stability, cell death, cell proliferation and homocysteine (Hcy) concentration in 9-d human lymphocyte cultures. Lymphocytes of seven wild-type (CC) and seven mutant (TT) homozygotes were cultured under the four possible combinations of deficiency and sufficiency of riboflavin (0 and 500 nmol/L) and folic acid (20 and 100 nmol/L) at a constant L-methionine concentration of 50 mumol/L. Viable cell growth was 25% greater in TT than in CC cells (P &lt; 0.05) and 32% greater at 100 nmol/L folic acid than at 20 nmol/L folic acid (P = 0.002). The comprehensive cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay was used to measure micronuclei (MNi; a marker for chromosome breakage and loss), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPB; a marker of chromosome rearrangement) and nuclear buds (NBUD, a marker of gene amplification). The MNi levels were 21% higher in TT cells than in CC cells (P &lt; 0.05) and 42% lower in the high folic acid medium than in the low folic acid medium (P &lt; 0.0001). The NBUD levels were 27% lower in TT cells than in CC cells (P &lt; 0.05) and 45% lower in the high folic acid medium than in the low folic acid medium (P &lt; 0.0001). High riboflavin concentration (500 nmol/L) increased NBUD levels by 25% (compared with 0 nmol/L riboflavin) in folate-deficient conditions (20 nmol/L folic acid medium; P &lt; 0.05), and there was an interaction between folic acid and riboflavin that affected NBUD levels (P = 0.042). This preliminary investigation suggests that MTHFR C677T polymorphism and riboflavin affect genome instability; however, the effect is relatively small compared with that of folic acid.

  • Effect of high-intensity intermittent swimming training on fatty acid oxidation enzyme activity in rat skeletal muscle

    Terada S, Tabata I, Higuchi M

    Japanese Journal of Physiology   54 ( 1 ) 47 - 52  2004年01月

     概要を見る

    We previously reported that high-intensity exercise training significantly increased citrate synthase (CS) activity, a marker of oxidative enzyme, in rat skeletal muscle to a level equaling that attained after low-intensity prolonged exercise training (Terada et al., J Appl Physiol 90: 2019–2024, 2001). Since mitochondrial oxidative enzymes and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) enzymes are often increased simultaneously, we assessed the effect of high-intensity intermittent swimming training on FAO enzyme activity in rat skeletal muscle. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (3 to 4 weeks old) were assigned to a 10-day period of high-intensity intermittent exercise training (HIT), low-intensity prolonged exercise training (LIT), or sedentary control conditions. In the HIT group, the rats repeated fourteen 20 s swimming sessions with a weight equivalent to 14–16% of their body weight. Between the exercise sessions, a 10 s pause was allowed. Rats in the LIT group swam 6 h/day in two 3 h sessions separated by 45 min of rest. CS activity in the triceps muscle of rats in the HIT and LIT groups was significantly higher than that in the control rats by 36 and 39%, respectively. Furthermore, 3-β hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD) activity, an important enzyme in the FAO pathway in skeletal muscle, was higher in the two training groups than in the control rats (HIT: 100%, LIT: 88%). No significant difference in HAD activity was observed between the two training groups. In conclusion, the present investigation demonstrated that high-intensity intermittent swimming training elevated FAO enzyme activity in rat skeletal muscle to a level similar to that attained after 6 h of low-intensity prolonged swimming exercise training.<br>

    DOI CiNii

  • Bilateral leg extension power and fat-free mass in young oarsmen

    CC Yoshiga, M Higuchi

    JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCES   21 ( 11 ) 905 - 909  2003年11月

     概要を見る

    We evaluated the impact of bilateral leg extension power and fat-free mass on 2000 m rowing ergometer performance in 332 young oarsmen (age 21+/-2 years, height 1.76+/-0.05 m, body mass 62+/-6 kg; mean+/- s ). The 2000 m rowing performance time was correlated with height (1.62-1.93 m; R-2 = 0.23, P &lt;0.001), body mass (53-95 kg; R-2 = 0.53, P &lt;0.001), fat-free mass (47-82 kg; R-2 = 0.58, P &lt;0.001) and bilateral leg extension power (1202-3302 W; R-2 = 0.38, P &lt;0.001). Multiple regression analysis selected fat-free mass and bilateral leg extension power as regressor variables. Fat-free mass explained 58% of the variability in rowing performance and the inclusion of bilateral leg extension power improved the power of prediction by 5%. The results suggest that rowing involves almost every muscle in the body and that bilateral leg extension power is very important during this activity.

    DOI

  • Bilateral leg extension power and fat-free mass in young oarsmen

    CC Yoshiga, M Higuchi

    JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCES   21 ( 11 ) 905 - 909  2003年11月

     概要を見る

    We evaluated the impact of bilateral leg extension power and fat-free mass on 2000 m rowing ergometer performance in 332 young oarsmen (age 21+/-2 years, height 1.76+/-0.05 m, body mass 62+/-6 kg; mean+/- s ). The 2000 m rowing performance time was correlated with height (1.62-1.93 m; R-2 = 0.23, P &lt;0.001), body mass (53-95 kg; R-2 = 0.53, P &lt;0.001), fat-free mass (47-82 kg; R-2 = 0.58, P &lt;0.001) and bilateral leg extension power (1202-3302 W; R-2 = 0.38, P &lt;0.001). Multiple regression analysis selected fat-free mass and bilateral leg extension power as regressor variables. Fat-free mass explained 58% of the variability in rowing performance and the inclusion of bilateral leg extension power improved the power of prediction by 5%. The results suggest that rowing involves almost every muscle in the body and that bilateral leg extension power is very important during this activity.

    DOI

  • Habitual exercise did not affect the balance of type 1 and type 2 cytokines in elderly people

    K Ogawa, J Oka, J Yamakawa, M Higuchi

    MECHANISMS OF AGEING AND DEVELOPMENT   124 ( 8-9 ) 951 - 956  2003年08月

     概要を見る

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that regular exercise training in elderly people affects the type 1/type 2 balance. Nine elderly women who train by walking (mean+/-S.E.M., age 63+/-1 years, VO2 peak 32.2+/-1.0 ml kg(-1) min(-1)), 12 age-matched untrained women (63+/-1 years, 27.8+/-0.9 ml kg(-1) min(-1)), and nine young untrained women (26+/-1 years, 37.8+/-1.3 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) participated in the study. We measured interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), IL-2, and IL-4 in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, to compare type I and type 2 T cells. The number of CD4+ cells expressing intracellular IFN-gamma (CD4+/IFN-gamma cell) significantly higher in the elderly trained than in the young (P &lt; 0.01). The number of CD8+/IL-2 cells was significantly higher in the elderly trained than in the elderly untrained (P &lt; 0.05). The number of CD8+/IL-4 cells was significantly higher in the young than in the elderly untrained (P &lt; 0.01). No significant differences were apparent in the IFN-gamma/IL-4 ratio within CD4+ and CD8+ cells from the three groups. These results might indicate that the effect of age on the balance of type 1/type 2 T cells was stronger than the effect of physical training. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Habitual exercise did not affect the balance of type 1 and type 2 cytokines in elderly people

    K Ogawa, J Oka, J Yamakawa, M Higuchi

    MECHANISMS OF AGEING AND DEVELOPMENT   124 ( 8-9 ) 951 - 956  2003年08月

     概要を見る

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that regular exercise training in elderly people affects the type 1/type 2 balance. Nine elderly women who train by walking (mean+/-S.E.M., age 63+/-1 years, VO2 peak 32.2+/-1.0 ml kg(-1) min(-1)), 12 age-matched untrained women (63+/-1 years, 27.8+/-0.9 ml kg(-1) min(-1)), and nine young untrained women (26+/-1 years, 37.8+/-1.3 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) participated in the study. We measured interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), IL-2, and IL-4 in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, to compare type I and type 2 T cells. The number of CD4+ cells expressing intracellular IFN-gamma (CD4+/IFN-gamma cell) significantly higher in the elderly trained than in the young (P &lt; 0.01). The number of CD8+/IL-2 cells was significantly higher in the elderly trained than in the elderly untrained (P &lt; 0.05). The number of CD8+/IL-4 cells was significantly higher in the young than in the elderly untrained (P &lt; 0.01). No significant differences were apparent in the IFN-gamma/IL-4 ratio within CD4+ and CD8+ cells from the three groups. These results might indicate that the effect of age on the balance of type 1/type 2 T cells was stronger than the effect of physical training. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Oxygen uptake and ventilation during rowing and running in females and males.

    Yoshiga C. C, Higuchi M

    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sport   13 ( 6 ) 359 - 363  2003年06月

  • Oxygen uptake and ventilation during rowing and running in females and males.

    Yoshiga C. C, Higuchi M

    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sport   13 ( 6 ) 359 - 363  2003年06月

  • Rowing performance of female and male rowers.

    Yoshiga C.C, Higuchi M

    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports   13 ( 5 ) 317 - 321  2003年05月

  • Rowing performance of female and male rowers.

    Yoshiga C.C, Higuchi M

    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports   13 ( 5 ) 317 - 321  2003年05月

  • 閉経後中高年女性の基礎代謝量に及ぼす身体組成の影響

    薄井 澄誉子, 山川 純, 佐々木 由美, 樋口 満, 岡 純

    体力科学   51 ( 2 ) 189 - 198  2003年

  • 脂質代謝を高めるトレーニング

    樋口 満

    体育の科学   53 ( 8 ) 582 - 586  2003年

  • Lower heart rate response to ergometry rowing than to treadmill running in older men

    CC Yoshiga, M Higuchi, J Oka

    CLINICAL PHYSIOLOGY AND FUNCTIONAL IMAGING   23 ( 1 ) 58 - 61  2003年01月

     概要を見る

    For older people exercise intensity is often determined based on heart rate (HR) or the percentage of maximal HR (%HRmax). This study evaluated oxygen uptake ((V) over circleO(2)) and HR during ergometry rowing (combined arm and leg; sitting exercise) and treadmill running (leg; upright exercise) for 15 older people [age, (mean +/- SD) 62 +/- 3 years]. The HR was lower during ergometry rowing than during treadmill running at a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol 1(-1) (151 +/- 4 beat min(-1) versus 160 +/- 5 beat min(-1), P &lt; 0(.)05) and at a maximal effort (171 +/- 7 beat min(-1) versus 177 +/- 7 beat min(-1), P &lt; 0(.)05). This was the case although the (V) over circleO(2) was higher during ergometry rowing than during treamill running both at a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol 1(-1) (3(.)0 +/- 0(.)4 l min(-1) versus 2(.)7 +/- 0(.)4 l min(-1), P &lt; 0(.)05) and at a maximal effort (3(.)4 +/- 0(.)4 l min versus 3(.)1 +/- 0(.)3 l min P &lt; 0(.)05). %HRmax and %HR reserve were lower during ergometry rowing than during treadmill running. The results suggest that, in prescription of rowing for older people, the relation between HR and (V) over circleO(2) for rowing and the attenuated HR response to rowing should be taken into consideration.

  • Combined intervention of exercise and genistein prevented androgen deficiency-induced bone loss in mice

    J Wu, XX Wang, H Chiba, M Higuchi, M Takasaki, A Ohta, Y Ishimi

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY   94 ( 1 ) 335 - 342  2003年01月

     概要を見る

    There is evidence that estrogen plays an important role in skeletal tissue in males as well as females. We have reported that phytoestrogens, such as genistein, selectively act on bone and exhibit cooperative effects on bone mass when combined with exercise in ovariectomized mice. In this study, we examined whether both interventions exhibit cooperative effects on bone loss in androgen-deficient mice similar to those in estrogen-deficient mice. Male mice aged 7 wk were either sham operated or orchidectomized (ORX) and divided into six groups: 1) sham; 2) ORX; 3) ORX and treated with genistein (0.4 mg/day) subcutaneously; 4) ORX, exercised on a treadmill daily for 30 min/day at 12 m/min; 5) ORX, given genistein, and exercised (ORX+ExG); and 6) ORX and treated with 17beta-estradiol (E-2). Four weeks after the intervention, seminal vesicle weight strikingly decreased in ORX mice, and it was not affected by administration of genistein or E-2. Bone mineral density of whole femur was significantly reduced by ORX, and bone loss was prevented by the combined intervention. Histomorphometric analysis showed that bone volume and trabecular thickness in the distal femoral cancellous bone were significantly lower in the ORX group than in the Sham group, and they were completely restored in the ORX+ExG group, as in the ORX with E-2 group. These results indicate that the combined intervention of moderate exercise and a low dose of genistein administration shows an additive effect in preventing bone loss in ORX mice similar to that in ovariectomized mice.

    DOI

  • Lower heart rate response to ergometry rowing than to treadmill running in older men

    CC Yoshiga, M Higuchi, J Oka

    CLINICAL PHYSIOLOGY AND FUNCTIONAL IMAGING   23 ( 1 ) 58 - 61  2003年01月

     概要を見る

    For older people exercise intensity is often determined based on heart rate (HR) or the percentage of maximal HR (%HRmax). This study evaluated oxygen uptake ((V) over circleO(2)) and HR during ergometry rowing (combined arm and leg; sitting exercise) and treadmill running (leg; upright exercise) for 15 older people [age, (mean +/- SD) 62 +/- 3 years]. The HR was lower during ergometry rowing than during treadmill running at a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol 1(-1) (151 +/- 4 beat min(-1) versus 160 +/- 5 beat min(-1), P &lt; 0(.)05) and at a maximal effort (171 +/- 7 beat min(-1) versus 177 +/- 7 beat min(-1), P &lt; 0(.)05). This was the case although the (V) over circleO(2) was higher during ergometry rowing than during treamill running both at a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol 1(-1) (3(.)0 +/- 0(.)4 l min(-1) versus 2(.)7 +/- 0(.)4 l min(-1), P &lt; 0(.)05) and at a maximal effort (3(.)4 +/- 0(.)4 l min versus 3(.)1 +/- 0(.)3 l min P &lt; 0(.)05). %HRmax and %HR reserve were lower during ergometry rowing than during treadmill running. The results suggest that, in prescription of rowing for older people, the relation between HR and (V) over circleO(2) for rowing and the attenuated HR response to rowing should be taken into consideration.

  • Combined intervention of exercise and genistein prevented androgen deficiency-induced bone loss in mice

    J Wu, XX Wang, H Chiba, M Higuchi, M Takasaki, A Ohta, Y Ishimi

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY   94 ( 1 ) 335 - 342  2003年01月

     概要を見る

    There is evidence that estrogen plays an important role in skeletal tissue in males as well as females. We have reported that phytoestrogens, such as genistein, selectively act on bone and exhibit cooperative effects on bone mass when combined with exercise in ovariectomized mice. In this study, we examined whether both interventions exhibit cooperative effects on bone loss in androgen-deficient mice similar to those in estrogen-deficient mice. Male mice aged 7 wk were either sham operated or orchidectomized (ORX) and divided into six groups: 1) sham; 2) ORX; 3) ORX and treated with genistein (0.4 mg/day) subcutaneously; 4) ORX, exercised on a treadmill daily for 30 min/day at 12 m/min; 5) ORX, given genistein, and exercised (ORX+ExG); and 6) ORX and treated with 17beta-estradiol (E-2). Four weeks after the intervention, seminal vesicle weight strikingly decreased in ORX mice, and it was not affected by administration of genistein or E-2. Bone mineral density of whole femur was significantly reduced by ORX, and bone loss was prevented by the combined intervention. Histomorphometric analysis showed that bone volume and trabecular thickness in the distal femoral cancellous bone were significantly lower in the ORX group than in the Sham group, and they were completely restored in the ORX+ExG group, as in the ORX with E-2 group. These results indicate that the combined intervention of moderate exercise and a low dose of genistein administration shows an additive effect in preventing bone loss in ORX mice similar to that in ovariectomized mice.

    DOI

  • The relationship between single/double or repeated tea catechin ingestions and plasma antioxidant activity in humans.

    Kimura M, Umegaki K, Kasuya Y, Sugisawa A, Higuchi M

    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition   56 ( 12 ) 1 - 8  2002年12月

  • The relationship between single/double or repeated tea catechin ingestions and plasma antioxidant activity in humans.

    Kimura M, Umegaki K, Kasuya Y, Sugisawa A, Higuchi M

    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition   56 ( 12 ) 1 - 8  2002年12月

  • Physical exercise induces oxidation of plasma protein thiols to cysteine mixed disulfides in humans

    T Inayama, M Kashiba, J Oka, M Higuchi, K Umegaki, M Saito, Y Yamamoto, M Matsuda

    JOURNAL OF HEALTH SCIENCE   48 ( 5 ) 399 - 403  2002年10月

     概要を見る

    We have reported that strenuous physical exercise causes a decrease in protein-bound sulfhydryl groups (p-SHs), such as albumin cysteine residues, in human plasma (Inayama et al., 1996, Life Sci., 59, 573-578). We further investigated the fate of plasma protein thiols after moderate exercise. Six untrained healthy female volunteers ran for 30-min at the individual ventilatory threshold. We observed an increase in protein cysteine mixed disulfides (p-S-Cys) after running, as evidenced by reducing plasma proteins with dithiothreitol to detect the increase of cysteine, along with the concomitant decrease in p-SHs in plasma. However, plasma protein-bound glutathione (GSH) and S-nitroso-protein were undetectable before and after exercise. Test tube experiments suggest that p-S-Cys are probably formed by the hydrolysis of protein GSH mixed disulfides by gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and peptidase, and/or by the oxidative addition of p-SHs to cystine.

  • Physical exercise induces oxidation of plasma protein thiols to cysteine mixed disulfides in humans

    T Inayama, M Kashiba, J Oka, M Higuchi, K Umegaki, M Saito, Y Yamamoto, M Matsuda

    JOURNAL OF HEALTH SCIENCE   48 ( 5 ) 399 - 403  2002年10月

     概要を見る

    We have reported that strenuous physical exercise causes a decrease in protein-bound sulfhydryl groups (p-SHs), such as albumin cysteine residues, in human plasma (Inayama et al., 1996, Life Sci., 59, 573-578). We further investigated the fate of plasma protein thiols after moderate exercise. Six untrained healthy female volunteers ran for 30-min at the individual ventilatory threshold. We observed an increase in protein cysteine mixed disulfides (p-S-Cys) after running, as evidenced by reducing plasma proteins with dithiothreitol to detect the increase of cysteine, along with the concomitant decrease in p-SHs in plasma. However, plasma protein-bound glutathione (GSH) and S-nitroso-protein were undetectable before and after exercise. Test tube experiments suggest that p-S-Cys are probably formed by the hydrolysis of protein GSH mixed disulfides by gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and peptidase, and/or by the oxidative addition of p-SHs to cystine.

  • Serum lipoprotein cholesterols in older oarsmen

    CC Yoshiga, M Higuchi, J Oka

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY   87 ( 3 ) 228 - 232  2002年07月

     概要を見る

    We evaluated effects of age and rowing on concentrations of lipids and lipoprotein cholesterols in the blood. Maximal oxygen uptake ((V)over dot O-2max), and concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured in 17 oarsmen [mean (SD)] [age 64 (4) years, body mass 69 (6) kg] and in sedentary men [age 65 (3) years, body mass 70 (7) kg] who were matched on the basis of body size. Also the variables were obtained from young oarsmen [age 22 (2) years, body mass 70 (4) kg] and young sedentary men [age 22 (3) years, body mass 69 (7) kg]. The percentage body fat of the older oarsmen was lower than that of the older sedentary men [18 (4)% compared to 23 (4)%, P&lt;0.05], but it was similar to that of the young sedentary men [17 (4)%]. Although older oarsmen possessed a lower (V)over dot O-2max than the young oarsmen [3.0 (0.4) 1.min(-1) compared to 4.1 (0.3) 1.min(-1), P&lt;0.01], they showed a (V)over dot O-2max, similar to that of the young sedentary men [3.1 (0.5) 1.min(-1)] but a higher value than obtained from the older sedentary men [2.2 (0.3) 1.min(-1), P&lt;0.05]. Although the indices of risk factors for coronary artery disease in the older oarsmen were higher than those in the young oarsmen [LDL-C/HDL-C 1.7 (0.2) compared to 1.3 (0.4), TC/HDL-C 3.1 (0.2) compared to 2.6(0.4), P&lt;0.05], they were lower than those in both the older [2.1 (0.3), 3.6 (0.3), P&lt;0.05] and the Young sedentary men [2.1 (0.4), 3.5 (0.4), P&lt;0.05]. The results suggest that rowing is an appropriate type of exercise for the promotion of health.

    DOI

  • Serum lipoprotein cholesterols in older oarsmen

    CC Yoshiga, M Higuchi, J Oka

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY   87 ( 3 ) 228 - 232  2002年07月

     概要を見る

    We evaluated effects of age and rowing on concentrations of lipids and lipoprotein cholesterols in the blood. Maximal oxygen uptake ((V)over dot O-2max), and concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured in 17 oarsmen [mean (SD)] [age 64 (4) years, body mass 69 (6) kg] and in sedentary men [age 65 (3) years, body mass 70 (7) kg] who were matched on the basis of body size. Also the variables were obtained from young oarsmen [age 22 (2) years, body mass 70 (4) kg] and young sedentary men [age 22 (3) years, body mass 69 (7) kg]. The percentage body fat of the older oarsmen was lower than that of the older sedentary men [18 (4)% compared to 23 (4)%, P&lt;0.05], but it was similar to that of the young sedentary men [17 (4)%]. Although older oarsmen possessed a lower (V)over dot O-2max than the young oarsmen [3.0 (0.4) 1.min(-1) compared to 4.1 (0.3) 1.min(-1), P&lt;0.01], they showed a (V)over dot O-2max, similar to that of the young sedentary men [3.1 (0.5) 1.min(-1)] but a higher value than obtained from the older sedentary men [2.2 (0.3) 1.min(-1), P&lt;0.05]. Although the indices of risk factors for coronary artery disease in the older oarsmen were higher than those in the young oarsmen [LDL-C/HDL-C 1.7 (0.2) compared to 1.3 (0.4), TC/HDL-C 3.1 (0.2) compared to 2.6(0.4), P&lt;0.05], they were lower than those in both the older [2.1 (0.3), 3.6 (0.3), P&lt;0.05] and the Young sedentary men [2.1 (0.4), 3.5 (0.4), P&lt;0.05]. The results suggest that rowing is an appropriate type of exercise for the promotion of health.

    DOI

  • Heart rate is lower during ergometer rowing than during treadmill running

    CC Yoshiga, M Higuchi

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY   87 ( 2 ) 97 - 100  2002年06月

     概要を見る

    This study evaluated whether the heart rate (HR) response to exercise depends on body position and on the active muscle mass. The HR response to ergometer rowing (sitting and using both arms and legs) was compared to treadmill running (upright exercise involving mainly the legs) using a progressive exercise intensity protocol in 55 healthy men [mean (SD) height 176 (5) cm, body mass 71 (6) kg, age 21 (3) years]. During rowing HR was lower than during running at a blood lactate concentration of 2 mmol.l(-1) [145 (13) compared to 150 (11) beat-min(-1), P &lt; 0.05], 4 mmol.l(-1) [170 (10) compared to 177 (13) beat-min(-1), P &lt; 0.05], and 6 mmol.l(-1) [182 (10) compared to 188 (10) beat-min(-1), P &lt; 0.05]. Also during maximal intensity rowing, HR was lower than during maximal Intensity running [194 (9) compared to 198 (11) beat-min(-1), P &lt; 0.05]. These results were accompanied by a higher maximal oxygen uptake during rowing than during running [rowing compared to running, 4.50 (0.5) and 4.35 (0.4) l.min(-1), respectively, P &lt; 0.01]. Thus, the oxygen pulse, as an index of the stroke volume of the heart, was higher during rowing than during running at any given intensity. The results suggest that compared to running, the seated position and/or the involvement of more muscles during rowing facilitate venous return and elicit a smaller HR response for the same relative exercise intensity.

    DOI

  • Heart rate is lower during ergometer rowing than during treadmill running

    CC Yoshiga, M Higuchi

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY   87 ( 2 ) 97 - 100  2002年06月

     概要を見る

    This study evaluated whether the heart rate (HR) response to exercise depends on body position and on the active muscle mass. The HR response to ergometer rowing (sitting and using both arms and legs) was compared to treadmill running (upright exercise involving mainly the legs) using a progressive exercise intensity protocol in 55 healthy men [mean (SD) height 176 (5) cm, body mass 71 (6) kg, age 21 (3) years]. During rowing HR was lower than during running at a blood lactate concentration of 2 mmol.l(-1) [145 (13) compared to 150 (11) beat-min(-1), P &lt; 0.05], 4 mmol.l(-1) [170 (10) compared to 177 (13) beat-min(-1), P &lt; 0.05], and 6 mmol.l(-1) [182 (10) compared to 188 (10) beat-min(-1), P &lt; 0.05]. Also during maximal intensity rowing, HR was lower than during maximal Intensity running [194 (9) compared to 198 (11) beat-min(-1), P &lt; 0.05]. These results were accompanied by a higher maximal oxygen uptake during rowing than during running [rowing compared to running, 4.50 (0.5) and 4.35 (0.4) l.min(-1), respectively, P &lt; 0.01]. Thus, the oxygen pulse, as an index of the stroke volume of the heart, was higher during rowing than during running at any given intensity. The results suggest that compared to running, the seated position and/or the involvement of more muscles during rowing facilitate venous return and elicit a smaller HR response for the same relative exercise intensity.

    DOI

  • Moderate physical exercise induces the oxidation of human blood protein thiols

    T Inayama, J Oka, M Kashiba, M Saito, M Higuchi, K Umegaki, Y Yamamoto, M Matsuda

    LIFE SCIENCES   70 ( 17 ) 2039 - 2046  2002年03月

     概要を見る

    Exercise is known to induce the oxidation of blood low-molecular-weight (LMW) thiols such as reduced glutathione (GSH). We previously reported that full-marathon running induced a decrease in human plasma levels of protein-bound sulfhydryl groups (p-SHs). Moderate exercise, a 30-min running at the intensity of the individual ventilatory threshold, performed by untrained healthy females caused a significant decrease in erythrocyte levels of p-SHs (mostly hemoglobin cysteine residues) and LMW thiols, but their levels returned to each baseline by 2 h. No significant change in plasma LMW thiols was observed. However, plasma levels of p-SHs significantly decreased after running and remained unchanged after 24 h. These results suggest that moderate exercise causes the oxidation of blood thiols, especially protein-bound thiols. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Moderate physical exercise induces the oxidation of human blood protein thiols

    T Inayama, J Oka, M Kashiba, M Saito, M Higuchi, K Umegaki, Y Yamamoto, M Matsuda

    LIFE SCIENCES   70 ( 17 ) 2039 - 2046  2002年03月

     概要を見る

    Exercise is known to induce the oxidation of blood low-molecular-weight (LMW) thiols such as reduced glutathione (GSH). We previously reported that full-marathon running induced a decrease in human plasma levels of protein-bound sulfhydryl groups (p-SHs). Moderate exercise, a 30-min running at the intensity of the individual ventilatory threshold, performed by untrained healthy females caused a significant decrease in erythrocyte levels of p-SHs (mostly hemoglobin cysteine residues) and LMW thiols, but their levels returned to each baseline by 2 h. No significant change in plasma LMW thiols was observed. However, plasma levels of p-SHs significantly decreased after running and remained unchanged after 24 h. These results suggest that moderate exercise causes the oxidation of blood thiols, especially protein-bound thiols. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 生活習慣病の予防のための身体活動の有用性と限界 (分担執筆)

    樋口 満

    消化器病セミナー89、へるす出版    2002年

  • スポーツ選手のサプリメント摂取ーコンデイション維持とパフォーマンス向上のためにー

    樋口 満

    栄養学雑誌   60   167 - 172  2002年

  • Rowing prevents muscle wasting in older men

    Chie C. Yoshiga, Mitsuru Higuchi, Jim Oka

    European Journal of Applied Physiology   88 ( 1-2 ) 1 - 4  2002年

     概要を見る

    We evaluated the effects of rowing on the morphology and function of the leg extensor muscle in old people. The area and the power of the leg extensor muscle were measured in 15 oarsmen - age [mean (SD)] 65 (3) years
    height 171 (4) cm, body mass 68 (6) kg - and in 15 sedentary men - age 66 (4) years, height 170 (4) cm, body mass 67 (7) kg - who were matched on the basis of their body size. The leg extensor muscle area of the oarsmen was larger than that of the sedentary men [77.8 (5.4) vs 68.4 (5.1) cm2, P &lt
    0.05]. Also the bilateral leg extension power of the oarsmen was larger than that of the sedentary men [1,624 (217) vs 1,296 (232) W, P &lt
    0.05]. Thus, the leg extension power per the leg extensor muscle area was not significantly different between two groups [20.9 (2.0) vs 19.9 (2.1) W·cm-2) and leg extension power was correlated to the leg extensor muscle area (59-89 cm 2, r = 0.74, P &lt
    0.001). Also the 2,000-m rowing ergometer time of the oarsmen [495 (14) s
    range 479-520 s] was related to leg extensor muscle area (68-89 cm2, r = 0.63, P &lt
    0.01). The results suggest that rowing prevents age-related muscle wasting and weakness. © Springer-Verlag 2002.

    DOI PubMed

  • Rowing prevents muscle wasting in older men

    Chie C. Yoshiga, Mitsuru Higuchi, Jim Oka

    European Journal of Applied Physiology   88 ( 1-2 ) 1 - 4  2002年

     概要を見る

    We evaluated the effects of rowing on the morphology and function of the leg extensor muscle in old people. The area and the power of the leg extensor muscle were measured in 15 oarsmen - age [mean (SD)] 65 (3) years
    height 171 (4) cm, body mass 68 (6) kg - and in 15 sedentary men - age 66 (4) years, height 170 (4) cm, body mass 67 (7) kg - who were matched on the basis of their body size. The leg extensor muscle area of the oarsmen was larger than that of the sedentary men [77.8 (5.4) vs 68.4 (5.1) cm2, P &lt
    0.05]. Also the bilateral leg extension power of the oarsmen was larger than that of the sedentary men [1,624 (217) vs 1,296 (232) W, P &lt
    0.05]. Thus, the leg extension power per the leg extensor muscle area was not significantly different between two groups [20.9 (2.0) vs 19.9 (2.1) W·cm-2) and leg extension power was correlated to the leg extensor muscle area (59-89 cm 2, r = 0.74, P &lt
    0.001). Also the 2,000-m rowing ergometer time of the oarsmen [495 (14) s
    range 479-520 s] was related to leg extensor muscle area (68-89 cm2, r = 0.63, P &lt
    0.01). The results suggest that rowing prevents age-related muscle wasting and weakness. © Springer-Verlag 2002.

    DOI PubMed

  • Analytical method of measuring tea catechins in human plasma by solid-phase extraction and HPLC with electrochemical detection

    K Umegaki, A Sugisawa, K Yamada, M Higuchi

    JOURNAL OF NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE AND VITAMINOLOGY   47 ( 6 ) 402 - 408  2001年12月

     概要を見る

    We developed an analytical method for measuring tea catechins in plasma by solid-phase extraction (SPE), followed by HPLC with a coulometric electrochemical detector. The plasma was mixed with an equal volume of acetonitrile to precipitate protein, and catechins in the resulting supernatant were extracted by SPE, using a C 18 cartridge. To correct the extraction efficiency, ethyl gallate was simultaneously added with acetonitrile as an internal standard. Plasma samples were treated in microtubes, and evaporation and SPE were performed by the use of a vacuum centrifuge and vacuum manifold for SPE. The use of these instruments allowed the handling of a large number of samples simultaneously. In this method, (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (ECg), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCg), and ethyl gallate could be detected as a single peak with high sensitivity. For an analysis of the conjugated form of catechins, plasma samples were treated with glucuronidase and sulfatase. Type H-2 beta-glucuronidase effectively digested the conjugated forms, and the enzyme also converted EGCg and ECg to their nongallated form. When the concentrations of catechins in plasma were analyzed in subjects who took a single dose of catechin liquid, the concentration of free EGCg in plasma reached a maximum of 300 nM at 1 h after intake; those of the other free form of catechins increased only slightly after the intake. The concentration of total catechins (free+conjugated forms) in plasma increased up to 2 h after the intake.

  • Analytical method of measuring tea catechins in human plasma by solid-phase extraction and HPLC with electrochemical detection

    K Umegaki, A Sugisawa, K Yamada, M Higuchi

    JOURNAL OF NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE AND VITAMINOLOGY   47 ( 6 ) 402 - 408  2001年12月

     概要を見る

    We developed an analytical method for measuring tea catechins in plasma by solid-phase extraction (SPE), followed by HPLC with a coulometric electrochemical detector. The plasma was mixed with an equal volume of acetonitrile to precipitate protein, and catechins in the resulting supernatant were extracted by SPE, using a C 18 cartridge. To correct the extraction efficiency, ethyl gallate was simultaneously added with acetonitrile as an internal standard. Plasma samples were treated in microtubes, and evaporation and SPE were performed by the use of a vacuum centrifuge and vacuum manifold for SPE. The use of these instruments allowed the handling of a large number of samples simultaneously. In this method, (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (ECg), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCg), and ethyl gallate could be detected as a single peak with high sensitivity. For an analysis of the conjugated form of catechins, plasma samples were treated with glucuronidase and sulfatase. Type H-2 beta-glucuronidase effectively digested the conjugated forms, and the enzyme also converted EGCg and ECg to their nongallated form. When the concentrations of catechins in plasma were analyzed in subjects who took a single dose of catechin liquid, the concentration of free EGCg in plasma reached a maximum of 300 nM at 1 h after intake; those of the other free form of catechins increased only slightly after the intake. The concentration of total catechins (free+conjugated forms) in plasma increased up to 2 h after the intake.

  • Cooperative effects of exercise training and genistein administration on bone mass in ovariectomized mice

    J Wu, XX Wang, M Takasaki, A Ohta, M Higuchi, Y Ishimi

    JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH   16 ( 10 ) 1829 - 1836  2001年10月

     概要を見る

    We reported that genistein, a soybean isoflavone, prevents bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency, without undesirable effects on the uterus. In this study, we examined cooperative effects of genistein administration and running exercise on bone mass in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Female mice aged 7 weeks were either sham-operated or OVX and divided into six groups: (1) sham; (2) OVX; (3) OVX, treated with genistein at a submaximal dose (0.4 mg/day) subcutaneously (G); (4) OVX, exercised on a treadmill daily for 30 minutes/day at 12 m/minute on a 10 degrees uphill slope (Ex); (5) OVX, given genistein and exercised (ExG); and (6) OVX, treated with 17 beta -estradiol (0.03 mug/day) in the same manner as genistein (E-2). Four weeks after intervention, bone mass was estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole femur measured by DXA was higher in both the G and the Ex groups than in the OVX group. Furthermore, BMD in the ExG group was significantly higher than that in the groups receiving either intervention alone. Bone area in distal region of the femur was significantly higher in Ex and ExG groups as compared with those in the OVX and G groups. pQCT analysis showed that the cross-sectional areas (CSAs) and periosteum perimeter at midshaft of the femur did not differ in the sham and OVX groups but were significantly higher in Ex and ExG groups. Histomorphometric analysis showed that bone formation rate/bone surface (BFR/BS) was significantly higher in both Ex and ExG groups as compared with that in non-exercised groups. The bone volume (BV/TV) in the distal femoral cancellous bone was lower in the OVX than that in the sham group, and it was restored completely in the ExG group, as in the E-2 group. Thickness of the trabecular bone (Tb.Th) was higher in Ex and ExG groups than that in the OVX and G groups. These results indicate that the combined intervention of moderate exercise and the submaximal dose of genistein administration show a cooperative effect in preventing bone loss in OVX mice.

  • Cooperative effects of exercise training and genistein administration on bone mass in ovariectomized mice

    J Wu, XX Wang, M Takasaki, A Ohta, M Higuchi, Y Ishimi

    JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH   16 ( 10 ) 1829 - 1836  2001年10月

     概要を見る

    We reported that genistein, a soybean isoflavone, prevents bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency, without undesirable effects on the uterus. In this study, we examined cooperative effects of genistein administration and running exercise on bone mass in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Female mice aged 7 weeks were either sham-operated or OVX and divided into six groups: (1) sham; (2) OVX; (3) OVX, treated with genistein at a submaximal dose (0.4 mg/day) subcutaneously (G); (4) OVX, exercised on a treadmill daily for 30 minutes/day at 12 m/minute on a 10 degrees uphill slope (Ex); (5) OVX, given genistein and exercised (ExG); and (6) OVX, treated with 17 beta -estradiol (0.03 mug/day) in the same manner as genistein (E-2). Four weeks after intervention, bone mass was estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole femur measured by DXA was higher in both the G and the Ex groups than in the OVX group. Furthermore, BMD in the ExG group was significantly higher than that in the groups receiving either intervention alone. Bone area in distal region of the femur was significantly higher in Ex and ExG groups as compared with those in the OVX and G groups. pQCT analysis showed that the cross-sectional areas (CSAs) and periosteum perimeter at midshaft of the femur did not differ in the sham and OVX groups but were significantly higher in Ex and ExG groups. Histomorphometric analysis showed that bone formation rate/bone surface (BFR/BS) was significantly higher in both Ex and ExG groups as compared with that in non-exercised groups. The bone volume (BV/TV) in the distal femoral cancellous bone was lower in the OVX than that in the sham group, and it was restored completely in the ExG group, as in the E-2 group. Thickness of the trabecular bone (Tb.Th) was higher in Ex and ExG groups than that in the OVX and G groups. These results indicate that the combined intervention of moderate exercise and the submaximal dose of genistein administration show a cooperative effect in preventing bone loss in OVX mice.

  • Effects of high-intensity swimming training on GLUT-4 and glucose transport activity in rat skeletal muscle

    S Terada, T Yokozeki, K Kawanaka, K Ogawa, M Higuchi, O Ezaki, Tabata, I

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY   90 ( 6 ) 2019 - 2024  2001年06月

     概要を見る

    This study was performed to assess the effects of short-term, extremely high-intensity intermittent exercise training on the GLUT-4 content of rat skeletal muscle. Three- to four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats with an initial body weight ranging from 45 to 55 g were used for this study. These rats were randomly assigned to an 8-day period of high-intensity intermittent exercise training (HIT), relatively high-intensity intermittent prolonged exercise training (RHT), or low-intensity prolonged exercise training (LIT). Age-matched sedentary rats were used as a control. In the HIT group, the rats repeated fourteen 20-s swimming bouts with a weight equivalent to 14, 15, and 16% of body weight for the first 2, the next 4, and the last 2 days, respectively. Between exercise bouts, a 10-s pause was allowed. RHT consisted of five 17-min swimming bouts with a 3-min rest between bouts. During the first bout, the rat swam without weight, whereas during the following four bouts, the rat was attached to a weight equivalent to 4 and 5% of its body weight for the first 5 days and the following 3 days, respectively. Rats in the LIT group swam 6 h/day for 8 days in two 3-h bouts separated by 45 min of rest. In the first experiment, the HIT, LIT, and control rats were compared. GLUT-4 content in the epitrochlearis muscle in the HIT and LIT groups after training was significantly higher than that in the control rats by 83 and 91%, respectively. Furthermore, glucose transport activity, stimulated maximally by both insulin (2 mU/ ml) (HIT: 48%, LIT: 75%) and contractions (25 10-s tetani) (HIT: 55%, LIT: 69%), was higher in the training groups than in the control rats. However, no significant differences in GLUT-4 content or in maximal glucose transport activity in response to both insulin and contractions were observed between the two training groups. The second experiment demonstrated that GLUT-4 content after HIT did not differ from that after RHT (66% higher in trained rats than in control). In conclusion, the present investigation demonstrated that 8 days of HIT lasting only 280 s elevated both GLUT-4 content and maximal glucose transport activity in rat skeletal muscle to a level similar to that attained after LIT, which has been considered a tool to increase GLUT-4 content maximally.

  • Effects of high-intensity swimming training on GLUT-4 and glucose transport activity in rat skeletal muscle

    S Terada, T Yokozeki, K Kawanaka, K Ogawa, M Higuchi, O Ezaki, Tabata, I

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY   90 ( 6 ) 2019 - 2024  2001年06月

     概要を見る

    This study was performed to assess the effects of short-term, extremely high-intensity intermittent exercise training on the GLUT-4 content of rat skeletal muscle. Three- to four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats with an initial body weight ranging from 45 to 55 g were used for this study. These rats were randomly assigned to an 8-day period of high-intensity intermittent exercise training (HIT), relatively high-intensity intermittent prolonged exercise training (RHT), or low-intensity prolonged exercise training (LIT). Age-matched sedentary rats were used as a control. In the HIT group, the rats repeated fourteen 20-s swimming bouts with a weight equivalent to 14, 15, and 16% of body weight for the first 2, the next 4, and the last 2 days, respectively. Between exercise bouts, a 10-s pause was allowed. RHT consisted of five 17-min swimming bouts with a 3-min rest between bouts. During the first bout, the rat swam without weight, whereas during the following four bouts, the rat was attached to a weight equivalent to 4 and 5% of its body weight for the first 5 days and the following 3 days, respectively. Rats in the LIT group swam 6 h/day for 8 days in two 3-h bouts separated by 45 min of rest. In the first experiment, the HIT, LIT, and control rats were compared. GLUT-4 content in the epitrochlearis muscle in the HIT and LIT groups after training was significantly higher than that in the control rats by 83 and 91%, respectively. Furthermore, glucose transport activity, stimulated maximally by both insulin (2 mU/ ml) (HIT: 48%, LIT: 75%) and contractions (25 10-s tetani) (HIT: 55%, LIT: 69%), was higher in the training groups than in the control rats. However, no significant differences in GLUT-4 content or in maximal glucose transport activity in response to both insulin and contractions were observed between the two training groups. The second experiment demonstrated that GLUT-4 content after HIT did not differ from that after RHT (66% higher in trained rats than in control). In conclusion, the present investigation demonstrated that 8 days of HIT lasting only 280 s elevated both GLUT-4 content and maximal glucose transport activity in rat skeletal muscle to a level similar to that attained after LIT, which has been considered a tool to increase GLUT-4 content maximally.

  • 大学女子テニス選手におけるビタミンB1,B2,C摂取量とビタミン栄養状態との関連性

    関根 豊子, 高橋 裕子, 井上 喜久子, 樋口 満

    栄養学雑誌   59 ( 2 ) 79 - 86  2001年

  • 水泳運動が閉経後女性の有酸素性能力と血中脂質・リポ蛋白プロフィールに及ぼす影響

    樋口 満, 吉武 裕, 西牟田 守, 太田 壽城

    体力科学   50 ( 2 ) 175 - 184  2001年

  • 女性持久性競技者の基礎代謝量

    田口 素子, 樋口 満, 岡 純, 吉賀 千恵, 石田 良恵, 松下 雅雄

    栄養学雑誌   59 ( 3 ) 127 - 134  2001年

  • 伊能隊の健康管理−楽しく歩いて健康に−

    樋口 満, 岡 純

    ウォーキング研究   5   9 - 12  2001年

  • Serum lipoprotein cholesterols in male collegiate rowers

    Yoshiga C, Kawakami Y, Okamura K, Oka J, Higuchi M

    Advances in Exercise and Sports Physiology   7 ( 1 ) 33 - 37  2001年

  • Serum lipoprotein cholesterols in male collegiate rowers

    Yoshiga C, Kawakami Y, Okamura K, Oka J, Higuchi M

    Advances in Exercise and Sports Physiology   7 ( 1 ) 33 - 37  2001年

  • Influence of one bout of vigorous exercise on ascorbic acid in plasma and oxidative damage to DNA in blood cells and muscle in untrained rats

    K Umegaki, DH Pang, A Sugisawa, M Kimura, M Higuchi

    JOURNAL OF NUTRITIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY   11 ( 7-8 ) 401 - 407  2000年07月

     概要を見る

    We investigated the influence of a single exhaustive bout of downhill running on oxidative damage to DNA and changes of antioxidant vitamin concentrations in rats. Plasma vitamin E levels were unchanged up to 48 hr postexercise. However, plasma ascorbic acid (AA) levels increased after the exercise, then decreased thereafter. This increase corresponded to a marked decrease in AA concentration in the adrenal glands. The activity of hepatic l-gulono-gamma -lactone oxidase, which catalyzes AA synthesis, was unaltered after the exercise. The weight of the adrenal glands was significantly increased 24 hr postexercise. These results indicate that the change in the plasma AA concentration after vigorous exercise was due mainly to the release of AA from the adrenal glands. The plasma creatine phosphokinase (CPK) activity and white blood cell (WBC) count increased 3 to 6 hr postexercise. Over this same period, a marker of oxidative DNA damage, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in DNA, increased in the WBC, but not in the foreleg muscle. Lipid peroxide and vitamin E levels were also unchanged in the foreleg muscle. There was a positive correlation between CPK activity in the plasma and DNA damage in the WBC, suggesting that the DNA damage in the WBC was closely related with muscle damage due to exercise. (J. Nutr. Biochem. 11:401-407, 2000) (C) Elsevier Science Inc. 2000. All rights reserved.

  • Influence of one bout of vigorous exercise on ascorbic acid in plasma and oxidative damage to DNA in blood cells and muscle in untrained rats

    K Umegaki, DH Pang, A Sugisawa, M Kimura, M Higuchi

    JOURNAL OF NUTRITIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY   11 ( 7-8 ) 401 - 407  2000年07月

     概要を見る

    We investigated the influence of a single exhaustive bout of downhill running on oxidative damage to DNA and changes of antioxidant vitamin concentrations in rats. Plasma vitamin E levels were unchanged up to 48 hr postexercise. However, plasma ascorbic acid (AA) levels increased after the exercise, then decreased thereafter. This increase corresponded to a marked decrease in AA concentration in the adrenal glands. The activity of hepatic l-gulono-gamma -lactone oxidase, which catalyzes AA synthesis, was unaltered after the exercise. The weight of the adrenal glands was significantly increased 24 hr postexercise. These results indicate that the change in the plasma AA concentration after vigorous exercise was due mainly to the release of AA from the adrenal glands. The plasma creatine phosphokinase (CPK) activity and white blood cell (WBC) count increased 3 to 6 hr postexercise. Over this same period, a marker of oxidative DNA damage, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in DNA, increased in the WBC, but not in the foreleg muscle. Lipid peroxide and vitamin E levels were also unchanged in the foreleg muscle. There was a positive correlation between CPK activity in the plasma and DNA damage in the WBC, suggesting that the DNA damage in the WBC was closely related with muscle damage due to exercise. (J. Nutr. Biochem. 11:401-407, 2000) (C) Elsevier Science Inc. 2000. All rights reserved.

  • Influence of one bout of intensive running on lymphocyte micronucleus frequencies in endurance-trained and untrained men

    K Umegaki, M Higuchi, K Inoue, T Esashi

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE   19 ( 8 ) 581 - 585  1998年11月

     概要を見る

    Exercise induced chromosomal damage was evaluated in trained and untrained subjects, who performed treadmill running at 85% of maximal oxygen uptake for 30 min. The subjects had their peripheral blood taken before, immediately after and 30 min after the running test for the analysis of lymphocyte chromosomal damage that was evaluated by micronucleus assay. The blood samples were also subjected to X-ray irraddiation in vitro to examine the modification of exercise induced chromosomal damage by a secondarily induced oxidative stress. Spontaneous chromosomal damage in lymphocytes did not significantly increase at least until 30 min after the running both in the trained and untrained subjects. However, the X-ray-induced chromosomal damage was significantly enhanced at 30 min after the running in the untrained group, but not in the trained group. The ratio of X-ray-induced/spontaneous chromosomal damage also tended to increase after the running only in the untrained group. These preliminary results suggest that intensive exercise induced Very slight chromosomal damage only in the untrained group. which could be intensified by the secondarily induced oxidative stress.

  • Influence of one bout of intensive running on lymphocyte micronucleus frequencies in endurance-trained and untrained men

    K Umegaki, M Higuchi, K Inoue, T Esashi

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE   19 ( 8 ) 581 - 585  1998年11月

     概要を見る

    Exercise induced chromosomal damage was evaluated in trained and untrained subjects, who performed treadmill running at 85% of maximal oxygen uptake for 30 min. The subjects had their peripheral blood taken before, immediately after and 30 min after the running test for the analysis of lymphocyte chromosomal damage that was evaluated by micronucleus assay. The blood samples were also subjected to X-ray irraddiation in vitro to examine the modification of exercise induced chromosomal damage by a secondarily induced oxidative stress. Spontaneous chromosomal damage in lymphocytes did not significantly increase at least until 30 min after the running both in the trained and untrained subjects. However, the X-ray-induced chromosomal damage was significantly enhanced at 30 min after the running in the untrained group, but not in the trained group. The ratio of X-ray-induced/spontaneous chromosomal damage also tended to increase after the running only in the untrained group. These preliminary results suggest that intensive exercise induced Very slight chromosomal damage only in the untrained group. which could be intensified by the secondarily induced oxidative stress.

  • Effects of high-intensity intermittent swimming on glucose transport in rat epitrochlearis muscle

    K Kawanaka, Tabata, I, A Tanaka, M Higuchi

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY   84 ( 6 ) 1852 - 1857  1998年06月

     概要を見る

    Recently (K. Kawanaka, I. Tabata, and M. Higuchi. J. Appl. Physiol. 83: 429-433, 1997), we demonstrated that glucose transport activity after repeated 10-s-long in vitro tetani in rat epitrochlearis (Epi) muscle was negatively correlated with the postcontraction muscle glycogen concentration. Therefore, we examined whether high-intensity intermittent swimming, which depletes muscle glycogen to a lower level than that observed after ten 10-s-long in vitro tetani, elicits higher glucose transport than that observed after ten 10-s-long in vitro tetani, which has been regarded as the exercise-induced maximal stimulus for glucose transport. In male rats, 2-deoxy-D-glucose transport rate in Epi muscle after eight bouts of high-intensity intermittent swimming with a weight equal to 18% of body mass (exercise duration: 20 s, rest duration between exercise bouts: 40 s) was higher than that observed after the ten 10-s-long tetani (2.25 +/- 0.08 vs. 1.02 +/- 0.16 mu mol.ml intracellular water(-1).20 min(-1)). Muscle glycogen concentration in Epi after eight bouts of high-intensity intermittent swimming was significantly lower than that observed after ten 10-s-long in vitro tetani (7.6 +/- 0.5 vs. 14.8 +/- 1.4 mu mol glucose/g muscle). These observations show that the high-intensity intermittent swimming increases glucose transport in rat Epi to a much higher level than that induced by ten 10-s-long in vitro tetani, which has been regarded as the exercise-related maximal stimulus for glucose transport. Furthermore, this finding suggests that the lower muscle glycogen level after high-intensity intermittent swimming than after in vitro tetani may play a role, because there was a significant negative correlation between glucose transport and muscle glycogen concentration in Epi after high-intensity swimming and in vitro tetani.

  • Effects of high-intensity intermittent swimming on glucose transport in rat epitrochlearis muscle

    K Kawanaka, Tabata, I, A Tanaka, M Higuchi

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY   84 ( 6 ) 1852 - 1857  1998年06月

     概要を見る

    Recently (K. Kawanaka, I. Tabata, and M. Higuchi. J. Appl. Physiol. 83: 429-433, 1997), we demonstrated that glucose transport activity after repeated 10-s-long in vitro tetani in rat epitrochlearis (Epi) muscle was negatively correlated with the postcontraction muscle glycogen concentration. Therefore, we examined whether high-intensity intermittent swimming, which depletes muscle glycogen to a lower level than that observed after ten 10-s-long in vitro tetani, elicits higher glucose transport than that observed after ten 10-s-long in vitro tetani, which has been regarded as the exercise-induced maximal stimulus for glucose transport. In male rats, 2-deoxy-D-glucose transport rate in Epi muscle after eight bouts of high-intensity intermittent swimming with a weight equal to 18% of body mass (exercise duration: 20 s, rest duration between exercise bouts: 40 s) was higher than that observed after the ten 10-s-long tetani (2.25 +/- 0.08 vs. 1.02 +/- 0.16 mu mol.ml intracellular water(-1).20 min(-1)). Muscle glycogen concentration in Epi after eight bouts of high-intensity intermittent swimming was significantly lower than that observed after ten 10-s-long in vitro tetani (7.6 +/- 0.5 vs. 14.8 +/- 1.4 mu mol glucose/g muscle). These observations show that the high-intensity intermittent swimming increases glucose transport in rat Epi to a much higher level than that induced by ten 10-s-long in vitro tetani, which has been regarded as the exercise-related maximal stimulus for glucose transport. Furthermore, this finding suggests that the lower muscle glycogen level after high-intensity intermittent swimming than after in vitro tetani may play a role, because there was a significant negative correlation between glucose transport and muscle glycogen concentration in Epi after high-intensity swimming and in vitro tetani.

  • Changes in insulin-stimulated glucose transport and GLUT-4 protein in rat skeletal muscle after training

    K Kawanaka, Tabata, I, S Katsuta, M Higuchi

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY   83 ( 6 ) 2043 - 2047  1997年12月

     概要を見る

    After running training, which increased GLUT-4 protein content in rat skeletal muscle by &lt;40% compared with control rats, the training effect on insulin-stimulated maximal glucose transport (insulin responsiveness) in skeletal muscle was short lived (24 h). A recent study reported that GLUT-4 protein content in rat epitrochlearis muscle increased dramatically (similar to 2-fold) after swimming training (J.-M. Ren, C. F. Semenkovich, E. A. Gulve, J. Gao, and J. O. Holloszy. J. Biol. Chem. 269, 14396-14401, 1994). Because GLUT-I protein content is known to be closely related to skeletal muscle insulin responsiveness, we thought it possible that the training effect on insulin responsiveness may remain for &gt;24 h after swimming training if GLUT-4 protein content decreases gradually from the relatively high level and still remains higher than control level for &gt;24 h after swimming training. Therefore, we examined this possibility. Male Sprague-Dawley rats swam 2 h a day for 5 days with a weight equal to 2% of body mass. Approximately 18, 42, and 90 h after cessation of training, GLUT-I protein concentration and 2-[1,2-H-3]deoxy-D-glucose transport in the presence of a maximally stimulating concentration of insulin (2 mU/ml) were examined by using incubated epitrochlearis muscle preparation. Swimming training increased GLUT-4 protein concentration and insulin responsiveness by 87 and 85%, respectively, relative to age-matched controls when examined 18 h after training. Forty-two hours after training, GLUT-4 protein concentration and insulin responsiveness were still higher by 52 and 51%, respectively, in muscle from trained rats compared with control. GLUT-4 protein concentration and insulin responsiveness in trained muscle returned to sedentary control level within 90 h after training. We conclude that 1) the change in insulin responsiveness during detraining is directly related to muscle GLUT-4 protein content, and 2) consequently, the greater the increase in GLUT-4 protein content that is induced by training, the longer an effect on insulin responsiveness persists after the training.

  • Changes in insulin-stimulated glucose transport and GLUT-4 protein in rat skeletal muscle after training

    K Kawanaka, Tabata, I, S Katsuta, M Higuchi

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY   83 ( 6 ) 2043 - 2047  1997年12月

     概要を見る

    After running training, which increased GLUT-4 protein content in rat skeletal muscle by &lt;40% compared with control rats, the training effect on insulin-stimulated maximal glucose transport (insulin responsiveness) in skeletal muscle was short lived (24 h). A recent study reported that GLUT-4 protein content in rat epitrochlearis muscle increased dramatically (similar to 2-fold) after swimming training (J.-M. Ren, C. F. Semenkovich, E. A. Gulve, J. Gao, and J. O. Holloszy. J. Biol. Chem. 269, 14396-14401, 1994). Because GLUT-I protein content is known to be closely related to skeletal muscle insulin responsiveness, we thought it possible that the training effect on insulin responsiveness may remain for &gt;24 h after swimming training if GLUT-4 protein content decreases gradually from the relatively high level and still remains higher than control level for &gt;24 h after swimming training. Therefore, we examined this possibility. Male Sprague-Dawley rats swam 2 h a day for 5 days with a weight equal to 2% of body mass. Approximately 18, 42, and 90 h after cessation of training, GLUT-I protein concentration and 2-[1,2-H-3]deoxy-D-glucose transport in the presence of a maximally stimulating concentration of insulin (2 mU/ml) were examined by using incubated epitrochlearis muscle preparation. Swimming training increased GLUT-4 protein concentration and insulin responsiveness by 87 and 85%, respectively, relative to age-matched controls when examined 18 h after training. Forty-two hours after training, GLUT-4 protein concentration and insulin responsiveness were still higher by 52 and 51%, respectively, in muscle from trained rats compared with control. GLUT-4 protein concentration and insulin responsiveness in trained muscle returned to sedentary control level within 90 h after training. We conclude that 1) the change in insulin responsiveness during detraining is directly related to muscle GLUT-4 protein content, and 2) consequently, the greater the increase in GLUT-4 protein content that is induced by training, the longer an effect on insulin responsiveness persists after the training.

  • Cholate inhibits high-fat diet-induced hyoerglycemia and obesity with acylCoA synthetase mRNA decrease

    Ikemoto S, Takahashi M, Tsunoda N, Maruyama K, Itakura H, Kawanaka K, Maruyama K, Itakura H, Kawanaka K, Tabata I, Higuchi M, Tange T, Yamamoto TT, Ezaki O

    American Journal of Physiology   273 ( 1 ) E37 - E45  1997年07月

  • Cholate inhibits high-fat diet-induced hyoerglycemia and obesity with acylCoA synthetase mRNA decrease

    Ikemoto S, Takahashi M, Tsunoda N, Maruyama K, Itakura H, Kawanaka K, Maruyama K, Itakura H, Kawanaka K, Tabata I, Higuchi M, Tange T, Yamamoto TT, Ezaki O

    American Journal of Physiology   273 ( 1 ) E37 - E45  1997年07月

  • Muscle contractile activity modulates GULT4 protein content in the absence of insulinM

    Kawanaka K, Higuchi M, Ohmori H, Shimegi S, Ezaki O, Katsuta S

    Hormone Metabolism Research   28 ( 2 ) 75 - 80  1996年02月

  • Muscle contractile activity modulates GULT4 protein content in the absence of insulinM

    Kawanaka K, Higuchi M, Ohmori H, Shimegi S, Ezaki O, Katsuta S

    Hormone Metabolism Research   28 ( 2 ) 75 - 80  1996年02月

  • IMPROVED METHOD FOR THE ANALYSIS OF ASCORBIC-ACID IN PLASMA BY HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH ELECTROCHEMICAL DETECTION

    K UMEGAKI, K INOUE, N TAKEUCHI, M HIGUCHI

    JOURNAL OF NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE AND VITAMINOLOGY   40 ( 1 ) 73 - 79  1994年02月

     概要を見る

    We improved the analytical method for the detection of ascorbic acid in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an electrochemical detector (ECD) to be more selective and rapid than the protocol previously used. Main improvements are as follows. Applied potential of ECD to obtain the maximal response for ascorbic acid was +450 mV versus Ag/AgCl, but it was reduced to +350 mV. In that condition, uric acid did not respond to ECD, and only ascorbic acid was detected. EDTA contained in sample extraction/stabilizing solution gave the peak after the ascorbic acid. The addition of EDTA (0.2 mM) to the mobile phase eliminated the EDTA peak. These two improvements gave the chromatogram in which the peak that appeared from the plasma sample was only ascorbic acid, and shorten the sample run time. Ascorbic acid in plasma was unstable even though the plasma was treated with methanol/EDTA: it decreased from 1.5h at 4 degrees C. However, the treated sample, which was placed at -14 degrees C until the analysis was performed, gave the reliable ascorbic acid value at least up to 6h. The data obtained from the HPLC-ECD method was consistent with those from the hydrazine method.

  • IMPROVED METHOD FOR THE ANALYSIS OF ASCORBIC-ACID IN PLASMA BY HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH ELECTROCHEMICAL DETECTION

    K UMEGAKI, K INOUE, N TAKEUCHI, M HIGUCHI

    JOURNAL OF NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE AND VITAMINOLOGY   40 ( 1 ) 73 - 79  1994年02月

     概要を見る

    We improved the analytical method for the detection of ascorbic acid in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an electrochemical detector (ECD) to be more selective and rapid than the protocol previously used. Main improvements are as follows. Applied potential of ECD to obtain the maximal response for ascorbic acid was +450 mV versus Ag/AgCl, but it was reduced to +350 mV. In that condition, uric acid did not respond to ECD, and only ascorbic acid was detected. EDTA contained in sample extraction/stabilizing solution gave the peak after the ascorbic acid. The addition of EDTA (0.2 mM) to the mobile phase eliminated the EDTA peak. These two improvements gave the chromatogram in which the peak that appeared from the plasma sample was only ascorbic acid, and shorten the sample run time. Ascorbic acid in plasma was unstable even though the plasma was treated with methanol/EDTA: it decreased from 1.5h at 4 degrees C. However, the treated sample, which was placed at -14 degrees C until the analysis was performed, gave the reliable ascorbic acid value at least up to 6h. The data obtained from the HPLC-ECD method was consistent with those from the hydrazine method.

  • Effect of exercise on plasma lipid metabolism and exercise therapy of hyperlipidemia

    Med. Exerc. Nutr. Health   3   308 - 316  1994年

  • Effect of exercise on plasma lipid metabolism and exercise therapy of hyperlipidemia

    HIGUCHI M.

    Med. Exerc. Nutr. Health   3   308 - 316  1994年

    CiNii

▼全件表示

書籍等出版物

  • からだの発達と加齢の科学

    樋口満

    大修館出版  2012年12月

  • <ボート漕ぎ>ローイングの健康スポーツ科学

    樋口 満

    市村出版  2011年09月

  • スポーツ現場に生かす運動生理・生化学

    樋口 満

    市村出版  2011年01月

  • 栄養と運動医科学

    樋口 満

    建帛社  2010年

  • 小・中学生のスポーツ栄養ガイド スポーツ食育プログラム

    樋口 満

    女子栄養大学出版部  2010年

  • 生活習慣病対策および健康維持・増進のための運動療法と運動処方(分担執筆)

    佐藤 祐造

    分光堂  2005年

  • 高齢者運動処方ガイドライン (分担執筆)

    佐藤祐造

    南江堂  2002年

  • 運動と食生活

    樋口 満

    予防医学(財団法人神奈川県予防医学協会)  2002年

  • コンディショニングとパフォーマンス向上のスポーツ栄養学

    樋口 満

    市村出版  2001年

  • アスリートのための栄養・食事ガイド

    財, 日本体育協会スポーツ医, 科学専門委員会

    第一出版  2001年

  • 小・中学生のスポーツ栄養ガイドブック

    樋口 満

    女子栄養大学出版部  2000年

  • スポーツエルゴジェニック限界突破のための栄養・サプリメント戦略

    樋口 満

    大修館書店  2000年

  • More tetanic contractions are required for activating glucose transport maximally in trained muscle

    Kawanaka K, Tabata I, Higuchi M

    Journal of Applied Physiology  1997年

  • 図説 運動・スポーツの功と罪

    樋口 満

    医歯出版  1997年

  • More tetanic contractions are required for activating glucose transport maximally in trained muscle

    Kawanaka K, Tabata I, Higuchi M

    Journal of Applied Physiology  1997年

  • 最新運動生理学 身体パフォーマンスの科学的基礎

    樋口 満

    1996年

  • 栄養士養成シリーズ 持久力の科学

    樋口 満

    光生館  1996年

  • コンディショニングの科学

    樋口 満

    朝倉書店  1995年

  • 運動生理学シリーズ 持久力の科学

    樋口 満

    杏林書院  1994年

  • スポーツ生理学

    樋口 満

    朝倉書店  1994年

▼全件表示

受賞

  • 日本体力医学会賞

    2011年09月  

  • 日本栄養改善学会学会賞

    2002年11月  

  • 日本体力医学会賞

    2002年09月  

  • 第3回秩父宮記念スポーツ医・科学賞(奨励賞)

    2000年06月  

  • 日本体力医学会賞

    1992年09月  

共同研究・競争的資金等の研究課題

  • 時間栄養・運動学による社会的時差ボケの解消法確立

    研究期間:

    2018年04月
    -
    2022年03月
     

  • 持久性運動開始前の糖質摂取は本当にインスリン・ショックを引き起こすか

    研究期間:

    2015年04月
    -
    2017年03月
     

     概要を見る

    運動前の糖質摂取によって引き起こされるインスリンショック(運動誘発性低血糖)と呼ばれる現象について、主に朝食摂取の有無による違いに着目し研究を行った。本研究の結果、絶食条件だけではなく、実際のスポーツ現場に近い状態である朝食を摂取した条件においても、運動誘発性低血糖を発症する場合があることが明らかになった。さらに、低血糖の発症のしやすさには個人差が認められ、絶食条件においては、高いインスリン分泌能を有している者が、また朝食摂取条件においては、高い有酸素性能力を有している者が、運動誘発性低血糖を生じやすいことが明らかとなった

  • 持久性運動開始前の糖質摂取は本当にインスリン・ショックを引き起こすか

    科学研究費助成事業(早稲田大学)  科学研究費助成事業(挑戦的萌芽研究)

    研究期間:

    2015年
    -
    2016年
     

  • 持久系スポーツにおける“テーパリング”による骨格筋エネルギー生産系の生化学的応答

    研究期間:

    2013年04月
    -
    2015年03月
     

     概要を見る

    本研究は、テーパリングによる骨格筋エネルギー生産系の生化学的適応を明らかとすることを目的とした。動物実験の結果、運動時間を半減させた場合、また運動時間を幾何学的に減少させた場合の両条件において、持久力および骨格筋エネルギー生産系の酵素含量がテーパリングにより維持されることが明らかとなった。さらに持久力の関係要因を検討したところ、骨格筋における電子伝達系のタンパク含量が持久力と正の相関関係を示すことが明らかとなった。この結果は、運動量を一時的に減少するテーパリングが持久力および骨格筋エネルギー生産系に悪影響を及ぼさないことを示唆している

  • 異なる中等度運動強度及び朝・夕の運動実施時間帯の相違による総脂質酸化量の変動

    研究期間:

    2012年04月
    -
    2015年03月
     

     概要を見る

    目的:運動実施時間帯(朝・夕)や中等度運動強度の相違がトレッドミル運動中及び終了後の脂質代謝に及ぼす影響を検討すること。方法:①健常若年男性を対象に異なる運動実施時間帯(9時~10時、17時~18時)で最大酸素摂取量60%60分間の運動を実施し、運動前・終了直後・終了2時間後に採血、運動開始~終了1時間後まで呼気ガス分析を実施。②同様の対象に最大酸素摂取量65%強度と最大脂質酸化量時運動強度で運動を実施し、同様に採血、呼気ガス分析を実施。結果・考察:①朝に比較し夕で脂質分解亢進。②最大酸素摂取量65%強度に比較し最大脂質酸化量時運動強度で総脂質酸化量が有意に大。運動処方作成で有用な所見を得た

  • 健康成人における血中ビタミンD濃度と身体活動量及び心肺体力との関連

    研究期間:

    2011年04月
    -
    2014年03月
     

     概要を見る

    被験者のほとんどがビタミンD不足状態にあった。横断的な分析結果、客観的に測定された心肺体力および身体活動量は年齢と身体組成などの血中ビタミンDの関連因子と独立して血中ビタミンD濃度と相関する因子であることが判明した。1年間のビタミンDサプリメント摂取介入後、血中ビタミンD濃度は対照群に比べてビタミンD摂取群が有意に増加したが、血中25[OH]D濃度と最大酸素摂取量との関連性が認められなかった

  • 持久系スポーツにおける“テーパリング”による骨格筋エネルギー生産系の生化学的応答

    科学研究費助成事業(早稲田大学)  科学研究費助成事業(挑戦的萌芽研究)

    研究期間:

    2013年
    -
    2014年
     

     概要を見る

    本研究は、持久性アスリートが経験的に実施しているテーパリングが科学的根拠に基づく手法であることを明らかとするために、テーパリングと骨格筋エネルギー生産系との関連性について検証することを目的としている。研究開始初年度である本年は、実験動物を用いてテーパリングが持久力および骨格筋エネルギー生産系に及ぼす影響を検討した。
    実験にはSprague Dawley系雌ラットを用い、コントロール群、運動継続群およびテーパリング群の3群を設けた。運動継続群には9週間のトレッドミル運動を、テーパリング群には7週間の運動後に運動時間を半減させたトレッドミル運動を2週間負荷した。実験期間終了後、持久力を測定するために疲労困憊運動を実施し、その直後に解剖して各エネルギー生産系酵素の評価を実施した。
    実験の結果、テーパリング群の運動継続時間はコントロール群と比較して有意に高い値を示した一方で、運動継続群とテーパリング群との間に有意な差は認め

  • 異なる中等度運動強度及び朝・夕の運動実施時間帯の相違による総脂質酸化量の変動

    科学研究費助成事業(早稲田大学)  科学研究費助成事業(基盤研究(B))

    研究期間:

    2012年
    -
    2014年
     

     概要を見る

    【対象と方法】対象は長距離走鍛錬者8名(年齢21.4±1.3歳、身長171.6±6.1cm、体重56.7±8.5kg)であった。プレ実験で身体測定、座位安静時代謝測定、トレッドミルランプ負荷法での運動負荷試験を行い、ピーク時酸素摂取量(VO2peak)、最大脂質酸化量(MFO)、最大脂質酸化量時運動強度(Fatmax)を測定した。本実験で65%VO2peakで30分間あるいはFatmaxで運動中エネルギー消費量が等しく揃う時間、トレッドミル運動負荷を行い、その後2時間座位安静とした(回復期)。運動前から回復期まで呼気ガス分析を行い、総脂質酸化量等を求めた。運動前、運動中止直後、中止30分後、1時間後、2時間後に採血を行い、脂質酸化関連物質を測定した。【結果】Fatmaxは40%VO2peak前後であった。運動中および運動後のエネルギー消費量に試行間で有意差はなかった。運動中の総脂質酸化量はFatmax試行の方が65%VO2peak試行よりも有意に多く(Fatmax試行:15.6±5.1g、65%VO2peak試行:8.0±3.4g)、回復期総脂質酸化量は試行間に差

  • 食欲減衰のための縄跳び運動の可能性

    研究期間:

    2011年04月
    -
    2013年03月
     

     概要を見る

    本研究は、縄跳びのような重心の上下動を伴う運動は、一過性の運動による食欲の低下を効率的に引き起こすだけでなく、重心の上下動を伴わない運動と比較して、運動由来の食欲低下にグレリンやペプチドYY などの食欲関連ホルモンの貢献度がそれほど大きくないことを明らかにした。加えて、一過性の運動後の食欲は、男性と比較して女性で速やかに亢進(回復)することがわかった。これらの結果は、性別を考慮した肥満の予防・改善のための運動処方作成におけるエビデンスの一つになるだろう

  • 健康成人における血中ビタミンD濃度と身体活動量及び心肺体力との関連

    科学研究費助成事業(早稲田大学)  科学研究費助成事業(基盤研究(C))

    研究期間:

    2011年
    -
    2013年
     

     概要を見る

    被験者のほとんどがビタミンD不足状態にあった。横断的な分析結果、客観的に測定された心肺体力および身体活動量は年齢と身体組成などの血中ビタミンDの関連因子と独立して血中ビタミンD濃度と相関する因子であることが判明した。1年間のビタミンDサプリメント摂取介入後、血中ビタミンD濃度は対照群に比べてビタミンD摂取群が有意に増加したが、血中25[OH]D濃度と最大酸素摂取量との関連性が認められなかった。

  • 食欲減衰のための縄跳び運動の可能性

    科学研究費助成事業(早稲田大学)  科学研究費助成事業(挑戦的萌芽研究)

    研究期間:

    2011年
    -
    2012年
     

     概要を見る

    本研究は、縄跳びのような重心の上下動を伴う運動は、一過性の運動による食欲の低下を効率的に引き起こすだけでなく、重心の上下動を伴わない運動と比較して、運動由来の食欲低下にグレリンやペプチドYY などの食欲関連ホルモンの貢献度がそれほど大きくないことを明らかにした。加えて、一過性の運動後の食欲は、男性と比較して女性で速やかに亢進(回復)することがわかった。これらの結果は、性別を考慮した肥満の予防・改善のための運動処方作成におけるエビデンスの一つになるだろう。

  • 肥満関連遺伝子多型と運動および食事介入効果の検討

    科学研究費助成事業(早稲田大学)  科学研究費助成事業(基盤研究(B))

    研究期間:

    2009年
    -
    2011年
     

     概要を見る

    本研究は肥満関連遺伝子の1つであるPPARγ2遺伝子のPro12AlaおよびC1431T多型と体力、体組成,メタボリックシンドロームリスクとの関連について横断的に検討した。被験者は、健康な日本人男女716名とした。測定項目は、メタボリックシンドローム関連指標(BMI、血糖値、血中脂質、血圧等)、体力、身体組成(DXA法)、及びPPARγ遺伝子多型であった。遺伝子多型はTaq-Man法により同定した。被験者は、年代別最大酸素摂取量の高い群と低い群の2群に分類し、さらにPPARγ遺伝子C1431T多型のCC群およびCT+TT群の2群に分類し、年齢を共変量とした2元配置分散分析により比較検討した。その結果、若年男性被験者の場合は、体力とPPARγ2遺伝子のC1431T多型はメタボリックシンドロームリスク(Z値)に対して有意な相互作用が認められた。しかし、この関係は、中高齢男性および女性では認められなかった。さらにPro12Ala多型については、どのグループにおいても体力、体組成,メタボリックシンドロームリスクとの

  • 小児メタボリックシンドロームへの遺伝、運動・栄養の影響-親子間での検討

    科学研究費助成事業(早稲田大学)  科学研究費助成事業(基盤研究(B))

    研究期間:

    2009年
    -
    2011年
     

     概要を見る

    母と子(小学生) 36組に対して、体組成、呼気ガス分析を含めた運動負荷試験、血液検査を行い、母子間における体型、運動能力、脂質代謝との関係を検討した。母子間において内臓脂肪型満症、インスリン抵抗性の保有に関して関連性を認めたが、血清脂質、空腹時血糖値などに相関関係を認めなかった。小学生段階では必ずしも発症はしていないが、インスリン抵抗性などメタボリックシンドローム発症要因を認めるので、生活習慣の改善には留意する必要があるように推測された。

  • 有酸素性トレーニングに対する中心動脈の粘性および弾性の適応に関する研究

    科学研究費助成事業(早稲田大学)  科学研究費助成事業(若手研究(B))

    研究期間:

    2009年
    -
    2010年
     

     概要を見る

    本研究では、第1に心肺体力と中心動脈の粘弾性を、第2に有酸素性トレーニングが中心動脈の粘弾性に及ぼす影響を検討した。加齢に伴って増加する中心動脈の粘性は、心肺体力を高く保つことでその増加が押さえられることが明らかになった。しかしながら、実際に心肺体力を上げるために10週間の有酸素性トレーニングを行った結果、中心動脈の粘性に改善は見られなかった。したがって、10週間という短い期間でなく、比較的長期間の有酸素性トレーニングを実施することで、中心動脈の粘性が改善すると考えられる。

  • 習慣的な筋力トレーニングが中高年女性の身体組成、血中脂質および骨代謝に及ぼす影響

    科学研究費助成事業(早稲田大学)  科学研究費助成事業(基盤研究(C))

    研究期間:

    1999年
    -
    2000年
     

     概要を見る

    本研究の課題は、近年注目をされている『レジスタンス運動』を取り上げ、中高年女性を対象に、身体組成、有酸素性能力、血中脂質プロフィール、骨代謝(形成・吸収)マーカーを測定し、運動様式の異なるスポーツ種目との比較検討からその有効性を吟味することである。併せて食事調査を実施し、運動様式の違いによる総エネルギー量、主要栄養素の摂取状況等についても分析した。
    平成11年度は、いずれも中高年の女性で、レジスタンス運動実施群、持久性運動実施群、および非運動群を対象とした。その結果、両運動群は全ての測定項目において良好な状態を示し、非運動群より優れた状態が観察された。また、有酸素性能力を除く他の測定項目において、両運動群の間には差は認められなかった。さらに食事調査の結果においては、両運動群が摂取エネルギー量において多かった点を除いては、他の主要栄養素摂取状況には3群間で差は認められなかった。これらのことは、本研究

  • 高齢ランナーの呼吸循環機能の加齢変化とその規定因子に関する縦断研究

    科学研究費助成事業(国立健康・栄養研究所)  科学研究費助成事業(一般研究(C))

    研究期間:

    1993年
     
     
     

     概要を見る

    中高年マスターズランナーの呼吸循環機能に関するフォローアップスタデイを実施した。対象者は、男性では1回目の検査時に40以上60歳以下の中年(n=12,M>40)、60歳以上65歳以下(n=9,M>60)、及び65歳以上の高齢者(n=8,M>65)、女性では35歳以上の閉経前の中年(n=6,F-Pre)と閉経後の中高年者(n=8,F-Post)である。男性ランナーは6.5〜8年、女性ランナーは約5年経過した時点で再検査を行い、Vo2max(ml/kg/min),HRmax(beat/min),02pulse(ml/kg/beat)の加齢変化を検討した。男女とも身体的特徴には変化は認められなかった。
    男性ランナーにおいては、トレーニング距離の変化は、M>40:55±35→46±28km/wk,M>60:47±23→38±27km/wk,M>65:47±17→40±12km/wkであった。Vo2maxの変化はM>40:53.9±7.3→49.5±4.8(DELTAVo2max:0.58±0.52ml/kg/min/yr),M>60:50.2±4.5→43.8±4.5ml/kg/min(DELTAVo2max:0.96±0.56),M>65:46.5±3.9→42.0±4.2ml/kg/min(DELTAVo2max:0.78±0.40)であった。心拍数の変化はM>40:180±9→174±12bpm,M>60:169±8→167±6bpm,M>65:171±12→167±11bpmであった。02pulseの変化はM>40:0.30±0.04→0.29±0.03,M>60:0

  • 炭水化物ローディングによる筋グリコーゲン過補償の機序に関する分子生物学的研究

    科学研究費助成事業(国立健康・栄養研究所)  科学研究費助成事業(一般研究(C))

    研究期間:

    1991年
    -
    1992年
     

     概要を見る

    筋グリコーゲンの過補償の生理・生化学的メカニズムについては、筋肉細胞のインスリン感受性や筋肉細胞内でのグリコーゲン合成酵素活性の増加などが関与しているといわれている。しかし、糖輸送体(GLUT4)の筋グリコーゲン過補償における調節機能については明らかではない。そこで、本研究では2種類の持久性運動をラットに負荷し、骨格筋グリコーゲン含量の変化とGLUT4の一過性の変化について検討した。2時間運動直後には運動前の75%へと減少し、運動直後のグルコース投与後3時間では運動前の値の2倍以上に増加していた。しかし、24時間後にはほぼ運動前のレベルになっていた。一方、GLUT4濃度は運動後0,3,24時間で運動前の110%前後で大きな変化はみられなかった。また、平均5.5時間にわたる疲労困ぱい運動においては、筋グリコーゲンは運動直後には運動前の50%へと減少していたが、グリコース投与24時間後には運動前の2倍へと増加していた。一方、GLUT4濃度は疲労困ぱい運動直後

  • 持久性運動に対する老化した筋の生化学的適応に関する研究

    科学研究費助成事業(国立栄養研究所)  科学研究費助成事業(一般研究(C))

    研究期間:

    1987年
    -
    1988年
     

     概要を見る

    持久性トレーニングによる骨格筋の生化学的適応が、異なる加齢段階において、同じように起こるかどうかを明らかにするために、一般のマウスに比べて急速に老化現象を示することから、老化研究のモデル動物として有用な老化促進モデルマウス(SAM)を用いて脚筋のミトコンドリア内に局在し、有酸素性エネルギー代謝に関連する諸酵素、及び多量の体内への酸素摂取に伴って上昇する活性酸素を除去する働きを有するスーパーオキシドデスムターゼ(SOD)の持久性トレーニングによる適応用応答について研究を行った。初年度にはP/2系SAMマウスは老化が早く、生存率低下も通常の老化を示すR系SAMに比べて著しく早いので、12カ月齢以後では筋のミトコンドリア諸酵素活性を顕著に増加させるような激しい持久性トレーニングを行わせることが困難であることが明らかになった。そこで、最終年度においては、6カ月齢と10カ月齢のP/2系、R系SAMによる8週間のトレーニングを実施した。トレーニ

  • 肥満関連遺伝子多型と運動および食事介入効果の検討

     概要を見る

    本研究は肥満関連遺伝子の1つであるPPARγ2遺伝子のPro12AlaおよびC1431T多型と体力、体組成,メタボリックシンドロームリスクとの関連について横断的に検討した。被験者は、健康な日本人男女716名とした。測定項目は、メタボリックシンドローム関連指標(BMI、血糖値、血中脂質、血圧等)、体力、身体組成(DXA法)、及びPPARγ遺伝子多型であった。遺伝子多型はTaq-Man法により同定した。被験者は、年代別最大酸素摂取量の高い群と低い群の2群に分類し、さらにPPARγ遺伝子C1431T多型のCC群およびCT+TT群の2群に分類し、年齢を共変量とした2元配置分散分析により比較検討した。その結果、若年男性被験者の場合は、体力とPPARγ2遺伝子のC1431T多型はメタボリックシンドロームリスク(Z値)に対して有意な相互作用が認められた。しかし、この関係は、中高齢男性および女性では認められなかった。さらにPro12Ala多型については、どのグループにおいても体力、体組成,メタボリックシンドロームリスクとの

  • 有酸素性トレーニングに対する中心動脈の粘性および弾性の適応に関する研究

     概要を見る

    本研究では、第1に心肺体力と中心動脈の粘弾性を、第2に有酸素性トレーニングが中心動脈の粘弾性に及ぼす影響を検討した。加齢に伴って増加する中心動脈の粘性は、心肺体力を高く保つことでその増加が押さえられることが明らかになった。しかしながら、実際に心肺体力を上げるために10週間の有酸素性トレーニングを行った結果、中心動脈の粘性に改善は見られなかった。したがって、10週間という短い期間でなく、比較的長期間の有酸素性トレーニングを実施することで、中心動脈の粘性が改善すると考えられる

  • 高齢者の身体的自立に必要な体力レベルに関する研究

     概要を見る

    本研究の目的は、高齢者が身体的に自立した日常生活活動を過ごすために必要な体力レベルが明らかにするために、60歳以上の高齢男女25名(女性19名、男性6名)を対象に日常の身体活動状況調査、大腿伸展パワー及び乳酸性作業閾値の相互関連について検討した。1.日常の身体活動量と体力の関係(平成7年度)覚醒時の総エネルギー消費量と乳酸性作業閾値との間に有意な正の相関関係が認められた。また、覚醒時の総エネルギー消費量が高くなるに従って脚伸展パワー値も高くなる傾向にあった。これらの結果から、高齢者においては日常の身体活動それ自体が有酸素性作業能力や脚筋力(脚伸展パワー)の改善に有効な運動刺激なることが明らかにされた。2.加齢による体力の変化(平成8年度)加齢に伴う体力の変化と身体活動量の関係について検討した。その結果、脚伸展パワーと乳酸性作業閾値はいずれも1〜2年後に有意な低下はみられなかった。しかし、乳酸性作業閾値の経年変化は、ほぼ6

  • 激運動による酸素ストレスに対する抗酸化ビタミン・加齢の影響に関する研究

     概要を見る

    運動による酸素ストレスに対する生体防御機能を動物とヒトを対象として研究した。ラットで有酸素的な持久性水泳運動による血漿、骨格筋の過酸化脂質、抗酸化ビタミンの動態を検討した。運動60分後にはいずれの過酸化脂質濃度も上昇していたが、1日後には安静時の水準にもどる傾向がみられた。1日後にはそれぞれのビタミンE濃度は安静時水準にもどっていたが、ビタミンC濃度は安静時水準よりも低い傾向であった。また、ラットにダウンヒルランニングと通常のレベルランニングを行なわせたところ、血中CPK活性はレベルランニングに比べてダウンヒルランニングで有意に高く、ダウンヒルランニングは筋損傷度の高い運動であることが確認された。血漿TBA値は安静時に比べてダウンヒル-,レベル-いずれのランニング群とも著しく高かった。また、ダウンヒルランニングでヒラメ筋、外側広筋深層のTBA値の顕著な上昇が認められた。血中ビタミンC,Eの濃度はダウンヒル-,レベル-いず

  • 短時間・激運動が骨格筋の糖代謝機能に及ぼす影響に関する生理・生化学的研究

     概要を見る

    従来、筋運動による糖代謝機能の向上は、いわゆる低強度・長時間運動により増加すると考えられ、マラソンの競技の競技成績向上のために行うグリコーゲンロ-ディング中の運動のほとんどが、低強度・長時間運動であった。しかし、試験管内の実験では、電気刺激による短時間の等尺性筋活動によっても骨格筋の糖代謝機能が長時間運動と同程度に増加することが知られており、高い強度の運動でも糖代謝機能が増加する可能性が示唆されていた。もし、試合直前にグリコーゲンロ-ディングのために、長時間におよぶ低強度運動ばかりではなく、より高い強度の運動を短い時間行うことにより筋の糖代謝能が充分高まることが理論的に明らかになれば、マラソン選手等も通常のトレーニングメニューを変えることなく試合前の練習を行うことができ、選手の負担も低減する。そこで本研究では、高強度・短時間運動が糖代謝機能に及ぼす影響を明らかにすることを目的に、ラットに短時

  • 女性持久性競技者のエネルギー代謝に及ぼす身体組成と栄養の影響

     概要を見る

    日常的に高強度トレーニングを行っている女性競技者の基礎代謝量を明らかにし、運動週間のない一般女性と比較すること、エネルギー代謝に影響を及ぼす可能性のある身体組成と栄養状態、月経状況との関係を検討することを目的として研究を行った。一日当たりの基礎代謝量は非運動群とランナー群では差がなかったが、ボート選手群では有意に高値であった。体重当たりではランナー群が高値であったが、LBM当たりでみると3群間に差は認められなかった。一日当たりの基礎代謝量と体重、LBMおよび一日当たりのエネルギー摂取量との間には有意な正の相関関係が認められた。また、月経状況により被験者を正常月経群と月経異常群に分類して検討すると、月経異常群の一日当たりおよびLBM当たりの基礎代謝量は、正常月経群と比較して有意に低値を示した。ランナー群に月経異常者が多かったため、ランナー群をさらに分類すると、正常月経ランナー群と比較して月経異常ランナー

  • 卵巣摘出骨粗鬆症モデル動物の骨量減少に対する大豆イソフラボンと運動の併用効果

     概要を見る

    [目的]本研究では、骨粗鬆症に対してより有効な予防方法を確立する目的で、閉経後骨粗鬆症モデル動物を用い、その骨量減少に対する大豆イソフラボンまたは豆乳と運動の併用効果を検討した(平成13年度)。さらに、老化促進マウス(SAMP6)を用いて、老化によって誘引される骨量減少(老人性骨粗鬆症)に対する大豆イソフラボンと運動の併用効果を検討した(平成14年度)。また、15年度には我々が日常的に摂取する食品(豆乳)と運動の併用効果を評価した。これらの研究により、骨粗鬆症に対てより有効な予防方法を確立することを目的とした。[方法](1)8週齢の雌性ddYマウス42匹を偽手術および卵巣摘出を施し1.対照群(ATN93M).2.OVX群.3.OVX+イソフラボンまたは豆乳群.4.OVX+運動群5.OVX+イソフラボンまたは豆乳+運動群。6.OVX+エストロゲン投与群の6群に分けた。運動は、週6回1日30分トドミルを用いる走運動を負荷した。各群4週間飼育し、全身の身体組成、大腿骨の骨密度をDXA法により測定した。また大

  • 中高年者のローイングによる有酸素運動とレジスタンス運動の効果に関する研究

     概要を見る

    加齢とローイング運動が呼吸循環器系機能、血中脂質・リポ蛋白プロフィール、筋量に及ぼす影響を検討した。その結果、男性中高年ローイング愛好者は若年成人男性ボート選手よりも最大酸素摂取量(Vo2max)低くなっていたが、彼らのVo2maxは運動習慣のない若年成人と同レベルであり、運動習慣のない中高年男性よりも顕著に高い値であった。中高年男性ローイング愛好者における冠動脈疾患の危険因子指標(LDL-コレステロール/HDL-コレステロール)は運動習慣のない同年齢の男性よりも低いレベルであった。これらの結果から、ローイング澤動は健康増進にとって効果的な運動様式であることが示唆された。次ぎに、中高年者の脚筋の形態と機能に及ぼすローイング運動の効果を検討した。ローイングを愛好する中高年男性の脚伸展筋の横断面積(CSA)は運動習慣のない同年齢層の男性よりも高くなっていた。また、ローイング愛好者の脚伸展パワーも運動習慣のない人々よりも高い値であった

  • 長期の異なった食餌がグリコーゲンローディングに及ぼす影響

     概要を見る

    【目的】持久的運動選手の間では持久力を高めるため,あらかじめ筋グリコーゲンを高めておくグリコーゲンローディングという食事法が盛んに行なわれている.本研究では異なった脂肪酸組成からなる高脂肪食を長期に摂取した場合,グリコーゲンローディングにどのような影響を及ぼすかについて検討した.いずれの年度も実験動物としてWistar系雄ラットを用いた.【平成13年度】初年度は動物性高脂肪食の影響について検討した.その結果,骨格筋の酸化系酵素活性は高脂肪食摂取により増大したが,グリコーゲンローディング後の筋グリコーゲン含量の増加は高脂肪食群で低かった.また,体脂肪量の増加や血中脂質の増加が認められた。【平成14年度】動物性高脂肪食摂取は肥満や高脂血症を発現するため,植物性高脂肪食及び魚油系高脂肪食摂取の影響について検討した.骨格筋の酸化系酵素活性は高脂肪食摂取により増大したが,グリコーゲンローディング後の筋グリコーゲン含量に食餌による

  • ヒト肥満関連遺伝子多型から見た肥満リスクの分類と運動処方プログラムへの応用

     概要を見る

    肥満関連遺伝子の多型と有酸素能がメタボリックシンドローム(MS)に対して、どのように関連するのかについては知られていない。本研究は、肥満関連遺伝子多型、身体組成、MSのリスクファクターおよび最大酸素摂取量との関係について検討し、有酸素能が肥満関連遺伝子多型の有無と独立してMSに関連するかどうかについて検証することを目的とした。被験者は、健康な成人男女754名とした。全被験者は、問診票の記入および安静時血圧の測定後、採血を行い、中性脂肪、HDLコレステロール、血糖値を測定した。最大酸素摂取量は自転車エルゴメーターを用いた漸増負荷法によって測定した。身体組成の測定は、DXA法によって行った。PCR-RFLP法によって、β3アドレナリン受容体(ADRB3 64 T>A)、ペルオキシソーム増殖剤応答性受容体γ(PPARγ 1431 C>T、Pro12Ala)、脱共役タンパク1(UCP1 3826 A>G)、脂肪酸結合タンパク2(FABP2 54 A>T)の遺伝子多型を解析した。最大酸素摂取量(VO2Peak)は、男女ともMSの有無と有意

  • 高強度・間欠的な短時間トレーニングがローイング・パフォーマンス向上に及ぼす効果

     概要を見る

    研究1.では、ローイング・エルゴメータを用いて、大学漕艇部男子選手9名が高強度・間欠的運動(20秒全力運動-10秒休息)を5setと8setの2回行った。その結果、VO2に関しては5、8setのいずれの運動でも3set目にはほぼVO2maxに達していたが、運動後の[La^-lmmol/lは5setでは8setに比べて有意に低い値であった。この結果から、トレーニングとしての効果を考慮すると8setの方が適切と考えられた。次に、トレーニング頻度を検討するため、漕艇部員男子13名を高強度・間欠的ローイング・トレーニング週2回の群と週5回群に振り分けて、6週間のトレーニングを実施した。その結果、トレーニングの前後で、1000mタイムトライアル(TT)では両群とも有意にタイム短縮したが、2000mは週2回群のみで有意に短縮した。研究2.では、ボートコースでシングルスカルを用いたローイング運動中の生理学的応答を検討した。漕艇部員男子8名が水上でシングルスカルに乗艇し、高強度・間欠的ローイング運動を行った。一過性

  • ローイング運動が高齢者の大腰筋量と歩行能力に及ぼす影響

     概要を見る

    ローイング(ボート漕ぎ)運動は、高齢者において安全で効率的な健康増進運動であると考えられる。本研究は、ローイング運動が高齢者の大腰筋量と歩行能力に及ぼす影響を検討した。高齢者におけるローイング運動は、大腰筋および大腿伸筋群の筋量増加効果があること、エクササイズ・チューブを用いた簡便なローイング運動においても筋量増加効果があることが示されたが、歩行能力については、今後さらなる検討が必要である

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特定課題研究

  • なぜバランスの良い食事は健康に良いのか?栄養素間の相乗効果と腸内細菌叢の役割解明

    2017年   坂本 静男, 川上 諒子, 竹山 春子, 細川 正人, 伊藤 智子, 谷澤 薫平

     概要を見る

    本研究は、腸内細菌と栄養摂取量および生活習慣病危険因子との関連を明らかにすることを目的として行った。日本人高齢男性31名から提供された糞便より腸内細菌のDNAを抽出し、16S rRNA遺伝子のシーケンスにより、属レベルの腸内細菌叢の構成を決定した。栄養摂取量と相対存在量が1%以上の細菌との相関関係を調べた結果、26組の有意な相関関係が認められ、特に、銅、ビタミンK、食物繊維の摂取量は3つ以上の細菌と有意に相関していた。さらに、銅、ビタミンK、食物繊維の摂取量と正の相関を示した細菌は、HOMA-IRや肝臓脂肪量などの生活習慣病危険因子と負に相関する一方で、これらの栄養素と負の相関を示した細菌は、これらの生活習慣危険因子と正に相関することが明らかになった。

  • 弾性バンドの負担の違いがスクワットの運動学、運動力学的指標に及ぼす影響

    2017年   久保 孝史

     概要を見る

    目的:本研究では、バーベルを使用したフリーウエイトエクササイズ中にバーベルを素早く挙上しようとした際に生じる減速局面が、負荷の割合が異なる弾性バンドをバーベルに取り付けることによって減少するかを検討することを目的とした。方法:対象者は①50%1RM(バンド負荷なし)②50%1RM(バンド負荷20%、重り30%)③70%1RM(バンド負荷20%、重り50%)のバンド負荷が異なるバックスクワットをフォースプレート上で行った。結果:いかなるバンド負荷であっても、挙上動作後半には挙上動作の約30%を減速局面が占めることが明らかになった。

  • 生活習慣病の遺伝的リスクを打ち消す運動習慣と食生活の相乗効果の検証

    2015年   村岡 功, 坂本 静男, 川上, 鈴木, 岡, 鳥居, 田口

     概要を見る

    中高齢男女275名を対象とした横断研究により、腹部肥満およびメタボリックシンドローム(MS)発症に及ぼす食生活パターンの影響を検討した。簡易型自記式食事歴法質問票により求めた52の食品および飲料の摂取量を変数とした主成分分析の結果、第1食事パターンとして、野菜、果物、海草、きのこ、いも類の主成分負荷量が高く、めしの値が低い、“副菜重視型”の食事パターンが同定された。さらに、第1食事パターンの第4四分位群において、第1四分位群と比較して腹部肥満者およびMS発症者は有意に少なかった。以上の結果より、野菜、果物、海藻、きのこ、いも類を多く含む食事パターンの者において、腹部肥満およびMSの発症リスクが低下することが示唆された。

  • 若齢期の運動歴は中高齢者の身体活動・体力・健康度に残存的な影響を及ぼすか?

    2014年   村岡 功, 岡 浩一朗, 坂本 静男, 鳥居 俊, 田口 素子, 東田 一彦, 大嶋 里美

     概要を見る

     本研究の目的は、若齢期の運動歴が、中高齢期における身体活動量・体力・健康に及ぼす残存的影響を明らかにすることであった。若年期にボート競技(ローイング)を行っていた高齢者を対象として検討を行った結果、若年期にボート競技を行っていた者の多くは、高齢期においても習慣的にローイング運動を行っており、高い全身持久力・筋パワーを有していた。また、若年期にボート競技を行っていた者のうち、高齢期における身体活動量が低い者も、対照群と比較して高い全身持久力・筋パワーを有していた。以上の結果より、若年期における習慣的なローイング運動は、高齢期の身体活動とは独立して、体力に好ましい影響を及ぼす可能性が示唆された。

  • スポーツ・エピジェネティクスが生活習慣病関連のジェネティクスを凌駕する可能性

    2012年  

     概要を見る

     身体的特徴や疾患のリスクはある程度遺伝的に規定されている。一般的には習慣的な運動により体力を高めることで、様々な疾患リスクが軽減されることが知られているが、遺伝的な疾患リスクさえも打ち消すことができるか否かは十分に検討されていない。そこで本研究は、習慣的な運動が疾患リスクと関連する悪玉遺伝子の発現を塩基配列の修飾(エピジェネティクス)を介して抑制するという仮説のもと、体力および身体組成と遺伝要因の相互作用が生活習慣病リスクに及ぼす影響を明らかにすることを目的とした。本年度はその準備段階として、体力と身体組成が生活習慣病リスクに及ぼす影響について検討した。 対象は20~79歳の男性158名とした。心肺体力の指標として、最大酸素摂取量(VO2max)を漸増運動負荷試験により測定した。筋力の指標として、握力および脚伸展パワーを測定した。また、腹部脂肪量の指標として腹囲を測定した。動脈硬化度の評価にはCadio-ankle vascular index法(CAVI)を用いた。空腹時採血を行い、得られた血液を用いて、血中のHDLコレステロール、LDLコレステロール、トリグリセリド、ApoA1、ApoB、酸化LDL、グルコースおよびインスリン濃度を測定した。血中グルコースおよびインスリン濃度からHOMA-Rを求め、インスリン抵抗性の指標とした。 各種体力・身体組成と動脈硬化度の関連を検討した結果、最大酸素摂取量(VO2max)と動脈硬化度(CAVI)の間に強い負の相関が認められた(r=-0.710, p<0.001)。重回帰分析の結果、VO2maxは年齢および腹囲で調整した場合でもCAVIと有意に関連し、CAVIの独立した予測因子であることが明らかになった(β=-0.316, p=0.002)。また、VO2maxと関連する血液生化学指標を検討した結果、血漿酸化LDL濃度との間に負の相関が認められた(r=-0.355, p<0.001)。一方で、腹囲とHOMA-Rとの間に強い相関が認められた(r=0.374, p<0.001)。重回帰分析により、年齢およびVO2maxで調整した場合でも、腹囲はHOMA-Rと有意に関連し、HOMA-Rの独立した予測因子であることが明らかになった(β=0.339, p<0.001) 本研究の結果より、動脈硬化度に対しては心肺体力が、またインスリン抵抗性に対しては腹部脂肪が強く関連することが示された。酸化LDLは動脈硬化の原因として知られており、本研究でVO2maxとの間に負の相関が認められたことから、高い心肺体力は酸化LDL濃度の減少を介して、動脈硬化を抑制する可能性が考えられる。今後、遺伝子多型の解析を行い、動脈硬化度およびインスリン抵抗性と遺伝要因の関連を検討する予定である。また、本年度の研究成果をベースとして、動脈硬化度およびインスリン抵抗性と遺伝要因の関係が心肺体力や腹部脂肪量により修飾されるかどうか、またその分子メカニズムをエピジェネティクスの視点から検討していきたい。

  • 静脈硬化が浸水および水中運動に対する生理応答に及ぼす影響

    2011年   河野 寛

     概要を見る

    本研究は、加齢やトレーニング様式といった身体および動脈や静脈の硬化度といった心血管の特性が浸水時の心血管応答に及ぼす影響について検討し、浸水時の心血管応答の規定因子を決定することを目的とした。被験者は定期的な運動習慣のない若年男性11名(22.0±1.0歳)、習慣的に持久的トレーニングを行っている若年男性15名(21.0±1.5歳)、習慣的にウェイトトレーニングを行っている若年男性12名(20.7±2.2歳)の計38名の若年男性(21.2±1.7歳)、さらに心血管疾患を有さない健康的な高齢男性20名(65.1±3.2歳)であった。水温(29.5±0.2℃)の環境下において、各自の剣状突起に合わせた水位で3分間浸水し、3分目に心拍数(HR)と血圧を計測した。また事前に陸上にて、静脈血管容量、静脈コンプライアンス、動脈の硬化度(CAVI)、動脈圧受容器反射感受性(BRS)、最大酸素摂取量(VO2max)、下腿骨格筋断面積を測定した。静脈血管容量および静脈コンプライアンスは、プレチスモグラフィー法によって評価した。動脈の硬化度の評価には、Cadio-ankle vascular index法を用いた。動脈圧受容器反射感受性は、バルサルバ中の心電図のRR間隔とフィナプレスで連続的に測定された収縮期血圧の関係から算出された。VO2maxは、自転車エルゴメーターにおいて漸増負荷運動中の酸素摂取量を測定することで得られた。下腿断面積は、磁気共鳴装置によって評価された。浸水に伴うHRの低下量は高齢者に比べて若年者で有意に高値を示した。重回帰分析により、浸水に伴うHRの低下量には年齢(β=0.16)、VO2max(β=-0.04)、BRS(β=-0.04)が総合的に関連していた。浸水に伴う収縮期血圧(SBP)の増加量は若年者に比べて高齢者で有意に高値を示した。重回帰分析により、浸水に伴うSBPの上昇には年齢(β=-0.62)、安静時の平均血圧(β=0.40)、CAVI(β=0.64)が独立して関係していることが明らかとなった。これらの結果は、浸水に伴う心拍数および血圧の応答に対して、心拍出量を規定する静脈容量や静脈硬化度は関与せず、加齢、安静時血圧および動脈スティフネスなどの動脈特性および心肺体力といった身体特性が影響を及ぼすことを示唆している。今後は、運動時の心拍や血圧応答の規定因子を探索する必要があるだろう。

  • 重量級アスリートに対する競技力向上を目指した健康的な増量介入研究

    2011年   川上泰雄, 坂本 静男, 鳥居 俊, 河野 寛

     概要を見る

     本研究課題は、体重制限がないコンタクトスポーツ系選手において、体重増加が三つのテーマ(①エネルギーバランスの調節、②パフォーマンスの向上、③生活習慣病リスクの進展)に及ぼす影響を解明することを目的とした。今年度はその中でも、テーマ①として体重増加に伴う身体組成の変化が内臓量と基礎代謝量へ及ぼす影響と、テーマ③としてスポーツ選手の身体的特性と生活習慣病リスクの把握、および体重増加が生活習慣病リスクに及ぼす影響の解明を行った。 今年度は、横断研究に加えて2010年度開始の縦断研究を行い、本学米式蹴球部および運動習慣のない学生計53名を対象とし、身体組成、基礎代謝量、体力、血圧、採血による一般生化学的指標、身体活動量や栄養摂取量の測定評価を行った。テーマ①の研究においては、米式蹴球部1年生の1年間で9.0kgの体重増加に伴い、骨格筋重量が31.7±3.0kgから34.2±3.6kg、心臓重量が0.26±0.07kgから0.29±0.06kg、腎臓重量が0.34±0.03kgから0.37±0.05kgと有意に増加した。基礎代謝量においては有意な増加が認められた(Pre:1646±120kcal/day、Post:1723±189kcal/day)。しかし、肝臓重量に有意な増加は見られなかった。肝臓および、腎臓の増加量と基礎代謝量に有意な相関関係(⊿肝臓:r=0.630、P<0.05、⊿腎臓:r=0.655、P<0.05)が認められたことから、基礎代謝量の増加には、肝臓および腎臓の重量の変化が関係していること明らかになった。そして重回帰分析より、基礎代謝量の増加には特に腎臓重量の増加が及ぼす影響が大きいことが示唆された。 本研究テーマの成果として、2011年度第62回日本体育学会にてポスター発表を行った。また、2012年度European College of Sports Scienceの第17回学会において発表を行うため抄録を提出済みであり、現在本研究テーマで論文を執筆中である。また、テーマ③の研究により、米式蹴球部選手の中でも特に体格の大きさを求められるライン選手は、他のポジションの選手に比べ有意に体脂肪率が高く内臓脂肪断面積が多く、インスリン抵抗性も高いことが判明した。また米式蹴球部1年生において1年間の体重増加に伴い、内臓脂肪断面積が33.1±11.4 cm2から70.5±28.0 cm2、収縮期血圧が116.3±8.3mmHgから130.3±10.4mmHg、拡張期血圧が61.8±5.6 mmHgから69.2±9.0mmHgと有意に増加したが、インスリン抵抗性は有意に増加しなかった。以上のように、全体として悪化した指標はあったものの、選手の生活習慣病リスクは低かった。 本研究テーマの成果においては、2011年度第5回Asia-Pacific Conference on Exercise and Sports Scienceにて口頭発表を行った。また現在論文執筆中であり、2012年度中に投稿および受理を目指す。

  • 持久的パフォーマンスを向上させるための最適な脂質摂取量の検討

    2009年  

     概要を見る

     近年、持久的な運動能力に深く関係している骨格筋のミトコンドリアが、高脂肪食を摂取することで増加することが報告され、骨格筋のミトコンドリアの増加に、食事から摂取する脂肪が重要な役割を担っていることが明らかとなっている。そこで、我々は、実験動物を用いて、体脂肪の蓄積を伴わずに骨格筋のミトコンドリアを増加させ、持久的運動パフォーマンスを高めることができる最適な脂肪の摂取量を検討することを目的として研究を行った。課題1:異なる脂質濃度の食餌摂取が体組成及び骨格筋ミトコンドリア酵素活性に及ぼす影響 SD系の雄性ラットを低脂肪食(エネルギー比:12.5%)群、普通食(25%)群、高脂肪食(40%)群及び超高脂肪食(60%)群に分け、それぞれの食餌を4週間摂取させた。 4週間の食餌介入の結果、低脂肪食(12.5%)群と比較して超高脂肪食(60%)群の体重当たりの内臓脂肪重量は有意に高い値であった。60%群の3-ヒドロキシアシルCoA脱水素酵素活性は、12.5及び25%群と比較して有意に高い値であった。40%群の3-ヒドロキシアシルCoA脱水素酵素活性は12.5%と比較して、高い傾向が観察された。課題2:異なる脂質濃度の食餌摂取が持久的運動パフォーマンスに及ぼす影響 研究課題2では、実際にラットに走行運動を行わせ、4週間の異なる脂質濃度の食餌摂取がラットの持久的運動パフォーマンスに及ぼす影響を検討した。 40及び60%群の疲労困憊にいたるまでの走行時間は、12.5及び25%群と比較して有意に高い値であった。脂質エネルギー比が60%の食事は競技者の食事に導入するには難しいものの、本研究結果から、脂質エネルギー比が40%の食事であっても持久的パフォーマンスを向上させる可能性が示唆された。

  • 高強度・間欠的トレーニングがローイング・パフォーマンスとその規定因子に及ぼす影響

    2004年   川上 泰雄, 坂本 静男

     概要を見る

    ボート競技とは、全身の筋力・持久力を必要とするミドルパワー系競技であり、その競技時間が2000mレースの場合、世界的なトップレベルの選手で数分~数十分にわたることから、これまでのローイング・トレーニングの多くは、持久力強化を目的とした有酸素性トレーニングが主であった。一方、数十秒の高強度ローイングもトレーニングとして行われてきたが、インターバルが比較的長いトレーニングであった。スピードスケート選手が取り入れてきた高強度・間欠的トレーニングは、ミドルパワー系パフォーマンスの要因である有酸素性と無酸素性の能力を向上させることが知られている。 本研究では、このスピードスケートのトレーニング法がローイングにも適応できるかどうかを明らかにすることを目的として、短期間の高強度・間欠的トレーニングが、生体内の生理学的指標に影響を与え、持久性能力要素(VO2など)を向上させることで、ローイング・パフォーマンスの向上に有効なのではないかという仮説を立てて、6週間に及ぶ断続的な高強度・間欠的トレーニング(週3回)を実施し、エルゴメータによるローイング・パフォーマンスや生理学的指標に与える影響、トレーニング最中・直後の生化学的状態を観察した。本研究で行った『高強度・間欠的トレーニング』とは、(ローイング・エルゴメータによる20秒間の全力漕ぎ+10秒間のインターバル)×8セットという、計230秒のトレーニングである。 被験者は早稲田大学漕艇部員18名(男:12名、女:6名)で、男子6名・女子3名ずつになるようにトレーニング群(T-群)とコントロール群(C-群)とに無作為に振り分けた。T-群には、計17回(6週間)の高強度・間欠的トレーニングを行ってもらった。C-群には、T-群が高強度・間欠的トレーニングで消費するのと同程度のエネルギーをローイングエルゴメータによる有酸素運動で消費してもらった。 その結果、①6週間のトレーニング期間を前期・中期・後期に分類した上で、それぞれの期間におけるT-群のトレーニング時の運動量(W)を比較したところ、後期の運動量は前期・中期に比べて有意に高かった。②トレーニング期間前後に行ったT-群のVO2max測定において、トレーニング後の乳酸値は、トレーニング前に比べて有意に高かった。③トレーニング後の2000mの記録の1500m~2000m区間のラップタイムにおいて、T-群はC-群に比べて有意に好タイムを記録した。 6週間に及ぶ高強度・間欠的トレーニングによって、潜在能力のより多くを出し切ることが助長され、ローイング・パフォーマンスに有酸素性・無酸素性いずれについても正の影響を与える可能性が示唆された。

  • 高強度・間欠的トレーニングによる骨格筋脂肪酸酸化機能の向上に関する研究

    2003年   寺田 新

     概要を見る

    持久的トレーニングにより,骨格筋の脂肪酸酸化酵素活性が上昇することが良く知られている.しかしながら,高強度運動トレーニングが骨格筋の脂肪酸酸化酵素活性に及ぼす影響はこれまでほとんど明らかとされていない.そこで,本研究では,短時間のうちに行われる高強度・間欠的水泳運動トレーニングが骨格筋脂肪酸酸化酵素活性に及ぼす影響について,持久的トレーニングによる効果と比較検討した.4~5週齢のSD系雄ラットを1)高強度・間欠的トレーニング(HIT)群,2)持久的トレーニング(LIT)群,3)コントロール群(CON)の3群に無作為に分けた.HIT群には,体重の14~16%に相当する錘を装着させながら,20秒間の水泳運動を10秒間の休憩を挟みながら14セット行わせた.LIT群には,無負荷で3時間の水泳運動を45分間の休憩を挟み2セット行わせた.トレーニングは1日1回,10日間行わせた.最終トレーニングの翌日に,麻酔下において,心臓および内臓脂肪を摘出し,その重量を測定した.また,前肢骨格筋Tricepsを摘出し,骨格筋の脂肪酸β酸化において重要な役割を果たしていると考えられている 3-β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase(HAD)活性の測定に用いた.その結果,HIT群の心臓重量は,LITおよびCON群に比べて有意に高い値を示した.内臓脂肪量は,LIT群において,CON群に比べて有意に低い値を示した.前肢骨格筋TricepsにおけるHAD活性は,LITおよびHIT群で,CON群と比較して有意に高い値を示した.LIT群とHIT群のHAD活性には有意な差は認められなかった.以上の結果から,総運動時間が6時間の持久的トレーニングと同程度に,高強度・間欠的トレーニング(総運動時間:280秒)でも骨格筋の脂肪酸酸化酵素活性が上昇することが明らかとなった.

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海外研究活動

  • 運動トレーニングによるミトコンドリア新生のメカニズムに関する研究

    2011年04月
    -
    2011年12月

    アメリカ   ワシントン大学