相澤 俊明 (アイザワ トシアキ)

写真a

所属

附属機関・学校 高等研究所

職名

講師(任期付)

兼担 【 表示 / 非表示

  • 国際学術院   大学院アジア太平洋研究科

学歴 【 表示 / 非表示

  • 2016年10月
    -
    2020年04月

    University of York  

  • 2013年04月
    -
    2016年03月

    東京大学  

  • 2013年09月
    -
    2014年08月

    University of Edinburgh  

  • 2009年04月
    -
    2013年03月

    慶應義塾大学  

学位 【 表示 / 非表示

  • 2020年   University of York   PhD in Economics

  • 2016年03月   東京大学   Master of Public Policy

  • 2014年08月   University of Edinburgh   Msc in Economics

  • 2013年03月   慶應義塾大学   BA in Commerce

 

研究分野 【 表示 / 非表示

  • 経済政策

  • 公共経済、労働経済

研究キーワード 【 表示 / 非表示

  • 医療健康経済学

  • 応用ミクロ経済学

論文 【 表示 / 非表示

  • Inequality of Opportunity in Infant Mortality in South Asia: A Decomposition Analysis of Survival Data

    Economics and Human Biology    2021年08月  [査読有り]

  • Dynamic variation in receptive vocabulary acquisitions: Further evidence from the Young Lives study

    Toshiaki Aizawa

    Cognitive Development   58  2021年04月  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    This study aims to reveal the trajectory of disparity in receptive vocabulary developments attributable to early-life circumstances. Using the cohort data collected from Ethiopia (N = 840), India (N = 1777), Peru (N = 1624) and Vietnam (N = 1831) as the Young Lives study, this study explores the dynamics of variation in receptive vocabulary acquisitions over a 15-year period. The random forest, which is one of the most popular and versatile machine learning algorithms, is adopted to model the association between receptive vocabulary skills and early-life circumstances. Then the constructed model quantifies how much of the observed variation is due to the early-life circumstances. Such variation has already been shaped by the age of 5 and it persists even when children reach early adolescence. The prediction by the random forest suggests that compensation for disadvantaged circumstances at the early developmental stage would help marginalised children catch up and mitigate the disparity when they reach early adolescence.

    DOI

  • Decomposition of Improvements in Infant Mortality in Asian Developing Countries Over Three Decades

    Toshiaki Aizawa

    Demography   58 ( 1 ) 137 - 163  2021年02月  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    Low- and middle-income countries in Asia have seen substantial improvements in infant mortality over the last three decades. This study examines the factors contributing to the improvement in infant survival in their first year in six Asian countries: Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Pakistan, and the Philippines. I decompose the overall improvement in the infant survival rate in the respective countries from the 1990s to the 2010s into the part that can be explained by the improvements in circumstantial environments in which infants develop and the remaining part that is due to the structural change in the hazard functions. This decomposition is achieved by employing the random survival forest, allowing me to predict the counterfactual infant survival probability that infants in the 2010s would have under the circumstantial environments of the 1990s. The results show that large parts of the improvement are explained by the improvement in the environments in all the countries being analyzed. I find that the reduction in family size, increased use of antenatal care, longer pregnancy periods, and improved living standards were associated with the improvement of the infant mortality rate in all six countries.

    DOI PubMed

  • Inequality in the treatment of diabetes and hypertension across residency status in China

    Toshiaki Aizawa

    Ethnicity and Health   26 ( 4 ) 512 - 529  2021年  [査読有り]  [国際誌]

     概要を見る

    Objectives: This paper studies the institutional inequality that exists in the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension, as well as their diagnosis and medication management, between urban and rural residency status (hukou) holders in China. Methods: Exploiting the Chinese Health and Nutrition Survey, we primarily demonstrate that while a lower proportion of rural residency holders suffer from diabetes and hypertension, a larger proportion have never been diagnosed with these conditions and do not take medicine to control them. We explore the determinants of these disparities by the non-linear decomposition method. Results: Decomposition results illustrate that a large part of disparities in the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension can be explained by the differences in demographic structure and occupational socio-economic status. Regarding the ruralurban disparity in the under diagnosis and under-medication rates, the differences in demographic structure, household affluence, occupational socio-economic status and consumption patterns make the greatest contributions. Conclusions: This evidence suggests that improving the institutional economic inequality and enhancing the occupational mobility of rural residency holders are of paramount importance to mitigate any inequality in health and healthcare utilisation.

    DOI PubMed

  • Levels of and changes in socioeconomic inequality in delivery care service: A decomposition analysis using Bangladesh Demographic Health Surveys

    Mohammad Habibullah Pulok, Gowokani Chijere Chirwa, Jacob Novignon, Toshiaki Aizawa, Marshall Makate

    PloS one   15 ( 11 )  2020年11月  [査読有り]

     概要を見る

    Background Socioeconomic inequality in maternity care is well-evident in many developing countries including Bangladesh, but there is a paucity of research to examine the determinants of inequality and the changes in the factors of inequality over time. This study examines the factors accounting for the levels of and changes in wealth-related inequality in three outcomes of delivery care service: health facility delivery, skilled birth attendance, and C-section delivery in Bangladesh. Methods This study uses from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey of 2011 and 2014. We apply logistic regression models to examine the association between household wealth status and delivery care measures, controlling for a wide range of sociodemographic variables. The Erreygers normalised concentration index is used to measure the level of inequalities and decomposition method is applied to disentangle the determinants contributing to the levels of and changes in the observed inequalities. Results We find a substantial inequality in delivery care service utilisation favouring woman from wealthier households. The extent of inequality increased in health facility delivery and C-section delivery in 2014 while increase in skilled birth attendance was not statistically significant. Wealth and education were the main factors explaining both the extent of and the increase in the degree of inequality between 2011 and 2014. Four or more antenatal care (ANC4+) visits accounted for about 8% to 14% of the observed inequality, but the contribution of ANC4+ visits declined in 2014. Conclusion This study reveals no progress in equity gain in the use of delivery care services in this decade compared to a declining trend in inequity in the last decade in Bangladesh. Policies need to focus on improving the provision of delivery care services among women from poorer socioeconomic groups. In addition, policy initiatives for promoting the completion of quality education are important to address the stalemate of equity gain in delivery care services in Bangladesh.

    DOI PubMed

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特定課題研究 【 表示 / 非表示

  • アジア開発途上国における非感染症疾患に関する社会経済的不平等性の研究

    2020年  

     概要を見る

    現在、インドにおける高血圧の診断、認知、降圧剤の服用に関する社会経済的な不平等性分析のプロジェクトを進めている。高血圧は自覚症状がないことが多く、高血圧の疾患をかかえている人であっても、自身の高血圧を自覚していないことも多い。高血圧を適切にコントロールできているかどうかはインド国内においても差が見られ、社会経済的に恵まれた地位にいる人々とそうではない人々の間で不平等が生じている。こういったヘルスケアアクセスに関する社会経済的な不平等性を分析するための統計分析プログラムを今年度、作成した。現在、この作成した統計プログラムを使って、データの解析を行う段階まで研究が進んでいる。今後はすでに公開されているデータと新規配布予定のデータを組み合わせることで、不平等性の推移とその変化の要因を分析していく所存である。

 

現在担当している科目 【 表示 / 非表示

担当経験のある科目(授業) 【 表示 / 非表示

  • 経済学基礎

    早稲田大学  

    2021年09月
    -
    継続中
     

  • 統計学基礎

    早稲田大学  

    2021年04月
    -
    2021年07月
     

  • 計量経済学II演習

    英国ヨーク大学  

    2018年09月
    -
    2020年04月
     

  • 統計学演習

    英国ヨーク大学  

    2017年09月
    -
    2018年08月