Updated on 2022/06/30

写真a

 
MCEOWN, Kristopher Scott
 
Affiliation
Faculty of Science and Engineering, Global Center for Science and Engineering
Job title
Associate Professor(without tenure)
Profile
My current research examines cognitive and brain mechanisms of language learning and processing. I use various methods for my research including functional brain imaging, neurocognitive measures and questionnaire surveys.

Research Institute

  • 2020
    -
    2022

    理工学術院総合研究所   兼任研究員

Education

  •  
    -
    2013

    University of Alberta   Department of Psychology   Ph.D.  

  •  
    -
    2009

    University of Alberta   Department of Psychology   M.Sc.  

  •  
    -
    2005

    University of Saskatchewan   Department of Psychology   B.A. (High Hons.)  

Degree

  • University of Alberta   Ph.D.

Research Experience

  • 2016.09
    -
    2017.03

    The University of Tokyo   Project Assistant Professor

  • 2014.08
    -
    2016.08

    International Institute for Integrative Sleep Medicine, University of Tsukuba   JSPS Postdoctoral Fellow

 

Research Areas

  • Experimental psychology

Research Interests

  • behavioral neuroscience

  • psycholinguistics

Papers

  • The role of positive and negative psychological factors in predicting effort and anxiety toward languages other than English

    Kristopher McEown, Maya Sugita-McEown

    Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development     1 - 13  2020.06  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author

    DOI

  • The role of parental factors and the self in predicting positive L2 outcomes among Japanese learners of English

    Maya Sugita-McEown, Kristopher McEown

    Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development   40 ( 10 ) 934 - 949  2019.11  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • Individual, parental and teacher support factors of self-regulation in Japanese students

    Kristopher McEown, Maya Sugita-McEown

    Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching   13 ( 4 ) 389 - 401  2019.10  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • Adenosine A(2A) receptors in the olfactory bulb suppress rapid eye movement sleep in rodents

    Yi-Qun Wang, Rui Li, Dian-Ru Wang, Yoan Cherasse, Ze Zhang, Meng-Qi Zhang, Oriana Lavielle, Kristopher McEown, Serge N. Schiffmann, Alban de Kerchove d'Exaerde, Wei-Min Qu, Michael Lazarus, Zhi-Li Huang

    BRAIN STRUCTURE & FUNCTION   222 ( 3 ) 1351 - 1366  2017.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder in humans is often accompanied by a reduced ability to smell and detect odors, and olfactory bulbectomized rats exhibit increased REM sleep, suggesting that the olfactory bulb (OB) is involved in REM-sleep regulation. However, the molecular mechanism of REM-sleep regulation by the OB is unknown. Adenosine promotes sleep and its A(2A) receptors (A(2A)R) are expressed in the OB. We hypothesized that A(2A)R in the OB regulate REM sleep. Bilateral microinjections of the A(2A)R antagonist SCH58261 into the rat OB increased REM sleep, whereas microinjections of the A(2A)R agonist CGS21680 decreased REM sleep. Similar to the A(2A)R antagonist, selective A(2A)R knockdown by adeno-associated virus carrying short-hairpin RNA for A(2A)R in the rat OB increased REM sleep. Using chemogenetics on the basis of designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs, we demonstrated that the inhibition of A(2A)R neurons increased REM sleep, whereas the activation of these neurons decreased REM sleep. Moreover, using a conditional anterograde axonal tract-tracing approach, we found that OB A(2A)R neurons innervate the piriform cortex and olfactory tubercle. These novel findings indicate that adenosine suppresses REM sleep via A(2A)R in the OB of rodents.

    DOI

  • Chemogenetic inhibition of the medial prefrontal cortex reverses the effects of REM sleep loss on sucrose consumption

    Kristopher McEown, Yohko Takata, Yoan Cherasse, Nanae Nagata, Kosuke Aritake, Michael Lazarus

    ELIFE   5  2016.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep loss is associated with increased consumption of weight-promoting foods. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to mediate reward anticipation. However, the precise role of the PFC in mediating reward responses to highly palatable foods (HPF) after REM sleep deprivation is unclear. We selectively reduced REM sleep in mice over a 25-48 hr period and chemogenetically inhibited the medial PFC (mPFC) by using an altered glutamate-gated and ivermectin-gated chloride channel that facilitated neuronal inhibition through hyperpolarizing infected neurons. HPF consumption was measured while the mPFC was inactivated and REM sleep loss was induced. We found that REM sleep loss increased HPF consumption compared to control animals. However, mPFC inactivation reversed the effect of REM sleep loss on sucrose consumption without affecting fat consumption. Our findings provide, for the first time, a causal link between REM sleep, mPFC function and HPF consumption.

    DOI

  • α2 GABAA receptor sub-units in the ventral hippocampus and α5 GABAA receptor sub-units in the dorsal hippocampus mediate anxiety and fear memory

    K. McEown, D. Treit

    Neuroscience   252   169 - 177  2013.11  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • Mineralocorticoid receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus mediate rats' unconditioned fear behaviour

    Kristopher McEown, Dallas Treit

    HORMONES AND BEHAVIOR   60 ( 5 ) 581 - 588  2011.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Corticosterone is released from the adrenal cortex in response to stress, and binds to glucocorticosteroid receptors (GRs) and mineralocorticosteroid receptors (MRs) in the brain. Areas such as the dorsal hippocampus (DH), ventral hippocampus (VH) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) all contain MRs and have been previously implicated in fear and/or memory.
    The purpose of the following experiments was to examine the role of these distinct populations of MRs in rats' unconditioned fear and fear memory.
    The MR antagonist (RU28318) was microinfused into the DH, VH, or mPFC of rats. Ten minutes later, their unconditioned fear was tested in the elevated plus-maze and the shock-probe tests, two behavioral models of rat "anxiety." Twenty-four hours later, conditioned fear of a non-electrified probe was assessed in rats re-exposed the shock-probe apparatus.
    Microinfusions of RU28318 into each of the three brain areas reduced unconditioned fear in the shock-probe burying test, but only microinfusions into the VH reduced unconditioned fear in the plus-maze test. RU28318 did not affect conditioned fear of the shock-probe 24 hr later.
    MRs in all three areas of the brain mediated unconditioned fear to a punctate, painful stimulus (probe shock). However, only MRs in the ventral hippocampus seemed to mediate unconditioned fear of the more diffuse threat of open spaces (open arms of the plus maze). In spite of the known roles of the hippocampus in spatial memory and conditioned fear memory, MRs within these sites did not appear to mediate memory of the shock-probe. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Inactivation of the dorsal or ventral hippocampus with muscimol differentially affects fear and memory

    Kristopher McEown, Dallas Treit

    BRAIN RESEARCH   1353   145 - 151  2010.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    It was recently found that temporary inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus with lidocaine impaired fear memory, whereas temporary inactivation of the ventral hippocampus did not. These site-specific deficits, however, may have resulted from disruption of axonal signals arriving from structures outside of the hippocampus, or from disruption of axons that pass through the hippocampus entirely. This is problematic because the hippocampus receives extensive afferent input from both the amygdala and the septum, which also play very important roles in fear and fear memory. To mitigate this problem, rats were infused with the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol, into either the dorsal or the ventral hippocampus, just after an "acquisition" session in which the rats were shocked from an electrified probe. A "retention" test in the same apparatus was conducted 24 h later, when the hippocampus was no longer inactivated, and the probe was no longer electrified. Dorsal hippocampal inactivation just after acquisition impaired conditioned fear behavior (probe avoidance) during the retention test, whereas ventral hippocampal inactivation after acquisition did not. However, muscimol inactivation of the ventral hippocampus during an "acquisition" session selectively impaired unconditioned fear behavior, replicating earlier findings with lidocaine, a sodium channel blocker. Because muscimol hyperpolarizes neurons through a post-synaptic, GABAA receptor-mediated increase of chloride conductance whereas lidocaine produces indiscriminate disruption of all axonal signalling its effects are more likely to be restricted to intrinsic neurons within the area of infusion. These results provide strong evidence that afferent input from brain structures located outside of the hippocampus is not responsible for the differential effects of dorsal and ventral hippocampal inactivation on fear memory. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • The role of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus in fear and memory of a shock-probe experience

    Kristopher McEown, Dallas Treit

    BRAIN RESEARCH   1251   185 - 194  2009.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The roles of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus in fear and memory are unclear. This study examined the effects of temporary inactivation of the dorsal or ventral hippocampus on unconditioned and conditioned fear, using the shock-probe test. In Experiment 1, rats received either dorsal or ventral hippocampal infusions of lidocaine or saline, before exposure to an electrified shock-probe (acquisition I). In Experiment 2, rats received lidocaine or saline infusions after exposure to the shock-probe (acquisition II). In both experiments, a retention test in the same apparatus was given 24 h later, at which time the hippocampus was no longer inactivated, and the probe was disconnected from the shock-source. Because ventral hippocampal inactivation impaired fear behaviour during acquisition, and dorsal hippocampal inactivation impaired fear behaviour (probe avoidance) during retention, we concluded that 1) the ventral hippocampus plays a role in the expression of untrained fear reactions whereas 2) the dorsal hippocampus plays a role in encoding memory of the fearful experience. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Temporal dimensions of smoking and drinking behavior among young adults (abstract)

    Kristopher McEown, Peter A. Hall

    Canadian Psychology   46   16 - 16  2005  [Refereed]

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Books and Other Publications

  • Animal models and anxiolytic drug action. CTBN behavioral neurobiology of anxiety and its treatment

    Treit, D, Engin, E, McEown, K.S

    Springer Verlag  2010

Awards

  • International Postdoctoral Fellowship Award

    2014   The Takeda Science Foundation  

    Winner: Kristopher McEown

  • Postdoctoral Fellowship for Foreign Researchers

    2014   Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  

    Winner: Kristopher McEown

  • Queen Elizabeth II Doctoral Scholarship

    2009   The Government of the Province of Alberta, Canada  

    Winner: Kristopher McEown

  • Post Graduate Master’s Scholarship

    2007   The Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada  

    Winner: Kristopher McEown

Research Projects

  • Emotional intelligence as a mediator between positive and negative emotions and neuro-cognitive performance among Japanese EFL learners

    Japan Society for Promotion of Science (JSPS) Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) 

    Project Year :

    2020
    -
    2023
     

    SUGITA MCEOWN Maya (PI), MCEOWN Kristopher, NISHIDA Rieko, ELLINGER James

  • The role of the frontal cortex, psychological factors associated with student motivation and academic outcomes in Japanese students learning English.

    Japan Society for Promotion of Science (JSPS) Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) 

    Project Year :

    2018
    -
    2021
     

    MCEOWN Kristopher (PI)

  • Psychological factors associated with student motivation in Japanese students learning English and languages other than English

    Waseda University  Grant for Special Research Projects (2019C-238)

    Project Year :

    2019.04
    -
    2020.03
     

    MCEOWN Kristopher (PI)

  • Impact of teacher characteristics on science writing education

    Japan Society for Promotion of Science (JSPS) Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) 

    Project Year :

    2017
    -
    2019
     

    TERASHIMA Alexandra (PI), ROLAND Douglas, NOWAZAWA Emiko, HALLMAN Candler, MCEOWN Kristopher, KATAYAMA Akiko, MANINANG John

Presentations

  • An fMRI study examining the role of the extended amygdala in negative emotion and inhibitory control in second language learners.

    Sugita-McEown, M, Makuuchi, M, Naoe, T, Ellinger, J, McEown, K.S

    Society for Neuroscience 

    Presentation date: 2021.11

  • Gender differences in psychological factors as predictors of self-regulation in a Japanese learning context.

    McEown, KS, Sugita-McEown,M, Ellinger, J

    Hawaii International Conference on Education 

    Presentation date: 2021.01

  • The role of motivational orientations for languages other than English in predicting LOTE attitudes in a Japanese learning context.

    McEown, K.S, Sugita-McEown, M

    Hawaii International Conference on Education 

    Presentation date: 2020.01

  • Self-regulatory processes among Japanese EFL learners in CLIL course contexts

    Sugita-McEown, M, McEown, K.S

    3rd International Conference on Situating Strategy Use 

    Presentation date: 2019.10

  • Incorporating the inclusive L2 self into self-related motivations in a Japanese EFL context

    Sugita-McEown, M, McEown, K.S

    International Symposium on Education and Social Sciences 

    Presentation date: 2018.06

  • Direct link between REM sleep loss and the desire for sugary and fatty foods discovered

    McEown, K.S  [Invited]

    Consciousness Club of Tokyo 

    Presentation date: 2017.03

  • The role of sleep restriction on appetite for highly palatable foods

    McEown, K.S, Cherasse, Y, Takata, Y, Lazarus, M

    4th Annual International Institute for Integrative Sleep Medicine Symposium 

    Presentation date: 2016.02

  • Effects of infusing the subunit-selective GABAA agonist L838417 into the dorsal and ventral hippocampus on fear behavior

    McEown, K.S, Treit, D

    Society for Neuroscience 

    Presentation date: 2011.11

  • Mineralocorticoid receptors in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex mediate fear in the shock-probe burying test

    McEown, K.S, Treit, D

    Society for Neuroscience 

    Presentation date: 2010.11

  • The Role of Dorsal and Ventral Hippocampus Mineralocorticosteroid Receptors in Fear Behaviour

    McEown, K.S

    Annual Canadian Spring Conference on Behaviour and Brain 

    Presentation date: 2010.02

  • Muscimol inactivation of the ventral or dorsal hippocampus separately impairs fear and memory in the shock-probe burying test

    McEown, K.S, Treit, D

    Society for Neuroscience 

    Presentation date: 2009.10

  • Inactivation of the Dorsal or Ventral Hippocampus with Muscimol Suggests Separate Roles in Fear and Memory

    McEown, K.S

    Annual Canadian Spring Conference on Behaviour and Brain 

    Presentation date: 2009.02

  • The effect of shock number and duration of context exposure on memory of a shock-probe experience

    McEown, K.S, Treit, D

    Society for Neuroscience 

    Presentation date: 2008.11

  • The Role of the Hippocampus in the Memory of a Shock Probe Experience

    McEown, K.S

    Annual Canadian Spring Conference on Behaviour and Brain 

    Presentation date: 2008.02

  • Temporal dimensions of smoking and drinking behavior among young adults

    McEown, K.S, Hall, P.A

    Annual Meeting of the Canadian Psychological Association 

    Presentation date: 2005.06

  • The predictive power of a behavior-specific measure of time perspective in the domain of exercise

    Hall, P.A, Fong, G.T, Epp, L.J, McEown, K.S

    Annual Meeting of the Society of Behavioral Medicine 

    Presentation date: 2005.04

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Specific Research

  • Psychological factors associated with student motivation in Japanese students learning English and languages other than English.

    2019   Maya Sugita McEown

     View Summary

    A questionnaire survey was conducted to examine therole of motivational orientations in predicting attitudes toward learning languagesother than English (LOTE) and LOTE communities.  Approximately two-hundred undergraduatestudents completed a questionnaire survey examining integrative orientation,intrinsic motivation, introjected regulation, attitudes toward learning LOTEand attitudes toward each LOTE community. Participants studied one of thefollowing LOTE for more than two years: German, Spanish, French, and Chinese.Regression analyses and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Positiveattitudes toward LOTE communities were positively predicted by integrativeorientation and intrinsic motivation. In addition, positive attitudes towardlearning LOTE were positively predicted by intrinsic motivation. Findings fromthis investigation were presented at the 18th Hawaii International Conferenceon Education.

 

Syllabus

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