Updated on 2022/01/20

写真a

 
UEDA, Michiko
 
Affiliation
Faculty of Political Science and Economics, School of Political Science and Economics
Job title
Associate Professor

Research Institute

  • 2021
    -
    2022

    データ科学センター   兼任センター員

Degree

  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology   Ph.D.

 

Papers

  • Pre-pandemic suicidal ideation and COVID-19 preventive behavior: a prospective cohort study

    Hajime Sueki, Michiko Ueda

    Psychology, Health & Medicine     1 - 7  2021.12  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • Loneliness in Japan during the COVID-19 pandemic: prevalence, correlates and association with mental health

    Andrew Stickley, Michiko Ueda

    Psychiatry Research     114318 - 114318  2021.11  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • Is suicide underreported? Evidence from Japan

    Tetsuya Matsubayashi, Michiko Ueda

    Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology    2021.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    <title>Abstract</title><sec>
    <title>Purpose</title>
    The underreporting of suicides has been a serious global concern among scholars and policymakers. Several studies have sought to detect the prevalence of underreporting by examining whether suicide mortality rates are negatively correlated with those due to unknown intent or causes. This study adds to the literature by examining the potential underreporting of suicides in Japan, where suicide rates have greatly declined in the recent years.


    </sec><sec>
    <title>Methods</title>
    We compiled subnational data from 47 prefectures between 1995 and 2016, obtained from Vital Statistics of Japan. We examined whether (1) mortality rates due to unknown intent or causes increased as suicide rates decreased; and (2) major socioeconomic causes of suicide (unemployment and divorce rates) had any relationship with the deaths due to unknown intent or causes.


    </sec><sec>
    <title>Results</title>
    Our analysis indicates that mortality rates due to unknown intent or causes were uncorrelated with suicide rates and the above socioeconomic indicators.


    </sec><sec>
    <title>Conclusions</title>
    In Japan, the frequency of suicides has no systematic relationship with deaths due to unknown intent or causes, suggesting the accuracy of suicide statistics.


    </sec>

    DOI

  • Implementing Real-Time Data Suicide Surveillance Systems

    Anna Baran, Rebekka Gerstner, Michiko Ueda, Agnieszka Gmitrowicz

    Crisis   42 ( 5 ) 321 - 327  2021.09

    DOI

  • Who is more likely to ignore experts' advice related to COVID-19?

    Brian A. O'Shea, Michiko Ueda

    Preventive Medicine Reports   23   101470 - 101470  2021.09  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • Suicide Risk and Prevention During the COVID-19 Pandemic: One Year On

    Mark Sinyor, Duleeka Knipe, Guilherme Borges, Michiko Ueda, Jane Pirkis, Michael R. Phillips, David Gunnell

    Archives of Suicide Research     1 - 6  2021.08  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • Graph-based open-ended survey on concerns related to COVID-19

    Tatsuro Kawamoto, Takaaki Aoki, Michiko Ueda

    PLOS ONE   16 ( 8 ) e0256212 - e0256212  2021.08  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented public health crisis with broad social and economic consequences. We conducted four surveys between April and August 2020 using the graph-based open-ended survey (GOS) framework, and investigated the most pressing concerns and issues for the general public in Japan. The GOS framework is a hybrid of the two traditional survey frameworks that allows respondents to post their opinions in a free-format style, which can subsequently serve as one of the choice items for other respondents, just as in a multiple-choice survey. As a result, this framework generates an opinion graph that relates opinions and respondents. We can also construct annotated opinion graphs to achieve a higher resolution. By clustering the annotated opinion graphs, we revealed the characteristic evolution of the response patterns as well as the interconnectedness and multi-faceted nature of opinions. Substantively, our notable finding is that “social pressure,” not “infection risk,” was one of the major concerns of our respondents. Social pressure refers to criticism and discrimination that they anticipate receiving from others should they contract COVID-19. It is possible that the collectivist nature of Japanese culture coupled with the government’s policy of relying on personal responsibility to combat COVID-19 explains some of the above findings, as the latter has led to the emergence of vigilantes. The presence of mutual surveillance can contribute to growing skepticism toward others as well as fear of ostracism, which may have negative consequences at both the societal and individual levels.

    DOI

  • Green space and suicide mortality in Japan: An ecological study

    Wenhao Jiang, Andrew Stickley, Michiko Ueda

    Social Science & Medicine   282   114137 - 114137  2021.08  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

    DOI

  • Suicide trends in the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic: an interrupted time-series analysis of preliminary data from 21 countries.

    Jane Pirkis, Ann John, Sangsoo Shin, Marcos DelPozo-Banos, Vikas Arya, Pablo Analuisa-Aguilar, Louis Appleby, Ella Arensman, Jason Bantjes, Anna Baran, Jose M Bertolote, Guilherme Borges, Petrana Brečić, Eric Caine, Giulio Castelpietra, Shu-Sen Chang, David Colchester, David Crompton, Marko Curkovic, Eberhard A Deisenhammer, Chengan Du, Jeremy Dwyer, Annette Erlangsen, Jeremy S Faust, Sarah Fortune, Andrew Garrett, Devin George, Rebekka Gerstner, Renske Gilissen, Madelyn Gould, Keith Hawton, Joseph Kanter, Navneet Kapur, Murad Khan, Olivia J Kirtley, Duleeka Knipe, Kairi Kolves, Stuart Leske, Kedar Marahatta, Ellenor Mittendorfer-Rutz, Nikolay Neznanov, Thomas Niederkrotenthaler, Emma Nielsen, Merete Nordentoft, Herwig Oberlerchner, Rory C O'Connor, Melissa Pearson, Michael R Phillips, Steve Platt, Paul L Plener, Georg Psota, Ping Qin, Daniel Radeloff, Christa Rados, Andreas Reif, Christine Reif-Leonhard, Vsevolod Rozanov, Christiane Schlang, Barbara Schneider, Natalia Semenova, Mark Sinyor, Ellen Townsend, Michiko Ueda, Lakshmi Vijayakumar, Roger T Webb, Manjula Weerasinghe, Gil Zalsman, David Gunnell, Matthew J Spittal

    Lancet Psychiatry   8 ( 7 ) 579 - 588  2021.07  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is having profound mental health consequences for many people. Concerns have been expressed that, at their most extreme, these consequences could manifest as increased suicide rates. We aimed to assess the early effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on suicide rates around the world. METHODS: We sourced real-time suicide data from countries or areas within countries through a systematic internet search and recourse to our networks and the published literature. Between Sept 1 and Nov 1, 2020, we searched the official websites of these countries' ministries of health, police agencies, and government-run statistics agencies or equivalents, using the translated search terms "suicide" and "cause of death", before broadening the search in an attempt to identify data through other public sources. Data were included from a given country or area if they came from an official government source and were available at a monthly level from at least Jan 1, 2019, to July 31, 2020. Our internet searches were restricted to countries with more than 3 million residents for pragmatic reasons, but we relaxed this rule for countries identified through the literature and our networks. Areas within countries could also be included with populations of less than 3 million. We used an interrupted time-series analysis to model the trend in monthly suicides before COVID-19 (from at least Jan 1, 2019, to March 31, 2020) in each country or area within a country, comparing the expected number of suicides derived from the model with the observed number of suicides in the early months of the pandemic (from April 1 to July 31, 2020, in the primary analysis). FINDINGS: We sourced data from 21 countries (16 high-income and five upper-middle-income countries), including whole-country data in ten countries and data for various areas in 11 countries). Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs based on the observed versus expected numbers of suicides showed no evidence of a significant increase in risk of suicide since the pandemic began in any country or area. There was statistical evidence of a decrease in suicide compared with the expected number in 12 countries or areas: New South Wales, Australia (RR 0·81 [95% CI 0·72-0·91]); Alberta, Canada (0·80 [0·68-0·93]); British Columbia, Canada (0·76 [0·66-0·87]); Chile (0·85 [0·78-0·94]); Leipzig, Germany (0·49 [0·32-0·74]); Japan (0·94 [0·91-0·96]); New Zealand (0·79 [0·68-0·91]); South Korea (0·94 [0·92-0·97]); California, USA (0·90 [0·85-0·95]); Illinois (Cook County), USA (0·79 [0·67-0·93]); Texas (four counties), USA (0·82 [0·68-0·98]); and Ecuador (0·74 [0·67-0·82]). INTERPRETATION: This is the first study to examine suicides occurring in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic in multiple countries. In high-income and upper-middle-income countries, suicide numbers have remained largely unchanged or declined in the early months of the pandemic compared with the expected levels based on the pre-pandemic period. We need to remain vigilant and be poised to respond if the situation changes as the longer-term mental health and economic effects of the pandemic unfold. FUNDING: None.

    DOI PubMed

  • Short-term effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on suicidal ideation.

    Hajime Sueki, Michiko Ueda

    Crisis    2021.06  [Refereed]  [International journal]

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    Background: Few studies have examined the effect of pandemics on suicide-related outcomes. Aims: We examined whether suicidal ideation levels among the general population changed owing to the COVID-19 pandemic by tracking individuals between January and April 2020. Method: We used a prospective observational longitudinal design (n = 6,683) and stratified sampling to conduct online surveys of the general adult population in Japan before (baseline) and during the pandemic (follow-up). Results: Suicidal ideation levels were significantly lower during than before the pandemic; however, the effect size was very small. Participants who were younger, with unstable employment, without children, with low income, and receiving psychiatric care were more likely to have higher suicidal ideation levels during the pandemic. Limitations: Because this was an Internet survey and subject to selection bias, the sample was not necessarily representative of the Japanese population. At the time of the survey, COVID-19 cases and deaths in Japan were relatively lower than in other developed countries. The dropout rate may have affected the results. Conclusion: Although the short-term impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on suicidal ideation is limited, relatively young and economically vulnerable individuals are more likely to show exacerbated suicidal ideation during the pandemic.

    DOI PubMed

  • Suicide and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan.

    Michiko Ueda, Robert Nordström, Tetsuya Matsubayashi

    Journal of Public Health (Oxford, England)    2021.04  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is an unprecedented public health crisis, but its effect on suicide deaths is little understood. METHODS: We analyzed data from monthly suicide statistics between January 2017 and October 2020 and from online surveys on mental health filled out by the general population in Japan. RESULTS: Compared to the 2017-19 period, the number of suicide deaths during the initial phase of the pandemic was lower than average but exceeded the past trend from July 2020. Female suicides, whose numbers increased by approximately 70% in October 2020 (incidence rate ratio: 1.695, 95% confidence interval: 1.558-1.843), were the main source of this increase. The largest increase was found among young women (less than 40 years of age). Our survey data indicated that the status of young women's mental health has been deteriorating in recent months and that young female workers were more likely to have experienced a job or income loss than any other group, suggesting adverse economic conditions surrounding them. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous monitoring of mental health, particularly that of the most vulnerable populations identified in this study, and appropriate suicide prevention efforts are necessary during the COVID-19 pandemic.

    DOI PubMed

  • Loneliness and COVID-19 preventive behaviours among Japanese adults

    Andrew Stickley, Tetsuya Matsubayashi, Michiko Ueda

    Journal of Public Health (Oxford, England)   43 ( 1 ) 53 - 60  2021.04  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    BACKGROUND: There is some evidence that loneliness may be linked to poorer health behaviours. Despite this, there has been little research to date on the relationship between loneliness and COVID-19 preventive behaviours. We studied these associations in a sample of the Japanese population. METHODS: Data were analysed from an online survey of 2000 adults undertaken in April and May 2020. Loneliness was assessed with the Three-Item Loneliness Scale. Information was also collected on 13 COVID-19 preventive behaviours. Regression analyses were used to examine associations. RESULTS: In linear regression models adjusted for demographic and mental health variables, both dichotomous and continuous loneliness measures were negatively associated with engaging in COVID-19 preventive behaviours. Logistic regression analyses further showed that loneliness was also associated with reduced odds for a variety of individual preventive behaviours including wearing a mask (odds ratio [OR]: 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62-0.95), disinfecting hands (OR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.67-0.94) and social distancing when outdoors (OR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.61-0.92). CONCLUSIONS: Loneliness is associated with lower engagement in COVID-19 preventive behaviours. Interventions to prevent or ameliorate loneliness during the ongoing pandemic may be important in combating the spread of the coronavirus.

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  • Acute stress does not affect economic behavior in the experimental laboratory

    Róbert F. Veszteg, Kaori Yamakawa, Tetsuya Matsubayashi, Michiko Ueda

    PLOS ONE   16 ( 1 ) e0244881 - e0244881  2021.01  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    We report statistical results from a laboratory experiment in which participants were required to make decisions with monetary consequences in several solitary and interactive situations under acute stress. Our study follows the tradition of behavioral and experimental economics in selecting the experimental situations and incorporates elements from medical and psychological research in the way stress is induced and measured. It relies on a larger sample, with 192 volunteers, than previous studies to achieve higher statistical power. The main conclusion, drawn from binary comparisons between the treatment and reference groups, is that acute stress does not have a significant impact on cognitive skills, strategic sophistication, risk attitudes, altruism, cooperativeness, or nastiness. Regression analysis, controlling for psycho-social characteristics, corroborates these findings, while also suggesting that acute stress significantly decreases men’s risk aversion (as measured by a lottery-choice risk-elicitation task).

    DOI

  • COVID-19 preventive behaviours among people with anxiety and depressive symptoms: findings from Japan

    A. Stickley, T. Matsubayashi, H. Sueki, M. Ueda

    Public Health   189   91 - 93  2020.12  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

    DOI

  • Mental health status of the general population in Japan during the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Michiko Ueda, Andrew Stickley, Hajime Sueki, Tetsuya Matsubayashi

    Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences    2020.07  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

    DOI PubMed

  • Covariance in diurnal patterns of suicide-related expressions on Twitter and recorded suicide deaths.

    Robert A Fahey, Jeremy Boo, Michiko Ueda

    Social Science & Medicine (1982)   253   112960 - 112960  2020.05  [Refereed]  [International journal]

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    Social media data is increasingly used to gain insights into trends in mental health, but prior studies aimed at confirming a link between online expression of suicidal ideation on social media and actual suicide deaths have been inconclusive. Using comprehensive six-year data sets of Twitter posts and suicide deaths in Japan, we examine the diurnal relationship between the proportional incidence of a suicide-related keyword, "kietai" ("I want to disappear"), and suicide deaths with an OLS regression model. We also use co-occurrence analysis to reveal changes in the linguistic context of the suicide-related keyword at different hours of the day. We find a clear diurnal pattern in the use of this suicide-related keyword, peaking between 1am and 5am. This diurnal trend is positively correlated with suicide deaths among younger cohorts (ages 15 to 44), but the correlation is negative among older adults (45 and over). The correlation among young adults strengthens when a delay between tweet incidence and suicide deaths is included. Compared to daytime tweets, nighttime tweets exhibited a stronger relationship between words related to self-disgust and words directly indicating suicidal intent. This study confirms the hypothesised link between online suicidal ideation and suicide death. Despite frequent flippant use of the keyword, the consistent correlation and the diurnal changes in the context of the keyword's usage demonstrate the value of social media data to the study of mental health trends in groups at risk of suicide.

    DOI PubMed

  • Childhood neglect and suicidal behavior: Findings from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication.

    Andrew Stickley, Kyle Waldman, Michiko Ueda, Ai Koyanagi, Tomiki Sumiyoshi, Zui Narita, Yosuke Inoue, Jordan E DeVylder, Hans Oh

    Child Abuse & Neglect   103   104400 - 104400  2020.05  [Refereed]  [International journal]

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    BACKGROUND: Although child neglect is common, there has been comparatively little research on it or its specific forms and their effects on mental health in adulthood. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association between exposure to different forms of childhood neglect and lifetime suicidal behavior among a nationally representative sample of adults in the U.S. general population. METHODS: Data were analyzed from 5665 adults that were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Information was obtained on 'care', 'supervisory' and 'medical' neglect in childhood and lifetime suicidal behavior (ideation, plan, attempt). Lifetime psychiatric disorders were based on the World Mental Health - Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, any neglect was associated with significantly increased odds for all forms of suicidal behavior (suicidal ideation, odds ratio [OR]: 1.80, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.42-2.29; plan, OR: 2.27, 95 % CI: 1.78-2.91; attempt, OR: 2.05, 95 % CI: 1.63-2.59, all p < 0.001). In unadjusted analyses all individual forms of neglect were significantly associated with all forms of suicidal behavior. However, when all forms of neglect were included together in the fully adjusted models, care neglect was no longer significantly associated with any form of suicidal behavior. CONCLUSION: Different forms of childhood neglect are associated with suicidal behavior in adults independent of common mental disorders. Future studies should focus on childhood neglect subtypes in order to better understand the effects of neglect on adult mental health.

    DOI PubMed

  • Government spending, recession, and suicide: evidence from Japan

    Tetsuya Matsubayashi, Kozue Sekijima, Michiko Ueda

    BMC Public Health   20 ( 1 )  2020.02  [Refereed]

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    Backgrounds Austerity has been shown to have an adverse influence on people's mental health and suicide rates. Most existing studies have focused on the governments' reactions to a single event, for example, the Great Recession of 2008. Methods This study focused on significant changes in fiscal policy between 2001 and 2014 in Japan. The size of expenditures by national and local governments decreased dramatically between 2001 and 2006 under the neoliberal reform and then increased after the global economic crisis and the Great East Japan Earthquake. Using the data from 47 prefectures between 2001 and 2014, we tested whether more spending by the local governments was associated with a lower suicide rate in their jurisdiction. We also investigated whether this relationship was particularly salient during a more severe recession. Results Our analysis revealed that an increase of 1% in the per capita local government expenditures was associated with a decrease of 0.2% in the suicide rates among males and females aged between 40 and 64 and that this correlation was strengthened as the unemployment rate increased, particularly among males. Conclusions Government's reaction to economic crises can either exacerbate or mitigate the negative impact of the economic recession on people's mental health and suicide rates.

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  • Assessing the Quality of Media Reporting of Suicide Deaths in Bangladesh Against World Health Organization Guidelines.

    S M Yasir Arafat, Murad M Khan, Thomas Niederkrotenthaler, Michiko Ueda, Gregory Armstrong

    Crisis   41 ( 1 ) 47 - 53  2020.01  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    Background: Media reporting of suicide events has thus far gone without sufficient scrutiny in Bangladesh. Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of newspaper reporting of suicides in Bangladesh against international guidelines. Methods: We used content analysis to assess the quality of suicide reporting in six daily newspapers in Bangladesh. The newspapers were hand-searched between November 2016 and April 2017 and 327 articles reporting on suicide deaths were retrieved. Results: The mean number of suicide articles per day per newspaper was 0.3 (range across newspapers 0.11-0.70) and the mean length was 11.3 sentences. Harmful reporting practices were very common (for example, a detailed suicide method was reported in 75.5% of articles) while almost no potentially helpful reporting practices were observed (for example, no articles gave contact details for a suicide support service). Limitations: The findings are limited to print mass media. Conclusions: We observed that explicit and simplistic reports of suicide deaths were frequently observed in newspapers in Bangladesh. Attempts should be made to understand the perspectives of media professionals in relation to suicide reporting, and to devise strategies to boost the positive contribution that media can make to suicide prevention in this context.

    DOI PubMed

  • Physical multimorbidity and suicidal behavior in the general population in the United States.

    Andrew Stickley, Ai Koyanagi, Michiko Ueda, Yosuke Inoue, Kyle Waldman, Hans Oh

    Journal of Affective Disorders   260   604 - 609  2020.01  [Refereed]  [International journal]

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    BACKGROUND: As yet, there has been little research on the association between physical multimorbidity (the co-occurrence of two or more physical illnesses) and suicide, and results have been mixed. This study examined if physical multimorbidity is associated with suicidal behavior in the general population in the United States. METHOD: Data were analyzed from 15,311 adults that were obtained from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES). Information was obtained on nine self-reported physical health conditions and lifetime suicidal behavior (suicidal ideation, plan, and attempts). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. RESULTS: An increasing number of physical health conditions was associated with higher odds for suicidal behavior. Compared to those with no physical conditions, individuals with ≥ 4 physical illnesses had 2.99, 4.82, and 4.39 times higher odds for reporting suicidal ideation, a suicide plan, and suicide attempts, respectively. An interaction analysis showed that for suicide attempts the association was stronger in younger rather than older adults. LIMITATIONS: The data were cross-sectional and information on physical conditions and suicidal behavior was self-reported and may have been subject to reporting bias. CONCLUSIONS: As multimorbidity has increased in recent decades in the United States, alerting medical practitioners to the increased risk of suicidal behavior in adults who have multiple medical conditions as well as screening for suicidality in this group may be important preventive measures to help reduce suicidal behavior in the general population.

    DOI PubMed

  • Higher Risk of Suicide on Milestone Birthdays: Evidence from Japan

    Matsubayashi T, Lee MJ, Ueda M

    Scientific Reports   9 ( 1 ) 16642  2019.12  [Refereed]

    DOI PubMed

  • Age relative to school class peers and emotional well-being in 10-year-olds

    Ando Shuntaro, Usami Satoshi, Matsubayashi Tetsuya, Ueda Michiko, Koike Shinsuke, Yamasaki Syudo, Fujikawa Shinya, Sasaki Tsukasa, Hiraiwa-Hasegawa Mariko, Patton George, Kasai Kiyoto, Nishida Atsushi

    PLOS ONE   14 ( 3 ) e0214359  2019.03  [Refereed]  [International journal]

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    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of age relative to school (i.e., class or grade level) peers on emotional well-being and the role of possible mediators of this effect in early adolescence using a large set of individual-level data from a community survey. METHODS: A large community-based survey of 10-year-old children and their primary parents was conducted in Tokyo, where the school entry cutoff date is fixed. Emotional well-being was assessed by the WHO (Five) Well-Being Index (WHO-5). Academic performance and the experience of being bullied at school were also evaluated as potential mediators of the effect of relative age. RESULTS: A total of 4,478 children participated in the study. In a univariate linear regression analysis, the relative birthdate (continuous variable starting from the school entry date and ending at the last date of the academic grade) was negatively associated with emotional well-being (β = -0.043, p = .005). The path analyses suggested that academic performance and bullying mediated the relationship between the relative birthdate and emotional well-being (both p < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Among a sample of 10-year-olds, children who were younger compared to class peers had lower levels of emotional well-being. Academic performance and victimization by peers mediated the relationship.

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  • Suicide by persons with foreign background in Japan

    Ueda Michiko, Yoshikawa Kanako, Matsubayashi Tetsuya

    PLOS ONE   14 ( 2 ) e0211867  2019.02  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • Diurnal variation in suicide timing by age and gender: Evidence from Japan across 41 years

    Boo Jeremy, Matsubayashi Tetsuya, Ueda Michiko

    JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS   243   366 - 374  2019.01  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • Tracking the Werther Effect on social media: Emotional responses to prominent suicide deaths on twitter and subsequent increases in suicide

    Fahey Robert A, Matsubayashi Tetsuya, Ueda Michiko

    SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE   219   19 - 29  2018.12  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • Tweeting celebrity suicides: Users' reaction to prominent suicide deaths on Twitter and subsequent increases in actual suicides

    Michiko Ueda, Kota Mori, Tetsuya Matsubayashi, Yasuyuki Sawada

    SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE   189   158 - 166  2017.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    A substantial amount of evidence indicates that news coverage of suicide deaths by celebrities is followed by an increase in suicide rates, suggesting a copycat behavior. However, the underlying process by which celebrity status and media coverage leads to increases in subsequent suicides is still unclear. This study collected over 1 million individual messages ("tweets") posted on Twitter that were related to 26 prominent figures in Japan who died by suicide between 2010 and 2014 and investigated whether media reports on suicide deaths that generated a greater level of reactions by the public are likely to be followed by a larger increase in actual suicides. We also compared the number of Twitter posts and the number of media reports in newspaper and on television to understand whether the number of messages on Twitter in response to the deaths corresponds to the amount of coverage in the traditional media. Using daily data from Japan's national death registry between 2010 and 2014, our analysis found an increase in actual suicides only when suicide deaths generated a large reaction from Twitter users. In contrast, no discernible increase in suicide counts was observed when the analysis included suicide deaths to which Twitter users did not show much interest, even when these deaths were covered considerably by the traditional media. This study also found suicides by relatively young entertainers generated a large number of posts on Twitter. This sharply contrasts with the relatively smaller volume of reaction to them generated by traditional forms of media, which focuses more on the deaths of non-entertainers. The results of this study strongly suggest that it is not sufficient to examine only traditional news media when investigating the impact of media reports on actual suicides. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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  • School and seasonality in youth suicide: evidence from Japan

    Tetsuya Matsubayashi, Michiko Ueda, Kanako Yoshikawa

    JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY AND COMMUNITY HEALTH   70 ( 11 ) 1122 - 1127  2016.11  [Refereed]

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    Background Seasonality in youth suicide has been speculated to be associated with the school calendar, as it tends to increase at the beginning of the academic year or after a long break, but robust empirical evidence remains scarce.
    Methods We examined the nationwide death records in the Vital Statistics of Japan to investigate the seasonal patterns of suicide among youth. Our data set included 108 968 suicides by individuals who died at 6-26 years of age between 1974 and 2014 in Japan. The daily frequencies of death were plotted against the Japanese school calendar, which has little regional and temporal variations. We also estimated a Poisson regression model to uncover the cyclical patterns of suicide deaths.
    Results We found that the frequencies of suicide by middle school students (ages 12-15 years) and high school students (ages 15-18 years) sharply increased around the dates when a school session began in April and September. These tended to be low during school breaks. The results of regression analysis suggested middle school students were more than twice as likely to die by suicide when the summer break ended and the second semester began, compared with the baseline week in July. Similarly, the frequency of suicide for high school students also increased by similar to 40% at the end of the summer break. Importantly, no such pattern was found for those aged 18-26 years.
    Conclusions Our findings strongly indicate that the cyclical pattern of youth suicide is closely related to the school calendar.

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  • Legislative Term Limits and Government Spending: Theory and Evidence from the United States

    Yasushi Asako, Tetsuya Matsubayashi, Michiko Ueda

    B E JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS & POLICY   16 ( 3 ) 1501 - 1538  2016.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    What are the fiscal consequences of legislative term limits? To answer this question, we first develop a legislative bargaining model that describes negotiations over the allocation of distributive projects among legislators with different levels of seniority. Building on several predictions from the model, we develop two hypotheses for empirical testing. First, the adoption of term limits that results in a larger reduction in the variance of seniority within a legislature increases the amount of government spending. Second, legislatures that adopt stricter term limits increase the amount of government spending, while legislatures that adopt moderate term limits show no change in the amount. We provide evidence for these hypotheses using panel data for 49 US state legislatures between 1980 and 2010.

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  • Suicides and accidents on birthdays: Evidence from Japan

    Tetsuya Matsubayashi, Michiko Ueda

    SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE   159   61 - 72  2016.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This study examined whether people have a higher risk of death on and around their birthday using a large national mortality data. We examined 2,073,656 death records of individuals who died in Japan from major external causes between 1974 and 2014. Poisson regression analysis showed that people were more likely to die on their birthday than on any other calendar day by means of suicide, traffic accidents, accidental falls, drowning, and choking. For suicide cases in particular, people are 50% more likely to die on their birthday compared to any other dates. Excess deaths on birthdays were observed regardless of gender, marital status, and age-at-death subgroups. For suicide deaths, our results provided strong support for the "birthday blues" hypothesis that predicts excess deaths on birthdays. With regards to traffic accidents and other unintentional accidents, however, our results suggest that excess deaths on birthdays may be related to birthday celebrations. For the elderly population, our analysis indicates that special activities associated with birthday celebrations, which often involves going out to consume festive food and drinks, may be contributors to a sudden increase in the number of accidental deaths on their birthday. In contrast, a notably sharp increase in the number of motor vehicle accidents was observed for individuals in the 20s on their birthday, which may be attributable to birthday celebrations that involved both driving and drinking. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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  • The effectiveness of platform screen doors for the prevention of subway suicides in South Korea

    Yong Woon Chung, Sung Jin Kang, Tetsuya Matsubayashi, Yasuyuki Sawada, Michiko Ueda

    JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS   194   80 - 83  2016.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Background: Subway suicide can significantly impact the general public. Platform Screen Doors (PSDs) are considered to be an effective strategy to prevent suicides at subway stations, but the evidence on their effectiveness is limited.
    Methods: We assessed the effectiveness of installing half- and full-height platform screen doors in reducing subway suicides using Poisson regression analysis. Ten-year monthly panel data for 121 subway stations between 2003 and 2012 in the Seoul metropolitan area were used for the analysis.
    Results: We found that installing PSDs decreases fatal suicide cases by 89% (95% CI: 57-97%). We also found that the installation of full-height PSDs resulted in the elimination of subway suicides by completely blocking access to the track area; however, half-height PSDs, which do not extend to the ceiling of the platform, were not as effective as full-height ones.
    Limitation: Our findings were based on the data from a single subway operator for a limited period of time. Accordingly, we did not consider the possibility that some passengers choose to die at a station run by other operators. Our study did not examine the potential substitution effects of other suicide methods.
    Conclusion: Installing physical barriers at subway stations can be an effective strategy to reduce the number of subway suicides; however, half-height PSDs are not as effective as full-height ones, even when they are as high as the height of an adult. Thus, these barriers should be made high enough so that nobody can climb over them. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Relative Age in School and Suicide among Young Individuals in Japan: A Regression Discontinuity Approach

    Tetsuya Matsubayashi, Michiko Ueda

    PLOS ONE   10 ( 8 )  2015.08  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Objective
    Evidence collected in many parts of the world suggests that, compared to older students, students who are relatively younger at school entry tend to have worse academic performance and lower levels of income. This study examined how relative age in a grade affects suicide rates of adolescents and young adults between 15 and 25 years of age using data from Japan.
    Method
    We examined individual death records in the Vital Statistics of Japan from 1989 to 2010. In contrast to other countries, late entry to primary school is not allowed in Japan. We took advantage of the school entry cutoff date to implement a regression discontinuity (RD) design, assuming that the timing of births around the school entry cutoff date was randomly determined and therefore that individuals who were born just before and after the cutoff date have similar baseline characteristics.
    Results
    We found that those who were born right before the school cutoff day and thus youngest in their cohort have higher mortality rates by suicide, compared to their peers who were born right after the cutoff date and thus older. We also found that those with relative age disadvantage tend to follow a different career path than those with relative age advantage, which may explain their higher suicide mortality rates.
    Conclusion
    Relative age effects have broader consequences than was previously supposed. This study suggests that policy intervention that alleviates the relative age effect can be important.

    DOI

  • The effectiveness of installing physical barriers for preventing railway suicides and accidents: Evidence from Japan

    Michiko Ueda, Yasuyuki Sawada, Tetsuya Matsubayashi

    JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS   178   1 - 4  2015.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Background: Installing physical barriers, such as platform screen doors (PSDs), on train platforms is considered to be one of the most effective measures to prevent railway suicide. However, there is little evidence on the effectiveness of such barriers. In particular, the effectiveness of half-height, as opposed to full-height, PSDs has never been assessed.
    Methods: Using suicide and accident data between 2004 and 2014 provided by a major railway company in the Tokyo metropolitan area, this study examines whether the installation of half-height PSDs has contributed to the reduction of the incidents of fatal and non-fatal railway suicide. In addition, the study tests whether the installation of PSDs has resulted in the reduction of unintentional falls onto railway tracks.
    Results: Our estimation using a Poisson regression model showed that the introduction of PSDs resulted in a decrease in the number of suicides by 76% (CI: 33-93%). Yet, the installation of PSDs has not completely prevented suicide, as there were cases in which passengers climbed them over As for unintentional accidents, no fall accidents occurred at stations with PSDs. Limitations: Our data come only from one train operator, and thus the generalizability of our results may be limited. We do not fully examine potential substitution effects.
    Conclusion: Platform screen doors are effective in reducing the number of railway suicides. However, half height PSDs are less effective than the full height PSDs in preventing intentional entry to the train tracks. Installation of PSDs is an extremely effective method to prevent fall accidents. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved,

    DOI

  • District Population Size and Candidates’ Vote-seeking Strategies: Evidence from Japan

    Tetsuya Matsubayashi, Michiko Ueda, Takayoshi Uekami

    Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties   25 ( 2 ) 159 - 177  2015.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper examines whether candidates in Japanese local elections are more likely to declare affiliation with parties as the population size of districts increases, and thus the importance of party reputations and resources for mobilization increases. To test this hypothesis, we use data from Japanese municipal legislative elections between 1999 and 2010 where the vast majority of candidates run as independents. We exploit variations in the population size of districts before and after massive municipal mergers. We find that the percentage of candidates affiliated with political parties increased when the number of votes required for winning a seat increased as a result of municipal mergers. Our analysis also finds that candidates in municipalities that merged were more likely to join parties, compared to those in municipalities that did not experience mergers.

    DOI

  • Dynastic Politicians: Theory and Evidence from Japan

    Yasushi Asako, Takeshi Iida, Tetsuya Matsubayashi, Michiko Ueda

    JAPANESE JOURNAL OF POLITICAL SCIENCE   16 ( 1 ) 5 - 32  2015.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Dynastic politicians, defined as those whose family members have also served in the same position in the past, occupy a sizable portion of offices in many parts of the world. We develop a model of how dynastic politicians with inherited political advantages affect electoral outcomes and policy choices. Our model predicts that, as compared with non-dynastic legislators, dynastic legislators bring more distributions to the district, enjoy higher electoral success, and harm the economic performance of the districts, despite the larger amount of distributive benefits they bring. We test the implications of the model using data from Japan between 1997 and 2007.

    DOI

  • Does the installation of blue Lights on train platforms shift suicide to another station?: Evidence from Japan

    Tetsuya Matsubayashi, Yasuyuki Sawada, Michiko Ueda

    JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS   169   57 - 60  2014.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Background: Installing physical barriers at suicide hotspots is known as an effective strategy for suicide prevention. However, the effectiveness of physical barriers may be nullified by the substitution phenomenon, i.e., that restricting access to a particular place induces people at risk to look for a nearby place for suicide.
    Methods: This study tests whether the substitution phenomenon exists in the case of railway and metro suicides. We focused on the prevention effort by a Japanese railway company that installed blue light-emitting-diode (LED) lamps on railway platforms to prevent people from diving to a running train. Using panel data of 71 train stations between 2000 and 2013, we compared the number of suicides before and after the installation of the blue lights at 14 stations where the lights were installed and at neighboring five stations on the same railway line, using the number of suicides at all other stations without the intervention as a control group.
    Findings: Our regression analysis shows that the introduction of blue lights decreased the number suicides by 74% (Cl : 48-87%) at stations where the blue lights were installed, while it did not result in a systematic increase in the number of suicides at the neighboring stations.
    Interpretation: The installation of blue lights generated no systematic substitution phenomenon at nearby stations. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

    DOI

  • Maternal work conditions, socioeconomic and educational status, and vaccination of children: A community-based household survey in Japan

    Michiko Ueda, Naoki Kondo, Misato Takada, Hideki Hashimoto

    PREVENTIVE MEDICINE   66   17 - 21  2014.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Objective: This study examined how maternal work-related factors, including the availability of paid maternal leave, affect childhood vaccination status. Relatively little is known about the association between the employment status of mothers and the vaccination status of their children.
    Method: We examined data from the Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE), an ongoing epidemiologic household panel study in Japan. We used surveys taken in 2010-2011 in this study.
    Results: We found that mothers who returned to work after giving birth were much less likely to follow recommended vaccine schedules for their children compared with mothers who stayed at home and those who had left the workforce by the time of childbirth. However, taking parental leave significantly reduced the risk of not being up-to-date with the vaccination schedule at 36 months of age. We also found that children whose mother was younger and less educated, and those from an economically deprived family were at a high risk of not being up-to-date with the vaccination status at 36 months of age.
    Conclusion: Because vaccination is free and widely available in Japan, our findings indicate that provision of free vaccinations is not sufficient to achieve high vaccination rates. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Disability and voting

    Tetsuya Matsubayashi, Michiko Ueda

    DISABILITY AND HEALTH JOURNAL   7 ( 3 ) 285 - 291  2014.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Background: For millions of people with disabilities in the United States, exercising the fundamental right to vote remains a challenge. Over the last few decades, the U.S. government has enacted several pieces of legislation to make voting accessible to individuals with disabilities.
    Objective: We examine trends in self-reported voting rates among people with and without disabilities to uncover evidence for the effects of these policies on political participation. We also explore what policy change is necessary to encourage people with disabilities to vote by investigating whether the participation rates vary by the types of disabilities.
    Methods: We analyze the Current Population Survey (CPS) data in the years of presidential elections for the period of 1980-2008.
    Results: Our analysis shows that the population aged 18-64 with work-preventing disabilities has been persistently less likely to vote compared to the corresponding population without such disabilities. In addition, individuals with cognitive and mobility impairments have the lowest rates of electoral participation. The gap in the likelihood of voting in-person between people with and without disabilities is considerably larger than the gap in the likelihood of voting by-mail, regardless of the types of impairments that they have.
    Conclusions: The participation gap between people with and without disabilities did not decrease over the last three decades despite the presence of federal laws that aimed at removing barriers for voting. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • The effects of media reports of suicides by well-known figures between 1989 and 2010 in Japan

    Michiko Ueda, Kota Mori, Tetsuya Matsubayashi

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY   43 ( 2 ) 623 - 629  2014.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Methods: We estimated the Poisson regression model using original data on 109 celebrity suicides and daily suicide counts (n = 8035) in Japan from 1989 through 2010. Various fixed effects were included in the model to control for the effects of seasonal variations and time-specific shocks.
    Results: The media reports on celebrity suicides were associated with an immediate increase in total suicides. The total number of suicides increased by 4.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.4-6.7) on the day that media reports on celebrity suicides were published. The increase during the post-report period lasted for about 10 days after the publication of news reports. The average effect of celebrity suicides on total suicides over the 10-day post-reporting period was estimated to be highest when the suicide by nationally recognized politicians was reported (14.8%; CI: 10.9-18.7), whereas reports on the deaths of entertainment celebrities were followed by a 4.7% increase (CI: 2.9-6.5) in suicide counts.
    Conclusions: This study presents evidence that media reports on celebrity suicides have an immediate impact on the number of suicides in the general population. Our findings also highlight the importance of responsible and cautious media reporting on suicide.

    DOI

  • The effect of public awareness campaigns on suicides: Evidence from Nagoya, Japan

    Tetsuya Matsubayashi, Michiko Ueda, Yasuyuki Sawada

    JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS   152 ( 1 ) 526 - 529  2014.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Background: Public awareness campaigns about depression and suicide have been viewed as highly effective strategies in preventing suicide, yet their effectiveness has not been established in previous studies. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a public-awareness campaign by comparing suicide counts before and after a city-wide campaign in Nagoya, japan, where the city government distributed promotional materials that were aimed to stimulate public awareness of depression and promote care-seeking behavior during the period of 2010-2012.
    Methods: In each of the sixteen wards of the city of Nagoya, we count the number of times that the promotional materials were distributed per month and then examine the association between the suicide counts and the frequency of distributions in the months following such distributions. We run a Poisson regression model that controls for the effects of ward-specific observed and unobserved heterogeneities and temporal shocks.
    Findings: Our analysis indicates that more frequent distribution of the campaign material is associated with a decrease in the number of suicides in the subsequent months. The campaign was estimated to have been especially effective for the male residents of the city.
    Limitation: The underlying mechanism of how the campaign reduced suicides remains to be unclear.
    Conclusion: Public awareness campaigns can be an effective strategy in preventing suicide. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • 福祉・経済政策と自殺率:都道府県レベルデータの分析

    Matsubayashi Tetsuya, Michiko Ueda

    日本経済研究   69   96 - 109  2013.09  [Refereed]

  • Does the installation of blue lights on train platforms prevent suicide? A before-and-after observational study from Japan

    Tetsuya Matsubayashi, Yasuyuki Sawada, Michiko Ueda

    JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS   147 ( 1-3 ) 385 - 388  2013.05  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Background: Railway and metro suicides constitute a major problem in many parts of the world. Japan has experienced an increase in the number of suicides by persons diving in front of an oncoming train in the last several years. Some major railway operators in Japan have begun installing blue light-emitting-diode (LED) lamps on railway platforms and at railway crossings as a method of deterring suicides, which is less costly than installing platform screen doors. However, the effectiveness of the blue lights in this regard has not yet been proven.
    Methods: This study evaluates the effect of blue lights on the number of suicides at 71 train stations by using panel data between 2000 and 2010 from a railway company in a metropolitan area of Japan. We use a regression model and compare the number of suicides before and after and with and without the intervention by the blue light. We used the number of suicides at 11 stations with the intervention as the treatment group and at the other 60 stations without the intervention as the control group.
    Results: Our regression analysis shows that the introduction of blue lights resulted in a 84% decrease in the number of suicides (CI: 14-97%).
    Limitation: The analysis relies on data from a single railroad company and it does not examine the underlying suicide-mitigation mechanism of blue lights.
    Conclusion: As blue lights are easier and less expensive to install than platform screen doors, they can be a cost-effective method for suicide prevention. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Natural disasters and suicide: Evidence from Japan

    Tetsuya Matsubayashi, Yasuyuki Sawada, Michiko Ueda

    SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE   82   126 - 133  2013.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Previous research shows no consensus as to whether and how natural disasters affect suicide rates in their aftermath. Using prefecture-level panel data of natural disasters and suicide in Japan between 1982 and 2010, we estimate both contemporaneous and lagged effects of natural disasters on the suicide rates of various demographic groups. We find that when the damage caused by natural disasters is extremely large, as in the case of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995, suicide rates tend to increase in the immediate aftermath of the disaster and several years later. However, when the damage by natural disasters is less severe, suicide rates tend to decrease after the disasters, especially one or two years later. Thus, natural disasters affect the suicide rates of affected populations in a complicated way, depending on the severity of damages as well as on how many years have passed since the disaster. We also find that the effects of natural disasters on suicide rates vary considerably across demographic groups, which suggests that some population subgroups are more vulnerable to the impact of natural disasters than others. We then test the possibility that natural disasters enhance people's willingness to help others in society, an effect that may work as a protective factor against disaster victims' suicidal risks. We find that natural disasters increase the level of social ties in affected communities, which may mitigate some of the adverse consequence of natural disasters, resulting in a decline in suicide rates. Our findings also indicate that when natural disasters are highly destructive and disruptive, such protective features of social connectedness are unlikely to be enough to compensate for the severe negative impact of disasters on health outcomes. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Government Partisanship and Human Well-Being

    Tetsuya Matsubayashi, Michiko Ueda

    SOCIAL INDICATORS RESEARCH   107 ( 1 ) 127 - 148  2012.05  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper shows that the partisan composition of government is strongly related to the well-being of citizens, measured by the reported level of life satisfaction and suicide rates in industrial countries. Our analysis, using survey data of 14 nations between 1980 and 2002, shows that the presence of left-leaning parties in government is associated with an increase the level of individual life satisfaction. The relationship holds true even after controlling for the effects of macroeconomic variables such as gross domestic product, unemployment rates and government welfare policies. Our panel data analysis of 21 nations between 1980 and 2004 also shows that suicide rates decrease when a country experiences a shift to more left-leaning government. The increased presence of right-wing parties in government has a negligible effect on suicide rates.

    DOI

  • 市町村議会における女性の参入

    Matsubayashi Tetsuya, Michiko Ueda

    選挙研究   28 ( 2 ) 94 - 109  2012  [Refereed]

  • The effect of national suicide prevention programs on suicide rates in 21 OECD nations

    Tetsuya Matsubayashi, Michiko Ueda

    SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE   73 ( 9 ) 1395 - 1400  2011.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Suicide has become a serious and growing public health problem in many countries. To address the problem of suicide, some countries have developed comprehensive suicide prevention programs as a collective political effort. However, no prior research has offered a systematic test of their effectiveness using cross-national data. This paper evaluates whether the national suicide prevention programs in twenty-one OECD nations had the anticipated effect of reducing suicide rates. By analyzing data between 1980 and 2004 with a fixed-effect estimator, we test whether there is a statistically meaningful difference in the suicide rates before and after the implementation of national suicide prevention programs. Our panel data analysis shows that the overall suicide rates decreased after nationwide suicide prevention programs were introduced. These government-led suicide prevention programs are most effective in preventing suicides among the elderly and young populations. By contrast, the suicide rates of working-age groups, regardless of gender, do not seem to respond to the introduction of national prevention programs. Our findings suggest that the presence of a national strategy can be effective in reducing suicide rates. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • The Effects of Uncontested Elections on Legislator Performance

    David M. Konisky, Michiko Ueda

    LEGISLATIVE STUDIES QUARTERLY   36 ( 2 ) 199 - 229  2011.05  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Political competition lies at the core of representative democracy. Yet, uncompetitive elections and uncontested races are widespread in the United States, particularly at the state level. In this article, we analyze the consequences of uncontested elections on lawmaking activity. Our primary hypothesis is that legislators who run unopposed are less active lawmakers than those who were selected through competitive elections. Studying roll-call vote participation and bill introduction and enactment for most of the U.S. states for 1999-2000, we find that state legislators elected in unopposed elections perform more poorly compared to their colleagues elected in competitive contests.

    DOI

  • Political Knowledge and the Use of Candidate Race as a Voting Cue

    Tetsuya Matsubayashi, Michiko Ueda

    AMERICAN POLITICS RESEARCH   39 ( 2 ) 380 - 413  2011.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Do White voters use candidate race as a voting cue in biracial electoral contests? We argue that the answer to this question depends on the level of political knowledge and information that voters have rather than on their attitudes toward minorities. Our analyses of precinct- and individual-level data show that White voters who are likely to be informed about candidates vote less often for the Democratic party when the candidate is Black, whereas vote choices of White voters who are unlikely to be informed about candidates are unaffected by candidate race.

    DOI

  • 世襲議員の実証分析

    Takeshi Iida, Michiko Ueda, Tetsuya Matsubayashi

    選挙研究   26 ( 2 ) 139 - 153  2011  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Dynastic politicians, who are defined as those whose family members have also served for the same position in the past, occupy a sizable portion of political offices in Japan. We analyze how dynastic politicians with inherited advantages differ from non-dynastic politicians, and how they affect electoral policy choices on distributive benefits. Specifically, we ask (1) if there exists any significant difference in background characteristics between dynastic and non-dynastic legislators and (2) if there exists any significant difference in the amount of fiscal transfer from the national to the local government between districts with and without dynastic legislators. Our analysis, using panel data between 1997 and 2007, shows that dynastic politicians have more electoral resources, are more likely to win elections, and bring more subsidies to their constituencies than non-dynastic politicians.

    DOI CiNii

  • Do multimember districts lead to free-riding?

    James M. Snyder, Michiko Ueda

    LEGISLATIVE STUDIES QUARTERLY   32 ( 4 ) 649 - 679  2007.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We studied the effects of districting on intergovernmental aid by state governments to local governments in the United States. We found that metropolitan areas receive relatively more aid when represented in the state legislature by an at-large delegation than when divided into single-member districts. This suggests that the free-riding that may occur with at-large representation is more than counterbalanced by other factors. The estimated effects are robust to the effects of other confounding factors as well as the choice of estimators.

    DOI

  • Party and incumbency cues in voting: Are they substitutes?

    Stephen Ansolabehere, Shigeo Hirano, James N. Snyder, Michiko Ueda

    QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF POLITICAL SCIENCE   1 ( 2 ) 119 - 137  2006  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    A possible explanation for the rise of the incumbency advantage in U.S. elections asserts that party and incumbency are close informational substitutes. A common claim in the literature is that, as the salience of partisan Cues decreased, voters attached themselves to the next available piece of information - incumbency. Minnesota state legislative elections provide a unique setting for testing this idea. These elections switched from using non-partisan to partisan ballots and primaries in 1973. We find that, after the switch to partisan elections, party voting increased substantially. However, contrary to expectations, the incumbency advantage also increased. These patterns suggest that party and incumbency are not close Substitutes for large numbers of voters, and that cue-substitution cannot explain the rise of the incumbency advantage.

    DOI

  • Did firms profit from soft money?

    Stephen Ansolabehere, James M, Snyder, Jr, Michiko Ueda

    Election Law Journal   3 ( 2 ) 193 - 198  2004.07

    DOI

  • 金融の国際化とホーム・バイアス・パズル

    Kazumasa Iwata, Michiko Ueda

    マクロ経済と金融システム    2000.02

  • Incomplete observation, filtering, and the home bias puzzle

    M Ueda

    ECONOMICS LETTERS   62 ( 1 ) 75 - 80  1999.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper tries to explain the home bias puzzle by incompleteness of observation. Our result suggests that investors invest more in domestic asset when they are allowed to observe the process of foreign asset only partially (C) 1999 Published by Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.

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Books and Other Publications

  • Economic analysis of suicide prevention : towards evidence-based policy-making

    Yasuyuki Sawada, Michiko Ueda, Tetsuya Matsubayashi

    Springer  2017 ISBN: 9789811014994

  • 自殺のない社会へ : 経済学・政治学からのエビデンスに基づくアプローチ

    澤田 康幸, 上田 路子, 松林 哲也

    有斐閣  2013 ISBN: 9784641173910

Misc

  • コロナ下における自殺―現状と対策の方法

    上田路子

    臨床心理学    2021.09

  • COVID-19による経済危機と自殺

    松林哲也, 上田路子

    日本社会精神医学会雑誌   30 ( 2 ) 142 - 150  2021.05

  • Japan’s suicide rate highlights the other health challenges stemming from the pandemic

    Michiko Ueda

    Washington Post    2020.12  [Invited]  [International journal]

    Article, review, commentary, editorial, etc. (trade magazine, newspaper, online media)  

  • 参議院選挙を予測してデータサイエンスを学ぶ:早稲田大学データサイエンスコンペティションを開催して

    上田路子

    経済セミナー     53 - 59  2019.10  [Invited]

  • 自殺と報道

    上田路子, 松林哲也

    日経ビジネス 新しい経済の教科書     106 - 111  2015.05  [Invited]

     View Summary

    2015/5/20

  • 政治学・経済学から示す自殺対策のエビデンス

    Michiko Ueda, Tetsuya Matsubayashi

        43 - 46  2015.04

  • 鉄道自殺の現状と予防策

    Tetsuya Matsubayashi, Yasuyuki Sawada, Michiko Ueda

    精神科治療学   30 ( 3 ) 381 - 386  2015.03

  • 著名人の自殺に関する報道が自殺者数に与える影響: 警察庁の自殺統計を用いた分析

    Michiko Ueda

    内閣府経済社会総合研究所 ESRI Discussion Paper Series   317  2015.02

  • エビデンスに基づいた自殺対策に向けて (特集 自殺対策のこれから)

    澤田 康幸, 上田 路子, 松林 哲也

    自由と正義   64 ( 10 ) 53 - 60  2013.10

    CiNii

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Research Projects

  • メディアと自殺:メディア上の自殺に関する情報の実態とその自殺者数への影響の解明

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(B)

    Project Year :

    2020.04
    -
    2024.03
     

    上田 路子

  • 自然言語処理を用いた自殺リスクの高い個人の推定とその成果のSNS相談事業への応用

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 挑戦的研究(萌芽)

    Project Year :

    2021.07
    -
    2023.03
     

    上田 路子

  • チャット悩み相談に寄せられた相談内容の深刻度判定とその成果の相談事業への応用

    電気通信普及財団 

    Project Year :

    2021.04
    -
    2022.03
     

  • 孤独・孤立のない社会の実現に向けたSNS相談の活用

    科学技術振興機構(JST)社会技術研究開発センター(RISTEX)  SDGsの達成に向けた共創的研究開発プログラム(社会的孤立・孤独の予防と多様な社会的ネットワークの構築)

    Project Year :

    2021.11
    -
     
     

  • 社会経済環境と自殺

    自殺総合対策推進センター  令和元年度革新的自殺研究推進プログラム委託研究費

    Project Year :

    2019.04
    -
    2020.03
     

    Michiko Ueda

  • 自殺報道の過去30年間の変遷とその影響:5カ国データの比較実証研究

    三菱財団  三菱財団人文科学研究助成

    Project Year :

    2018.10
    -
    2020.03
     

    Michiko Ueda

  • 自殺の社会経済的要因と自殺対策の実証分析:エビデンスに基づいた政策評価と提言

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費 基盤研究(B)

    Project Year :

    2017.04
    -
    2020.03
     

    Michiko Ueda

  • 政治経済的要因に注目した日本における自殺対策と自殺率についての研究

    自殺総合対策推進センター  平成30年度革新的自殺研究推進プログラム委託研究費

    Project Year :

    2018.07
    -
    2019.03
     

    Michiko Ueda

  • OECD諸国における自殺対策の国際比較:効果検証と政策提言

    自殺総合対策推進センター  平成29年度革新的自殺研究推進プログラム委託研究

    Project Year :

    2017.10
    -
    2018.03
     

    Michiko Ueda

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Presentations

  • Suicide and Mental Health during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Japan

     [Invited]

    La société japonaise face à la Covid-19: Journées d’études organisées par le groupe de recherche Populations japonaises - IFRAE / CRCAO/ Université de Paris/Inalco 

    Presentation date: 2021.11

  • コロナ下の世界の自殺動向

    上田路子  [Invited]

    新型コロナウイルス(COVID-19)の世界的流行下における 自殺予防・自死遺族支援のための学際的・共同研究集会 

    Presentation date: 2021.10

  • Suicide and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan

    Michiko Ueda  [Invited]

    Ohio State University East Asian Studies Center; The Institute for Japanese Studies Lecture 

    Presentation date: 2021.10

  • Suicide and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan

    Michiko Ueda  [Invited]

    57th National Congress Psychiatric Association of Turkey 

    Presentation date: 2021.10

  • Social media and suicide prevention: a panel discussion

    International Association for Suicide Prevention 31st World Congress 

    Presentation date: 2021.09

  • Tracking suicide deaths during the COVID-19 pandemic: Real-time suicide data in Japan

    Michiko Ueda

    International Association for Suicide Prevention 31st World Congress 

    Presentation date: 2021.09

  • Growing up during a pandemic

     [Invited]

    Stockholm Explorative Talks 

    Presentation date: 2021.06

  • 危機への対応:新型コロナウイルスパンデミックがもたらす心理社会的影響

     [Invited]

    ベルリン日独センターシンポジウム 

    Presentation date: 2021.06

  • Suicide and the COVID-19 pandemic: Trends in Japan and around the world

    David Gunnell, Michiko Ueda  [Invited]

    Daiwa Anglo-Japan Foundation 

    Presentation date: 2021.05

  • COVID-19 and Suicide Deaths in Japan

    Michiko Ueda  [Invited]

    Foreign Correspondents' Club of Japan 

    Presentation date: 2021.02

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Specific Research

  • 大規模クラスルーム内のピアエフェクトについての研究

    2020   田中久稔, 星野匡郎

     View Summary

    本研究は大規模教室で実施される講義を用いてフィールド実験を行い、教室内着席位置と学生の学業パフォーマンスの因果関係を明らかにすることを目的としているが、2020年度は大教室における講義が行われなかったため、実験は実施することができなかった。そのため、将来に向けて準備を行った。

  • 日本人の自殺念慮と自殺観の背景に関するサーベイ調査

    2020  

     View Summary

    日本人の自殺念慮(死にたいと思うこと)と孤独感に関するサーベイ調査を2021年1月実施した。対象は日本在住の一般市民1000人とした。また、早稲田大学に在籍する学生を対象としたオンラインサーベイも実施した。後者では自殺念慮については質問しなかったものの、抑うつ傾向と不安障害、孤独感や孤食について調査を行った。

  • 自殺に関するポジティブなメディアコンテンツの人への影響についての実験

    2019  

     View Summary

    本研究では、自殺に関する内容を含む映画を用い、ポジティブな内容(例:主人公が自殺を考えていたが、その後立ち直ったストーリー)とそうでない内容(例:悩みを抱えた主人公が悩みの解決に至らず、最終的に自ら命を絶つ)の二つの種類の映画を被験者に見せ、その前後で自殺に関する考えなどがどのように変化するかを計測する実験を実施することを目的としていた。研究計画を立てる際には、自殺に関する報道や情報でもその内容が最終的にポジティブなものであれば、自殺を考えている人に良い影響を与えるということが先行研究により示されていることを参考にした。その後研究内容に改善を加え、19年度は実験の準備を行った。

  • 自殺報道と自殺の連鎖:ツイッターデータを用いたメカニズム分析

    2016   松林哲也, 澤田康幸

     View Summary

    本研究は著名人の自殺に関する SNS(ソーシャルネットワークサービス)上での人々の反応を分析した。具体的には、2010年から2014年に自殺で亡くなった23名の著名人の死亡記事が報道された前後におけるツイッターでの投稿数を分析した。その結果、自殺報道直後に死亡した著名人に関するツイッターでの投稿数は急増すること、しかしすべての著名人についての投稿数が増えるわけではなく、新聞などでは取り上げられているものの、ツイッターの利用者の間でほとんど話題になっていない著名人の自殺もあることが明らかになった。さらに、ツイッター上で話題になった著名人の自殺報道の後には自殺者数がより多く増加する傾向も明らかになった。

 

Syllabus

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Media Coverage

  • 【論点】若年層の自殺増加:行政から支援届ける姿勢を

    毎日新聞  

    2021.12

  • 女性の自殺増 孤立防ぐ:コロナ禍、相談窓口に悩み 居場所づくり喫緊の課題

    Newspaper, magazine

    日本経済新聞  

    2021.11

  • 働く女性、女子生徒自殺増 孤立させない居場所を 専門家ら 相談体制整備訴え

    Newspaper, magazine

    山陽新聞; 神奈川新聞; 佐賀新聞  

    2021.11

  • 働く女性の自殺顕著 政府白書 総数は11年ぶり増加

    Newspaper, magazine

    中日新聞; 宮崎日日新聞; 北海道新聞; 京都新聞; 東奥日報  

    2021.11

  • At last, a royal wedding. But no trumpets, just a news conference

    Newspaper, magazine

    New York Times  

    2021.10

  • 検証 コロナ時代=深まる孤独・孤立 「私は何者」 自問する学生 オンライン授業 友達できず

    Newspaper, magazine

    西日本新聞; 中部経済新聞  

    2021.09

  • 「ゼロ次予防」の発想 移住の流れ 呼び込む手だてに

    Newspaper, magazine

    Author: Other  

    中国新聞  

    2021.09

  • 深まる孤独・孤立/検証 コロナ時代 第3部(1)「助けて」言える社会に

    Newspaper, magazine

    神奈川新聞; 静岡新聞; 東奥日報; 静岡新聞; 長崎新聞; 神戸新聞  

    2021.08

  • 検証 コロナ時代 人と人の距離 広がった 深まる孤独・孤立 自殺者増(特集)

    Newspaper, magazine

    京都新聞; 愛媛新聞; 佐賀新聞; 山陽新聞  

    2021.08

  • Japan's Minister of Loneliness Appointed to Deal with Mental Health Crisis

    TV or radio program

    CNN  

    2021.06

  • 命を絶つ若者たち・動機”不詳”の背景に何が

    TV or radio program

    NHKニュースおはよう日本  

    2021.06

  • Stilles Massaker (Silent massacre)

    Newspaper, magazine

    Der Spiegel  

    2021.05

  • Hana Kimura death: Man charged over cyberbullying of Japanese reality TV star

    Newspaper, magazine

    Guardian  

    2021.04

  • コロナ下の自死、増加に警鐘 緊急事態後の7月から前年超に

    Newspaper, magazine

    朝日新聞  

    2021.04

  • 国際女性デー: コロナ禍 若い女性支援を 自殺深刻 「雇用・収入守る仕組み必要」

    Newspaper, magazine

    中日新聞  

    2021.03

  • 「孤独・孤立」必要な対策は 政府が省庁横断会議 専門家に聞く

    Newspaper, magazine

    日本経済新聞  

    2021.03

  • 長引くコロナ禍 心が疲れていませんか?社会に頼れる仕組みを

    Newspaper, magazine

    北日本新聞  

    2021.02

  • 子ども自殺過去最多 コロナ禍 周りが救うには 手伝いなどで自信 つらさ聞き共感

    Newspaper, magazine

    東京新聞  

    2021.02

  • Japan suffers rise in female suicides during Covid-19 pandemic

    Newspaper, magazine

    Author: Other  

    Financial Times  

    2021.02

  • Covid and suicide: Japan's rise a warning to the world?

    Internet

    Author: Other  

    BBC News  

    2021.02

  • Pandemic despair fuels rates of suicide for Japanese women

    Newspaper, magazine

    Author: Other  

    New York Times  

    2021.02

  • 東京・新型コロナウイルス感染女性・自宅療養中に自殺

    TV or radio program

    NHKニュースおはよう日本  

    2021.01

  • 自宅療養の女性自殺 コロナ感染「周囲に迷惑」悩むメモ

    Newspaper, magazine

    産経新聞  

    2021.01

  • 解雇・困窮・DV、自殺急増 コロナ苦境、女性を直撃

    Newspaper, magazine

    産経新聞  

    2021.01

  • 苦しむ女性に・新たな支援を

    TV or radio program

    NHK ニュースウオッチ9  

    2020.12

  • 40歳未満女性の自殺増 専門家分析 7~9月、例年比3~6割増 コロナ禍の雇用不安 一因か

    Newspaper, magazine

    神戸新聞  

    2020.12

  • Den sidste udvej: Japan. Selvmord er et stort samfundsmæssigt problem, og coronapandemien har kun gjort det større. (The Last Resort: Japan. Suicide is a major societal problem and the corona pandemic has caused it to flare up again)

    Newspaper, magazine

    Author: Other  

    Weekendavisen (Denmark)  

    2020.12

  • 【論点】自殺を予防するには:女性や若者が急増、対策を

    Newspaper, magazine

    毎日新聞  

    2020.12

  • Soaring female suicide rate amid COVID crisis in Japan could be a warning to the world

    Internet

    CBS News Online  

    2020.12

  • Suicides of young women soar in Japan and S Korea

    Newspaper, magazine

    Author: Other  

    Daily Telegraph  

    2020.12

  • #生きるのがつらいあなたへ 若い女性の生きづらさ 非正規労働者の解雇や休校が要因に

    Internet

    毎日新聞オンライン  

    2020.11

  • In Japan, more people died from suicide last month than from Covid in all of 2020. And women have been impacted most

    TV or radio program

    CNN  

    2020.11

  • Japan and South Korea see surge of suicides among young women, raising new questions about pandemic stress

    Newspaper, magazine

    Washington Post  

    2020.11

  • コロナ禍 心のケア大事に

    Newspaper, magazine

    日本経済新聞  

    2020.10

  • The pressure to be perfect turns deadly for celebrities in Japan

    Newspaper, magazine

    New York Times  

    2020.10

  • 「もやもや」だけでも相談を 40歳未満の自殺増 女性や学生突出

    Newspaper, magazine

    東京新聞  

    2020.09

  • Is Japan’s pandemic response a disaster or a success?

    TV or radio program

    PBS NewsHour  

    2020.06

  • 米国の自殺率、戦後最悪レベル 「988」で改善なるか

    Newspaper, magazine

    朝日新聞  

    2020.04

  • つらい休み明け どうすれば? 心臓への負担減らして

    Newspaper, magazine

    読売新聞  

    2019.05

  • 「ブルーマンデー」乗り切る 午後から勤務 日・月曜休み…

    Newspaper, magazine

    読売新聞  

    2018.12

  • ブルーマンデーの「朝」は要注意 中高年男性の自殺集中

    Newspaper, magazine

    朝日新聞  

    2018.10

▼display all