Faculty of Sport Sciences, School of Sport and Sciences

Job title

Assistant Professor(without tenure)

Degree 【 display / non-display

  • 2021.03   早稲田大学   博士(スポーツ科学)

Professional Memberships 【 display / non-display








Research Areas 【 display / non-display

  • Others   スポーツ神経科学

Papers 【 display / non-display

  • Timing of Rectus Femoris and Biceps Femoris Muscle Activities in Both Legs at Maximal Running Speed.

    Gaku Kakehata, Yuta Goto, Shigeo Iso, Kazuyuki Kanosue

    Medicine and science in sports and exercise   53 ( 3 ) 643 - 652  2021.03  [Refereed]  [International journal]

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    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between spatiotemporal variables of running and onset/offset timing of rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) muscle activities in both legs. METHODS: Eighteen male well-trained athletes (age = 20.7 ± 1.8 yr) were asked to run 50 m at maximal speed. The spatiotemporal variables (running speed, step frequency, and step length) over the distance from 30 to 50 m were measured. In addition, RF and BF muscle activities were obtained from both legs using wireless EMG sensors. To quantify the onset and offset timing of muscle activity, the band-pass filtered (20-450 Hz) EMG signal was processed using a Teager-Kaiser energy operator filter. We calculated RF and BF onset/offset timings (%) in both legs (e.g., ipsilateral leg RF [iRF] and contralateral leg BF [cBF]) during running cycle. Based on those timings, we obtained the EMG timing variables (%) as follows: "Switch1 (iBF-offset to iRF-onset)," "Switch2 (iRF-offset to iBF-onset)," "Scissors1 (cBF-onset to iRF-onset)," and "Scissors2 (iRF-offset to cBF-offset). RESULTS: We found that "Switch2" had positive (r = 0.495, P = 0.037), "Scissors1" had negative (r = -0.469, P = 0.049), and "Scissors2" had positive (r = 0.574, P = 0.013) correlations with step frequency. However, these variables had no significant correlations with running speed or step length. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that higher step frequency would be achieved by smoother switching of the agonist-antagonist muscle activities and earlier iRF activation relative to the cBF activity. To improve sprint performance, athletes and coaches should consider not only muscle activities in one leg but also coordination of muscle activities in both legs.

    DOI PubMed

  • Relationship between subjective effort and kinematics/kinetics in the 50 m sprint

    Gaku Kakehata, Kai Kobayashi, Akifumi Matsuo, Kazuyuki Kanosue, Shigeo Iso

    JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT AND EXERCISE   15 ( 1 ) 52 - 66  2020  [Refereed]

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    Purpose. This study investigated the relationship between subjective effort (SE) and kinematics/kinetics throughout an entire 50 m sprint. Methods. Fifteen male sprinters performed the 50 m sprint at 3 different levels of SE (100 %SE; maximal-effort, 90 %SE and 80 %SE, sub-maximal efforts). Kinematic and kinetic data were obtained with a digital high speed camera and 50 ground reaction force (GRF) plates placed every 1 m in the running lane. Variables recorded were sprint time, running speed, step frequency, step length, aerial time, contact time, GRF, and ground reaction impulse (GRI). Results & Discussion. Sprint times decreased with increases in SE. However, some subjects ran their fastest 50m at a sub-maximal SE. Thus, the optimal combination of step length & frequency necessary for obtaining maximum speed does not necessarily occur at maximal SE. Indeed, while step frequency significantly increased with an increase in SE, step length was usually the longest at a sub-maximal SE. The vertical GRI in the first half of the ground contact period was significantly greater at sub-maximal SEs. Vertical GRIs and horizontal GRIs in the second half of the ground contact period did not significantly differ among different SEs. Our results suggest that those runners who increase SF too much at maximal SE do so at the cost of decreasing step length (SL). Thus, applying a large force against the ground in the first half of the ground contact period would be effective for improving step length.


  • Effects of an instructional program for 5th and 6th grade children with negative feelings toward sprinting

    Suzuki Kosuke, Goto Yuta, Kakehata Gaku, Kanosue Kazuyuki

    Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)   64 ( 1 ) 265 - 284  2019  [Refereed]

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    This study was performed to devise an instructional program for children who were not good at sprinting and to verify the program's effectiveness for improvement of sprinting ability and motion.<br> The participants were 19 upper grade elementary school children who were not good at sprinting. The program included 2 drills with some teaching devices and running on flat markers. The children attended the program for 8 days (2 days per week) and each lesson lasted an hour. In order to validate the program outcome, sprint time (50 m), interval speed (every 10 m), average speed, maximal speed, rate of speed decline, interval and average step frequency and step length were analyzed, and sprint motions were evaluated. The results were as follows:<br> 1) Most of the children's 50 m times were below the national average. This suggested that their negative feelings toward sprinting resulted from the realization that they were unable to run as fast as other children.<br> 2) The children's sprint times were improved after the program, and a significant correlation between pre-time and post-pre time was revealed. It was also found that the greater the increase in the children's step frequency, the faster their sprint times became. These results suggest that sprinting instruction allows low-performing children to increase their step frequency and improve their sprint times.<br> 3) The main aim of the program was to improve children's sprint motions in the mid sprint phase, and the participants practiced start motions only twice during the program. As a result, speeds from the start to 10 m, 20-50 m, and maximum speed were increased significantly by this practice, suggesting that significant changes of speed led to improvement of the sprint times.<br> 4) Participants became able to swing back their leg under their body and to make contact with the ground with the middle or front of the foot. Therefore it was considered that the drills and running on flat markers with teaching devices were valuable for improving the children's sprint motions.<br> 5) Although the scissors-like leg motion was not improved by practice with a color board and bells, the kneefolding motion of the swing leg did appear to be improved. Therefore, the children seemed to acquire basic skill in more rapid scissors-like leg motion.<br> These results suggest that our instructional program was effective in enabling children to improve their sprinting ability and motion. However, additional research focusing on aspects such as the relationship between sprinting ability and sprint motion, or individual feelings and motor competency in the context of sprinting, will be needed.

    DOI CiNii

  • Effectiveness of over-speed training by down-slope sprint running in sprinters

    小林 海, 欠畑 岳, 早川 恭平, 九鬼 巧, 礒 繁雄

    スプリント研究 = Sprint research   27   33 - 39  2018.07  [Refereed]


Misc 【 display / non-display

  • 競走はスプリントパフォーマンスを向上させる?加速区間・最高速度区間の比較

    塚本弘樹, 欠畑岳, 彼末一之

    日本体育学会大会予稿集   70th ( 0 ) 182_1 - 182_1  2019

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    <p> 陸上競技の短距離種目は、他選手と競走する状況で実施される。2009年の世界陸上100m決勝で、ウサイン・ボルトとタイソン・ゲイのステップが無意識のうちに一致した(同調現象)ことで、お互いのパフォーマンスが増長した可能性が示唆されている。そこで本研究では単独走と競走という条件設定の違いが走速度、ピッチ、ストライドに及ぼす影響を調べることを目的とした。被験者は短距離走を専門とする大学生26人とした。被験者はクラウチングスタートから60m走を1人で走る条件(単独走)と2人で走る条件(競走)をランダムに実施した。解析は加速局面(0-30m)と最高走速度局面(30-60m)に分けて行った。最高走速度局面では、走速度およびストライドが競走において有意に大きかった (p<0.01)。一方、加速局面では、走速度が競走において有意に大きかった(p<0.05)。いずれの局面においても「競走する」ことが走速度の向上に貢献する、つまりパフォーマンスの向上に繋がる可能性が示唆された。しかし、競走によるストライドへの影響は加速局面と最高走速度局面とでは異なることが示唆された。</p>


  • Development of teaching running form to improve physical competence in elementary school children

    後藤 悠太, 欠畑 岳, 田上 幸司

    笹川スポーツ研究助成研究成果報告書 = Sasakawa sports research grants     314 - 320  2018


  • スプリントにおける股関節筋の活動タイミングの特徴

    欠畑岳, 後藤悠太, 礒繁雄, 彼末一之

    日本体育学会大会予稿集   69th ( 0 ) 138_3 - 138_3  2018

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    <p> 【目的】スプリントにおける股関節筋の筋活動の特徴を明らかにすることを目的とした。【方法】被験者は男子陸上競技短距離選手18名であった。最大努力による50m走中の大腿直筋(RF)と大腿二頭筋(BF)の表面筋電図を取得した。接地からその脚が再び接地する直前までを走の1サイクルとし、測定区間(20m)に要した8~10歩(4~5サイクル)を分析対象とした。筋電データはそれぞれのサイクル時間に合わせて規格化した。そして1サイクルにおけるRFおよびBFの活動タイミングおよび走速度とのピアソンの積率相関係数をそれぞれ算出した。【結果】走速度は9.88 ± 0.6m/s(最大値:10.99 m/s、最小値:9.30 m/s)であった。走速度の高い選手は、離地時にBFの活動が終了するタイミングが早く(r = 0.553)、スウィング期においてRFが活動し始めるタイミング(r = 0.637)とそれが終了するタイミングが早かった(r = 0.527)。さらに、スウィング期後半でBFが活動し始めるタイミングも走速度の高い選手ほど早かった(r = 0.621)。【結論】走速度の高い選手は、1サイクルにおいて股関節筋であるRFおよびBFの活動タイミングが早いことが示唆された。</p>


  • 短距離走者における主観的努力度とスプリントパフォーマンスの関係 : 大学生競技者と中学生競技者を比較して (平成27年度学会報告) -- (研究発表)

    欠畑 岳, 早川 恭平, 福田 一樹, 小林 海, 礒 繁雄

    スプリント研究 = Sprint research   26   69 - 71  2017.05


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Research Projects 【 display / non-display

  • スプリント時の神経制御の特徴の解明


    Project Year :


    欠畑 岳

    Authorship: Principal investigator

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    被験者は陸上競技選手18名とし、全天候型陸上競技場におけるスプリント時の筋活動を無線筋電装置(DELSYS, Trigno Wireless Sensor)で記録した。被験筋は、両側の大腿直筋、大腿二頭筋、前脛骨筋、腓腹筋とした。同時に走動作をハイスピードカメラで追従撮影し、接地と離地の瞬間を判断しピッチとストライド長を算出した。また、光電管で分析区間20mの平均タイム(平均走速度)を算出した。また、ランニングサイクルにおける片脚および両脚のそれぞれの筋活動の開始(Onset)と終了(Offset)のタイミング(%Time)を算出し、走速度、ピッチ、ストライドとの相関関係を検討した。

  • 神経制御の特徴に基づくスプリントトレーニングの開発


    Project Year :


    欠畑 岳

Presentations 【 display / non-display

  • Sprint Training in WASEDA University

    Gaku Kakehata, Shigeo Iso

    sharing a running research project -Coaches Huddle(Singapore) 

    Presentation date: 2019.02

  • Relation between subjective efforts and kinematics/kinetics in the 50m sprint

    Gaku Kakehata, Shigeo Iso

    Special Lecture, National Taiwan University 

    Presentation date: 2018.09

  • EMG Activity during Maximal Sprint Running in Male Senior Athletes

    Gaku Kakehata, Shigeo Iso, Kazuyuki Kanosue

    sharing a running research project -Coaches Huddle(Singapore) 

    Presentation date: 2018.02

Specific Research 【 display / non-display

  • スプリント時におけるリラックスに関わる筋活動の特徴の解明

    2020   礒繁雄, 彼末一之

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  • スプリントにおける下肢の筋活動のタイミングに関わる神経制御の特徴の解明

    2019   礒繁雄, 彼末一之

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