Updated on 2024/05/26

写真a

 
KAKEHATA, Gaku
 
Affiliation
Faculty of Sport Sciences, School of Sport and Sciences
Job title
Assistant Professor
Degree
博士(スポーツ科学) ( 2021.03 早稲田大学 )

Research Experience

  • 2024.04
    -
    Now

    Waseda University   Faculty of Sport Sciences

  • 2022.04
    -
    2024.03

    Waseda University   Institute for Sport Sciences

  • 2022.04
    -
    2024.03

    The University of Tokyo   Graduate School of Arts and Sciences

  • 2023.02
    -
    2024.02

    Nationl Youth Spots Institute (Singapore)   Visiting Scholar

  • 2021.04
    -
    2022.03

    Waseda University   Faculty of Sport Sciences

  • 2018.04
    -
    2021.03

    Waseda University   Faculty of Sport Sciences

▼display all

Professional Memberships

  •  
     
     

    THE JAPAN SOCIETY OF COACHING STUDIES

  •  
     
     

    JAPAN SOCIETY OF SPRINT RESEARCH

  •  
     
     

    JAPAN SOCIETY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION, HEALTH AND SPORT SCIENCES

Research Areas

  • Others   スポーツ科学、コーチング学、スポーツ神経科学

Awards

  • MSSE Featured Article

    2022.06   Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise   Thigh Muscle Activity Is a Factor Limiting Performance in the Deceleration Phase of the 100-m Dash.

    Winner: Gaku Kakehata, Yuta Goto, Shigeo Iso, Kazuyuki Kanosue

  • 日本コーチング学会 第33回学会大会・優秀発表賞

    2022.03   日本コーチング学会   「100m走の減速はなぜ生じるか?-大腿筋活動の制御から探る-」

    Winner: 欠畑岳, 後藤悠太, 礒繁雄, 彼末一之

 

Papers

  • Reciprocal inhibition of the thigh muscles in humans: A study using transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation.

    Kento Nakagawa, Gaku Kakehata, Naotsugu Kaneko, Yohei Masugi, Rieko Osu, Shigeo Iso, Kazuyuki Kanosue, Kimitaka Nakazawa

    Physiological reports   12 ( 9 ) e16039  2024.05  [International journal]

     View Summary

    Evaluating reciprocal inhibition of the thigh muscles is important to investigate the neural circuits of locomotor behaviors. However, measurements of reciprocal inhibition of thigh muscles using spinal reflex, such as H-reflex, have never been systematically established owing to methodological limitations. The present study aimed to clarify the existence of reciprocal inhibition in the thigh muscles using transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation (tSCS). Twenty able-bodied male individuals were enrolled. We evoked spinal reflex from the biceps femoris muscle (BF) by tSCS on the lumber posterior root. We examined whether the tSCS-evoked BF reflex was reciprocally inhibited by the following conditionings: (1) single-pulse electrical stimulation on the femoral nerve innervating the rectus femoris muscle (RF) at various inter-stimulus intervals in the resting condition; (2) voluntary contraction of the RF; and (3) vibration stimulus on the RF. The BF reflex was significantly inhibited when the conditioning electrical stimulation was delivered at 10 and 20 ms prior to tSCS, during voluntary contraction of the RF, and during vibration on the RF. These data suggested a piece of evidence of the existence of reciprocal inhibition from the RF to the BF muscle in humans and highlighted the utility of methods for evaluating reciprocal inhibition of the thigh muscles using tSCS.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

  • The Use of Acute Exercise Interventions as Priming Strategies to Improve Physical Performance During Track-and-Field Competitions: A Systematic Review

    Kairui Tan, Gaku Kakehata, Julian Lim

    Strength & Conditioning Journal    2024.03

     View Summary

    ABSTRACT

    The use of exercise interventions to maximize athletes' performance is a common practice in competitions. This systematic review aimed to compile research that explored the effectiveness of priming strategies to maximize physical performance in track and field. The literature search was conducted from PubMed and Scopus. One hundred eighty-two studies were assessed against the inclusion criteria: (a) minimum 1-year participation/competition experience; (b) randomized controlled trials with pre-post intervention outcomes; and (c) studies involving exercise interventions applied ≤6 hours before outcome measures were collected. Fifteen studies satisfied the criteria and were categorized according to the exercise interventions used (i.e., resistance training, plyometric/ballistic training, resisted sprints, and modified warm-ups). Heavy-loaded resistance training (i.e., >85% 1 repetition maximum) and resisted sprints increased subsequent sprint performance. Plyometrics/ballistic training also positively impacted subsequent jumping (i.e., long jump) and throwing performance (i.e., shot put). Modified warm-ups (i.e., high-intensity sprints and heavier throwing implements) also improved subsequent running and throwing performance. Overall, exercise interventions performed at high intensity and low volume augment subsequent physical performance as close to 4 minutes before the event. However, a sufficient recovery interval must be considered for a positive performance response.

    DOI

  • Changes in muscle coordination patterns during 400‐m sprint: Impact of fatigue and performance decline

    G. Kakehata, H. Saito, N. Takei, H. Yokoyama, K. Nakazawa

    European Journal of Sport Science   24 ( 3 ) 341 - 351  2024.02

     View Summary

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to compare the muscle synergies extracted from 14 unilateral lower‐limb and trunk muscles between the first and final parts of a 400‐m sprint in experienced sprinters to understand neuromuscular coordination of multiple muscles in the fatigued condition sprint. Nine male 400‐m sprinters (400‐m personal record: 48.11 ± 1.6 s) performed 400‐m sprints as with the real competition strategy. We defined the first part (100–150 m section) and the final part (350–400 m section), and obtained mean spatiotemporal variables (e.g., running speed, step frequency, and step length) for both parts. Electromyography (EMG) signals were obtained using wireless EMG sensors (2000 Hz) from 14 lower‐limb and trunk muscles. Non‐negative matrix factorization was performed to extract the muscle synergies for both parts. We observed significantly declined spatiotemporal variables in the final part induced by fatigue. The extracted number of synergies was 7.0 ± 0.7 (mean ± SD) for the first part and 7.2 ± 0.4 for the final part with no significant differences between parts. However, we identified specific muscle synergy, and alterations in the individual muscle weightings of several hip muscles (rectus femoris: RF, tensor fasciae latae: TFL, and glutes maximus: Gmax muscles) while there was no change in the muscle weighting of shank muscles and the temporal patterns of all muscles even following fatigue in the 400‐m sprint. Fatigue‐induced performance decline in a 400‐m sprint corresponds to alterations in muscle synergies, particularly in hip muscles, with notable shifts in RF, TFL, and Gmax activation.

    DOI

    Scopus

  • Effect of hypoxic sprint interval exercise and normoxic recovery on performance and acute physiological responses

    Naoya Takei, Gaku Kakehata, Takeru Inaba, Yuki Morita, Hinata Sano, Olivier Girard, Hideo Hatta

    European Journal of Sport Science   24 ( 3 ) 279 - 288  2024.02

     View Summary

    Abstract

    Hypoxic exercise, which can induce arterial and tissue deoxygenation, promotes physiological adaptations. However, reduced oxygen availability can lower the absolute training intensity (i.e., mechanical stress). Adding normoxic recovery to sprint interval exercise (SIE) is one potential approach to strike a balance between providing a hypoxic stimulus and maintaining the absolute training intensity. However, the effects of adding normoxic recovery to SIE on performance and physiological responses are uncertain. We tested the hypothesis that hypoxic SIE with normoxic recovery enhances arterial deoxygenation and muscle deoxygenation levels without impeding performance compared to an entirely normoxic condition. On separate days, seven male sprinters performed 4 × 30‐s ‘all‐out’ cycle sprints with 4.5‐min recovery with hypoxic exposure (FiO2: 12.7%O2) applied continuously (hypoxia, HYP), intermittently during sprint periods only (intermittent, INT), or not at all (normoxia, NOR). Power output, oxygen saturation, muscle oxygenation, surface electromyography (EMG) activity, heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and ratings of perceived exertion were measured. The total work significantly decreased in HYP than NOR (p < 0.05) and INT (p < 0.01). The aTrterial oxygen saturation was lower during HYP than NOR (∼86% vs. ∼97%; p < 0.001), while lower values were also obtained for INT than NOR during sprint periods (∼85% vs. ∼97%; p < 0.001) but not during recovery periods (∼96% vs. ∼97%). The heart rate differed (p < 0.05) between conditions (NOR: ∼164 bpm; INT: ∼160 bpm; HYP: ∼156 bpm). No other variables demonstrated significant differences between conditions. Adding hypoxia during exercise while recovering in normoxia did not compromise exercise capacity during SIE, despite inducing larger arterial deoxygenation levels compared to normoxia.

    DOI

    Scopus

  • Control of thigh muscle activity in both legs during sprint running

    欠畑岳

    陸上競技研究   ( 133 )  2023.10

    J-GLOBAL

  • スプリント走における巧みな筋制御

    Journal of Training Science for Exercise and Sport   35 ( 1 ) 3 - 9  2023.04  [Invited]

    Authorship:Lead author, Last author, Corresponding author

    J-GLOBAL

  • Effects of switching steps on time and stride frequency in men’s 400m hurdle races

      20   16 - 26  2023.03  [Refereed]

  • Effects of the lower limb muscle activity during uphill sprint training

    Kakehata Gaku, Goto Yuta, Iso Shigeo, Kaosue Kazuyuki

    DESCENTE SPORTS SCIENCE   44   174 - 183  2023.02  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study was to clarify effect of uphill sprinting to running spatiotemporal variables and lower limb muscle activity. Twelve university sprinters (seven males) were volunteered to this study. Subjects performed 60 m sprint with maximal effort in two conditions (level sprint vs uphill sprint). Then, we obtained running spatiotemporal variables and electromyography (EMG) from lower limb muscles (biceps femoris, rectus femoris, tibial anterior, lateral head of gastrocnemius). We calculated the running spatiotemporal variables (e.g., running speed, step frequency, step length), EMG activity amplitudes (%MVC), and relative EMG timings in running cycle (%) in analysis section (40-60m). We observed running speed, step frequency, and step length were significantly decreased in the uphill sprint. However, no significant differences were observed in EMG activity amplitudes between two conditions. On the other hand, the onset and offset timings of rectus femoris muscle were significantly shifted to the latter half of the running cycle in the uphill sprint. Therefore, we may consider the possibility that delay in the timing of the recovery movement (i.e., hip flexion) of the swing leg in the uphill sprint. These results suggest that uphill sprint training may affect the timing of muscle activity rather than the amount of muscle activity. We conclude that neuromuscular control of the lower limb muscle is different between uphill sprint and level sprint.

    DOI

  • Inter- and Intra-Limb Coordination of Rectus Femoris and Biceps Femoris Muscles at Different Running Speeds.

    Gaku Kakehata, Yuta Goto, Hikaru Yokoyama, Shigeo Iso, Kazuyuki Kanosue

    Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise    2022.12  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between spatiotemporal variables and the muscle activity of the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) in both legs at various running speeds. METHODS: Eighteen well-trained male athletes (age: 20.7 ± 1.8 yrs) were asked to run for 50 m with 7 different "Subjective Efforts (SEs)" (20 %, 40 %, 60 %, 80 %, 90 %, 95 %, and 100 % SE). SE scaled relative to the maximal effort running (100 %). The spatiotemporal variables (running speed, step frequency, step length) were measured over the distance from 30 m to 50 m. The RF and BF muscle activities were obtained from both legs with wireless electromyography (EMG) sensors. We calculated RF and BF onset/offset timings in both legs (e.g., ipsilateral leg RF is "iRF", contralateral leg BF is "cBF"), which were expressed as % of a running cycle. Based on those timings, we obtained the EMG timing variables (%), as Switch1(iBF-offset to iRF-onset), Switch2 (iRF-offset to iBF-onset), Scissors1 (cBF-onset to iRF-onset), and Scissors2 (iRF-offset to cBF-offset). RESULTS: Running speed was well correlated with the SE, and higher running speed (> 9 m·s-1) was achieved with higher step frequency (> 4.0 Hz). Relative timings of RF and BF onset/offset (%) appeared earlier and later, respectively, with an increase in running speed. The absolute duration of RF activation (sec) was elongated with the decrease in absolute running cycle time (increase in running speed). Both Switch and Scissors showed significant negative correlations with running speed and step frequency. CONCLUSIONS: RF and BF excitation in both legs, as evidenced by changes in both Switch and Scissors, is coordinated for controlling running speed as well as step frequency.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    1
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • 早稲田大学競走部短距離ブロックにおけるトレーニング事例:科学的データの活用による“考える学生アスリート”の育成を目指して

    欠畑岳, 田村優, 礒繁雄

    スポーツ科学研究   19   33 - 41  2022.07  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author

  • The Timing of Thigh Muscle Activity Is a Factor Limiting Performance in the Deceleration Phase of the 100-m Dash.

    Gaku Kakehata, Yuta Goto, Shigeo Iso, Kazuyuki Kanosue

    Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise   54 ( 6 ) 1002 - 1012  2022.06  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    PURPOSE: We aimed to examine the timing of electromyography activity of the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) in both legs, as well as spatiotemporal variables (running speed (RS), step frequency (SF), step length (SL)) between the maximal speed (Max) phase (50-70 m) and the deceleration (Dec) phase (80-100 m) of the 100-m dash. METHODS: Nine track and field athletes performed the 100-m dash with maximal effort. Spatiotemporal variables of each 10-m section were measured. A portable wireless data logger was attached to the subject's lower back to record electromyographies. We calculated onset/offset timing (%) of RF and BF in both legs using a Teager-Kaiser Energy Operator filter (e.g., ipsilateral leg RF onset is "iRF-onset," contralateral leg BF onset is "cBF-onset") in a running cycle. RESULTS: The decreased RS in the Dec phase (P < 0.001) was due to a decreased SF (P < 0.001). Moreover, iRF-onset (P = 0.002), iRF-offset (P = 0.008), iBF-offset (P = 0.049), and cBF-offset (P = 0.017) in the Dec phase lagged in the running cycle as compared with the Max phase. Furthermore, the time difference between the swing leg RF activity (iRF-onset) and the contact leg BF activity (cBF-onset; "Scissors1") became bigger in the Dec phase (P = 0.041). Significant negative correlations were found between ΔiRF-onset and ΔSF (P = 0.045), and between ΔiBF-offset and ΔSF (P = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: The decreased RS and SF in the Dec phase of the 100-m dash would be the delayed timing of the RF and BF activities in the same leg as well as the disturbed interleg muscular coordination.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    2
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Competing against another athlete side-by-side improves 60 m sprint running performance

    Gaku Kakehata, Hiroki Tsukamoto, Yuta Goto, Shigeo Iso, Kazuyuki Kanosue

    Scientific Journal of Sport and Performance   1 ( 2 ) 94 - 102  2022.05  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author

     View Summary

    Purpose: Purpose of this study was to elucidate the differences in sprint performance between two different conditions in the 60 m dash: subjects ran alone (Alone Condition: AC) or two runners competed side-by-side (Competitive Condition: CC). Methods: Subjects were twenty-six male university sprinters. They were asked to perform two 60 m dash, the AC and CC, with maximal effort from crouching start. Running spatiotemporal variables were obtained from video images taken with two digital high-speed cameras. Results: Running speed (AC: 9.34 ± 0.45 ms-1 vs CC: 9.40 ± 0.43 ms-1, p = .011) and step length (AC: 2.04 ± 0.12 m vs CC: 2.06 ± 0.10 m, p = .021) in the maximal speed section (30-60m) were significantly increased in the CC. However, there was no significant difference in step frequency (AC: 4.58 ± 0.26 Hz vs CC: 4.57 ± 0.27 Hz, p = .595). There was no significant difference in any variables in the acceleration section (0-30m). Conclusion: These results indicate that running with a competitor improves running speed with increasing step length in the maximal speed section but does not affect performance in the acceleration section. We concluded that competition improves sprint performances in the maximal speed section.

    DOI

  • Observational evaluation of sprinting movement in young children and its relationship to sprinting ability

    SUZUKI Kosuke, GOTO Yuta, KAKEHATA Gaku, NAKATA Hiroki, KANOSUE Kazuyuki

    Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)   advpub   947 - 959  2022

     View Summary

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in sprinting movement between children with high and low sprinting ability by using observational evaluation. We analyzed the maximum sprinting speed and sprinting movements of 252 children in the 1st, the 2nd and the 3rd grades of a kindergarten, based on age group and sprinting speed. The main results were as follows:<br>
    1. Analysis of variance of sprinting movement scores based on age group and sprinting speed showed that the scores for 3rd grade children were higher than those for 1st and 2nd grade children, and the scores for the groups with medium and high sprinting speed tended to be higher than those for the group with low sprinting speed. This indicates that, although rational sprinting movement can be acquired with increasing age, the better the sprinting ability of children, the more rational the sprinting movement that is acquired.<br>
    2. The results for each of the evaluation items suggested that the acquisition of rational sprinting movement progressed to a certain degree with age in the “forward swing range of the elbows”, the “timing of the scissorslike leg motion” and the “foot contact aspect”. However, because some previous studies have indicated that the foot contact aspect may be affected by the overall movement of the lower limb, older children may not necessarily learn to acquire contact on the midfoot or forefoot.<br>
    3. While it is expected that the subjects would become more proficient in the “flexion and extension of the elbows” and the “range of the leg motion” with increasing age, the differences among the sprinting speed groups were significant, suggesting that remaining unskilled movements may be a factor in decreasing sprinting speed regardless of age.<br>
    These results suggest that the acquisition of basic movement patterns and refinement toward more purposeful movements in sprinting occur simultaneously in early childhood, and that the complex aspect of proficiency is a characteristic feature of infants' sprinting movements.

    DOI

  • Timing of Rectus Femoris and Biceps Femoris Muscle Activities in Both Legs at Maximal Running Speed.

    Gaku Kakehata, Yuta Goto, Shigeo Iso, Kazuyuki Kanosue

    Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise   53 ( 3 ) 643 - 652  2021.03  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between spatiotemporal variables of running and onset/offset timing of rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) muscle activities in both legs. METHODS: Eighteen male well-trained athletes (age = 20.7 ± 1.8 yr) were asked to run 50 m at maximal speed. The spatiotemporal variables (running speed, step frequency, and step length) over the distance from 30 to 50 m were measured. In addition, RF and BF muscle activities were obtained from both legs using wireless EMG sensors. To quantify the onset and offset timing of muscle activity, the band-pass filtered (20-450 Hz) EMG signal was processed using a Teager-Kaiser energy operator filter. We calculated RF and BF onset/offset timings (%) in both legs (e.g., ipsilateral leg RF [iRF] and contralateral leg BF [cBF]) during running cycle. Based on those timings, we obtained the EMG timing variables (%) as follows: "Switch1 (iBF-offset to iRF-onset)," "Switch2 (iRF-offset to iBF-onset)," "Scissors1 (cBF-onset to iRF-onset)," and "Scissors2 (iRF-offset to cBF-offset). RESULTS: We found that "Switch2" had positive (r = 0.495, P = 0.037), "Scissors1" had negative (r = -0.469, P = 0.049), and "Scissors2" had positive (r = 0.574, P = 0.013) correlations with step frequency. However, these variables had no significant correlations with running speed or step length. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that higher step frequency would be achieved by smoother switching of the agonist-antagonist muscle activities and earlier iRF activation relative to the cBF activity. To improve sprint performance, athletes and coaches should consider not only muscle activities in one leg but also coordination of muscle activities in both legs.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    14
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Spatiotemporal inflection points in human running: Effects of training level and athletic modality.

    Yuta Goto, Tetsuya Ogawa, Gaku Kakehata, Naoya Sazuka, Atsushi Okubo, Yoshihiro Wakita, Shigeo Iso, Kazuyuki Kanosue

    PloS one   16 ( 10 ) e0258709  2021  [International journal]

     View Summary

    The effect of the different training regimes and histories on the spatiotemporal characteristics of human running was evaluated in four groups of subjects who had different histories of engagement in running-specific training; sprinters, distance runners, active athletes, and sedentary individuals. Subjects ran at a variety of velocities, ranging from slowest to fastest, over 30 trials in a random order. Group averages of maximal running velocities, ranked from fastest to slowest, were: sprinters, distance runners, active athletes, and sedentary individuals. The velocity-cadence-step length (V-C-S) relationship, made by plotting step length against cadence at each velocity tested, was analyzed with the segmented regression method, utilizing two regression lines. In all subject groups, there was a critical velocity, defined as the inflection point, in the relationship. In the velocity ranges below and above the inflection point (slower and faster velocity ranges), velocity was modulated primarily by altering step length and by altering cadence, respectively. This pattern was commonly observed in all four groups, not only in sprinters and distance runners, as has already been reported, but also in active athletes and sedentary individuals. This pattern may reflect an energy saving strategy. When the data from all groups were combined, there were significant correlations between maximal running velocity and both running velocity and step length at the inflection point. In spite of the wide variety of athletic experience of the subjects, as well as their maximum running velocities, the inflection point appeared at a similar cadence (3.0 ± 0.2 steps/s) and at a similar relative velocity (65-70%Vmax). These results imply that the influence of running-specific training on the inflection point is minimal.

    DOI PubMed

    Scopus

    2
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Relationship between subjective effort and kinematics/kinetics in the 50 m sprint

    Gaku Kakehata, Kai Kobayashi, Akifumi Matsuo, Kazuyuki Kanosue, Shigeo Iso

    JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT AND EXERCISE   15 ( 1 ) 52 - 66  2020  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Purpose. This study investigated the relationship between subjective effort (SE) and kinematics/kinetics throughout an entire 50 m sprint. Methods. Fifteen male sprinters performed the 50 m sprint at 3 different levels of SE (100 %SE; maximal-effort, 90 %SE and 80 %SE, sub-maximal efforts). Kinematic and kinetic data were obtained with a digital high speed camera and 50 ground reaction force (GRF) plates placed every 1 m in the running lane. Variables recorded were sprint time, running speed, step frequency, step length, aerial time, contact time, GRF, and ground reaction impulse (GRI). Results & Discussion. Sprint times decreased with increases in SE. However, some subjects ran their fastest 50m at a sub-maximal SE. Thus, the optimal combination of step length & frequency necessary for obtaining maximum speed does not necessarily occur at maximal SE. Indeed, while step frequency significantly increased with an increase in SE, step length was usually the longest at a sub-maximal SE. The vertical GRI in the first half of the ground contact period was significantly greater at sub-maximal SEs. Vertical GRIs and horizontal GRIs in the second half of the ground contact period did not significantly differ among different SEs. Our results suggest that those runners who increase SF too much at maximal SE do so at the cost of decreasing step length (SL). Thus, applying a large force against the ground in the first half of the ground contact period would be effective for improving step length.

    DOI

    Scopus

    4
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Effects of an instructional program for 5th and 6th grade children with negative feelings toward sprinting

    Suzuki Kosuke, Goto Yuta, Kakehata Gaku, Kanosue Kazuyuki

    Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)   64 ( 1 ) 265 - 284  2019  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This study was performed to devise an instructional program for children who were not good at sprinting and to verify the program's effectiveness for improvement of sprinting ability and motion.<br> The participants were 19 upper grade elementary school children who were not good at sprinting. The program included 2 drills with some teaching devices and running on flat markers. The children attended the program for 8 days (2 days per week) and each lesson lasted an hour. In order to validate the program outcome, sprint time (50 m), interval speed (every 10 m), average speed, maximal speed, rate of speed decline, interval and average step frequency and step length were analyzed, and sprint motions were evaluated. The results were as follows:<br> 1) Most of the children's 50 m times were below the national average. This suggested that their negative feelings toward sprinting resulted from the realization that they were unable to run as fast as other children.<br> 2) The children's sprint times were improved after the program, and a significant correlation between pre-time and post-pre time was revealed. It was also found that the greater the increase in the children's step frequency, the faster their sprint times became. These results suggest that sprinting instruction allows low-performing children to increase their step frequency and improve their sprint times.<br> 3) The main aim of the program was to improve children's sprint motions in the mid sprint phase, and the participants practiced start motions only twice during the program. As a result, speeds from the start to 10 m, 20-50 m, and maximum speed were increased significantly by this practice, suggesting that significant changes of speed led to improvement of the sprint times.<br> 4) Participants became able to swing back their leg under their body and to make contact with the ground with the middle or front of the foot. Therefore it was considered that the drills and running on flat markers with teaching devices were valuable for improving the children's sprint motions.<br> 5) Although the scissors-like leg motion was not improved by practice with a color board and bells, the kneefolding motion of the swing leg did appear to be improved. Therefore, the children seemed to acquire basic skill in more rapid scissors-like leg motion.<br> These results suggest that our instructional program was effective in enabling children to improve their sprinting ability and motion. However, additional research focusing on aspects such as the relationship between sprinting ability and sprint motion, or individual feelings and motor competency in the context of sprinting, will be needed.

    DOI CiNii

  • Effectiveness of over-speed training by down-slope sprint running in sprinters

    小林 海, 欠畑 岳, 早川 恭平, 九鬼 巧, 礒 繁雄

    スプリント研究 = Sprint research   27   33 - 39  2018.07  [Refereed]

    CiNii

▼display all

Presentations

  • Sprint Training in WASEDA University

    Gaku Kakehata, Shigeo Iso

    sharing a running research project -Coaches Huddle(Singapore) 

    Presentation date: 2019.02

  • Relation between subjective efforts and kinematics/kinetics in the 50m sprint

    Gaku Kakehata, Shigeo Iso

    Special Lecture, National Taiwan University 

    Presentation date: 2018.09

  • EMG Activity during Maximal Sprint Running in Male Senior Athletes

    Gaku Kakehata, Shigeo Iso, Kazuyuki Kanosue

    sharing a running research project -Coaches Huddle(Singapore) 

    Presentation date: 2018.02

Research Projects

  • Mechanism of neuromuscular control of thigh muscle in top sprinters

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research

    Project Year :

    2022.04
    -
    2025.03
     

  • スプリントにおける筋疲労のメカニズムの解明

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業

    Project Year :

    2023.04
    -
    2025.03
     

    欠畑 岳

  • スプリント時の神経制御の特徴の解明

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 若手研究

    Project Year :

    2019.04
    -
    2023.03
     

    欠畑 岳

     View Summary

    本研究の目的は、短距離走(スプリント)のコーチング現場に科学的な根拠を提示するため、トップスプリンターの走動作およびそれを制御する神経機構を包括的に解明することである。
    本年度(2019年度)は、研究課題①:スプリンターのスムーズな走動作に関わる『Switch』の検討、研究課題②:スプリントのシザース動作を可能にする筋活動の特徴(両脚の検討)を解明するために、実験を行った。
    被験者は陸上競技選手18名とし、全天候型陸上競技場におけるスプリント時の筋活動を無線筋電装置(DELSYS, Trigno Wireless Sensor)で記録した。被験筋は、両側の大腿直筋、大腿二頭筋、前脛骨筋、腓腹筋とした。同時に走動作をハイスピードカメラで追従撮影し、接地と離地の瞬間を判断しピッチとストライド長を算出した。また、光電管で分析区間20mの平均タイム(平均走速度)を算出した。また、ランニングサイクルにおける片脚および両脚のそれぞれの筋活動の開始(Onset)と終了(Offset)のタイミング(%Time)を算出し、走速度、ピッチ、ストライドとの相関関係を検討した。
    その結果、片脚における主動筋と拮抗筋の切り替えの能力の指標である"Switch"がピッチと有意な相関関係が認められた。さらに、両脚の主動筋の協調性を示す"Scissors"のタイミングとピッチに有意な相関関係が認められた。
    これらの結果は、ピッチの高い選手は、接地脚の大腿二頭筋の活動に対し早いタイミングで反対脚(スウィング脚)の大腿直筋を活動させることで、高いピッチを獲得している可能性を示唆するものである。

  • 坂ダッシュトレーニングによる下肢筋活動への影響

    公益財団法人 石本記念デサントスポーツ科学振興財団 第44回研究助成金

    Project Year :

    2022.01
    -
    2022.06
     

  • Development of the sprint training program based on the neuro-muscular control

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Fund for the Promotion of Joint International Research (Fostering Joint International Research (A))

    Project Year :

    2020
     
     
     

Misc

  • スプリント走における両脚の大腿筋活動の制御—Control of thigh muscle activity in both legs during sprint running

    欠畑 岳

    陸上競技研究 / 日本学生陸上競技連合 [編]   2023 ( 3 ) 2 - 12  2023.10

  • Effects of The Lower Limb Muscle Activity During Uphill Sprint Training

    欠畑岳, 欠畑岳, 後藤悠太, 礒繁雄, 彼末一之, 彼末一之

    デサントスポーツ科学(Web)   44  2023

    J-GLOBAL

  • Observational evaluation of sprinting movement in young children and its relationship to sprinting ability

    鈴木康介, 後藤悠太, 欠畑岳, 中田大貴, 彼末一之, 彼末一之

    体育学研究(Web)   67  2022

    J-GLOBAL

  • 短距離選手と長距離選手の両脚の走動作の比較

    佐野陽, 長谷伸之助, 欠畑岳, 礒繁雄

    日本コーチング学会大会(兼)日本体育学会体育方法専門領域研究会大会大会プログラム・予稿集   33rd-15th (CD-ROM)  2022

    J-GLOBAL

  • 100m走の減速はなぜ生じるか?-大腿筋活動の制御から探る-

    欠畑岳, 後藤悠太, 礒繁雄, 彼末一之

    日本コーチング学会大会(兼)日本体育学会体育方法専門領域研究会大会大会プログラム・予稿集   33rd-15th (CD-ROM)  2022

    J-GLOBAL

  • 世界陸上2019DOHA 男子400mハードルレポート 2020年東京オリンピックに向けた日本人選手の課題考察 : ハードル間所要時間・速度・歩数に着目して

    増田 竜一, 田村 優, 吉岡 毅, 欠畑 岳, 礒 繁雄

    スプリント研究 = Sprint research   30   67 - 70  2021.12

  • 競走はスプリントパフォーマンスを向上させる?加速区間・最高速度区間の比較

    塚本弘樹, 欠畑岳, 彼末一之

    日本体育学会大会予稿集   70th ( 0 ) 182_1 - 182_1  2019

     View Summary

    <p> 陸上競技の短距離種目は、他選手と競走する状況で実施される。2009年の世界陸上100m決勝で、ウサイン・ボルトとタイソン・ゲイのステップが無意識のうちに一致した(同調現象)ことで、お互いのパフォーマンスが増長した可能性が示唆されている。そこで本研究では単独走と競走という条件設定の違いが走速度、ピッチ、ストライドに及ぼす影響を調べることを目的とした。被験者は短距離走を専門とする大学生26人とした。被験者はクラウチングスタートから60m走を1人で走る条件(単独走)と2人で走る条件(競走)をランダムに実施した。解析は加速局面(0-30m)と最高走速度局面(30-60m)に分けて行った。最高走速度局面では、走速度およびストライドが競走において有意に大きかった (p<0.01)。一方、加速局面では、走速度が競走において有意に大きかった(p<0.05)。いずれの局面においても「競走する」ことが走速度の向上に貢献する、つまりパフォーマンスの向上に繋がる可能性が示唆された。しかし、競走によるストライドへの影響は加速局面と最高走速度局面とでは異なることが示唆された。</p>

    DOI CiNii J-GLOBAL

  • Development of teaching running form to improve physical competence in elementary school children

    後藤 悠太, 欠畑 岳, 田上 幸司

    笹川スポーツ研究助成研究成果報告書 = Sasakawa sports research grants     314 - 320  2018

    CiNii

  • スプリントにおける股関節筋の活動タイミングの特徴

    欠畑岳, 後藤悠太, 礒繁雄, 彼末一之

    日本体育学会大会予稿集   69th ( 0 ) 138_3 - 138_3  2018

     View Summary

    <p> 【目的】スプリントにおける股関節筋の筋活動の特徴を明らかにすることを目的とした。【方法】被験者は男子陸上競技短距離選手18名であった。最大努力による50m走中の大腿直筋(RF)と大腿二頭筋(BF)の表面筋電図を取得した。接地からその脚が再び接地する直前までを走の1サイクルとし、測定区間(20m)に要した8~10歩(4~5サイクル)を分析対象とした。筋電データはそれぞれのサイクル時間に合わせて規格化した。そして1サイクルにおけるRFおよびBFの活動タイミングおよび走速度とのピアソンの積率相関係数をそれぞれ算出した。【結果】走速度は9.88 ± 0.6m/s(最大値:10.99 m/s、最小値:9.30 m/s)であった。走速度の高い選手は、離地時にBFの活動が終了するタイミングが早く(r = 0.553)、スウィング期においてRFが活動し始めるタイミング(r = 0.637)とそれが終了するタイミングが早かった(r = 0.527)。さらに、スウィング期後半でBFが活動し始めるタイミングも走速度の高い選手ほど早かった(r = 0.621)。【結論】走速度の高い選手は、1サイクルにおいて股関節筋であるRFおよびBFの活動タイミングが早いことが示唆された。</p>

    DOI CiNii J-GLOBAL

  • 短距離走者における主観的努力度とスプリントパフォーマンスの関係 : 大学生競技者と中学生競技者を比較して (平成27年度学会報告) -- (研究発表)

    欠畑 岳, 早川 恭平, 福田 一樹, 小林 海, 礒 繁雄

    スプリント研究 = Sprint research   26   69 - 71  2017.05

    CiNii

  • 短距離走の加速局面における主観的努力度の変化とキネマティクスおよびキネティクスの関係

    欠畑岳, 早川恭平, 松井一樹, 久保倉里美, 小林海, 松尾彰文, 礒繁雄

    日本コーチング学会大会(兼)日本体育学会体育方法専門領域研究会大会大会プログラム・予稿集   28th-10th  2017

    J-GLOBAL

  • 110mハードル走におけるアプローチ局面の歩数の違いがパフォーマンスに与える影響

    早川恭平, 欠畑岳, 松井一樹, 久保倉里美, 小林海, 松尾彰文, 礒繁雄

    日本コーチング学会大会(兼)日本体育学会体育方法専門領域研究会大会大会プログラム・予稿集   28th-10th  2017

    J-GLOBAL

  • 11教−09−口−40 小学5・6年生における走ることが苦手な児童への短距離走の学習指導プログラムの効果

    鈴木 康介, 後藤 悠太, 欠畑 岳, 梶 将徳, 友添 秀則, 彼末 一之

    日本体育学会大会予稿集   68 ( 0 ) 267_1 - 267_1  2017

     View Summary

    <p> 学校体育等において誰もが経験するであろう短距離走では、「できる」自信が低いほど好感度が低くなるとされる(大塚,2013)。一方、平成29年に策定された第2期スポーツ基本計画において、子供のスポーツに対する愛好的態度を育成することの重要性が改めて示されるなど、スポーツを苦手・嫌いと感じている子供への対応は今後一層重要になると言える。そこで本研究では、子供が短距離走に対して自信を抱く上で重要となる疾走能力の向上をはかるための指導法の検討として、2016年9月~10月にかけ、埼玉県の公立小学校において計8回の放課後陸上教室を開催した。参加者は走ることが苦手と感じている5・6年生児童であり、疾走中の姿勢や上肢、下肢動作の改善をはかることを目的に、マーク走を中心としたプログラムに取り組んだ。指導の結果、6回以上参加した児童16名において、疾走動作が顕著に改善され、50m走タイムが0.30秒(p<0.01)短縮するなど、疾走能力の向上が認められた。このことから本プログラムは児童の疾走能力向上に対して有効であるが、今後は事例の蓄積とともにアンケートによって児童の運動有能感の変化を検証する必要があると考えられた。</p>

    DOI CiNii

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Sub-affiliation

  • Affiliated organization   Global Education Center

Internal Special Research Projects

  • 100m 走における両脚の大腿直筋と大腿二頭筋の活動のタイミング

    2021   礒繁雄, 彼末一之

     View Summary

    陸上競技選手9名を対象に100 m走中のRF、BFの筋活動を記録し、最高走速度局面(50-70 m)と減速局面(80-100 m)における走速度、ピッチ、ストライド、筋活動のタイミングの変数を比較した。その結果、減速局面では走速度とピッチが減少した。また、RFとBFのタイミングがランニングサイクルの後半に遅れた。さらに、接地脚(BF)に対するスウィング脚(RF)のタイミング(“Scissors”)が遅延した。つまり、減速局面では両脚の大腿筋活動の制御パターンに変化が生じ、結果としてスウィング脚のリカバリー動作の遅れに繋がり、ピッチの低下を惹起していたと推察される。以上より、100m走のパフォーマンスの制限因子には、大腿筋活動の制御パターンが関与している可能性が示唆された。

  • スプリント時におけるリラックスに関わる筋活動の特徴の解明

    2020   礒繁雄, 彼末一之

     View Summary

    【目的】スプリント時のリラックスに関わる筋活動の特徴を解明する。【方法】陸上選手18名を対象に、スプリント時の両脚の大腿直筋と大腿二頭筋のEMGを記録し活動の始まり(Onset)と終わり(Offset)のタイミングを算出し、走速度、ピッチ、ストライドとの関係を検討した。【結果と考察】ピッチの高い選手は、大腿直筋と大腿二頭筋のスムーズな切換え(共収縮が無いこと)が観察された。このようにスプリントは、主動筋-拮抗筋の切り替えという能力が重要であろう。

  • スプリントにおける下肢の筋活動のタイミングに関わる神経制御の特徴の解明

    2019   礒繁雄, 彼末一之

     View Summary

    【目的】両脚の筋活動のタイミングとキネマティクスとの関係性を解明する。【方法】陸上選手18名を対象に、スプリント時の両脚の大腿直筋と大腿二頭筋のEMGを記録した。ハイスピードカメラの動画像からピッチとストライド長、走速度を算出した。また、両筋の活動の始まり(Onset)と終わり(Offset)のタイミングを算出し、キネマティクスとの相関関係を調べた。【結果と考察】ピッチの高い選手は、接地脚のBFの活動に対し早いタイミングで反対脚(スウィング脚)のRFを活動させることで、高いピッチを獲得している可能性が示唆される。