MATSUOKA, Ryoji

写真a

Affiliation

Affiliated organization, Center for International Education

Job title

Associate Professor(without tenure)

Homepage URL

https://publons.com/researcher/3433059/ryoji-matsuoka/

Concurrent Post 【 display / non-display

  • Affiliated organization   Global Education Center

 

Research Interests 【 display / non-display

  • Socioeconomic status

  • Regional disparities

  • Social stratification

  • Inequality in education

  • Educational sociology

Papers 【 display / non-display

  • The Vanishing 'Mass Education Society'

    Ryoji Matsuoka

    Social Science Japan Journal   22 ( 1 ) 65 - 84  2019.03  [Refereed]

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    © 2018 The Author(s). With a nationally standardised compulsory education system and the rapid expansion of upper secondary education, Japan was once characterised as a 'mass education society' with nationwide educational zeal. However, recent literature points to regional disparities in value orientations in the field of education, while no study has provided an empirical assessment of changes in regional disparities with comparable data collected during different periods. Thus, this study aims to investigate whether attitudes towards education became more divided between regions from the 1990s to the 2010s by using several waves of two nationally representative social surveys (SSM and SSP). Furthermore, by applying multilevel modelling to the SSP 2015 survey, this study clarifies how individuals' places of residence relate to their attitudes towards education. The results indicate that regional disparities in people's attitudes towards education emerged between the 1990s and 2010s. Moreover, disparities in cultural capital associated with socio-economic status partly explain the attitude gaps not only among individuals but also among neighbourhoods. Overall, this study's empirical investigations validate the emerging regional disparities, indicating the collapse of the mass education society, and a differentiation mechanism based on socio-economic disparities between neighbourhoods.

    DOI

  • Concerted cultivation developed in a standardized education system

    Ryoji Matsuoka

    Social Science Research   77   161 - 178  2019.01  [Refereed]

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    © 2018 The Author Annette Lareau coined the term “concerted cultivation” to describe the cultural logic of a distinctive middle-class parenting pattern. I explore whether concerted cultivation as practiced in Japan exhibits unique patterns in response to distinctive characteristics of the nation's education system (i.e., standardized compulsory education with high-stakes educational selection in secondary education). Using nationally representative longitudinal data on third-to sixth-grade children (N = 30187) through growth curve models, I show that college educated parents shift their focus of parenting practices (measured by four aspects) from providing diverse experiences to narrower academic preparation as the time for lower secondary education approaches. Using multivariate analyses with an additional wave of data in seventh grade, I further demonstrate that “unequal childhoods,”––the accumulated disparities in adult-led structured experiences––lead to unequal success in the transition to junior high school education, a critical period of preparation before the mass educational selection (i.e., high school admissions).

    DOI PubMed

  • Inequality in shadow education participation in an egalitarian compulsory education system

    Ryoji Matsuoka

    Comparative Education Review   62 ( 4 ) 565 - 586  2018.11  [Refereed]

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    © 2018 by the Comparative and International Education Society. By assessing differentiated upper secondary education with homogeneous student backgrounds, previous studies indicate that a high concentration of students from families of higher socioeconomic status (SES) and a climate of educational expectations for higher educational attainment in schools result in a “hot house” effect that facilitates students’ shadow education participation. Building on the literature, this study investigates whether the effect exists in an egalitarian system as a possible hidden mechanism of inequality in learning opportunities due to de facto socioeconomic disparities among residential places. Using a nationally representative sample of ninth graders in Japan, this study identifies the hot house effect on shadow education participation in the compulsory education system, which is regarded as egalitarian. Specifically, family SES relates to parents’ educational expectations, neighborhood SES appears to shape varying neighborhood-level expectations, and these factors lead to differentiation in shadow education participation, countering the intention of the egalitarian education system.

    DOI

  • Inequality of effort in an egalitarian education system

    Ryoji Matsuoka

    Asia Pacific Education Review   18 ( 3 ) 347 - 359  2017.09  [Refereed]

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    © 2017, Education Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea. Japanese compulsory education is considered as relatively egalitarian since poorer regions receive more funding from the central government, which standardizes the quality of education nationwide. Nevertheless, the literature indicates socioeconomic status-based achievement and educational attainment gaps. As parts of explanations of these gaps, previous studies have indicated an association between students’ socioeconomic status and their study efforts, or inequality of effort. This study is the first to assess this phenomenon while the most critical mass education selection in Japan is approaching, building on relevant theoretical frameworks regarding educational expectations, including anticipatory socialization. To investigate inequality of effort among ninth-grade students, the study also examines the differences between students’ neighborhoods on the basis of mechanisms of neighborhood inequalities (i.e., social contagion and collective socialization). Overall, using multilevel modeling with nationally representative data from Japan, this study provides empirical evidence for inequality of effort and the role of post-secondary educational expectations at both the individual and neighborhood levels. This inequality of effort is observed despite the pressure that occurs about three months before the period of selections by high schools. In particular, students from advantaged families and community environments expect to pursue higher education and therefore tend to spend longer hours studying, whereas those from disadvantaged families and communities exert less effort. As Japan is not the only country where the relation between students’ socioeconomic status and efforts is evident, this study’s results may be applied to other societies to better understand mechanisms of intergenerational transmission of inequality.

    DOI

  • The Impact of Household Income on Extracurricular Activity Participation : A longitudinal study of the role of economic capital in Japan

    MATSUOKA Ryoji

    The Journal of Educational Sociology   98 ( 0 ) 155 - 175  2016  [Refereed]

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    <p>In Japan, many children participate in organized, adult-led educational activities outside the school system. As sociological studies consistently indicate that children with higher household income and highly educated parents are more likely to enroll in such activities, there are educational opportunity gaps outside of school hours. Despite the importance of understanding the inequality of learning opportunities, previous studies have relied only on cross-sectional data and have not clarified whether parents invest differently in such activities depending on their socioeconomic status when their children become older. In addition, the literature has not assessed the impact of changes in economic capital, which is at the root of the forms of capital (i.e., economic, cultural, and social) that individuals strategically employ. Thus, to determine the role of economic capital in children's participation in organized activities outside school, this study investigates (1) whether the strength of the relationship between children's school age and their participation varies according to household income and parental educational backgrounds and (2) whether changes in household income are related to changes in organized activity participation. Specifically, this study uses three waves of data (ages 4.5, 7 , and 10, belonging to kindergarten or nursely school, first grade, and fourth grade, respectively) from the Longitudinal Survey of Babies in the 21st Century, conducted by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The primary dependent variable in this analysis is the number of types of organized activities (e.g., academic lessons, music, and swimming) in which children participated at each wave. This variable represents one aspect of "concerted cultivation" (Lareau 2003, 2011): a cultural logic demonstrated by middle-class parents, who tend to organize their children's lives so as to cultivate talents and encourage skill development. As a supplemental means of analysis, the amount of money spent on raising a child (including fees for organized activities) was also examined.<BR><BR>Results derived from a hybrid fixed-effects model empirically highlighted the important role of household income in the unequal distribution of learning opportunities outside the school system. Firstly, children with higher household income are more likely to enroll in a larger number of types of outside-school activities when other factors are held constant. Secondly, a random slope of time on the outcome significantly varies, and annual household income and parental educational backgrounds partly explain this variation. Finally, when controlling for time-invariant unobserved heterogeneity, changes in household income are, albeit modestly, associated with changes in the number of types of extracurricular activities. This result is also obtained when expenses are assessed as the dependent variable. These empirical results indicate that, when a child becomes older, parents with higher levels of income and education tend to leverage their economic capital to provide a larger number of types of organized educational opportunities for their child. Additionally, the findings imply the importance of parents' economic capital in determining the extent of learning opportunities to which a child is exposed outside the school system. In conclusion, this study empirically demonstrates the importance of economic capital that enables parents to practice "concerted cultivation," presumably to cultivate the child's talents and skills.</p>

    DOI CiNii

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Books and Other Publications 【 display / non-display

  • 教育格差 : 階層・地域・学歴

    松岡, 亮二

    筑摩書房  2019 ISBN: 9784480072375

  • 不平等生成メカニズムの解明 : 格差・階層・公正

    佐藤, 嘉倫, 木村, 敏明, 沼崎, 一郎, 永吉, 希久子, 下夷, 美幸, Takenaka, Ayumi, 石田, 賢示, 中室, 牧子, 辻本, 昌弘, 今井, 順, 浜田, 宏, 瀧川, 裕貴, 松岡, 亮二, 秋永, 雄一, 濱本, 真一, 川嶋, 伸佳, 大淵, 憲一

    ミネルヴァ書房  2013 ISBN: 9784623065622

Misc 【 display / non-display

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Research Projects 【 display / non-display

  • 日本社会における教育不平等の包括的実証研究

    基盤研究(C)

    Project Year :

    2017.04
    -
    2022.03
     

    松岡 亮二

     View Summary

    2018年度中に、3編の査読付き単著論文が海外学術誌に掲載された。どの学術誌もSocial Science Citation Indexに登録されている。
    まず、The Comparative and International Education Society (比較国際教育学会)の機関誌「Comparative Education Review」掲載論文では、比較的平等な学習機会を提供するとされる日本の義務教育制度下における、出身階層と出身地域による学校外学習機会格差を実証的に検討した。その結果、社会経済的地位(SES)による参加格差が個人間・近隣間で確認された。
    次に、「Social Science Research」掲載論文は、厚生労働省の「21世紀出生児縦断調査」の個票データを分析し、出身家庭のSES→小学校時の(複数年にわたる)子育て戦略の違い→経験蓄積格差→中学1年時点の(目に見えない)身体化された学校教育との親和性格差、と解釈できる結果を実証的に提示した。日本の教育制度と高SES層の子育て戦略の関連について論じている。
    最後に、「Social Science Japan Journal」掲載論文は、「社会階層と社会移動に関する全国調査」(SSM)とSSPプロジェクトによる「階層と社会意識全国調査」(SSP-I2010とSSP2015)の個票データを用いて、教育意識の時代変容と近隣間格差を分析した。その結果、私たちが知る一般的な教育熱の地域格差(都会のほうが地方より教育熱が高い)は2000年代以降の日本社会の姿であることを示した。 また、居住地域の大卒率に基づく近隣の文化的規範によって教育熱の近隣格差(居住地域による格差)があると解釈できる結果を示した。

  • 自治体学力調査を利用した,学力格差の変容に関する量的・質的研究

    基盤研究(B)

    Project Year :

    2017.04
    -
    2021.03
     

    川口 俊明, 土屋 隆裕, 垂見 裕子, 松尾 剛, 樋口 裕介, 松岡 亮二, 礒部 年晃

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    本研究の目的は,西日本のA市を対象に,同市の小学4年生(H28年度)が,小4から中2に至るまでの学力格差の変容とその要因を,自治体が実施する学力調査を利用したパネルデータの計量分析(量的分析)と,学校・家庭での参与観察(質的調査)の両面から明らかにすることである。
    この目的を達成するため,平成30年度は,平成29年度に引き続き,次の4つの作業を行った。(1)自治体学力調査を利用した学力の変化の把握・・・A市教育委員会が実施している学力調査を利用し,小4から小6に至るまでの学力変化の把握を行う。(2)生活実態調査等を利用した,学力格差の要因の計量分析・・・生活実態調査等を利用し,学力格差の変容とその要因に関する計量分析を行う。(3)学校/学級での参与観察調査・・・学校/学級での参与観察調査を行い,計量分析で把握しきれない学力格差の変容に関する情報を収集する。具体的には,A市内のいくつかの小学校を対象に,学級での参与観察調査や担任・管理職へのインタビュー調査を行う。(4)家庭での参与観察調査・・・家庭での参与観察調査を行い,計量分析で把握しきれない学力格差の変容に関する情報を収集する。
    平成30年度の調査においては,いずれの作業も,A市教育委員会,A市の小学校,および保護者の協力を得ることができ,予定通り順調に実施することができた。これらの調査結果の概要については,30年度の日本教育社会学会にて学会報告を行っている。また,この過程で得られた学力調査の分析結果について,日本テスト学会に論文投稿を行い,採択されている。

  • Empirical research on mechanisms of educational inequality

    Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B)

    Project Year :

    2014.04
    -
    2018.03
     

    Matsuoka Ryoji

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    This project investigated mechanisms of educational inequality using various nationally representative data sets collected from Japanese society. During the period of the project, I published 10 articles in peer-reviewed journals in Japan and overseas (i.e., seven single-author papers and three co-authored papers as the first author). These studies’ findings describe how one’s family socioeconomic status (SES) relates to important indicators such as educational opportunities, academic achievements, and educational aspirations in the society that is considered egalitarian when compared with other societies such as that of the United States. I also clarified the role of collective SES (e.g., school SES) in educational outcomes. To contribute to the literature on social reproduction in education (i.e., intergenerational transmission of inequalities in education) not only in Japan but also in other parts of the world, seven of the 10 studies were written and published in English.

  • Influences of socioeconomic disparities between schools and between regions on students' learning choices and behaviors

    Grant-in-Aid for Research Activity start-up

    Project Year :

    2012.08
    -
    2014.03
     

    MATSUOKA Ryoji

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    This project produces six peer reviewed journal articles using multilevel modeling techniques. Empirical investigations of PISA data reveal the relationship between high school tracking structure of Japan and students' learning choices and behaviors. In addition, a comparative study using TIMSS data shows how school systems relate to eighth grade students' behaviors in the United States and Japan. Finally, the other study with TIMSS data indicates a socioeconomic disparity between schools and its relation with teachers' expectations for students' achievement in Japanese compulsory education.

Specific Research 【 display / non-display

  • 教育格差メカニズムの実証的検討

    2020  

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     子供自身が選ぶことのできない初期条件である「生まれ」によって学力などの成果に差がある「教育格差」のメカニズムを検討することが本課題の目的である。そのために、公立校で収集されたデータで出身家庭の社会経済的地位による格差の可視化が可能であり、既存のデータを記述的に分析することで政策的意思決定の資料になり得ることを示した。具体的には、大都市部(X市)の公立小学校において4年・5年・6年と同じ児童・学校を追跡したパネルデータを用いて、一時点の調査だけでは見えてこない社会経済的地位による児童間・学校間の学力・行動などの格差を、自治体の教育行政の意思決定に活用できる分かりやすい形で実証的に提示した。

  • 初等中等教育における不平等についての量的研究

    2018  

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     「研究成果発表実績」の(1)は,The Comparative and International Education Society の機関誌「Comparative Education Review」に掲載された査読論文である。「教育学」分野のトップ10%学術誌なので早稲田大学「ハイ・インパクトジャーナル掲載支援プログラム」による支援を受け,オープンアクセス論文として公開された。(2)は,アメリカの学術誌「Social Science Research」に掲載された査読論文である。「社会科学」分野のトップ10%学術誌なので,こちらも前述のプログラムの適用を受けオープンアクセス論文となっている。(3)は,教育社会学論文を投稿する日本発の媒体としては唯一Social Sciences Citation Indexに含まれている,東京大学・社会科学研究所が編集しOxford University Pressが出版している国際誌に掲載された査読付き論文である。

  • 「大衆教育社会」の変容:大規模データによる実証

    2017  

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     研究目的は「大衆教育社会」の瓦解――個人間のみならず地域間における教育の階層差拡大――の実証的検討である。まず,教育に対する価値志向が時点間・地域間で変わってきたのか,大規模社会調査である「社会階層と社会移動調査」(SSM)と「階層と社会意識全国調査」(SSP)の個票データを用いて検証した。その結果,教育に対する価値志向の地域差の拡大が近年において確認された。また,2015年に行われたSSMの分析の結果,男性はどの年齢層であっても,三大都市圏や大都市の出身であると大学進学期待を持ち,実際に大卒となる傾向が明らかになった。さらに女性については,中年層(40代・50代)と比べて,20代の進学期待・大卒学歴獲得の地域格差が拡大していた。

  • 教育の地域格差に関する実証研究

    2016  

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    どのように親の世帯所得や学歴に代表される社会経済的地位が子どもの最終学歴と関連するのか――教育達成格差のメカニズム――は,特に日本において実証的に未解明な部分も多い。本研究では,教育の地域格差を不平等生成メカニズムの一つとして着目する。この目的のために,2015年度に国内で収集された2つの大規模社会調査――「社会階層と社会移動調査(SSM調査)」と階層と社会意識全国調査(SSP調査)――,それに平成23年度に内閣府が実施した「親と子の生活意識に関する調査」の個票データを用いて教育における地域格差を実証的に明らかにした。

  • 計量分析による教育不平等研究

    2015  

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    世帯の社会経済的状況(学歴や世帯収入など)によって保護者(以下,親)の行動や選択が異なること,そして,それらの差異が小学生の教育指標を分化していることを大規模データ分析によって実証的に明らかにした。まず,世帯収入と父母学歴によって父母の学校活動関与に差があり,それが小学校児童の学校適応を分化していることを示した。次に,親の学歴によって異なる9種類の関与の差が,小学校児童の学校外学習時間(努力)格差拡大を部分的に説明していることがわかった。最後に,4.5歳の時点で親学歴によって習い事の利用種類量に差異があり,その差は小学校1年・4年と学齢が上がるにつれ拡大し,そこには経済資本の多寡が関連していた。

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Syllabus 【 display / non-display

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