Updated on 2022/05/26

写真a

 
KATAOKA, Jun
 
Affiliation
Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Advanced Science and Engineering
Job title
Professor

Concurrent Post

  • Faculty of Science and Engineering   Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering

Research Institute

  • 2020
    -
    2022

    理工学術院総合研究所   兼任研究員

Education

  • 1997.04
    -
    2000.03

    University of Tokyo   Faculty of Science, Depatment of Physics  

  • 1995.04
    -
    1997.03

    University of Tokyo   Faculty of Science, Department of Physics  

  • 1991.04
    -
    1995.03

    University of Tokyo   Faculty of Science   Department of Physics  

Degree

  • University of Tokyo   Doctor of Science

Research Experience

  • 2017.04
    -
     

    JAXA visiting professor

  • 2014.04
    -
     

    Professor, Waseda University

  • 2009.04
    -
    2014.03

    Associate Professor, Waseda University

  • 2006.04
    -
    2010.03

    JST project leader

  • 2007.04
    -
    2009.03

    Assistant Professor, Tokyo Tech

  • 2001.04
    -
    2007.03

    Reseach Associate, Tokyo Tech

  • 2000.04
    -
    2001.03

    JSPS fellow (PD)

  • 2000.04
    -
    2001.03

    JSPS fellow (PD)

  • 1997.04
    -
    2000.03

    JSPS fellow (DC1)

  • 1997.04
    -
    2000.03

    JSPS fellow (DC1)

▼display all

Professional Memberships

  •  
     
     

    医学物理学会

  •  
     
     

    日本天文学会

  •  
     
     

    日本物理学会

  •  
     
     

    日本応用物理学会

 

Research Areas

  • Quantum beam science

  • Astronomy

  • Medical systems

  • Radiological sciences

  • Theoretical studies related to particle-, nuclear-, cosmic ray and astro-physics

Research Interests

  • R&D of novel radiation detector

  • Radiology imaging

  • Medical Physics

  • High-energy Astrophysics

Research Seeds

Papers

  • Interaction of the galactic-centre super bubbles with the gaseous disc

    Yoshiaki Sofue, Jun Kataoka

    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society   506 ( 2 ) 2170 - 2180  2021.09

     View Summary

    The interaction of Galactic centre (GC) super bubbles (GSBs) with the gaseous disc and halo of the Milky Way is investigated using radio continuum, X-ray, H i, and CO line surveys. The radio North Polar Spur (NPS) constitutes the brightest eastern ridge of GSB, brightening towards the galactic plane and reaching l = 22°, b = +2° at the sharpest end, where it intersects the tangential direction of the 3-kpc-expanding ring and crater. Examination of the spur ridges reveals that the entire GSB, including the NPS and its counter spurs, constitutes a GC-symmetrical ω/ω shape. The thickness and gas density of the H i and CO discs are shown to increase sharply from the inside (lower longitude) to the outside the 3-kpc crater. Formation of crater is explained by the sweeping of the upper layer of disc gas by the shock wave from the GC by the explosion ~10 My ago with the emitted energy of several 1055 erg. Based on the discussion, a unified view on the structure and formation mechanism of GSB is presented.

    DOI

  • Spatial Variations of Magnetic Field along Active Galactic Nuclei Jets on Sub-parsec to Megaparsec Scales

    S. Ito, Y. Inoue, J. Kataoka

    Astrophysical Journal   916 ( 2 )  2021.08

     View Summary

    We report the systematic analysis of knots, hotspots, and lobes in 57 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to investigate the variation of the magnetic field along the jet from the sub-parsec base to the terminus on kiloparsec-to-megaparsec scales. Expanding the number of radio/X-ray samples in the work of Kataoka & Stawarz, we analyzed the data in 12 FR i and 30 FR ii radio galaxies, 12 quasars, and three BL Lac objects, which contained 76 knots, 42 hotspots, and 29 radio lobes. We first derived the equipartition magnetic fields in the cores and then estimated those in various jet components by assuming B est ∝ d -1, where d is the distance from the jet base. On the other hand, the magnetic field in large-scale jets (knots, hotspots, and lobes), B eq, can be estimated from the observed flux and spatial extent under the equipartition hypothesis. We show that the magnetic field decreases as the distance along the jet increases, but generally in a more gentle way than ∝d -1. The increase in B eq/B est at large d may suggest the deceleration of the jet downstream, but there is no difference between FR i and FR ii jets. Moreover, the magnetic fields in the hotspots are systematically larger than those in knots and lobes. Finally, we applied the same analysis to knots and lobes in Centaurus A to check whether the above discussion will hold even in a single jet source.

    DOI

  • Measurement of the Iron Spectrum in Cosmic Rays from 10 GeV/n to 2.0 TeV/n with the Calorimetric Electron Telescope on the International Space Station

    O. Adriani, Y. Akaike, K. Asano, Y. Asaoka, E. Berti, G. Bigongiari, W. R. Binns, M. Bongi, P. Brogi, A. Bruno, J. H. Buckley, N. Cannady, G. Castellini, C. Checchia, M. L. Cherry, G. Collazuol, K. Ebisawa, H. Fuke, S. Gonzi, T. G. Guzik, T. Hams, K. Hibino, M. Ichimura, K. Ioka, W. Ishizaki, M. H. Israel, K. Kasahara, J. Kataoka, R. Kataoka, Y. Katayose, C. Kato, N. Kawanaka, Y. Kawakubo, K. Kobayashi, K. Kohri, H. S. Krawczynski, J. F. Krizmanic, J. Link, P. Maestro, P. S. Marrocchesi, A. M. Messineo, J. W. Mitchell, S. Miyake, A. A. Moiseev, M. Mori, N. Mori, H. M. Motz, K. Munakata, S. Nakahira, J. Nishimura, G. A. De Nolfo, S. Okuno, J. F. Ormes, N. Ospina, S. Ozawa, L. Pacini, P. Papini, B. F. Rauch, S. B. Ricciarini, K. Sakai, T. Sakamoto, M. Sasaki, Y. Shimizu, A. Shiomi, P. Spillantini, F. Stolzi, S. Sugita, A. Sulaj, M. Takita, T. Tamura, T. Terasawa, S. Torii, Y. Tsunesada, Y. Uchihori, E. Vannuccini, J. P. Wefel, K. Yamaoka, S. Yanagita, A. Yoshida, K. Yoshida

    Physical Review Letters   126 ( 24 )  2021.06

     View Summary

    The Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET), in operation on the International Space Station since 2015, collected a large sample of cosmic-ray iron over a wide energy interval. In this Letter a measurement of the iron spectrum is presented in the range of kinetic energy per nucleon from 10 GeV/n to 2.0 TeV/n allowing the inclusion of iron in the list of elements studied with unprecedented precision by space-borne instruments. The measurement is based on observations carried out from January 2016 to May 2020. The CALET instrument can identify individual nuclear species via a measurement of their electric charge with a dynamic range extending far beyond iron (up to atomic number Z=40). The energy is measured by a homogeneous calorimeter with a total equivalent thickness of 1.2 proton interaction lengths preceded by a thin (3 radiation lengths) imaging section providing tracking and energy sampling. The analysis of the data and the detailed assessment of systematic uncertainties are described and results are compared with the findings of previous experiments. The observed differential spectrum is consistent within the errors with previous experiments. In the region from 50 GeV/n to 2 TeV/n our present data are compatible with a single power law with spectral index -2.60±0.03.

    DOI PubMed

  • Machine-learning Application to Fermi-LAT Data: Sharpening All-sky Map and Emphasizing Variable Sources

    Shogo Sato, Jun Kataoka, Soichiro Ito, Jun'Ichi Kotoku, Masato Taki, Asuka Oyama, Takaya Toyoda, Yuki Nakamura, Marino Yamamoto

    Astrophysical Journal   913 ( 2 )  2021.06

     View Summary

    A novel application of machine-learning (ML) based image processing algorithms is proposed to analyze an all-sky map (ASM) obtained using the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. An attempt was made to simulate a 1 yr ASM from a short-exposure ASM generated from 1-week observation by applying three ML-based image processing algorithms: dictionary learning, U-net, and Noise2Noise. Although the inference based on ML is less clear compared to standard likelihood analysis, the quality of the ASM was generally improved. In particular, the complicated diffuse emission associated with the galactic plane was successfully reproduced only from 1-week observation data to mimic a ground truth (GT) generated from a 1 yr observation. Such ML algorithms can be implemented relatively easily to provide sharper images without various assumptions of emission models. In contrast, large deviations between simulated ML maps and the GT map were found, which are attributed to the significant temporal variability of blazar-type active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over a year. Thus, the proposed ML methods are viable not only to improve the image quality of an ASM but also to detect variable sources, such as AGNs, algorithmically, i.e., without human bias. Moreover, we argue that this approach is widely applicable to ASMs obtained by various other missions; thus, it has the potential to examine giant structures and transient events, both of which are rarely found in pointing observations.

    DOI

  • Development of a neutron camera system to visualize the dose distribution by secondary neutrons for safer proton therapy

    R. Tanaka, J. Kataoka, F. Nishi, H. Yokokawa, T. Inaniwa

    Journal of Instrumentation   16 ( 6 )  2021.06

     View Summary

    Proton therapy has recently garnered significant attention as an effective treatment for cancer that can effectively damage tumor tissues while reducing doses to healthy tissues and organs. However, secondary neutrons generated by interactions with protons and brass collimators or the patient's body may cause harm to the human body. Nevertheless, the risks are yet to be precisely assessed or reflected in actual treatment plans. In this study, we develop a novel neutron camera that enables the visualization of spatial dose distribution by secondary neutrons. First, a neutron camera comprising two layers of units is constructed; each of the layer is composed of a plastic scintillator coupled with a photomultiplier tube. As a preliminary experiment, it is confirmed that the developed camera can visualize fission neutrons from a 252Cf source. Subsequently, secondary neutrons are observed from a brass (imitating the brass collimator) and water (imitating the patient's body) phantom irradiated with a 70 MeV proton beam, in which the neutron camera is placed at 0°, 15° (only in the case of brass) and 30° from each phantom 30 cm ahead. Following neutron/gamma event selections using two methods, i.e., time of flight and pulse shape discrimination, each of the reconstructed images successfully converged at the correct positions, with average angular resolutions of 21° (brass, full width at half maximum (FWHM)) and 19° (water, FWHM). Furthermore, dosimetry using the G(E) function method is applied to the images, enabling a dose distribution image to be created using secondary neutrons. As a result, the evaluated dose rate is 307 μSv/min for brass and 88.1 μSv/min for water, which are 86 % and 64 % those of the simulated dose rates, respectively. Eventually, future tasks for the utilization of the camera in actual proton therapy are discussed.

    DOI

  • Application of machine-learning models to improve the image quality of photon-counting CT images

    T. Toyoda, S. Sato, H. Kiji, J. Kataoka, J. Kotoku, M. Taki

    Journal of Instrumentation   16 ( 5 )  2021.05

     View Summary

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been widely used in medical diagnostic imaging. However, conventional, energy-integrated CT requires a high radiation dose and can only provide monochromatic images that cannot eliminate various artifacts. In contrast, photon-counting CT (PC-CT) provides low-dose multicolor CT imaging, which enables the identification of multiple contrast agents. However, in the PC-CT system, the lack of photon statistics, which is also caused by image reconstruction in the limited energy band, severely affects the image quality. In this study, we applied three types of machine-learning (ML) techniques to improved the image quality of PC-CT, that is, dictionary learning, U-Net, and Noise2Noise. These ML models were trained using low- and high-dose image pairs created in simple steps. The trained ML models were applied to simulated data, and experimental PC-CT images of contrast agents used in clinical practice. Consequently, in the simulated data, the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) value improved from 21.3 for the input to 26.6, 33.3, and 30.1 for dictionary learning, U-Net, and Noise2Noise, respectively. Furthermore, in the actual PC-CT images, we successfully reproduced PC-CT images with high PSNR, which enabled simultaneous imaging of multiple contrast agents with improved accuracy of concentration estimation. As a future perspective, we will develop a processing technique that can be applied to in vivo CT images.

    DOI

  • Origin of galactic spurs: New insight from radio/X-ray all-sky maps

    Jun Kataoka, Marino Yamamoto, Yuki Nakamura, Soichiro Ito, Yoshiaki Sofue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Takeshi Nakamori, Tomonori Totani

    Astrophysical Journal   908 ( 1 )  2021.02

     View Summary

    In this study, we analyze giant Galactic spurs seen in both radio and X-ray all-sky maps to reveal their origins. We discuss two types of giant spurs: one is the brightest diffuse emission near the map's center, which is likely to be related to Fermi bubbles (NPSs/SPSs, north/south polar spurs, respectively), and the other is weaker spurs that coincide positionally with local spiral arms in our Galaxy (LAS, Local Arm spur). Our analysis finds that the X-ray emissions, not only from the NPS but also from the SPS, are closer to the Galactic center by ~5° compared with the corresponding radio emission. Furthermore, larger offsets of 10°-20° are observed in the LASs; however, they are attributed to different physical origins. Moreover, the temperature of the X-ray emission is kT ≃ 0.2 keV for the LAS, which is systematically lower than those of the NPS and SPS (kT ≃ 0.3 keV) but consistent with the typical temperature of Galactic halo gas. We argue that the radio/X-ray offset and the slightly higher temperature of the NPS/SPS X-ray gas are due to the shock compression/heating of halo gas during a significant Galactic explosion in the past, whereas the enhanced X-ray emission from the LAS may be due to the weak condensation of halo gas in the arm potential or star formation activity without shock heating.

    DOI

  • 64-channel photon-counting computed tomography using a new MPPC-CT system

    H. Kiji, T. Maruhashi, T. Toyoda, J. Kataoka, M. Arimoto, D. Sato, K. Yoshiura, S. Kobayashi, H. Kawashima, S. Terazawa, S. Shiota, H. Ikeda

    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment   984  2020.12

     View Summary

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a widely used diagnostic tool to visualize the interior of the human body. However, the exposure dose of conventional CT in a single scan is large, typically 10 mSv, and therefore, it is necessary to find ways to reduce the radiation dose. Furthermore, conventional CT does not contain the energy information of individual X-ray photons because the X-ray signals are read out as an integrated form. This causes misidentification of materials. To resolve this issue, we propose a novel photon counting CT (PC-CT) system consisting of multi-pixel photon counters (MPPCs) coupled with high speed scintillators. The system has a 64-channel MPPC array that improves energy information and wide-area imaging. By fine energy adjustment and increasing the number of energy thresholds to six, which were newly implemented in the 64-channel PC-CT system, we succeeded in accurately estimating the concentrations of contrast agents such as iodine and gadolinium. Moreover, for mixed phantoms of iodine and gadolinium, we demonstrate discrimination between them, and estimate the concentrations individually, which cannot be done by conventional CTs. This shows great potential in expanding the applications of X-ray CTs.

    DOI

  • Direct Measurement of the Cosmic-Ray Carbon and Oxygen Spectra from 10 GeV/ n to 2.2 TeV/ n with the Calorimetric Electron Telescope on the International Space Station

    O. Adriani, Y. Akaike, K. Asano, Y. Asaoka, M. G. Bagliesi, E. Berti, G. Bigongiari, W. R. Binns, M. Bongi, P. Brogi, A. Bruno, J. H. Buckley, N. Cannady, G. Castellini, C. Checchia, M. L. Cherry, G. Collazuol, K. Ebisawa, H. Fuke, S. Gonzi, T. G. Guzik, T. Hams, K. Hibino, M. Ichimura, K. Ioka, W. Ishizaki, M. H. Israel, K. Kasahara, J. Kataoka, R. Kataoka, Y. Katayose, C. Kato, N. Kawanaka, Y. Kawakubo, K. Kobayashi, K. Kohri, H. S. Krawczynski, J. F. Krizmanic, J. Link, P. Maestro, P. S. Marrocchesi, A. M. Messineo, J. W. Mitchell, S. Miyake, A. A. Moiseev, M. Mori, N. Mori, H. M. Motz, K. Munakata, S. Nakahira, J. Nishimura, G. A. De Nolfo, S. Okuno, J. F. Ormes, N. Ospina, S. Ozawa, L. Pacini, F. Palma, P. Papini, B. F. Rauch, S. B. Ricciarini, K. Sakai, T. Sakamoto, M. Sasaki, Y. Shimizu, A. Shiomi, R. Sparvoli, P. Spillantini, F. Stolzi, S. Sugita, J. E. Suh, A. Sulaj, M. Takita, T. Tamura, T. Terasawa, S. Torii, Y. Tsunesada, Y. Uchihori, E. Vannuccini, J. P. Wefel, K. Yamaoka, S. Yanagita, A. Yoshida, K. Yoshida

    Physical Review Letters   125 ( 25 )  2020.12

     View Summary

    In this paper, we present the measurement of the energy spectra of carbon and oxygen in cosmic rays based on observations with the Calorimetric Electron Telescope on the International Space Station from October 2015 to October 2019. Analysis, including the detailed assessment of systematic uncertainties, and results are reported. The energy spectra are measured in kinetic energy per nucleon from 10 GeV/n to 2.2 TeV/n with an all-calorimetric instrument with a total thickness corresponding to 1.3 nuclear interaction length. The observed carbon and oxygen fluxes show a spectral index change of ∼0.15 around 200 GeV/n established with a significance >3σ. They have the same energy dependence with a constant C/O flux ratio 0.911±0.006 above 25 GeV/n. The spectral hardening is consistent with that measured by AMS-02, but the absolute normalization of the flux is about 27% lower, though in agreement with observations from previous experiments including the PAMELA spectrometer and the calorimetric balloon-borne experiment CREAM.

    DOI PubMed

  • Performance demonstration of a hybrid Compton camera with an active pinhole for wide-band X-ray and gamma-ray imaging

    Akihisa Omata, Jun Kataoka, Kazuya Fujieda, Shogo Sato, Eri Kuriyama, Hiroki Kato, Atsushi Toyoshima, Takahiro Teramoto, Kazuhiro Ooe, Yuwei Liu, Keiko Matsunaga, Takashi Kamiya, Tadashi Watabe, Eku Shimosegawa, Jun Hatazawa

    Scientific Reports   10 ( 1 )  2020.12

     View Summary

    X-ray and gamma-ray imaging are technologies with several applications in nuclear medicine, homeland security, and high-energy astrophysics. However, it is generally difficult to realize simultaneous wide-band imaging ranging from a few tens of keV to MeV because different interactions between photons and the detector material occur, depending on the photon energies. For instance, photoabsorption occurs below 100 keV, whereas Compton scattering dominates above a few hundreds of keV. Moreover, radioactive sources generally emit both X-ray and gamma-ray photons. In this study, we develop a “hybrid” Compton camera that can simultaneously achieve X-ray and gamma-ray imaging by combining features of “Compton” and “pinhole” cameras in a single detector system. Similar to conventional Compton cameras, the detector consists of two layers of scintillator arrays with the forward layer acting as a scatterer for high-energy photons (> 200 keV) and an active pinhole for low-energy photons (< 200 keV). The experimental results on the performance of the hybrid camera were consistent with those from the Geant4 simulation. We simultaneously imaged 241Am (60 keV) and 137Cs (662 keV) in the same field of view, achieving an angular resolution of 10∘ (FWHM) for both sources. In addition, imaging of 211At was conducted for the application in future nuclear medicine, particularly radionuclide therapy. The initial demonstrative images of the 211At phantom were reconstructed using the pinhole mode (using 79 keV) and Compton mode (using 570 keV), exhibiting significant similarities in source-position localization. We also verified that a mouse injected with 1 MBq of 211At can be imaged via pinhole-mode measurement in an hour.

    DOI PubMed

  • Precision spectroscopy of cesium-137 from the ground to 150 m above in Fukushima

    Takuya Kurihara, Kazuhisa Tanada, Jun Kataoka, Hiroki Hosokoshi, Saku Mochizuki, Leo Tagawa, Hiroshi Okochi, Yurie Gotoh

    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment   978  2020.10

     View Summary

    After the Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011, large amounts of radioisotopes (mainly 137Cs and 134Cs) were released into the environment. Various monitoring activities have revealed radiation on the ground both in local and wide areas; however, aerial dose variation in the vertical direction is poorly known. This paper presents the results of airborne gamma-ray spectroscopy of a contamination field in Namie, Fukushima, as measured from 0 m to 150 m above the ground by drone. We found that the gamma-ray dose rate measured at 100 m height is about seven times higher than that expected based on ground measurements, which is caused by two factors: (1) the integrated dose includes contamination of upward scattered 662-keV gamma rays and (2) radiation from 137Cs is vertically collimated because 137Cs is buried in the soil. We also propose a novel method to obtain the distribution of radioactive substances in the soil only through aerial mapping.

    DOI

  • High-statistics image generation from sparse radiation images by four types of machine-learning models

    S. Sato, J. Kataoka, J. Kotoku, M. Taki, A. Oyama, L. Tagawa, K. Fujieda, F. Nishi, T. Toyoda

    Journal of Instrumentation   15 ( 10 )  2020.10

     View Summary

    With the development of nuclear medicine diagnostics and treatment, the demand for image processing techniques has been increasing. Although single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are most common, the energy ranges they permit for imaging are limited to either below 300 keV (SPECT) or to 511 keV gamma rays (PET). Recently, Compton cameras have attracted attention, owing to their wide energy range, which stretches from a few hundred keV to several MeV. In this study, we performed Compton camera image processing using four machine-learning (ML) techniques: dictionary learning, UNet, SRGAN, and AUTOMAP. With these techniques, we tried to reduce the artifacts caused by the sparsity of statistics and improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Thus, these ML models were trained using image pairs reconstructed from high- and low-statistics images. As a result, we succeeded in generating images similar to the ground truth from low-statistics images. We argue that this technique can be applied not only to Compton camera images but also to other radiation imaging devices. As a future perspective, we mention the possibility of applying our imaging and processing technique to in vivo imaging of alpha-particle internal therapy.

    DOI

  • Origin of the in-orbit instrumental background of the Hard X-ray Imager onboard Hitomi

    Kouichi Hagino, Hirokazu Odaka, Goro Sato, Tamotsu Sato, Hiromasa Suzuki, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Madoka Kawaharada, Masanori Ohno, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Shogo B. Kobayashi, Hiroaki Murakami, Katsuma Miyake, Makoto Asai, Tatsumi Koi, Greg Madejski, Shinya Saito, Dennis H. Wright, Teruaki Enoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Jun Kataoka, Junichiro Katsuta, Motohide Kokubun, Philippe Laurent, François Lebrun, Olivier Limousin, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Kunishiro Mori, Takeshi Nakamori, Toshio Nakano, Hirofumi Noda, Masayuki Ohta, Rie Sato, Hiroyasu Tajima, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Tadayuki Takahashi, Shin'Ichiro Takeda, Takaaki Tanaka, Yukikatsu Terada, Hideki Uchiyama, Yasunobu Uchiyama, Shin Watanabe, Kazutaka Yamaoka, Yoichi Yatsu, Takayuki Yuasa

    Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems   6 ( 4 )  2020.10

     View Summary

    Understanding and reducing in-orbit instrumental backgrounds are essential to achieving high sensitivity in hard x-ray astronomical observations. The observational data of the Hard X-ray Imager (HXI) onboard the Hitomi satellite provide useful information on the background components due to its multilayer configuration with different atomic numbers: The HXI consists of a stack of four layers of Si (Z = 14) detectors and one layer of cadmium telluride (CdTe) (Z = 48, 52) detector surrounded by well-Type Bi4Ge3O12 active shields. Based on the observational data, the backgrounds of the top Si layer, the three underlying Si layers, and the CdTe layer are inferred to be dominated by different components, namely, low-energy electrons, albedo neutrons, and proton-induced radioactivation, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations of the in-orbit background of the HXI reproduce the observed background spectrum of each layer well, thereby quantitatively verifying the above hypothesis. In addition, we suggest the inclusion of an electron shield to reduce the background.

    DOI

  • First application of the super-resolution imaging technique using a Compton camera

    S. Sato, J. Kataoka, J. Kotoku, M. Taki, A. Oyama, L. Tagawa, K. Fujieda, F. Nishi, T. Toyoda

    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment   969  2020.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    © 2020 Elsevier B.V. In medical imaging, precise and reliable images are very important. However, the quality of medical images is sometimes limited by low-event statistics owing to the low sensitivity of the detectors commonly used in radiology. On the other hand, long exposure to radiation and long inspection duration can become a burden for patients. In this paper, we propose a method for generating high-quality images of gamma ray sources from low statistic data by using machine learning methods based on dictionary learning and sparse coding. As the first application, we generated a high-quality image of 137Cs, which emits 662-keV gamma rays, from low-event statistics measured using a Compton camera. We simulated with Geant4 various geometries of the gamma-ray source (137Cs; 662 keV) as measured with a Compton camera by Geant4. Then, complete sets of low-resolution and high-resolution dictionaries were prepared. We generated super-resolution images from low-resolution test images obtained from actual measurements. The convergence of the gamma-ray images was similar for both the ground truth and predicted images, as supported by the improvements in the structural similarity (SSIM), peak signal-to-noise (PSNR) ratio, and root mean square error (RMSE) in the corresponding images. We also discuss future plans to use the super-resolution technique for visualizing radium chloride (223RaCl2) in the patient's body, which will make it possible to achieve in-vivo imaging of alpha-particle internal therapy for the first time.

    DOI

  • CALET on the International Space Station: The first three years of observations

    P. Brogi, P. Brogi, O. Adriani, O. Adriani, Y. Akaike, Y. Akaike, K. Asano, Y. Asaoka, Y. Asaoka, M. G. Bagliesi, M. G. Bagliesi, E. Berti, E. Berti, G. Bigongiari, G. Bigongiari, W. R. Binns, S. Bonechi, S. Bonechi, M. Bongi, M. Bongi, A. Bruno, J. H. Buckley, N. Cannady, N. Cannady, G. Castellini, C. Checchia, C. Checchia, M. L. Cherry, G. Collazuol, G. Collazuol, V. Di Felice, V. Di Felice, K. Ebisawa, H. Fuke, T. G. Guzik, T. Hams, T. Hams, K. Hibino, M. Ichimura, K. Ioka, W. Ishizaki, M. H. Israel, K. Kasahara, J. Kataoka, R. Kataoka, Y. Katayose, C. Kato, N. Kawanaka, N. Kawanaka, Y. Kawakubo, K. Kohri, H. S. Krawczynski, J. F. Krizmanic, J. F. Krizmanic, J. Link, J. Link, P. Maestro, P. Maestro, P. S. Marrocchesi, P. S. Marrocchesi, A. M. Messineo, A. M. Messineo, J. W. Mitchell, S. Miyake, A. A. Moiseev, A. A. Moiseev, M. Mori, N. Mori, H. M. Motz, K. Munakata, H. Murakami, S. Nakahira, J. Nishimura, G. A. De Nolfo, S. Okuno, J. F. Ormes, N. Ospina, S. Ozawa, L. Pacini, F. Palma, F. Palma, P. Papini, B. F. Rauch, S. B. Ricciarini, S. B. Ricciarini, K. Sakai, K. Sakai, T. Sakamoto, M. Sasaki, M. Sasaki, Y. Shimizu, A. Shiomi, R. Sparvoli, P. Spillantini, F. Stolzi, F. Stolzi, S. Sugita, J. E. Suh, J. E. Suh, A. Sulaj

    Physica Scripta   95 ( 7 )  2020.07

     View Summary

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope CALET is a space instrument designed to carry out precision measurements of high energy cosmic-rays on the JEM-EF external platform on the International Space Station, where it has been collecting science data continuously since mid October 2015. In addition to its primary goal of identifying nearby sources of high-energy electrons and possible signatures of dark matter in the electron spectrum, CALET is carrying out extensive measurements of the energy spectra, relative abundances and secondary-to-primary ratios of elements from proton to iron, and even above (up to Z = 40), studying the details of galactic particle propagation and acceleration. An overview of CALET based on the data taken during the first three years of observations is presented, including a direct measurement of the electron+positron energy spectrum from 11 GeV to 4.8 TeV. The proton spectrum has been measured from 50 GeV to 10 TeV covering, for the first time with a single space-borne instrument, the whole energy interval previously investigated in separate sub-ranges by magnetic spectrometers and calorimetric instruments. Preliminary spectra of cosmic-ray nuclei are also presented, together with gamma-ray observations and searches for an e.m. counterpart of LIGO/Virgo GW events.

    DOI

  • Development of Gamma-Ray Detector Arrays Consisting of Diced Eu-Doped SrI<inf>2</inf>Scintillator Arrays and TSV-MPPC Arrays

    M. Yoshino, M. Yoshino, K. Kamada, K. Kamada, Y. Shoji, Y. Yokota, S. Kurosawa, A. Yamaji, Y. Ohashi, H. Sato, K. Fujieda, J. Kataoka, A. Yoshikawa, A. Yoshikawa, A. Yoshikawa

    IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science   67 ( 6 ) 999 - 1002  2020.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    © 1963-2012 IEEE. This article presents the development of diced SrI2:Eu arrays and their scintillation properties when coupled with a multipixel photon counter (MPPC) array. Using a dicing technique specific to halide scintillators, a high-energy resolution scintillator array is developed that is cost-effective and widely applicable. The developed SrI2:Eu arrays are of 3 × 3 × 3 mm3/pixel 4 × 4 matrix (TYPE1) and 1 × 1 × 1 mm3/pixel 9 × 9 matrix (TYPE2) structures. We fabricated test gamma-ray detector modules consisting of the TYPE1 and TYPE2 arrays coupled with an MPPC array. The mean peak to valleys ratio is 85.3 ± 14.9 for the TYPE1 array and 38.5 ± 16.6 for the TYPE2 array detector. The average energy resolutions obtained for the TYPE1 and TYPE2 gamma-ray detectors were 5.4 ± 0.4% full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) and 5.2 ± 0.6% FWHM, respectively, for 662-keV gamma-rays. The variation in the signal pulse height of the TYPE1 and TYPE2 detectors was only 10.6% and 10.4% in FWHM, respectively. These results demonstrated that the dicing technique proposed in this article could be applied to hygroscopic halide scintillators.

    DOI

  • Demonstration of multiple contrast agent imaging for the next generation color X-ray CT

    T. Maruhashi, H. Kiji, T. Toyoda, J. Kataoka, M. Arimoto, S. Kobayashi, H. Kawashima, S. Terazawa, S. Shiota, H. Ikeda

    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment   958  2020.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    © 2019 Elsevier B.V. X-ray computed tomography (CT) is widely used for non-invasive diagnostic imaging of the inside of the human body. It should be noted that the approximate effective radiation dose in a patient is 10 mSv. Under such an environment, X-ray photons are severely piled-up. Therefore, conventional CT only reconstructs energy integrated image, which may consist of beam hardening artifacts that have proven to be a problem. In contrast, photon counting CT (PC-CT) offers a low-dose multicolor CT imaging. The PC-CT also enables K-edge imaging that can improve the blood–tissue contrast using specific contrast agents. Moreover, the PC-CT has great advantages in (1) the simultaneous imaging of multiple contrast agents, and (2) the absolute quantification of contrast agents. Owing to these advantages, the PC-CT system can provide more detailed tissue diagnosis than conventional CT systems. Recently, we proposed a novel PC-CT system (Morita et al., 2017; Arimoto et al., 2017, Maruhashi et al., 2018) consisting of multipixel photon counter (MPPC) coupled with a high-speed scintillator, which is a cost-effective and easy to assemble system, as compared to other PC-CT devices based on cadmium zinc telluride. In this paper, we operated the K-edge imaging of specific contrast agents using a 16-channel MPPC PC-CT system. Our PC-CT system established appropriate energy thresholds and operated the simultaneous imaging of multiple contrast agents such as iodine and gadolinium. In addition, we estimated the absolute concentration of these contrast agents. The results show that our PC-CT system can provide more accurate diagnostic medical imaging, as compared to the conventional CT system.

    DOI

  • CALET results after three years on the International Space Station

    Y. Asaoka, O. Adriani, Y. Akaike, K. Asano, M. G. Bagliesi, E. Berti, G. Bigongiari, W. R. Binns, S. Bonechi, M. Bongi, A. Bruno, J. H. Buckley, N. Cannady, G. Castellini, C. Checchia, M. L. Cherry, G. Collazuol, V. Di Felice, K. Ebisawa, H. Fuke, T. G. Guzik, T. Hams, K. Hibino, M. Ichimura, K. Ioka, W. Ishizaki, M. H. Israel, K. Kasahara, J. Kataoka, R. Kataoka, Y. Katayose, C. Kato, N. Kawanaka, Y. Kawakubo, K. Kohri, H. S. Krawczynski, J. F. Krizmanic, J. Link, P. Maestro, P. S. Marrocchesi, A. M. Messineo, J. W. Mitchell, S. Miyake, A. A. Moiseev, M. Mori, N. Mori, H. M. Motz, K. Munakata, S. Nakahira, J. Nishimura, G. A. De Nolfo, S. Okuno, N. Opsina, J. F. Ormes, S. Ozawa, L. Pacini, F. Palma, V. Pal'Shin, P. Papini, B. F. Rauch, S. B. Ricciarini, K. Sakai, T. Sakamoto, M. Sasaki, Y. Shimizu, A. Shiomi, R. Sparvoli, P. Spillantini, F. Stolzi, S. Sugita, J. E. Suh, A. Sulaj, I. Takahashi, M. Takita, T. Tamura, T. Terasawa, S. Torii, Y. Tsunesada, Y. Uchihori, E. Vannuccini, J. P. Wefel, K. Yamaoka, S. Yanagita, A. Yoshida, K. Yoshida

    Journal of Physics: Conference Series   1468 ( 1 )  2020.03

     View Summary

    The CALET (CALorimetric Electron Telescope) space experiment, which is currently conducting direct cosmic-ray observations onboard the International Space Station (ISS), is an all-calorimetric instrument optimized for cosmic-ray electron measurements with capability to measure hadrons and gamma-rays. Since the start of observation in October 2015, smooth and continuous operations have taken place. In this paper, we will give a brief summary of the CALET observations ranging from charged cosmic rays, gamma-rays, to space weather, while focusing on the energy spectra of electrons and protons.

    DOI

  • Beta-ray imaging system with γ-ray coincidence for multiple-tracer imaging

    Tomonori Fukuchi, Seiichi Yamamoto, Jun Kataoka, Kei Kamada, Akira Yoshikawa, Yasuyoshi Watanabe, Shuichi Enomoto

    Medical Physics   47 ( 2 ) 587 - 596  2020.02  [Refereed]  [International journal]

     View Summary

    PURPOSE: Beta-ray imaging systems are widely used for various biological objects to obtain a two-dimensional (2D) distribution of β-ray emitting radioisotopes. However, a conventional β-ray imaging system is unsuitable for multiple-tracer imaging, because the continuous energy distribution of β-rays complicates distinguishing among different tracers by energy information. Therefore, we developed a new type of β-ray imaging system, which is useful for multiple tracers by detecting coincidence γ-rays with β-rays, and evaluated its imaging performance. METHODS: Our system is composed of position-sensitive β-ray and γ-ray detectors. The former is a 35 × 35 × 1-mm3 Ce-Doped((La, Gd)2 Si2 O7 ) (La-GPS) scintillation detector, which has a 300-µm pitch of pixels. The latter is a 43 × 43 × 16-mm3 bismuth germanium oxide (BGO) scintillation detector. Both detectors are mounted on a flexible frame and placed in a user-selectable position. We experimentally evaluated the performance of the β-ray detector and the γ-ray efficiencies of the γ-ray detector with different energies, positions, and distances. We also conducted point sources and phantom measurements with dual isotopes to evaluate the system performance of multiple-tracer imaging. RESULTS: For the β-ray detector, the β-ray detection efficiencies for 45 Ca (245-keV maximum energy) and 90 Sr/90 Y (545 and 2280-keV maximum energy) were 14.3% and 21.9%, respectively. The total γ-ray detection efficiency of the γ-ray detector for all γ-rays from 22 Na (511-keV annihilation γ-rays and a 1275-keV γ-ray) in the center position with a detector distance of 20 mm was 17.5%. From a point-source measurement using 22 Na and 90 Sr/90 Y, we successfully extracted the position of a positron-γ emitter 22 Na. Furthermore, for a phantom experiment using 45 Ca and 18 F or 18 F and 22 Na, we successfully extracted the distribution of the second tracer using the annihilation γ-ray or de-excitation γ-ray coincidence. In all the imaging experiments, the event counts of the extracted images were consistent with the counts estimated by the measured γ-ray efficiencies. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully demonstrated the feasibility of our β-ray autoradiography system for imaging multiple isotopes. Since our system can identify not only a β-γ emitter but also a positron emitter using the coincidence detection of annihilation γ-rays, it is useful for PET tracers and various new applications that are otherwise impractical.

    DOI PubMed

  • First demonstration of portable Compton camera to visualize 223-Ra concentration for radionuclide therapy

    K.Fujieda, J.Kataoka, S.Mochizuki, L.Tagawa, S.Sato, R.Tanaka, K.Matsunaga, T.Kamiya, T.Watabe, H.Kato, E.Shimosegawa, J.Hatazawa

    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A   in press  2019.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Radionuclide therapy (RNT) is an internal radiation therapy that can selectively damage cancer cells. Recently, the use of alpha-emitting radionuclides was initiated in RNT owing to its dose concentration and short range. In particular, 223Ra is widely used for bone metastasis of prostate cancer. Despite its potential for clinical applications, it is difficult to determine whether a drug has been properly delivered to the target lesion. As such, we propose a new method of monitoring nuclear gamma rays promptly and simultaneously emitted from 223Ra as alpha decay using a high-sensitivity Compton camera. We first observed a small bottle of 223Ra solution with a total radioactivity of 0.56 MBq. The reconstructed image converged at the correct position with a position resolution of ∼20 mm at a plane 10 cm in front of the camera. Next, we observed a phantom consisting of three spheres with diameters ranging from 13 to 37 mm filled with 223Ra solution (9 kBq/mL) and then surrounded by a ∼20-cm layer of water. A three-dimensional (3D) image was constructed by rotating the Compton camera around the phantom. Images were then acquired from eight directions at 30-min intervals, respectively. Although the image resolution remained limited at 351 keV, three spheres were resolved at the correct position in the 3D image with their relative intensities. Thirdly, we observed the body of a patient for 10 min and reconstructed almost the same accumulation as the image acquired by a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system for 30 min. While the spatial resolution of the Compton camera was worse, DOI-CC obtained a wider image in a shorter time. Finally, we discuss current problems and plans for improving sensitivity and angular resolution for future clinical applications.

    DOI

  • Development and performance verification of a 3-D position-sensitive Compton camera for imaging MeV gamma rays

    H.Hosokoshi, J.Kataoka, S.Mochizuki, M.Yoneyama, S.Ito, H.Kiji, F.Nishi, S.Miyamoto, T.Shima

    Nature Scientific Reports   in press ( 1 )  2019.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In gamma-ray astronomy, the 1–10 MeV range is one of the most challenging energy bands to observe owing to low photon signals and a considerable amount of background contamination. This energy band, however, comprises a substantial number of nuclear gamma-ray lines that may hold the key to understanding the nucleosynthesis at the core of stars, spatial distribution of cosmic rays, and interstellar medium. Although several studies have attempted to improve observation of this energy window, development of a detector for astronomy has not progressed since NASA launched the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) in 1991. In this work, we first developed a prototype 3-D position-sensitive Compton camera (3D-PSCC), and then conducted a performance verification at NewSUBARU, Hyogo in Japan. To mimic the situation of astronomical observation, we used a MeV gamma-ray beam produced by laser inverse Compton scattering. As a result, we obtained sharp peak images of incident gamma rays irradiating from incident angles of 0° and 20°. The angular resolution of the prototype 3D-PSCC was measured by the Angular Resolution Measure and estimated to be 3.4° ± 0.1° (full width at half maximum (FWHM)) at 1.7 MeV and 4.0° ± 0.5° (FWHM) at 3.9 MeV. Subsequently, we conceived a new geometry of the 3D-PSCC optimized for future astronomical observations, assuming a 50-kg class small satellite mission. The SΩ of the 3D-PSCC is 11 cm2sr, anticipated at 1 MeV, which is small but provides an interesting possibility to observe bright gamma-ray sources owing to the high intrinsic efficiency and large field of view (FoV).

    DOI PubMed

  • Linking advanced medicine and space through gamma-ray imaging; Challenges for a palm-sized Compton camera

    Jun Kataoka

    Applied Physics   88 ( 11 ) 730 - 734  2019.11  [Refereed]  [Invited]

    DOI

  • Stable Radio Core of the Blazar Mrk 501 during High-energy Active State in 2012

    Shoko Koyama, Motoki Kino, Akihiro Doi, Kotaro Niinuma, Marcello Giroletti, David Paneque, Kazunori Akiyama, Gabriele Giovannini, Guang-Yao Zhao, Eduardo Ros, Jun Kataoka, Monica Orienti, Kazuhiro Hada, Hiroshi Nagai, Naoki Isobe, Hideyuki Kobayashi, Mareki Honma, Rocco Lico

    The Astrophysical Journal   884 ( 2 ) 132  2019.10  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We investigate the precise location of the radio core in the nearby blazar Mrk 501 for the first time during its X-ray and TeV γ-ray active state in 2012 by revisiting from the perspective of astrometry the six-epoch observations with the Very Long Baseline Array at 43 GHz reported by Koyama et al. We find that the position of the radio core seen at 43 GHz remained stable during our observations from 2012 to 2013 February within 42 μas in the southeast jet direction and 56 μas along the northeast jet direction. This implies that the location of the 43 GHz radio-emitting core was limited within the deprojected scale of 4.6 × 103 Schwarzschild radii (R s) during the high-energy active state. This result is a contrast to another case of the astrometric observation of the famous nearby TeV blazar Mrk 421, which showed a clear radio core position change soon after the large X-ray flare in 2011, reported by Niinuma et al. We compare the two cases and discuss possible origins of the different results of the radio core astrometry in the high-energy active states between the nearby blazars. Based on the internal shock model for blazars, the Lorentz factors of the ejecta explaining the stability of the radio core in Mrk 501 are expected to be a few times smaller than those for the wandering core in Mrk 421.

    DOI

  • ML-EM algorithm for dose estimation using PET in proton therapy

    Takamitsu Masuda, Teiji Nishio, Jun Kataoka, Makoto Arimoto, Akira Sano, Kumiko Karasawa

    Physics in Medicine and Biology   64 ( 17 ) 175011  2019.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    © 2019 Institute of Physics Publishing. All rights reserved. Positron emission tomography (PET) has been extensively studied and clinically investigated for dose verification in proton therapy. However, the production distributions of positron emitters are not proportional to the dose distribution. Thus, direct dose evaluation is limited when using the conventional PET-based approach. We propose a method for estimating the dose distribution from the positron emitter distributions using the maximum likelihood (ML) expectation maximization (EM) algorithm combined with filtering. In experiments to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, mono-energetic and spread-out Bragg-peak proton beams were delivered by a synchrotron, and a water target was irradiated at clinical dose levels. Planar PET measurements were performed during beam pauses and after irradiation over a total period of 200 s. In addition, we conducted a Monte Carlo simulation to obtain the required filter functions and analyze the influence of the number of algorithm iterations on estimation. We successfully estimated the 2D dose distributions even under statistical noise in the PET images. The accuracy of the 2D dose estimation was about 10% for both beams at the 1-σ values of relative error. This value is comparable to the deviations in the measured PET activity distributions. For the laterally integrated profile along the beam direction, a low error within 5% was obtained per irradiation value. Moreover, the difference of estimated proton ranges was within 1 mm, and 2D estimation from the PET images was completed in 21 ms. Hence, the proposed algorithm may be applied to real-time dose monitoring. Although this is the first attempt to use the ML-EM algorithm for dose estimation, the proposed method showed high accuracy and speed in the estimation of proton dose distribution from PET data. The proposed method is thus a step forward to exploit the full potential of PET for in vivo dose verification.

    DOI PubMed

  • Development of novel neutron camera to estimate secondary particle dose for safe proton therapy

    L. Tagawa, J. Kataoka, K. Sueoka, K. Fujieda, T. Kurihara, M. Arimoto, S. Mochizuki, T. Maruhashi, T. Toshito, M. Kimura, T. Inaniwa

    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment   936   31 - 33  2019.08  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    © 2018 Elsevier B.V. Proton therapy causes less damage to healthy tissue compared to other radiation therapies; however, the possible damage caused by secondary, fast neutrons is almost unknown. In some simulations, neutron dose amounts to 10% of the proton dose; therefore, a real-time visualization of the neutron dose is needed. We have developed a neutron camera that can visualize the direction and intensity of fast neutron sources. The camera consists of eight units of a plastic scintillator (EJ-299-34) coupled with a compact PMT (R9880U). We demonstrate that a 252Cf neutron source is correctly imaged with an angular resolution of 15.5 deg (FWHM). In addition, fast neutrons emitted from the brass block irradiated by 70 MeV were successfully monitored in real time. Finally, we present our prospects for future clinical applications.

    DOI

  • Evaluation of a novel photon-counting CT system using a 16-channel MPPC array for multicolor 3-D imaging

    T.Maruhashia, Morita, M.Arimoto, J.Kataoka, K.Fujieda, H.Nitta, H.Ikeda, H.Kiji

    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A   936   5 - 9  2019.08  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been widely used in the diagnostic imaging of the interior of the human body. However, the radiation dose of conventional CT typically amounts to 10 mSv. Under such environments, X-ray photons are severely piled-up; therefore, conventional CT acquires energy integrated images, and artifacts are formed by beam hardening. In contrast, a photon counting CT (PC-CT) system is anticipated to construct a low-dose and multi-color CT system. Recently, we proposed a novel PC-CT system using a multipixel photon counter (MPPC) coupled with a high-speed scintillator, which is cost effective and easy to assemble compared to other methods using CdZnTe device. In this paper, we report the results using an advanced CT system consisting of a 16-channel MPPC and scintillator array coupled with a newly developed large-scale integrated circuit (LSI) having an ultrafast signal processing capability. We present the performance of the photon-counting CT capability, such as the contrast of the obtained CT images compared with that of the current-mode CT, and we found that substantial reduction in radiation dose by an order of magnitude. In addition, we report the results of three-dimensional multicolor imaging to identify phantom materials.

    DOI

  • High-precision compton imaging of 4.4 MeV prompt gamma-ray toward an on-line monitor for proton therapy

    S.Mochizuki, J.Kataoka, A.Koide, K.Fujieda, T.Maruhashi, T.Kurihara, K.Sueoka, L.Tagawa, M.Yoneyama, T.Inaniwa

    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A   936   43 - 45  2019.08  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Proton therapy is a widely used and effective treatment for cancer. A high-dose concentration of proton beam reduces damage to normal tissues. However, it also requires a high accuracy of irradiation. PET is generally used to verify the proton range after irradiation, but, the distributions of positrons and the energy deposited by protons are not similar to each other. Recently, prompt gamma-ray imaging has attracted attention as a new, online imaging technique. In particular, 4.4 MeV gamma rays emitted from 12C* is one of the best probes to monitor the proton dose, however imaging techniques are far from established. We have developed a novel, 3-D position sensitive Compton camera based on Ce:GAGG scintillators coupled with multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) arrays, thus making it optimized for imaging in the 1–10 MeV range. The angular resolution is 5 degrees (FWHM) at 4.4 MeV. We have established various methods to discriminate multiple-Compton and escape events, both of which can be critical backgrounds for precise imaging of prompt gamma rays. By irradiating a 70 MeV proton beam on the PMMA phantom, we demonstrated that 4.4 MeV gamma ray image is sharply concentrated on the Bragg peak, as was expected from the PHITS simulation.

    DOI

  • Inverse Compton Scattering of Starlight in the Kiloparsec-scale Jet in Centaurus A: The Origin of Excess TeV γ-Ray Emission

    K.Tanada, J, Kataoka, Y.Inoue

    The Astrophysical Journal   878 ( 2 ) 139 - 147  2019.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Centaurus A (Cen A) is the nearest active radio galaxy, which has kiloparsec-scale jets and giant lobes detected by various instruments in radio and X-ray frequency ranges. The Fermi-Large Area Telescope and High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) confirmed that Cen A is a very high-energy (VHE; >0.1 TeV) γ-ray emitter with a known spectral softening in the energy range from a few GeV to TeV. In this work, we consider a synchrotron self-Compton model in the nucleus for the broadband spectrum below the break energy and an external Compton model in kiloparsec-scale jets for the γ-ray excess. Our results show that the observed γ-ray excess can be suitably described by the inverse Compton scattering of the starlight photons in the kiloparsec-scale jets, which is consistent with the recent tentative report by HESS on the spatial extension of the TeV emission along the jets. Considering the spectral fitting results, the excess can only be seen in Cen A, which is probably due to two factors: (1) the host galaxy is approximately 50 times more luminous than other typical radio galaxies and (2) the core γ-ray spectrum quickly decays above a few MeV due to the low maximum electron Lorentz factor of γ c = 2.8 103 resulting from the large magnetic field of 3.8 G in the core. By the comparison with other γ-ray detected radio galaxies, we found that the magnetic field strength of relativistic jets scales with the distance from the central black holes d with B(d) ∝ d -0.88 0.14.

    DOI

  • Direct Measurement of the Cosmic-Ray Proton Spectrum from 50 GeV to 10 TeV with the Calorimetric Electron Telescope on the International Space Station

    O. Adriani, Y. Akaike, K. Asano, Y. Asaoka, M. G. Bagliesi, E. Berti, G. Bigongiari, W. R. Binns, S. Bonechi, M. Bongi, P. Brogi, A. Bruno, J. H. Buckley, N. Cannady, G. Castellini, C. Checchia, M. L. Cherry, G. Collazuol, V. Di Felice, K. Ebisawa, H. Fuke, T. G. Guzik, T. Hams, N. Hasebe, K. Hibino, M. Ichimura, K. Ioka, W. Ishizaki, M. H. Israel, K. Kasahara, J. Kataoka, R. Kataoka, Y. Katayose, C. Kato, N. Kawanaka, Y. Kawakubo, K. Kohri, H. S. Krawczynski, J. F. Krizmanic, T. Lomtadze, P. Maestro, P. S. Marrocchesi, A. M. Messineo, J. W. Mitchell, S. Miyake, A. A. Moiseev, K. Mori, M. Mori, N. Mori, H. M. Motz, K. Munakata, H. Murakami, S. Nakahira, J. Nishimura, G. A. De Nolfo, S. Okuno, J. F. Ormes, S. Ozawa, L. Pacini, F. Palma, P. Papini, A. V. Penacchioni, B. F. Rauch, S. B. Ricciarini, K. Sakai, T. Sakamoto, M. Sasaki, Y. Shimizu, A. Shiomi, R. Sparvoli, P. Spillantini, F. Stolzi, J. E. Suh, A. Sulaj, I. Takahashi, M. Takayanagi, M. Takita, T. Tamura, T. Terasawa, H. Tomida, S. Torii, Y. Tsunesada, Y. Uchihori, S. Ueno, E. Vannuccini, J. P. Wefel, K. Yamaoka, S. Yanagita, A. Yoshida, K. Yoshida

    Physical Review Letters   122 ( 18 )  2019.05  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    © 2019 authors. In this paper, we present the analysis and results of a direct measurement of the cosmic-ray proton spectrum with the CALET instrument onboard the International Space Station, including the detailed assessment of systematic uncertainties. The observation period used in this analysis is from October 13, 2015 to August 31, 2018 (1054 days). We have achieved the very wide energy range necessary to carry out measurements of the spectrum from 50 GeV to 10 TeV covering, for the first time in space, with a single instrument the whole energy interval previously investigated in most cases in separate subranges by magnetic spectrometers (BESS-TeV, PAMELA, and AMS-02) and calorimetric instruments (ATIC, CREAM, and NUCLEON). The observed spectrum is consistent with AMS-02 but extends to nearly an order of magnitude higher energy, showing a very smooth transition of the power-law spectral index from-2.81±0.03 (50-500 GeV) neglecting solar modulation effects (or-2.87±0.06 including solar modulation effects in the lower energy region) to-2.56±0.04 (1-10 TeV), thereby confirming the existence of spectral hardening and providing evidence of a deviation from a single power law by more than 3σ.

    DOI PubMed

  • Development of simple proton CT system with novel correction methods of proton scattering

    M. Takabe, T. Masuda, M. Arimoto, J. Kataoka, K. Sueoka, T. Maruhashi, S. Tanaka, T. Nishio, T. Toshito, M. Kimura, T. Inaniwa

    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment   924   332 - 338  2019.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    © 2018 For safe and effective proton therapy, the proton range in a patient's body is characterized by the water equivalent length (WEL), and must be accurately determined. Current treatment planning is based on X-ray computed tomography images, which might cause uncertainty because of the different energy loss processes between protons and X-rays. We develop a simple, novel, and real-time proton CT system. The system uses a CCD camera and scintillator, which is thin enough for protons to penetrate. Since protons lose energy when they pass through a phantom, different emissions corresponding to the proton energy loss are acquired in the scintillator. Images of the scintillator were gathered by the CCD camera with 70 MeV and 200 MeV proton beams. Since blurring due to proton reactions such as multiple Coulomb scattering and nuclear reactions significantly degrades the obtained images in both beams, we developed two kinds of effective correction methods. One method is applied to broad beam systems, while the other is applied to narrow beam systems. We successfully obtain clear images with minor proton reaction effects by applying these correction methods. Moreover, we confirm that the WEL values estimated from the acquired CT images agree well with the theoretical values for materials such as polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and isopropyl alcohol, within 1-σ uncertainty. Through simulations, we found that nuclear reactions significantly contribute to the uncertainty of WEL values.

    DOI

  • An ultrahigh spatial resolution radiation-imaging detector using 0.1 mm × 0.1 mm pixelated GAGG plate combined with 1 mm channel size Si-PM array

    S.Yamamoto, J.Kataoka, K.Kamada, A.Yoshikawa

    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A   919   125 - 133  2019.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Spatial resolution of a pixelated scintillator-based radiation-imaging detector is sometimes limited by the pixel size of the scintillators. We developed a small-size pixelated GAGG scintillator using a dicing method and combined it with a small channel-size Si-PM array for the development of an ultrahigh resolution radiation-imaging detector. The developed pixelated GAGG scintillator had a pixel size of 0.1 mm × 0.1 mm arranged in 0.15-mm separations. It was combined with a Si-PM array made of 1 mm × 1 mm channels to form a radiation-imaging detector. With the developed radiation imaging detectors, the 0.1 mm × 0.1 mm pixels could be resolved for Am-241 alpha particles (5.5 MeV). The spatial resolutions of this imaging detector were better than 0.31-mm FWHM for Am-241 alpha particles and Ca-45 (maximum energy: 0.257 MeV) beta particles. The spatial resolutions for Am-241 gamma photons (60 keV) and Cs-137 X-ray (∼32 keV) were better than 0.6-mm FWHM. Separation of the images of alpha particles and gamma photons was possible using the scintillation decay time difference of GAGG between alpha particles and gamma photons. The developed ultrahigh spatial resolution pixelated GAGG radiation-imaging detector is promising for the imaging of alpha particles, beta particles, low-energy gamma photons and X-ray.

    DOI

  • PoGO+ polarimetric constraint on the synchrotron jet emission of Cygnus X-1

    Maxime Chauvin, Hans Gustav Florén, Miranda Jackson, Tuneyoshi Kamae, Jun Kataoka, Mózsi Kiss, Victor Mikhalev, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Nagomi Uchida, Mark Pearce

    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters,   483 ( 1 ) 138 - 143  2019.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report a polarimetric constraint on the hard X-ray synchrotron jet emission from the Cygnus X-1 black hole binary system. The observational data were obtained using the PoGO+ hard X-ray polarimeter in 2016 July, when Cygnus X-1 was in the hard state. We have previously reported that emission from an extended corona with a low polarization fraction is dominating, and that the polarization angle is perpendicular to the disc surface. In the soft gamma-ray regime, a highly polarized synchrotron jet is reported with INTEGRAL observations. To constrain the polarization fraction and flux of such a jet component in the hard X-ray regime, we now extend analyses through vector calculations in the Stokes QU plane, where the dominant corona emission and the jet component are considered simultaneously. The presence of another emission component with different polarization angle could partly cancel out the net polarization. The 90 per cent upper limit of the polarization fraction for the additional synchrotron jet component is estimated as <10 per cent, <5 per cent, and <5 per cent for polarization angle perpendicular to the disc surface, parallel to the surface, and aligned with the emission reported by INTEGRAL data, respectively. From the 20-180 keV total flux of 2.6 × 10 -8 erg s -1 cm -2, the upper limit of the polarized flux is estimated as < 3 × 10 -9 erg s -1 cm -2.

    DOI

  • Ultracompact Compton camera for innovative gamma-ray imaging

    J. Kataoka, A. Kishimoto, T. Taya, S. Mochizuki, L. Tagawa, A. Koide, K. Sueoka, H. Morita, T. Maruhashi, K. Fujieda, T. Kurihara, M. Arimoto, H. Okochi, N. Katsumi, S. Kinno, K. Matsunaga, H. Ikeda, E. Shimosegawa, J. Hatazawa, S. Ohsuka, T. Toshito, M. Kimura, Y. Nagao, M. Yamaguchi, K. Kurita, N. Kawachi

    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment   912   1 - 5  2018.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    © 2017 Elsevier B.V. A multipixel photon counter (MPPC) features excellent photon-counting capability as a radiation detector. In particular, a two-plane Compton camera consisting of Ce:GAGG scintillators coupled with MPPC arrays has significant application potential owing to its compact size and low weight. For example, the camera can be easily mounted on a commercial drone to identify radiation hot spots from the sky. In Fukushima, we demonstrated that a 137Cs distribution within a 100 m diameter can be mapped correctly within a couple of tens of minutes. The advanced use of the Compton camera is also anticipated in the field of proton therapy. We evaluated an image of 511 keV annihilation gamma-rays emitted from a PMMA phantom irradiated by 200 MeV protons to mimic an in-beam monitor for proton therapy. Finally, we developed an ultracompact Compton camera (weight = 580 g), for 3-D multicolor molecular imaging. In order to demonstrate the performance capabilities of the device, 131I (365 keV), 85SrCl2 (514 keV), and 65ZnCl2 (1116 keV) were injected into a living mouse and the data were taken from 12 angles with a total acquisition time of 2 h. We confirmed that all tracers had accumulated on the target organs of the thyroid, bone, and liver, and that the obtained 3-D image was quantitatively correct with an accuracy of ±20%.

    DOI

  • Correction: Shedding new light on the crab with polarized X-rays (Scientific Reports DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-07390-7)

    M. Chauvin, H. G. Florén, M. Friis, M. Jackson, T. Kamae, J. Kataoka, T. Kawano, M. Kiss, V. Mikhalev, T. Mizuno, N. Ohashi, T. Stana, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, N. Uchida, M. Pearce

    Scientific Reports   8 ( 1 )  2018.12

     View Summary

    This Article contains a typographical error in the legend of Figure 2. "Gaussian 1, 2 and 3& #x1D70E;" should read: "Gaussian 1, 2 and 3σ".

    DOI PubMed

  • Detection of polarized gamma-ray emission from the Crab nebula with the Hitomi Soft Gamma-ray Detector

    Felix Aharonian, Hiroki Akamatsu, Fumie Akimoto, Steven W. Allen, Lorella Angelini, Marc Audard, Hisamitsu Awaki, Magnus Axelsson, Aya Bamba, Marshall W. Bautz, Roger Blandford, Laura W. Brenneman, Gregory V. Brown, Esra Bulbul, Edward M. Cackett, Maria Chernyakova, Meng P. Chiao, Paolo S. Coppi, Elisa Costantini, Jelle De Plaa, Cor P. De Vries, Jan Willem Den Herder, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, Ken Ebisawa, Megan E. Eckart, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew C. Fabian, Carlo Ferrigno, Adam R. Foster, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Luigi C. Gallo, Poshak Gandhi, Margherita Giustini, Andrea Goldwurm, Liyi Gu, Matteo Guainazzi, Yoshito Haba, Kouichi Hagino, Kenji Hamaguchi, Ilana M. Harrus, Isamu Hatsukade, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Takayuki Hayashi, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Junko S. Hiraga, Ann Hornschemeier, Akio Hoshino, John P. Hughes, Yuto Ichinohe, Ryo Iizuka, Hajime Inoue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Manabu Ishida, Kumi Ishikawa, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Masachika Iwai, Jelle Kaastra, Tim Kallman, Tsuneyoshi Kamae, Jun Kataoka, Satoru Katsuda, Nobuyuki Kawai, Richard L. Kelley, Caroline A. Kilbourne, Takao Kitaguchi, Shunji Kitamoto, Tetsu Kitayama, Takayoshi Kohmura, Motohide Kokubun, Katsuji Koyama, Shu Koyama, Peter Kretschmar, Hans A. Krimm, Aya Kubota, Hideyo Kunieda, Philippe Laurent, Shiu Hang Lee, Maurice A. Leutenegger, Olivier Limousin, Michael Loewenstein, Knox S. Long, David Lumb, Greg Madejski, Yoshitomo Maeda, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Maxim Markevitch, Hironori Matsumoto, Kyoko Matsushita, Dan McCammon, Brian R. McNamara, Missagh Mehdipour, Eric D. Miller, Jon M. Miller, Shin Mineshige

    Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan   70 ( 6 )  2018.12

     View Summary

    We present the results from the Hitomi Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD) observation of the Crab nebula. The main part of SGD is a Compton camera, which in addition to being a spectrometer, is capable of measuring polarization of gamma-ray photons. The Crab nebula is one of the brightest X-ray/gamma-ray sources on the sky, and the only source from which polarized X-ray photons have been detected. SGD observed the Crab nebula during the initial test observation phase of Hitomi. We performed data analysis of the SGD observation, SGD background estimation, and SGD Monte Carlo simulations and successfully detected polarized gamma-ray emission from the Crab nebula with only about 5 ks exposure time. The obtained polarization fraction of the phase-integrated Crab emission (sum of pulsar and nebula emissions) is (22.1%±10.6%), and the polarization angle is 110°.7 + 13°.2/-13°.0 in the energy range of 60.160 keV (the errors correspond to the 1 σ deviation). The confidence level of the polarization detection was 99.3%. The polarization angle measured by SGD is about one sigma deviation with the projected spin axis of the pulsar, 124°.0 ± 0°.0.1.

    DOI

  • Measurement of nuclear reaction cross sections by using Cherenkov radiation toward high-precision proton therapy

    Takamitsu Masuda, Jun Kataoka, Makoto Arimoto, Miho Takabe, Teiji Nishio, Keiichiro Matsushita, Tasuku Miyake, Seiichi Yamamoto, Taku Inaniwa, Toshiyuki Toshito

    Scientific Reports   8 ( 1 ) 2570  2018.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    © 2018 The Author(s). Monitoring the in vivo dose distribution in proton therapy is desirable for the accurate irradiation of a tumor. Although positron emission tomography (PET) is widely used for confirmation, the obtained distribution of positron emitters produced by the protons does not trace the dose distribution due to the different physical processes. To estimate the accurate dose from the PET image, the cross sections of nuclear reactions that produce positron emitters are important yet far from being sufficient. In this study, we measured the cross sections of 16O(p,x)15O, 16O(p,x)13N, and 16O(p,x)11C with a wide-energy range (approximately 5-70 MeV) by observing the temporal evolution of the Cherenkov radiation emitted from positrons generated via β + decay along the proton path. Furthermore, we implemented the new cross sectional data into a conventional Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, so that a direct comparison was possible with the PET measurement. We confirmed that our MC results showed good agreement with the experimental data, both in terms of the spatial distributions and temporal evolutions. Although this is the first attempt at using the Cherenkov radiation in the measurements of nuclear cross sections, the obtained results suggest the method is convenient and widely applicable for high precision proton therapy.

    DOI PubMed

  • Precision imaging of 4.4 MeV gamma rays using a 3-D position sensitive Compton camera

    Ayako Koide, Jun Kataoka, Takamitsu Masuda, Saku Mochizuki, Takanori Taya, Koki Sueoka, Leo Tagawa, Kazuya Fujieda, Takuya Maruhashi, Takuya Kurihara, Taku Inaniwa

    Scientific Reports   8 ( 1 ) 8116  2018.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Imaging of nuclear gamma-ray lines in the 1-10 MeV range is far from being established in both medical and physical applications. In proton therapy, 4.4 MeV gamma rays are emitted from the excited nucleus of either 12C∗or 11B∗and are considered good indicators of dose delivery and/or range verification. Further, in gamma-ray astronomy, 4.4 MeV gamma rays are produced by cosmic ray interactions in the interstellar medium, and can thus be used to probe nucleothynthesis in the universe. In this paper, we present a high-precision image of 4.4 MeV gamma rays taken by newly developed 3-D position sensitive Compton camera (3D-PSCC). To mimic the situation in proton therapy, we first irradiated water, PMMA and Ca(OH)2 with a 70 MeV proton beam, then we identified various nuclear lines with the HPGe detector. The 4.4 MeV gamma rays constitute a broad peak, including single and double escape peaks. Thus, by setting an energy window of 3D-PSCC from 3 to 5 MeV, we show that a gamma ray image sharply concentrates near the Bragg peak, as expected from the minimum energy threshold and sharp peak profile in the cross section of 12C(p,p)12C∗.

    DOI PubMed

  • Characteristics and Performance of the CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) Calorimeter for Gamma-Ray Observations

    N. Cannady, Y. Asaoka, F. Satoh, M. Tanaka, S. Torii, M. L. Cherry, M. Mori, O. Adriani, Y. Akaike, K. Asano, M. G. Bagliesi, E. Berti, G. Bigongiari, W. R. Binns, S. Bonechi, M. Bongi, P. Brogi, J. H. Buckley, G. Castellini, C. Checchia, G. Collazuol, V. Di Felice, K. Ebisawa, H. Fuke, T. G. Guzik, T. Hams, M. Hareyama, N. Hasebe, K. Hibino, M. Ichimura, K. Ioka, W. Ishizaki, M. H. Israel, K. Kasahara, J. Kataoka, R. Kataoka, Y. Katayose, C. Kato, N. Kawanaka, Y. Kawakubo, K. Kohri, H. S. Krawczynski, J. F. Krizmanic, T. Lomtadze, P. Maestro, P. S. Marrocchesi, A. M. Messineo, J. W. Mitchell, S. Miyake, A. A. Moiseev, K. Mori, N. Mori, H. M. Motz, K. Munakata, H. Murakami, S. Nakahira, J. Nishimura, G. A.De Nolfo, S. Okuno, J. F. Ormes, S. Ozawa, L. Pacini, F. Palma, P. Papini, A. V. Penacchioni, B. F. Rauch, S. B. Ricciarini, K. Sakai, T. Sakamoto, M. Sasaki, Y. Shimizu, A. Shiomi, R. Sparvoli, P. Spillantini, F. Stolzi, J. E. Suh, A. Sulaj, I. Takahashi, M. Takayanagi, M. Takita, T. Tamura, N. Tateyama, T. Terasawa, H. Tomida, Y. Tsunesada, Y. Uchihori, S. Ueno, E. Vannuccini, J. P. Wefel, K. Yamaoka, S. Yanagita, A. Yoshida, K. Yoshida

    Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series   238 ( 1 )  2018.09

     View Summary

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope primary detector (CALET-CAL) is a 30 radiation-length-deep hybrid calorimeter designed for the accurate measurement of high-energy cosmic rays. It is capable of triggering on and giving near complete containment of electromagnetic showers from primary electrons and gamma rays from 1 GeV to over 10 TeV. The first 24 months of on-orbit scientific data (2015 November 01-2017 October 31) provide valuable characterization of the performance of the calorimeter based on analyses of the gamma-ray data set in general and bright point sources in particular. We describe the gamma-ray analysis, the expected performance of the calorimeter based on Monte Carlo simulations, the agreement of the flight data with the simulated results, and the outlook for long-term gamma-ray observations with the CAL.

    DOI

  • Search for GeV Gamma-Ray Counterparts of Gravitational Wave Events by CALET

    O. Adriani, Y. Akaike, K. Asano, Y. Asaoka, M. G. Bagliesi, E. Berti, G. Bigongiari, W. R. Binns, S. Bonechi, M. Bongi, P. Brogi, J. H. Buckley, N. Cannady, G. Castellini, C. Checchia, M. L. Cherry, G. Collazuol, V. Di Felice, K. Ebisawa, H. Fuke, T. G. Guzik, T. Hams, M. Hareyama, N. Hasebe, K. Hibino, M. Ichimura, K. Ioka, W. Ishizaki, M. H. Israel, K. Kasahara, J. Kataoka, R. Kataoka, Y. Katayose, C. Kato, N. Kawanaka, Y. Kawakubo, H. S. Krawczynski, J. F. Krizmanic, K. Kohri, T. Lomtadze, P. Maestro, P. S. Marrocchesi, A. M. Messineo, J. W. Mitchell, S. Miyake, A. A. Moiseev, K. Mori, M. Mori, N. Mori, H. M. Motz, K. Munakata, H. Murakami, S. Nakahira, J. Nishimura, G. A. De Nolfo, S. Okuno, J. F. Ormes, S. Ozawa, L. Pacini, F. Palma, P. Papini, A. V. Penacchioni, B. F. Rauch, S. B. Ricciarini, K. Sakai, T. Sakamoto, M. Sasaki, Y. Shimizu, A. Shiomi, R. Sparvoli, P. Spillantini, F. Stolzi, J. E. Suh, A. Sulaj, I. Takahashi, M. Takayanagi, M. Takita, T. Tamura, N. Tateyama, T. Terasawa, H. Tomida, S. Torii, Y. Tsunesada, Y. Uchihori, S. Ueno, E. Vannuccini, J. P. Wefel, K. Yamaoka, S. Yanagita, A. Yoshida, K. Yoshida

    Astrophysical Journal   863 ( 2 )  2018.08  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    © 2018. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. We present the results of searches for gamma-ray counterparts of the LIGO/Virgo gravitational wave events using CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) observations. The main instrument of CALET, CALorimeter (CAL), observes gamma-rays from ∼1 GeV up to 10 TeV with a field of view (FOV) of nearly 2 sr. In addition, the CALET gamma-ray burst monitor views ∼3 sr and ∼2π sr of the sky in the 7 keV-1 MeV and the 40 keV-20 MeV bands, respectively, by using two different crystal scintillators. The CALET observations on the International Space Station started in 2015 October, and here we report analyses of events associated with the following gravitational wave events: GW151226, GW170104, GW170608, GW170814, and GW170817. Although only upper limits on gamma-ray emission are obtained, they correspond to a luminosity of 1049 ∼ 1053 erg s-1 in the GeV energy band depending on the distance and the assumed time duration of each event, which is approximately on the order of luminosity of typical short gamma-ray bursts. This implies that there will be a favorable opportunity to detect high-energy gamma-ray emission in further observations if additional gravitational wave events with favorable geometry will occur within our FOV. We also show the sensitivity of CALET for gamma-ray transient events, which is on the order of 10-7 erg cm-2 s-1 for an observation of 100 s in duration.

    DOI

  • Accretion geometry of the black-hole binary Cygnus X-1 from X-ray polarimetry

    M.Chauvin, G.Floren, M.Jackson

    Nature Astronomy   2 ( 8 ) 652 - 655  2018.08  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Black hole binary (BHB) systems comprise a stellar-mass black hole and a closely orbiting companion star. Matter is transferred from the companion to the black hole, forming an accretion disk, corona and jet structures. The resulting release of gravitational energy leads to the emission of X-rays1. The radiation is affected by special/general relativistic effects, and can serve as a probe for the properties of the black hole and surrounding environment, if the accretion geometry is properly identified. Two competing models describe the disk–corona geometry for the hard spectral state of BHBs, based on spectral and timing measurements2,3. Measuring the polarization of hard X-rays reflected from the disk allows the geometry to be determined. The extent of the corona differs between the two models, affecting the strength of the relativistic effects (such as enhancement of the polarization fraction and rotation of the polarization angle). Here, we report observational results on the linear polarization of hard X-ray emission (19–181 keV) from a BHB, Cygnus X-14, in the hard state. The low polarization fraction, <8.6% (upper limit at a 90% confidence level), and the alignment of the polarization angle with the jet axis show that the dominant emission is not influenced by strong gravity. When considered together with existing spectral and timing data, our result reveals that the accretion corona is either an extended structure, or is located far from the black hole in the hard state of Cygnus X-1.

    DOI

  • Spatial Distribution of the Milky Way Hot Gaseous Halo Constrained by Suzaku X-Ray Observations

    Shinya Nakashima, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Noriko Yamasaki, Yoshiaki Sofue, Jun Kataoka, Kazuhiro Sakai

    Astrophysical Journal   862 ( 1 )  2018.07

     View Summary

    The formation mechanism of the hot gaseous halo associated with the Milky Way is still under debate. We report new observational constraints on the gaseous halo using 107 lines of sight of the Suzaku X-ray observations at 75°< l < 285° and with a total exposure of 6.4 Ms. The gaseous halo spectra are represented by a singleerature plasma model in collisional ionization equilibrium. The median temperature of the observed fields is 0.26 keV (3.0 × 106 K) with a typical fluctuation of ∼30%. The emission measure varies by an order of magnitude and marginally correlates with the Galactic latitude. Despite the large scatter of the data, the emission measure distribution is roughly reproduced by a disk-like density distribution with a scale length of ∼7 kpc, a scale height of ∼2 kpc, and a total mass of ∼5 × 107 M. In addition, we found that a spherical hot gas with the β-model profile hardly contributes to the observed X-rays but that its total mass might reach 109 M. Combined with indirect evidence of an extended gaseous halo from other observations, the hot gaseous halo likely consists of a dense disk-like component and a rarefied spherical component; the X-ray emissions primarily come from the former, but the mass is dominated by the latter. The disk-like component likely originates from stellar feedback in the Galactic disk due to the low scale height and the large scatter of the emission measures. The median [O/Fe] of ∼0.25 shows the contribution of the core-collapse supernovae and supports the stellar feedback origin.

    DOI

  • Diffuse X-Ray Emission from the Northern Arc of Loop i Observed with Suzaku

    Masahiro Akita, Jun Kataoka, Makoto Arimoto, Yoshiaki Sofue, Tomonori Totani, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Shinya Nakashima

    Astrophysical Journal   862 ( 1 ) 88  2018.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    © 2018. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. After discovery of the Fermi bubbles, giant structures observed from radio to X-ray monitoring have been widely discussed as possible evidence of past activities in the Galactic center (GC). We report here on the analysis of all the Suzaku archival data pointing around the giant-scale Loop I arc. The diffuse X-ray emission from the northern Loop I arc was well represented by the three-component model: (1) an unabsorbed thermal plasma with kT ≃ 0.1 keV either from the local hot bubble (LHB) and/or solar wind charge exchange (SWCX), (2) an absorbed thermal plasma regarded as a contribution from the Loop I and the Galactic halo (GH), and (3) an absorbed power-law component representing the cosmic X-ray background (CXB). The temperature of the absorbed thermal plasma was narrowly clustered in a range of 0.30 ± 0.02 keV along Loop I ("ON" regions), whereas the temperature was a little lower in the cavity adjacent to the bubbles and Loop I ("OFF" regions) with 0.24 ± 0.03 keV. The emission measure (EM) largely varied along the Galactic latitude b, and was well correlated with the count rate variation as measured with the ROSAT all-sky map in 0.75 keV. Although the amount of neutral gas does not provide any useful constraints on the distance to Loop I, the observed EM values clearly reject a hypothesis that the structure is close to the Sun; we argue that Loop I is a distant, kiloparsec structure in the GH. We discuss the origin of apparent mismatch in the morphologies of the Fermi bubbles and the Loop I arc, suggesting a two-step explosion process in the GC.

    DOI

  • On-orbit operations and offline data processing of CALET onboard the ISS

    Y. Asaoka, S. Ozawa, S. Torii, O. Adriani, Y. Akaike, K. Asano, M. G. Bagliesi, G. Bigongiari, W. R. Binns, S. Bonechi, M. Bongi, P. Brogi, J. H. Buckley, N. Cannady, G. Castellini, C. Checchia, M. L. Cherry, G. Collazuol, V. Di Felice, K. Ebisawa, H. Fuke, T. G. Guzik, T. Hams, M. Hareyama, N. Hasebe, K. Hibino, M. Ichimura, K. Ioka, W. Ishizaki, M. H. Israel, A. Javaid, K. Kasahara, J. Kataoka, R. Kataoka, Y. Katayose, C. Kato, N. Kawanaka, Y. Kawakubo, H. S. Krawczynski, J. F. Krizmanic, S. Kuramata, T. Lomtadze, P. Maestro, P. S. Marrocchesi, A. M. Messineo, J. W. Mitchell, S. Miyake, K. Mizutani, A. A. Moiseev, K. Mori, M. Mori, N. Mori, H. M. Motz, K. Munakata, H. Murakami, S. Nakahira, J. Nishimura, G. A. de Nolfo, S. Okuno, J. F. Ormes, L. Pacini, F. Palma, P. Papini, A. V. Penacchioni, B. F. Rauch, S. B. Ricciarini, K. Sakai, T. Sakamoto, M. Sasaki, Y. Shimizu, A. Shiomi, R. Sparvoli, P. Spillantini, F. Stolzi, I. Takahashi, M. Takayanagi, M. Takita, T. Tamura, N. Tateyama, T. Terasawa, H. Tomida, Y. Tsunesada, Y. Uchihori, S. Ueno, E. Vannuccini, J. P. Wefel, K. Yamaoka, S. Yanagita, A. Yoshida, K. Yoshida, T. Yuda

    Astroparticle Physics   100   29 - 37  2018.07

     View Summary

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET), launched for installation on the International Space Station (ISS) in August, 2015, has been accumulating scientific data since October, 2015. CALET is intended to perform long-duration observations of high-energy cosmic rays onboard the ISS. CALET directly measures the cosmic-ray electron spectrum in the energy range of 1 GeV to 20 TeV with a 2% energy resolution above 30 GeV. In addition, the instrument can measure the spectrum of gamma rays well into the TeV range, and the spectra of protons and nuclei up to a PeV. In order to operate the CALET onboard ISS, JAXA Ground Support Equipment (JAXA-GSE) and the Waseda CALET Operations Center (WCOC) have been established at JAXA and Waseda University, respectively. Scientific operations using CALET are planned at WCOC, taking into account orbital variations of geomagnetic rigidity cutoff. Scheduled command sequences are used to control the CALET observation modes on orbit. Calibration data acquisition by, for example, recording pedestal and penetrating particle events, a low-energy electron trigger mode operating at high geomagnetic latitude, a low-energy gamma-ray trigger mode operating at low geomagnetic latitude, and an ultra heavy trigger mode, are scheduled around the ISS orbit while maintaining maximum exposure to high-energy electrons and other high-energy shower events by always having the high-energy trigger mode active. The WCOC also prepares and distributes CALET flight data to collaborators in Italy and the United States. As of August 31, 2017, the total observation time is 689 days with a live time fraction of the total time of ∼ 84%. Nearly 450 million events are collected with a high-energy (E > 10 GeV) trigger. In addition, calibration data acquisition and low-energy trigger modes, as well as an ultra-heavy trigger mode, are consistently scheduled around the ISS orbit. By combining all operation modes with the excellent-quality on-orbit data collected thus far, it is expected that a five-year observation period will provide a wealth of new and interesting results.

    DOI

  • Extended Measurement of the Cosmic-Ray Electron and Positron Spectrum from 11 GeV to 4.8 TeV with the Calorimetric Electron Telescope on the International Space Station

    O. Adriani, Y. Akaike, K. Asano, Y. Asaoka, M. G. Bagliesi, E. Berti, G. Bigongiari, W. R. Binns, S. Bonechi, M. Bongi, P. Brogi, J. H. Buckley, N. Cannady, G. Castellini, C. Checchia, M. L. Cherry, G. Collazuol, V. Di Felice, K. Ebisawa, H. Fuke, T. G. Guzik, T. Hams, M. Hareyama, N. Hasebe, K. Hibino, M. Ichimura, K. Ioka, W. Ishizaki, M. H. Israel, K. Kasahara, J. Kataoka, R. Kataoka, Y. Katayose, C. Kato, N. Kawanaka, Y. Kawakubo, K. Kohri, H. S. Krawczynski, J. F. Krizmanic, T. Lomtadze, P. Maestro, P. S. Marrocchesi, A. M. Messineo, J. W. Mitchell, S. Miyake, A. A. Moiseev, K. Mori, M. Mori, N. Mori, H. M. Motz, K. Munakata, H. Murakami, S. Nakahira, J. Nishimura, G. A. De Nolfo, S. Okuno, J. F. Ormes, S. Ozawa, L. Pacini, F. Palma, P. Papini, A. V. Penacchioni, B. F. Rauch, S. B. Ricciarini, K. Sakai, T. Sakamoto, M. Sasaki, Y. Shimizu, A. Shiomi, R. Sparvoli, P. Spillantini, F. Stolzi, J. E. Suh, A. Sulaj, I. Takahashi, M. Takayanagi, M. Takita, T. Tamura, N. Tateyama, T. Terasawa, H. Tomida, S. Torii, Y. Tsunesada, Y. Uchihori, S. Ueno, E. Vannuccini, J. P. Wefel, K. Yamaoka, S. Yanagita, A. Yoshida, K. Yoshida

    Physical Review Letters   120 ( 26 )  2018.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    © 2018 American Physical Society. Extended results on the cosmic-ray electron + positron spectrum from 11 GeV to 4.8 TeV are presented based on observations with the Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) on the International Space Station utilizing the data up to November 2017. The analysis uses the full detector acceptance at high energies, approximately doubling the statistics compared to the previous result. CALET is an all-calorimetric instrument with a total thickness of 30 X0 at normal incidence and fine imaging capability, designed to achieve large proton rejection and excellent energy resolution well into the TeV energy region. The observed energy spectrum in the region below 1 TeV shows good agreement with Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) data. In the energy region below ∼300 GeV, CALET's spectral index is found to be consistent with the AMS-02, Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT), and Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE), while from 300 to 600 GeV the spectrum is significantly softer than the spectra from the latter two experiments. The absolute flux of CALET is consistent with other experiments at around a few tens of GeV. However, it is lower than those of DAMPE and Fermi-LAT with the difference increasing up to several hundred GeV. The observed energy spectrum above ∼1 TeV suggests a flux suppression consistent within the errors with the results of DAMPE, while CALET does not observe any significant evidence for a narrow spectral feature in the energy region around 1.4 TeV. Our measured all-electron flux, including statistical errors and a detailed breakdown of the systematic errors, is tabulated in the Supplemental Material in order to allow more refined spectral analyses based on our data.

    DOI PubMed

  • The Origins of the Gamma-Ray Flux Variations of NGC 1275 Based on Eight Years of Fermi-LAT Observations

    K. Tanada, J. Kataoka, M. Arimoto, M. Akita, C. C. Cheung, S. W. Digel, Y. Fukazawa

    Astrophysical Journal   860 ( 1 ) 74  2018.06  [Refereed]

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    © 2018. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. We present an analysis of eight years of Fermi-LAT (>0.1 GeV) γ-ray data obtained for the radio galaxy NGC 1275. The γ-ray flux from NGC 1275 is highly variable on short (∼days to weeks) timescales, and has steadily increased over this eight year timespan. By examining the changes in its flux and spectral shape in the LAT energy band over the entire data set, we found that its spectral behavior changed around 2011 February (∼MJD 55600). The γ-ray spectra at early times evolved largely at high energies, while the photon indices were unchanged at later times despite rather large flux variations. To explain these observations, we suggest that the flux changes at the early times were caused by injection of high-energy electrons into the jet while, later, the γ-ray flares were caused by a changing Doppler factor owing to variations in the jet Lorentz factor and/or changes in the angle to our line of sight. To demonstrate the viability of these scenarios, we fit the broad band spectral energy distribution data with a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model for flaring and quiescent intervals before and after 2011 February. To explain the γ-ray spectral behavior in the context of the SSC model, the maximum electron Lorentz factor would have changed at the early times, while a modest change in the Doppler factor adequately fits the quiescent and flaring state γ-ray spectra at the later times.

    DOI

  • Hitomi X-ray observation of the pulsar wind nebula G21.5-0.9

    Felix Aharonian, Hiroki Akamatsu, Fumie Akimoto, Steven W. Allen, Lorella Angelini, Marc Audard, Hisamitsu Awaki, Magnus Axelsson, Aya Bamba, Marshall W. Bautz, Roger Blandford, Laura W. Brenneman, Gregory V. Brown, Esra Bulbul, Edward M. Cackett, Maria Chernyakova, Meng P. Chiao, Paolo S. Coppi, Elisa Costantini, Jelle De Plaa, Cor P. De Vries, Jan Willem Den Herder, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, Ken Ebisawa, Megan E. Eckart, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew C. Fabian, Carlo Ferrigno, Adam R. Foster, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Luigi C. Gallo, Poshak Gandhi, Margherita Giustini, Andrea Goldwurm, Liyi Gu, Matteo Guainazzi, Yoshito Haba, Kouichi Hagino, Kenji Hamaguchi, Ilana M. Harrus, Isamu Hatsukade, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Takayuki Hayashi, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Junko S. Hiraga, Ann Hornschemeier, Akio Hoshino, John P. Hughes, Yuto Ichinohe, Ryo Iizuka, Hajime Inoue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Manabu Ishida, Kumi Ishikawa, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Masachika Iwai, Jelle Kaastra, Tim Kallman, Tsuneyoshi Kamae, Jun Kataoka, Satoru Katsuda, Nobuyuki Kawai, Richard L. Kelley, Caroline A. Kilbourne, Takao Kitaguchi, Shunji Kitamoto, Tetsu Kitayama, Takayoshi Kohmura, Motohide Kokubun, Katsuji Koyama, Shu Koyama, Peter Kretschmar, Hans A. Krimm, Aya Kubota, Hideyo Kunieda, Philippe Laurent, Shiu Hang Lee, Maurice A. Leutenegger, Olivier Limousin, Michael Loewenstein, Knox S. Long, David Lumb, Greg Madejski, Yoshitomo Maeda, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Maxim Markevitch, Hironori Matsumoto, Kyoko Matsushita, Dan McCammon, Brian R. McNamara, Missagh Mehdipour, Eric D. Miller, Jon M. Miller, Shin Mineshige

    Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan   70 ( 3 )  2018.06

     View Summary

    We present results from the Hitomi X-ray observation of a young composite-type supernova remnant (SNR) G21.5-0.9, whose emission is dominated by the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) contribution. The X-ray spectra in the 0.8-80 keV range obtained with the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS), Soft X-ray Imager, and Hard X-ray Imager (HXI) show a significant break in the continuum as previously found with the NuSTAR observation. After taking into account all known emissions from the SNR other than the PWN itself, we find that the Hitomi spectra can be fitted with a broken power law with photon indices of 1 = 1.74 ± 0.02 and 2 = 2.14 ± 0.01 below and above the break at 7.1 ± 0.3 keV, which is significantly lower than the NuSTAR result (∼9.0 keV). The spectral break cannot be reproduced by time-dependent particle injection one-zone spectral energy distribution models, which strongly indicates that a more complex emission model is needed, as suggested by recent theoretical models. We also search for narrow emission or absorption lines with the SXS, and perform a timing analysis of PSR J1833-1034 with the HXI and the Soft Gamma-ray Detector. No significant pulsation is found from the pulsar. However, unexpectedly, narrow absorption line features are detected in the SXS data at 4.2345 keV and 9.296 keV with a significance of 3.65 s. While the origin of these features is not understood, their mere detection opens up a new field of research and was only possible with the high resolution, sensitivity, and ability to measure extended sources provided by an X-ray microcalorimeter.

    DOI

  • Development of ultrahigh resolution radiation imaging detector using 1 mm channel size Si-PM array combined with 0.2 mm × 0.2 mm pixelated GAGG plate

    S. Yamamoto, J. Kataoka, T. Fukuchi, K. Kamada, A. Yoshikawa

    Journal of Instrumentation   13 ( 5 ) P05028  2018.05

     View Summary

    For precise distribution measurements of gamma photons or beta particles, high resolution radiation imaging detectors are required. Reducing the size of the photodetectors combined with small pixel scintillators is a possible method to improve the spatial resolution of the scintillator based radiation imaging detectors. In this paper, we used a 1mm channel size silicon photomultiplier (Si-PM) array combined with a small pixel scintillator array and evaluated the performance for gamma photons and beta particles. For the radiation imaging detector, a Si-PM array with 1mm × 1mm channel size arranged in 8 × 8 (Hamamatsu, S13615-1025N-08) was optically coupled to a 0.2 mm × 0.2 mm pixelated GAGG plate. For 662 keV high energy gamma photons, 0.2mm GAGG pixels were clearly resolved in the position histogram. The peak to valley ratio (P/V) of the position histogram was not improved when only photo-peak events were used while it was improved when the events lower energy than the Compton edge was used. We could also resolve the position histograms for both 122 keV and 60 keV gamma photons. For beta particles, although the position histogram showed good separation for relatively low energy beta particles of Ca-45 (245 keV max), separation became worse for higher energy beta particles from Sr-Y-90 (545keV and 2280keV max). The separation of the position histogram for Sr-Y-90 improved when only lower energy events were used. Using 1mm size Si-PM array, high resolution detectors was realized for low energy gamma photons and beta particle but the spatial resolution was decreased for high energy beta particles from Sr-Y-90.

    DOI

  • Modeling of proton-induced radioactivation background in hard X-ray telescopes: Geant4-based simulation and its demonstration by Hitomi's measurement in a low Earth orbit

    Odaka Hirokazu, Asai Makoto, Hagino Kouichi, Koi Tatsumi, Madejski Greg, Mizuno Tsunefumi, Ohno Masanori, Saito Shinya, Sato Tamotsu, Wright Dennis H, Enoto Teruaki, Fukazawa Yasushi, Hayashi Katsuhiro, Kataoka Jun, Katsuta Junichiro, Kawaharada Madoka, Kobayashi Shogo B, Kokubun Motohide, Laurent Philippe, Lebrun Francois, Limousin Olivier, Maier Daniel, Makishima Kazuo, Mimura Taketo, Miyake Katsuma, Mori Kunishiro, Murakami Hiroaki, Nakamori Takeshi, Nakano Toshio, Nakazawa Kazuhiro, Noda Hirofumi, Ohta Masayuki, Ozaki Masanobu, Sato Goro, Sato Rie, Tajima Hiroyasu, Takahashi Hiromitsu, Takahashi Tadayuki, Takeda Shin'ichiro, Tanaka Takaaki, Tanaka Yasuyuki, Terada Yukikatsu, Uchiyama Hideki, Uchiyama Yasunobu, Watanabe Shin, Yamaoka Kazutaka, Yasuda Tetsuya, Yatsu Yoichi, Yuasa Takayuki, Zoglauer Andreas

    NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT   891   92 - 105  2018.05  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Hard X-ray astronomical observatories in orbit suffer from a significant amount of background due to radioactivation induced by cosmic-ray protons and/or geomagnetically trapped protons. Within the framework of a full Monte Carlo simulation, we present modeling of in-orbit instrumental background which is dominated by radioactivation. To reduce the computation time required by straightforward simulations of delayed emissions from activated isotopes, we insert a semi-analytical calculation that converts production probabilities of radioactive isotopes by interaction of the primary protons into decay rates at measurement time of all secondary isotopes. Therefore, our simulation method is separated into three steps: (1) simulation of isotope production, (2) semi-analytical conversion to decay rates, and (3) simulation of decays of the isotopes at measurement time. This method is verified by a simple setup that has a CdTe semiconductor detector, and shows a 100-fold improvement in efficiency over the straightforward simulation. To demonstrate its experimental performance, the simulation framework was tested against data measured with a CdTe sensor in the Hard X-ray Imager onboard the Hitomi X-ray Astronomy Satellite, which was put into a low Earth orbit with an altitude of 570 km and an inclination of 31°, and thus experienced a large amount of irradiation from geomagnetically trapped protons during its passages through the South Atlantic Anomaly. The simulation is able to treat full histories of the proton irradiation and multiple measurement windows. The simulation results agree very well with the measured data, showing that the measured background is well described by the combination of proton-induced radioactivation of the CdTe detector itself and thick Bi4Ge3O12 scintillator shields, leakage of cosmic X-ray background and albedo gamma-ray radiation, and emissions from naturally contaminated isotopes in the detector system.

    DOI

  • In-orbit performance and calibration of the Hard X-ray Imager onboard Hitomi (ASTRO-H)

    Kouichi Hagino, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Goro Sato, Motohide Kokubun, Teruaki Enoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Jun Kataoka, Junichiro Katsuta, Shogo B. Kobayashi, Philippe Laurent, Francois Lebrun, Olivier Limousin, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Taketo Mimura, Katsuma Miyake, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Kunishiro Mori, Hiroaki Murakami, Takeshi Nakamori, Toshio Nakano, Hirofumi Noda, Hirokazu Odaka, Masanori Ohno, Masayuki Ohta, Shinya Saito, Rie Sato, Hiroyasu Tajima, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Tadayuki Takahashi, Shin'ichiro Takeda, Takaaki Tanaka, Yukikatsu Terada, Hideki Uchiyama, Yasunobu Uchiyama, Shin Watanabe, Kazutaka Yamaoka, Yoichi Yatsu, Takayuki Yuasa

    Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems   4 ( 2 )  2018.04

     View Summary

    The Hard X-ray Imager (HXI) onboard Hitomi (ASTRO-H) is an imaging spectrometer covering hard x-ray energies of 5 to 80 keV. Combined with the Hard X-ray Telescope, it enables imaging spectroscopy with an angular resolution of 10.7 half-power diameter, in a field of view of 9' × 9'. The main imager is composed of four layers of Si detectors and one layer of CdTe detector, stacked to cover a wide energy band up to 80 keV, surrounded by an active shield made of Bi4Ge3O12 scintillator to reduce the background. The HXI started observations 12 days before the Hitomi loss and successfully obtained data from G21.5-0.9, Crab, and blank sky. Utilizing these data, we calibrate the detector response and study properties of in-orbit background. The observed Crab spectra agree well with a powerlaw model convolved with the detector response, within 5% accuracy. We find that albedo electrons in specified orbit strongly affect the background of the Si top layer and establish a screening method to reduce it. The background level over the full field of view after all the processing and screening is as low as the preflight requirement of 1 - 3 × 10-4 counts s-1 cm-2 keV-1.

    DOI

  • Design and performance of Soft Gamma-ray Detector onboard the Hitomi (ASTRO-H) satellite

    Tajima Hiroyasu, Watanabe Shin, Fukazawa Yasushi, Blandford Roger, Enoto Teruaki, Goldwurm Andrea, Hagino Kouichi, Hayashi Katsuhiro, Ichinohe Yuto, Kataoka Jun, Katsuta Jun'ichiro, Kitaguchi Takao, Kokubun Motohide, Laurent Philippe, Lebrun Francois, Limousin Olivier, Madejski Grzegorz M, Makishima Kazuo, Mizuno Tsunefumi, Mori Kunishiro, Nakamori Takeshi, Nakano Toshio, Nakazawa Kazuhiro, Noda Hirofumi, Odaka Hirokazu, Ohno Masanori, Ohta Masayuki, Saito Shinya, Sato Goro, Sato Rie, Takeda Shin'ichiro, Takahashi Hiromitsu, Takahashi Tadayuki, Tanaka Takaaki, Tanaka Yasuyuki, Terada Yukikatsu, Uchiyama Hideki, Uchiyama Yasunobu, Yamaoka Kazutaka, Yatsu Yoichi, Yonetoku Daisuke, Yuasao Takayuki

    JOURNAL OF ASTRONOMICAL TELESCOPES INSTRUMENTS AND SYSTEMS   4 ( 2 )  2018.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Hitomi (ASTRO-H) was the sixth Japanese X-ray satellite that carried instruments with exquisite energy resolution of <7 eV and broad energy coverage of 0.3 to 600 keV. The Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD) was the Hitomi instrument that observed the highest energy band (60 to 600 keV). The SGD design achieves a low background level by combining active shields and Compton cameras where Compton kinematics is utilized to reject backgrounds coming from outside of the field of view. A compact and highly efficient Compton camera is realized using a combination of silicon and cadmium telluride semiconductor sensors with a good energy resolution. Compton kinematics also carries information for gamma-ray polarization, making the SGD an excellent polarimeter. Following several years of development, the satellite was successfully launched on February 17, 2016. After proper functionality of the SGD components were verified, the nominal observation mode was initiated on March 24, 2016. The SGD observed the Crab Nebula for approximately two hours before the spacecraft ceased to function on March 26, 2016. We present concepts of the SGD design followed by detailed description of the instrument and its performance measured on ground and in orbit.

    DOI

  • Hard x-ray imager onboard Hitomi (ASTRO-H)

    Nakazawa Kazuhiro, Sato Goro, Kokubun Motohide, Enoto Teruaki, Fukazawa Yasushi, Hagino Kouichi, Hayashi Katsuhiro, Kataoka Jun, Katsuta Junichiro, Kobayashi Shogo B, Laurent Philippe, Lebrun Francois, Limousin Olivier, Maier Daniel, Makishima Kazuo, Mizuno Tsunefumi, Mori Kunishiro, Nakamori Takeshi, Nakano Toshio, Noda Hirofumi, Odaka Hirokazu, Ohno Masanori, Ohta Masayuki, Saito Shinya, Sato Rie, Tajima Hiroyasu, Takahashi Hiromitsu, Takahashi Tadayuki, Takeda Shin'ichiro, Tanaka Takaaki, Terada Yukikatsu, Uchiyama Hideki, Uchiyama Yasunobu, Watanabe Shin, Yamaoka Kazutaka, Yatsu Yoichi, Yuasa Takayuki

    JOURNAL OF ASTRONOMICAL TELESCOPES INSTRUMENTS AND SYSTEMS   4 ( 2 )  2018.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The hard x-ray imaging spectroscopy system of "Hitomi" x-ray observatory is composed of two sets of hard x-ray imagers (HXI) coupled with hard x-ray telescopes (HXT). With a 12-m focal length, the system provides fine (10:7 half-power diameter) imaging spectroscopy covering about 5 to 80 keV. The HXI sensor consists of a camera, which is composed of four layers of Si and one layer of CdTe semiconductor imagers, and an active shield composed of nine Bi4Ge3O12 scintillators to provide low background. The two HXIs started observation on March 8 and 14, 2016 and were operational until 26 March. Using a Crab observation, 5 to 80 keV energy coverage and good detection efficiency were confirmed. The detector background level of 1 to 3 × 10-4 counts s?1 keV?1 cm?2 (in detector geometrical area) at 5 to 80 keV was achieved, by cutting the high-background time-intervals, adopting sophisticated energy-dependent imager layer selection, and baffling of the cosmic x-ray background and active-shielding. This level is among the lowest of detectors working in this energy band. By comparing the effective area and the background, it was shown that the HXI had a sensitivity that is same to that of NuSTAR for point sources and 3 to 4 times better for largely extended diffuse sources.

    DOI

  • Hitomi observation of radio galaxy NGC 1275: The first X-ray microcalorimeter spectroscopy of Fe-Kα line emission from an active galactic nucleus

    Felix Aharonian, Hiroki Akamatsu, Fumie Akimoto, Steven W. Allen, Lorella Angelini, Marc Audard, Hisamitsu Awaki, Magnus Axelsson, Aya Bamba, Marshall W. Bautz, Roger Blandford, Laura W. Brenneman, Gregory V. Brown, Esra Bulbul, Edward M. Cackett, Maria Chernyakova, Meng P. Chiao, Paolo S. Coppi, Elisa Costantini, Jelle De Plaa, Cor P. De Vries, Jan Willem Den Herder, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, Ken Ebisawa, Megan E. Eckart, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew C. Fabian, Carlo Ferrigno, Adam R. Foster, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Luigi C. Gallo, Poshak Gandhi, Margherita Giustini, Andrea Goldwurm, Liyi Gu, Matteo Guainazzi, Yoshito Haba, Kouichi Hagino, Kenji Hamaguchi, Ilana M. Harrus, Isamu Hatsukade, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Takayuki Hayashi, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Junko S. Hiraga, Ann Hornschemeier, Akio Hoshino, John P. Hughes, Yuto Ichinohe, Ryo Iizuka, Hajime Inoue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Manabu Ishida, Kumi Ishikawa, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Masachika Iwai, Jelle Kaastra, Tim Kallman, Tsuneyoshi Kamae, Jun Kataoka, Satoru Katsuda, Nobuyuki Kawai, Richard L. Kelley, Caroline A. Kilbourne, Takao Kitaguchi, Shunji Kitamoto, Tetsu Kitayama, Takayoshi Kohmura, Motohide Kokubun, Katsuji Koyama, Shu Koyama, Peter Kretschmar, Hans A. Krimm, Aya Kubota, Hideyo Kunieda, Philippe Laurent, Shiu Hang Lee, Maurice A. Leutenegger, Olivier O. Limousin, Michael Loewenstein, Knox S. Long, David Lumb, Greg Madejski, Yoshitomo Maeda, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Maxim Markevitch, Hironori Matsumoto, Kyoko Matsushita, Dan McCammon, Brian R. McNamara, Missagh Mehdipour, Eric D. Miller, Jon M. Miller, Shin Mineshige

    Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan   70 ( 2 )  2018.03

     View Summary

    The origin of the narrow Fe-Kα fluorescence line at 6.4 keV from active galactic nuclei has long been under debate; some of the possible sites are the outer accretion disk, the broad line region, a molecular torus, or interstellar/intracluster media. In 2016 February-March, we performed the first X-ray microcalorimeter spectroscopy with the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) on board the Hitomi satellite of the Fanaroff-Riley type I radio galaxy NGC 1275 at the center of the Perseus cluster of galaxies. With the high-energy resolution of ∼5 eV at 6 keV achieved by Hitomi/SXS, we detected the Fe-Kα line with ∼5.4 σ significance. The velocity width is constrained to be 500-1600 km s−1 (FWHM for Gaussian models) at 90% confidence. The SXS also constrains the continuum level from the NGC 1275 nucleus up to ∼20 keV, giving an equivalent width of ∼20 eV for the 6.4 keV line. Because the velocity width is narrower than that of the broad Hα line of ∼2750 km s−1, we can exclude a large contribution to the line flux from the accretion disk and the broad line region. Furthermore, we performed pixel map analyses on the Hitomi/SXS data and image analyses on the Chandra archival data, and revealed that the Fe-Kα line comes from a region within ∼1.6 kpc of the NGC 1275 core, where an active galactic nucleus emission dominates, rather than that from intracluster media. Therefore, we suggest that the source of the Fe-Kα line from NGC 1275 is likely a low-covering-fraction molecular torus or a rotating molecular disk which probably extends from a parsec to hundreds of parsecs scale in the active galactic nucleus system.

    DOI

  • Search for thermal X-ray features from the Crab nebula with the Hitomi soft X-ray spectrometer

    Takashi J. Moriya, Felix Aharonian, Hiroki Akamatsu, Fumie Akimoto, Steven W. Allen, Lorella Angelini, Marc Audard, Hisamitsu Awaki, Magnus Axelsson, Aya Bamba, Marshall W. Bautz, Roger Blandford, Laura W. Brenneman, Gregory V. Brown, Esra Bulbul, Edward M. Cackett, Maria Chernyakova, Meng P. Chiao, Paolo S. Coppi, Elisa Costantini, Jelle De Plaa, Cor P. De Vries, Jan Willem Den Herder, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, Ken Ebisawa, Megan E. Eckart, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew C. Fabian, Carlo Ferrigno, Adam R. Foster, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Luigi C. Gallo, Poshak Gandhi, Margherita Giustini, Andrea Goldwurm, Liyi Gu, Matteo Guainazzi, Yoshito Haba, Kouichi Hagino, Kenji Hamaguchi, Ilana M. Harrus, Isamu Hatsukade, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Takayuki Hayashi, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Junko S. Hiraga, Ann Hornschemeier, Akio Hoshino, John P. Hughes, Yuto Ichinohe, Ryo Iizuka, Hajime Inoue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Manabu Ishida, Kumi Ishikawa, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Jelle Kaastra, Tim Kallman, Tsuneyoshi Kamae, Jun Kataoka, Satoru Katsuda, Nobuyuki Kawai, Richard L. Kelley, Caroline A. Kilbourne, Takao Kitaguchi, Shunji Kitamoto, Tetsu Kitayama, Takayoshi Kohmura, Motohide Kokubun, Katsuji Koyama, Shu Koyama, Peter Kretschmar, Hans A. Krimm, Aya Kubota, Hideyo Kunieda, Philippe Laurent, Shiu Hang Lee, Maurice A. Leutenegger, Olivier Limousin, Michael Loewenstein, Knox S. Long, David Lumb, Greg Madejski, Yoshitomo Maeda, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Maxim Markevitch, Hironori Matsumoto, Kyoko Matsushita, Dan Mccammon, Brian R. Mcnamara, Missagh Mehdipour, Eric D. Miller, Jon M. Miller, Shin Mineshige

    Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan   70 ( 2 )  2018.03

     View Summary

    The Crab nebula originated from a core-collapse supernova (SN) explosion observed in 1054AD. When viewed as a supernova remnant (SNR), it has an anomalously low observed ejecta mass and kinetic energy for an Fe-core-collapse SN. Intensive searches have been made for a massive shell that solves this discrepancy, but none has been detected. An alternative idea is that SN 1054 is an electron-capture (EC) explosion with a lower explosion energy by an order of magnitude than Fe-core-collapse SNe. X-ray imaging searches were performed for the plasma emission from the shell in the Crab outskirts to set a stringent upper limit on the X-ray emitting mass. However, the extreme brightness of the source hampers access to its vicinity. We thus employed spectroscopic technique using the X-ray micro-calorimeter on board the Hitomi satellite. By exploiting its superb energy resolution, we set an upper limit for emission or absorption features from as yet undetected thermal plasma in the 2-12keV range. We also re-evaluated the existing Chandra and XMM-Newton data. By assembling these results, a new upper limit was obtained for the X-ray plasma mass of < 1 M⊙ for a wide range of assumed shell radius, size, and plasma temperature values both in and out of collisional equilibrium. To compare with the observation, we further performed hydrodynamic simulations of the Crab SNR for two SN models (Fe-core versus EC) under two SN environments (uniform interstellar medium versus progenitor wind). We found that the observed mass limit can be compatible with both SN models if the SN environment has a low density of < 0.03 cm-3 (Fe core) or < 0.1 cm-3 (EC) for the uniform density, or a progenitor wind density somewhat less than that provided by a mass loss rate of 10-5M⊙ yr-1 at 20 km s-1for the wind environment.

    DOI

  • Glimpse of the highly obscured HMXB IGR J16318-4848 with Hitomi

    Steven W. Alle, Felix Aharonian, Hiroki Akamatsu, Fumie Akimoto, Steven W. Allen, Lorella Angelini, Marc Audard, Hisamitsu Awaki, Magnus Axelsson, Aya Bamba, Marshall W. Bautz, Roger Blandford, Laura W. Brenneman, Gregory V. Brown, Esra Bulbul, Edward M. Cackett, Maria Chernyakova, Meng P. Chiao, Paolo S. Coppi, Elisa Costantini, Jelle De Plaa, Cor P. De Vries, Jan Willem Den Herder, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, Ken Ebisawa, Megan E. Eckart, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew C. Fabian, Carlo Ferrigno, Adam R. Foster, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Luigi C. Gallo, Poshak Gandhi, Margherita Giustini, Andrea Goldwurm, Liyi Gu, Matteo Guainazzi, Yoshito Haba, Kouichi Hagino, Kenji Hamaguchi, Ilana M. Harrus, Isamu Hatsukade, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Takayuki Hayashi, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Junko S. Hiraga, Ann Hornschemeier, Akio Hoshino, John P. Hughes, Yuto Ichinohe, Ryo Iizuka, Hajime Inoue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Manabu Ishida, Kumi Ishikawa, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Masachika Iwai, Jelle Kaastra, Tim Kallman, Tsuneyoshi Kamae, Jun Kataoka, Satoru Katsuda, Nobuyuki Kawai, Richard L. Kelley, Caroline A. Kilbourne, Takao Kitaguchi, Shunji Kitamoto, Tetsu Kitayama, Takayoshi Kohmura, Motohide Kokubun, Katsuji Koyama, Shu Koyama, Peter Kretschmar, Hans A. Krimm, Aya Kubota, Hideyo Kunieda, Philippe Laurent, Shiu Hang Lee, Maurice A. Leutenegger, Olivier O. Limousin, Michael Loewenstein, Knox S. Long, David Lumb, Greg Madejski, Yoshitomo Maeda, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Maxim Markevitch, Hironori Matsumoto, Kyoko Matsushita, Dan Mccammon, Brian R. Mcnamara, Missagh Mehdipour, Eric D. Miller, Jon M. Miller

    Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan   70 ( 2 )  2018.03

     View Summary

    We report on a Hitomi observation of IGRJ16318-4848, a high-mass X-ray binary system with an extremely strong absorption of NH ∼ 1024cm 2. Previous X-ray studies revealed that its spectrum is dominated by strong fluorescence lines of Fe as well as continuum emission lines. For physical and geometrical insight into the nature of the reprocessing material, we utilized the high spectroscopic resolving power of the X-ray microcalorimeter (the soft X-ray spectrometer: SXS) and the wide-band sensitivity by the soft and hard X-ray imagers (SXI and HXI) aboard Hitomi. Even though the photon counts are limited due to unintended off-axis pointing, the SXS spectrum resolves Fe Kα1 and Kα2 lines and puts strong constraints on the line centroid and line width. The line width corresponds to a velocity of 160+-37000 km s-1. This represents the most accurate, and smallest, width measurement of this line made so far from the any X-ray binary, much less than the Doppler broadening and Doppler shift expected from speeds that are characteristic of similar systems. Combined with the K-shell edge energy measured by the SXI and HXI spectra, the ionization state of Fe is estimated to be in the range of Fe I-IV. Considering the estimated ionization parameter and the distance between the X-ray source and the absorber, the density and thickness of the materials are estimated. The extraordinarily strong absorption and the absence of a Compton shoulder component have been confirmed. These characteristics suggest reprocessing materials that are distributed in a narrow solid angle or scattering, primarily by warm free electrons or neutral hydrogen. This measurement was achieved using the SXS detection of 19 photons. It provides strong motivation for follow-up observations of this and other X-ray binaries using the X-ray Astrophysics Recovery Mission and other comparable future instruments.

    DOI

  • Hitomi X-ray studies of giant radio pulses from the Crab pulsar

    Felix Aharonian, Hiroki Akamatsu, Fumie Akimoto, Steven W. Allen, Lorella Angelini, Marc Audard, Hisamitsu Awaki, Magnus Axelsson, Aya Bamba, Marshall W. Bautz, Roger Blandford, Laura W. Brenneman, Gregory V. Brown, Esra Bulbul, Edward M. Cackett, Maria Chernyakova, Meng P. Chiao, Paolo S. Coppi, Elisa Costantini, Jelle De Plaa, Cor P. De Vries, Jan Willem Den Herder, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, Ken Ebisawa, Megan E. Eckart, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew C. Fabian, Carlo Ferrigno, Adam R. Foster, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Luigi C. Gallo, Poshak Gandhi, Margherita Giustini, Andrea Goldwurm, Liyi Gu, Matteo Guainazzi, Yoshito Haba, Kouichi Hagino, Kenji Hamaguchi, Ilana M. Harrus, Isamu Hatsukade, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Takayuki Hayashi, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Junko S. Hiraga, Ann Hornschemeier, Akio Hoshino, John P. Hughes, Yuto Ichinohe, Ryo Iizuka, Hajime Inoue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Manabu Ishida, Kumi Ishikawa, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Masachika Iwai, Jelle Kaastra, Tim Kallman, Tsuneyoshi Kamae, Jun Kataoka, Satoru Katsuda, Nobuyuki Kawai, Richard L. Kelley, Caroline A. Kilbourne, Takao Kitaguchi, Shunji Kitamoto, Tetsu Kitayama, Takayoshi Kohmura, Motohide Kokubun, Katsuji Koyama, Shu Koyama, Peter Kretschmar, Hans A. Krimm, Aya Kubota, Hideyo Kunieda, Philippe Laurent, L. E.E. Shiu-Hang, Maurice A. Leutenegger, Olivier O. Limousin, Michael Loewenstein, Knox S. Long, David Lumb, Greg Madejski, Yoshitomo Maeda, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Maxim Markevitch, Hironori Matsumoto, Kyoko Matsushita, Dan McCammon, Brian R. McNamara, Missagh Mehdipour, Eric D. Miller, Jon M. Miller, Shin Mineshige

    Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan   70 ( 2 )  2018.03

     View Summary

    To search for giant X-ray pulses correlated with the giant radio pulses (GRPs) from the Crab pulsar, we performed a simultaneous observation of the Crab pulsar with the X-ray satellite Hitomi in the 2-300 keV band and the Kashima NICT radio telescope in the 1.4-1.7 GHz band with a net exposure of about 2 ks on 2016 March 25, just before the loss of the Hitomi mission. The timing performance of the Hitomi instruments was confirmed to meet the timing requirement and about 1000 and 100 GRPs were simultaneously observed at the main pulse and inter-pulse phases, respectively, and we found no apparent correlation between the giant radio pulses and the X-ray emission in either the main pulse or inter-pulse phase. All variations are within the 2 σ fluctuations of the X-ray fluxes at the pulse peaks, and the 3 σ upper limits of variations of main pulse or inter-pulse GRPs are 22% or 80% of the peak flux in a 0.20 phase width, respectively, in the 2-300 keV band. The values for main pulse or inter-pulse GRPs become 25% or 110%, respectively, when the phase width is restricted to the 0.03 phase. Among the upper limits from the Hitomi satellite, those in the 4.5-10 keV and 70-300 keV bands are obtained for the first time, and those in other bands are consistent with previous reports. Numerically, the upper limits of the main pulse and inter-pulse GRPs in the 0.20 phase width are about (2.4 and 9.3) × 10−11 erg cm−2, respectively. No significant variability in pulse profiles implies that the GRPs originated from a local place within the magnetosphere. Although the number of photon-emitting particles should temporarily increase to account for the brightening of the radio emission, the results do not statistically rule out variations correlated with the GRPs, because the possible X-ray enhancement may appear due to a >0.02% brightening of the pulse-peak flux under such conditions.

  • Measurements of resonant scattering in the Perseus Cluster core with Hitomi SXS

    Felix Aharonian, Hiroki Akamatsu, Fumie Akimoto, Steven W. Allen, Lorella Angelini, Marc Audard, Hisamitsu Awaki, Magnus Axelsson, Aya Bamba, Marshall W. Bautz, Roger Blandford, Laura W. Brenneman, Gregory V. Brown, Esra Bulbul, Edward M. Cackett, Maria Chernyakova, Meng P. Chiao, Paolo S. Coppi, Elisa Costantini, Jelle De Plaa, Cor P. De Vries, Jan Willem Den Herder, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, Ken Ebisawa, Megan E. Eckart, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew C. Fabian, Carlo Ferrigno, Adam R. Foster, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Maki Furukawa, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Luigi C. Gallo, Poshak Gandhi, Margherita Giustini, Andrea Goldwurm, Liyi Gu, Matteo Guainazzi, Yoshito Haba, Kouichi Hagino, Kenji Hamaguchi, Ilana M. Harrus, Isamu Hatsukade, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Takayuki Hayashi, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Junko S. Hiraga, Ann Hornschemeier, Akio Hoshino, John P. Hughes, Yuto Ichinohe, Ryo Iizuka, Hajime Inoue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Manabu Ishida, Kumi Ishikawa, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Masachika Iwai, Jelle Kaastra, Tim Kallman, Tsuneyoshi Kamae, Jun Kataoka, Satoru Katsuda, Nobuyuki Kawai, Richard L. Kelley, Caroline A. Kilbourne, Takao Kitaguchi, Shunji Kitamoto, Tetsu Kitayama, Takayoshi Kohmura, Motohide Kokubun, Katsuji Koyama, Shu Koyama, Peter Kretschmar, Hans A. Krimm, Aya Kubota, Hideyo Kunieda, Philippe Laurent, Shiu Hang Lee, Maurice A. Leutenegger, Olivier O. Limousin, Michael Loewenstein, Knox S. Long, David Lumb, Greg Madejski, Yoshitomo Maeda, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Maxim Markevitch, Hironori Matsumoto, Kyoko Matsushita, Dan McCammon, Brian R. McNamara, Missagh Mehdipour, Eric D. Miller, Jon M. Miller

    Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan   70 ( 2 )  2018.03

     View Summary

    Thanks to its high spectral resolution (∼5 eV at 6 keV), the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) on board Hitomi enables us to measure the detailed structure of spatially resolved emission lines from highly ionized ions in galaxy clusters for the first time. In this series of papers, using the SXS we have measured the velocities of gas motions, metallicities and the multi-temperature structure of the gas in the core of the Perseus Cluster. Here, we show that when inferring physical properties from line emissivities in systems like Perseus, the resonant scattering effect should be taken into account. In the Hitomi waveband, resonant scattering mostly affects the Fe XXV Heα line (w)-the strongest line in the spectrum. The flux measured by Hitomi in this line is suppressed by a factor of ∼1.3 in the inner ∼30 kpc, compared to predictions for an optically thin plasma; the suppression decreases with the distance from the center. The w line also appears slightly broader than other lines from the same ion. The observed distortions of the w line flux, shape, and distance dependence are all consistent with the expected effect of the resonant scattering in the Perseus core. By measuring the ratio of fluxes in optically thick (w) and thin (Fe XXV forbidden, Heβ, Lyα) lines, and comparing these ratios with predictions from Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations, the velocities of gas motions have been obtained. The results are consistent with the direct measurements of gas velocities from line broadening described elsewhere in this series, although the systematic and statistical uncertainties remain significant. Further improvements in the predictions of line emissivities in plasma models, and deeper observations with future X-ray missions offering similar or better capabilities to the Hitomi SXS, will enable resonant scattering measurements to provide powerful constraints on the amplitude and anisotropy of cluster gas motions.

    DOI

  • Hitomi observations of the LMC SNR N 132 D: Highly redshifted X-ray emission from iron ejecta

    Felix Aharonian, Hiroki Akamatsu, Fumie Akimoto, Steven W. Allen, Lorella Angelini, Marc Audard, Hisamitsu Awaki, Magnus Axelsson, Aya Bamba, Marshall W. Bautz, Roger Blandford, Laura W. Brenneman, Gregory V. Brown, Esra Bulbul, Edward M. Cackett, Maria Chernyakova, Meng P. Chiao, Paolo S. Coppi, Elisa Costantini, Jelle De Plaa, Cor P. De Vries, Jan Willem Den Herder, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, Ken Ebisawa, Megan E. Eckart, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew C. Fabian, Carlo Ferrigno, Adam R. Foster, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Luigi C. Gallo, Poshak Gandhi, Margherita Giustini, Andrea Goldwurm, Liyi Gu, Matteo Guainazzi, Yoshito Haba, Kouichi Hagino, Kenji Hamaguchi, Ilana M. Harrus, Isamu Hatsukade, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Takayuki Hayashi, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Junko S. Hiraga, Ann Hornschemeier, Akio Hoshino, John P. Hughes, Yuto Ichinohe, Ryo Iizuka, Hajime Inoue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Manabu Ishida, Kumi Ishikawa, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Masachika Iwai, Jelle Kaastra, Tim Kallman, Tsuneyoshi Kamae, Jun Kataoka, Satoru Katsuda, Nobuyuki Kawai, Richard L. Kelley, Caroline A. Kilbourne, Takao Kitaguchi, Shunji Kitamoto, Tetsu Kitayama, Takayoshi Kohmura, Motohide Kokubun, Katsuji Koyama, Shu Koyama, Peter Kretschmar, Hans A. Krimm, Aya Kubota, Hideyo Kunieda, Philippe Laurent, Shiu Hang Lee, Maurice A. Leutenegger, Olivier Limousin, Michael Loewenstein, Knox S. Long, David Lumb, Greg Madejski, Yoshitomo Maeda, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Maxim Markevitch, Hironori Matsumoto, Kyoko Matsushita, Dan McCammon, Brian R. McNamara, Missagh Mehdipour, Eric D. Miller, Jon M. Miller, Shin Mineshige

    Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan   70 ( 2 )  2018.03

     View Summary

    We present Hitomi observations of N 132 D, a young, X-ray bright, O-rich core-collapse supernova remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Despite a very short observation of only 3.7 ks, the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) easily detects the line complexes of highly ionized S K and Fe K with 16-17 counts in each. The Fe feature is measured for the first time at high spectral resolution. Based on the plausible assumption that the Fe K emission is dominated by He-like ions, we find that the material responsible for this Fe emission is highly redshifted at ∼ 800 km s−1 compared to the local LMC interstellar medium (ISM), with a 90% credible interval of 50-1500 km s−1 if a weakly informative prior is placed on possible line broadening. This indicates (1) that the Fe emission arises from the supernova ejecta, and (2) that these ejecta are highly asymmetric, since no blueshifted component is found. The S K velocity is consistent with the local LMC ISM, and is likely from swept-up ISM material. These results are consistent with spatial mapping that shows the He-like Fe concentrated in the interior of the remnant and the S tracing the outer shell. The results also show that even with a very small number of counts, direct velocity measurements from Doppler-shifted lines detected in extended objects like supernova remnants are now possible. Thanks to the very low SXS background of ∼ 1 event per spectral resolution element per 100 ks, such results are obtainable during short pointed or slew observations with similar instruments. This highlights the power of high-spectral-resolution imaging observations, and demonstrates the new window that has been opened with Hitomi and will be greatly widened with future missions such as the X-ray Astronomy Recovery Mission (XARM) and Athena.

    DOI

  • Temperature structure in the Perseus cluster core observed with Hitomi

    Felix Aharonian, Hiroki Akamatsu, Fumie Akimoto, Steven W. Allen, Lorella Angelini, Marc Audard, Hisamitsu Awaki, Magnus Axelsson, Aya Bamba, Marshall W. Bautz, Roger Blandford, Laura W. Brenneman, Gregory V. Brown, Esra Bulbul, Edward M. Cackett, Maria Chernyakova, Meng P. Chiao, Paolo S. Coppi, Elisa Costantini, Jelle De Plaa, Cor P. De Vries, Jan Willem Den Herder, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, Ken Ebisawa, Megan E. Eckart, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew C. Fabian, Carlo Ferrigno, Adam R. Foster, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Maki Furukawa, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Luigi C. Gallo, Poshak Gandhi, Margherita Giustini, Andrea Goldwurm, Liyi Gu, Matteo Guainazzi, Yoshito Haba, Kouichi Hagino, Kenji Hamaguchi, Ilana M. Harrus, Isamu Hatsukade, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Takayuki Hayashi, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Junko S. Hiraga, Ann Hornschemeier, Akio Hoshino, John P. Hughes, Yuto Ichinohe, Ryo Iizuka, Hajime Inoue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Manabu Ishida, Kumi Ishikawa, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Masachika Iwai, Jelle Kaastra, Tim Kallman, Tsuneyoshi Kamae, Jun Kataoka, Yuichi Kato, Satoru Katsuda, Nobuyuki Kawai, Richard L. Kelley, Caroline A. Kilbourne, Takao Kitaguchi, Shunji Kitamoto, Tetsu Kitayama, Takayoshi Kohmura, Motohide Kokubun, Katsuji Koyama, Shu Koyama, Peter Kretschmar, Hans A. Krimm, Aya Kubota, Hideyo Kunieda, Philippe Laurent, Shiu Hang Lee, Maurice A. Leutenegger, Olivier Limousin, Michael Loewenstein, Knox S. Long, David Lumb, Greg Madejski, Yoshitomo Maeda, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Maxim Markevitch, Hironori Matsumoto, Kyoko Matsushita, Dan McCammon, Brian R. McNamara, Missagh Mehdipour, Eric D. Miller

    Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan   70 ( 2 )  2018.03

     View Summary

    The present paper explains the temperature structure of X-ray emitting plasma in the core of the Perseus cluster based on 1.8-20.0 keV data obtained with the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) on board the Hitomi Observatory. A series of four observations was carried out, with a total effective exposure time of 338 ks that covered a central region of ∼7 in diameter. SXS was operated with an energy resolution of ∼5 eV (full width at half maximum) at 5.9 keV. Not only fine structures of K-shell lines in He-like ions, but also transitions from higher principal quantum numbers were clearly resolved from Si through Fe. That enabled us to perform temperature diagnostics using the line ratios of Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe, and to provide the first direct measurement of the excitation temperature and ionization temperature in the Perseus cluster. The observed spectrum is roughly reproduced by a single-temperature thermal plasma model in collisional ionization equilibrium, but detailed line-ratio diagnostics reveal slight deviations from this approximation. In particular, the data exhibit an apparent trend of increasing ionization temperature with the atomic mass, as well as small differences between the ionization and excitation temperatures for Fe, the only element for which both temperatures could be measured. The best-fit two-temperature models suggest a combination of 3 and 5 keV gas, which is consistent with the idea that the observed small deviations from a single-temperature approximation are due to the effects of projecting the known radial temperature gradient in the cluster core along the line of sight. A comparison with the Chandra/ACIS and the XMM-Newton/RGS results, on the other hand, suggests that additional lower-temperature components are present in the intracluster medium (ICM), but not detectable with Hitomi/SXS giving its 1.8-20 keV energy band.

    DOI

  • Atmospheric gas dynamics in the Perseus cluster observed with Hitomi

    Felix Aharonia, Felix Aharonian, Hiroki Akamatsu, Fumie Akimoto, Steven W. Allen, Lorella Angelini, Marc Audard, Hisamitsu Awaki, Magnus Axelsson, Aya Bamba, Marshall W. Bautz, Roger Blandford, Laura W. Brenneman, Gregory V. Brown, Esra Bulbul, Edward M. Cackett, Rebecca E.A. Canning, Maria Chernyakova, Meng P. Chiao, Paolo S. Coppi, Elisa Costantini, Jelle De Plaa, Cor P. De Vries, Jan Willem Den Herder, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, Ken Ebisawa, Megan E. Eckart, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew C. Fabian, Carlo Ferrigno, Adam R. Foster, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Luigi C. Gallo, Poshak Gandhi, Margherita Giustini, Andrea Goldwurm, Liyi Gu, Matteo Guainazzi, Yoshito Haba, Kouichi Hagino, Kenji Hamaguchi, Ilana M. Harrus, Isamu Hatsukade, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Takayuki Hayashi, Tasuku Hayashi, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Junko S. Hiraga, Ann Hornschemeier, Akio Hoshino, John P. Hughes, Yuto Ichinohe, Ryo Iizuka, Hajime Inoue, Shota Inoue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Manabu Ishida, Kumi Ishikawa, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Masachika Iwai, Jelle Kaastra, Tim Kallman, Tsuneyoshi Kamae, Jun Kataoka, Satoru Katsuda, Nobuyuki Kawai, Richard L. Kelley, Caroline A. Kilbourne, Takao Kitaguchi, Shunji Kitamoto, Tetsu Kitayama, Takayoshi Kohmura, Motohide Kokubun, Katsuji Koyama, Shu Koyama, Peter Kretschmar, Hans A. Krimm, Aya Kubota, Hideyo Kunieda, Philippe Laurent, Shiu Hang Lee, Maurice A. Leutenegger, Olivier Limousin, Michael Loewenstein, Knox S. Long, David Lumb, Greg Madejski, Yoshitomo Maeda, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Maxim Markevitch, Hironori Matsumoto, Kyoko Matsushita, Dan Mccammon, Brian R. Mcnamara

    Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan   70 ( 2 )  2018.03

     View Summary

    Extending the earlier measurements reported in Hitomi collaboration (2016, Nature, 535, 117), we examine the atmospheric gas motions within the central 100kpc of the Perseus cluster using observations obtained with the Hitomi satellite. After correcting for the point spread function of the telescope and using optically thin emission lines, we find that the line-of-sight velocity dispersion of the hot gas is remarkably low and mostly uniform. The velocity dispersion reaches a maxima of approximately 200 km s-1 toward the central active galactic nucleus (AGN) and toward the AGN inflated northwestern "ghost" bubble. Elsewhere within the observed region, the velocity dispersion appears constant around 100 km s-1. We also detect a velocity gradient with a 100 km s-1 amplitude across the cluster core, consistent with large-scale sloshing of the core gas. If the observed gas motions are isotropic, the kinetic pressure support is less than 10% of the thermal pressure support in the cluster core. The well-resolved, optically thin emission lines have Gaussian shapes, indicating that the turbulent driving scale is likely below 100 kpc, which is consistent with the size of the AGN jet inflated bubbles. We also report the first measurement of the ion temperature in the intracluster medium, which we find to be consistent with the electron temperature. In addition, we present a new measurement of the redshift of the brightest cluster galaxy NGC 1275.

  • Atomic data and spectral modeling constraints from high-resolution X-ray observations of the Perseus cluster with Hitomi

    Felix Aharonian, Hiroki Akamatsu, Fumie Akimoto, Steven W. Allen, Lorella Angelini, Marc Audard, Hisamitsu Awaki, Magnus Axelsson, Aya Bamba, Marshall W. Bautz, Roger Blandford, Laura W. Brenneman, Gregory V. Brown, Esra Bulbul, Edward M. Cackett, Maria Chernyakova, Meng P. Chiao, Paolo S. Coppi, Elisa Costantini, Jelle De Plaa, Cor P. De Vries, Jan Willem Den Herder, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, Ken Ebisawa, Megan E. Eckart, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew C. Fabian, Carlo Ferrigno, Adam R. Foster, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Luigi C. Gallo, Poshak Gandhi, Margherita Giustini, Andrea Goldwurm, Liyi Gu, Matteo Guainazzi, Yoshito Haba, Kouichi Hagino, Kenji Hamaguchi, Ilana M. Harrus, Isamu Hatsukade, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Takayuki Hayashi, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Natalie Hell, Junko S. Hiraga, Ann Hornschemeier, Akio Hoshino, John P. Hughes, Yuto Ichinohe, Ryo Iizuka, Hajime Inoue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Manabu Ishida, Kumi Ishikawa, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Masachika Iwai, Jelle Kaastra, Tim Kallman, Tsuneyoshi Kamae, Jun Kataoka, Satoru Katsuda, Nobuyuki Kawai, Richard L. Kelley, Caroline A. Kilbourne, Takao Kitaguchi, Shunji Kitamoto, Tetsu Kitayama, Takayoshi Kohmura, Motohide Kokubun, Katsuji Koyama, Shu Koyama, Peter Kretschmar, Hans A. Krimm, Aya Kubota, Hideyo Kunieda, Philippe Laurent, Shiu Hang Lee, Maurice A. Leutenegger, Olivier Limousin, Michael Loewenstein, Knox S. Long, David Lumb, Greg Madejski, Yoshitomo Maeda, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Maxim Markevitch, Hironori Matsumoto, Kyoko Matsushita, Dan McCammon, Brian R. McNamara, Missagh Mehdipour, Eric D. Miller, Jon M. Miller

    Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan   70 ( 2 )  2018.03

     View Summary

    The Hitomi Soft X-ray Spectrometer spectrum of the Perseus cluster, with ∼5 eV resolution in the 2-9 keV band, offers an unprecedented benchmark of the atomic modeling and database for hot collisional plasmas. It reveals both successes and challenges of the current atomic data and models. The latest versions of AtomDB/APEC (3.0.8), SPEX (3.03.00), and CHIANTI (8.0) all provide reasonable fits to the broad-band spectrum, and are in close agreement on best-fit temperature, emission measure, and abundances of a few elements such as Ni. For the Fe abundance, the APEC and SPEX measurements differ by 16%, which is 17 times higher than the statistical uncertainty. This is mostly attributed to the differences in adopted collisional excitation and dielectronic recombination rates of the strongest emission lines. We further investigate and compare the sensitivity of the derived physical parameters to the astrophysical source modeling and instrumental effects. The Hitomi results show that accurate atomic data and models are as important as the astrophysical modeling and instrumental calibration aspects. Substantial updates of atomic databases and targeted laboratory measurements are needed to get the current data and models ready for the data from the next Hitomi-level mission.

    DOI

  • X-ray and gamma-ray observations of the fermi bubbles and NPS/Loop I structures

    Jun Kataoka, Yoshiaki Sofue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Masahiro Akita, Shinya Nakashima, Tomonori Totani

    Galaxies   6 ( 1 ) 27 - 46  2018.02  [Refereed]  [Invited]

     View Summary

    The Fermi bubbles were possibly created by large injections of energy into the Galactic Center (GC), either by an active galactic nucleus (AGN) or by nuclear starburst more than ~10 Myr ago. However, the origin of the diffuse gamma-ray emission associated with Loop I, a radio continuum loop spanning across 100° on the sky, is still being debated. The northern-most part of Loop I, known as the North Polar Spur (NPS), is the brightest arm and is even clearly visible in the ROSAT X-ray sky map. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review on the X-ray observations of the Fermi bubbles and their possible associationwith theNPS and Loop I structures. Using uniform analysis of archival Suzaku and Swift data, we show that X-ray plasma with kT~0.3 keV and low metal abundance (Z~0.2 Z⊙) is ubiquitous in both the bubbles and Loop I and is naturally interpreted as weakly shock-heated Galactic halo gas. However, the observed asymmetry of the X-ray-emitting gas above and below the GC has still not been resolved
    it cannot be fully explained by the inclination of the axis of the Fermi bubbles to the Galactic disk normal. We argue that the NPS and Loop I may be asymmetric remnants of a large explosion that occurred before the event that created the Fermi bubbles, and that the soft gamma-ray emission from Loop I may be due to either π0 decay of accelerated protons or electron bremsstrahlung.

    DOI

  • Evaluation of GAGG:Ce scintillators for future space applications

    M. Yoneyama, J. Kataoka, M. Arimoto, T. Masuda, M. Yoshino, K. Kamada, A. Yoshikawa, H. Sato, Y. Usuki

    Journal of Instrumentation   13 ( 2 ) P020203  2018.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab. Cerium-doped Gd3(Ga, Al)5O12 (GAGG:Ce) is a promising novel scintillator for gamma-ray detectors. While GAGG:Ce has already been implemented in various commercial products, its detailed characteristics and response to high-energy particles and gamma rays remain unknown. In particular, knowledge is lacking on the radiation tolerance of this scintillator against the gamma-ray and proton irradiation expected in future space satellite mission applications. In this study, we first investigate the light-yield energy dependence, energy resolution, decay time, radiation tolerance, and afterglow of GAGG:Ce scintillators under various temperature conditions. We find excellent linearity of ±3% between light yields and deposited energy over a wide range of 30-1836 keV; however, a light-yield deficit of more than 10% is observed below 30 keV of deposited gamma ray energy. We confirm that the temperature dependence of the light yield, energy resolution, and scintillation decay time is within 5-20% between -20 and 20C. We also evaluate the GAGG:Ce activation characteristics under proton irradiation and the light-yield degradation by accumulated dose using a 60Co source. Moreover, we successfully identify various gamma-ray lines due to activation. Finally, we find a substantial afterglow for GAGG:Ce scintillators over a few hours; such an afterglow is only minimally observed in other scintillators such as CsI:Tl and Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO). However, the afterglow can be substantially reduced through additional co-doping with divalent metal ions, such as Mg ions. These results suggest that GAGG:Ce is a promising scintillator with potential application in space satellite missions in the near future.

    DOI

  • The PoGO+ view on Crab off-pulse hard X-ray polarisation

    M.Chauvin, G.Floren, M.Jackson

    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters,   477 ( 1 ) 45 - 49  2018.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The linear polarization fraction (PF) and angle of the hard X-ray emission from the Crab provide unique insight into high-energy radiation mechanisms, complementing the usual imaging, timing, and spectroscopic approaches. Results have recently been presented by two missions operating in partially overlapping energy bands, PoGO+ (18-160 keV) and AstroSat CZTI (100-380 keV). We previously reported PoGO+ results on the polarization parameters integrated across the light curve and for the entire nebula-dominated off-pulse region. We now introduce finer phase binning, in light of the AstroSat CZTI claim that the PF varies across the off-pulse region. Since both missions are operating in a regime where errors on the reconstructed polarization parameters are non-Gaussian, we adopt a Bayesian approach to compare results from each mission. We find no statistically significant variation in off-pulse polarization parameters, neither when considering the mission data separately nor when they are combined. This supports expectations from standard high-energy emission models.

    DOI

  • Detecting polarization of gamma rays from Crab Nebula with Hitomi Soft Gamma-ray Detector(SGD)

    Watanabe Shin, Ohno Masanori, Odaka Hirokazu, Kataoka Jun, Katsuta Junichiro, Kitaguchi Takao, Kokubun Motohide, Goldwurm Andrea, Saito Shinya, Sato Goro, Sato Rie, Uchida Yusuke, Takahashi Tadayuki, Takahashi Hiromitsu, Takeda Shin'ichiro, Tanaka Takaaki, Tanaka Yasuyuki, Terada Yukikatsu, Nakazawa Kazuhiro, Nakano Toshio, Nakamori Takashi, Noda Hirofumi, Tajima Hiroyasu, Hagino Kouichi, Hayashi Katsuhiro, Blandford Roger, Makishima Kazuo, Madejski Grzegorz, Mizuno Tsunefumi, Mori Kunishiro, Yatsu Yoichi, Yamaoka Kazutaka, Yuasa Takayuki, Fukazawa Yasushi, Yonetoku Daisuke, Laurent Philippe, Limousin Olivier, Lebrun François, the SGD team, Ichinohe Yuto, Uchiyama Hideki, Uchiyama Yasunobu, Enoto Teruaki, Ohta Masayuki

    Meeting Abstracts of the Physical Society of Japan   73   492 - 492  2018

    DOI CiNii

  • CTA Report 134:Study of the aging effect of the photomultiplier tube for the CTA Large Size Telescope

    Sakurai S., Kataoka J., Katagiri H., Kimura S., Kushida J., Kubo H., Gunji S., Koyama S., Konno Y., Saito T., Sawada M., Nagayoshi T., Sunada Y., Takahashi M., Tsujimoto S., Teshima M., Terada Y., Tokanai F., Nakajima D., Nakamori T., Nishijima K., Nishiyama G., Inada T., Nozaki S., Hayashida M., Bamba A., Hirako J., Fukami S., Masuda S., Yamamoto T., Yoshida T., Hadasch D., Mazin D., Inome Y., the CTA-Japan consortium, Iwamura Y., Ohoka H., Okumura A., Okazaki N., Orito R.

    Meeting Abstracts of the Physical Society of Japan   73 ( 0 ) 417 - 417  2018

    DOI CiNii

  • CTA Report 133: Integration test of the focal plane camera for the first CTA Large Sized Telescope

    Nozaki S., Katagiri H., Kato S., Kimura S., Kushida J., Kubo H., Gunji S., Koyama S., Konno Y., Saito T., Sakurai S., Inada T., Sawada M., Sunada Y., Takahashi M., Takahara H., Tanaka M., Tsujimoto S., Teshima M., Terada Y., Okanai F., NakajimaT D., Inome Y., Nakamori T., Nagayoshi T., Nishijima K., Nishiyama G., Hayashida M., Bamba A., Hirako J., Fukami S., Masuda S., Yamamoto T., Iwamura Y., Yoshida T., Hadasch D., Mazin D., the CTA-Japan consortium, Ikeno M., Uchida T., Ohoka H., Okumura A., Okazaki N., Orito R., Kataoka J.

    Meeting Abstracts of the Physical Society of Japan   73 ( 0 ) 416 - 416  2018

    DOI CiNii

  • CTA Report 142: Integration test of the focal plane camera for the first CTA Large Sized Telescope(II)

    Sunada Y., Katagiri H., Kushida J., Kimura S., Kubo H., Gunji S., Koyama S., Saito T., Sakurai S., Sawada M., Suzuki M., Inada T., Takahashi M., Takahara H., Tanaka M., Tujimoto S., Teshima M., Terada Y., Tokanai F., Nakajima D., Nakamori K., Nagayoshi T., Inome Y., Nishijima K., Nishiyama G., Nozaki S., Hayashida M., Bamba A., Hirako J., Fukami S., Masuda S., Yamamoto T., Yoshida T., Iwamura Y., Hadasch Daniela, Mazin Daniel, the CTA-Japan consortium, Ohoka H., Okazaki N., Okumura A., Orito R., Kataoka J.

    Meeting Abstracts of the Physical Society of Japan   73 ( 0 ) 191 - 191  2018

    DOI CiNii

  • Energy Spectrum of Cosmic-Ray Electron and Positron from 10 GeV to 3 TeV Observed with the Calorimetric Electron Telescope on the International Space Station

    O. Adriani, Y. Akaike, K. Asano, Y. Asaoka, M. G. Bagliesi, G. Bigongiari, W. R. Binns, S. Bonechi, M. Bongi, P. Brogi, J. H. Buckley, N. Cannady, G. Castellini, C. Checchia, M. L. Cherry, G. Collazuol, V. Di Felice, K. Ebisawa, H. Fuke, T. G. Guzik, T. Hams, M. Hareyama, N. Hasebe, K. Hibino, M. Ichimura, K. Ioka, W. Ishizaki, M. H. Israel, A. Javaid, K. Kasahara, J. Kataoka, R. Kataoka, Y. Katayose, C. Kato, N. Kawanaka, Y. Kawakubo, H. S. Krawczynski, J. F. Krizmanic, S. Kuramata, T. Lomtadze, P. Maestro, P. S. Marrocchesi, A. M. Messineo, J. W. Mitchell, S. Miyake, K. Mizutani, A. A. Moiseev, K. Mori, M. Mori, N. Mori, H. M. Motz, K. Munakata, H. Murakami, S. Nakahira, J. Nishimura, G. A. De Nolfo, S. Okuno, J. F. Ormes, S. Ozawa, L. Pacini, F. Palma, P. Papini, A. V. Penacchioni, B. F. Rauch, S. B. Ricciarini, K. Sakai, T. Sakamoto, M. Sasaki, Y. Shimizu, A. Shiomi, R. Sparvoli, P. Spillantini, F. Stolzi, I. Takahashi, M. Takayanagi, M. Takita, T. Tamura, N. Tateyama, T. Terasawa, H. Tomida, S. Torii, Y. Tsunesada, Y. Uchihori, S. Ueno, E. Vannuccini, J. P. Wefel, K. Yamaoka, S. Yanagita, A. Yoshida, K. Yoshida, T. Yuda

    Physical Review Letters   119 ( 18 )  2017.11

     View Summary

    First results of a cosmic-ray electron and positron spectrum from 10 GeV to 3 TeV is presented based upon observations with the CALET instrument on the International Space Station starting in October, 2015. Nearly a half million electron and positron events are included in the analysis. CALET is an all-calorimetric instrument with total vertical thickness of 30 X0 and a fine imaging capability designed to achieve a large proton rejection and excellent energy resolution well into the TeV energy region. The observed energy spectrum over 30 GeV can be fit with a single power law with a spectral index of -3.152±0.016 (stat+syst). Possible structure observed above 100 GeV requires further investigation with increased statistics and refined data analysis.

    DOI PubMed

  • Solar abundance ratios of the iron-peak elements in the Perseus cluster

    Felix Aharonian, Hiroki Akamatsu, Fumie Akimoto, Steven W. Allen, Lorella Angelini, Marc Audard, Hisamitsu Awaki, Magnus Axelsson, Aya Bamba, Marshall W. Bautz, Roger Blandford, Laura W. Brenneman, Gregory V. Brown, Esra Bulbul, Edward M. Cackett, Maria Chernyakova, Meng P. Chiao, Paolo S. Coppi, Elisa Costantini, Jelle De Plaa, Jan-Willem den Herder, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, Ken Ebisawa, Megan E. Eckart, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew C. Fabian, Carlo Ferrigno, Adam R. Foster, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Luigi C. Gallo, Poshak Gandhi, Margherita Giustini, Andrea Goldwurm, Liyi Gu, Matteo Guainazzi, Yoshito Haba, Kouichi Hagino, Kenji Hamaguchi, Ilana M. Harrus, Isamu Hatsukade, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Takayuki Hayashi, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Junko S. Hiraga, Ann Hornschemeier, Akio Hoshino, John P. Hughes, Yuto Ichinohe, Ryo Iizuka, Hajime Inoue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Manabu Ishida, Kumi Ishikawa, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Masachika Iwai, Jelle Kaastra, Tim Kallman, Tsuneyoshi Kamae, Jun Kataoka, Satoru Katsuda, Nobuyuki Kawai, Richard L. Kelley, Caroline A. Kilbourne, Takao Kitaguchi, Shunji Kitamoto, Tetsu Kitayama, Takayoshi Kohmura, Motohide Kokubun, Katsuji Koyama, Shu Koyama, Peter Kretschmar, Hans A. Krimm, Aya Kubota, Hideyo Kunieda, Philippe Laurent, Shiu-Hang Lee, Maurice A. Leutenegger, Olivier Limousine, Michael Loewenstein, Knox S. Long, David Lumb, Greg Madejski, Yoshitomo Maeda, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Maxim Markevitch, Hironori Matsumoto, Kyoko Matsushita, Dan McCammon, Brian R. McNamara, Missagh Mehdipour, Eric D. Miller, Jon M. Miller, Shin Mineshige, Kazuhisa Mitsuda, Ikuyuki Mitsuishi, Takuya Miyazawa, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Hideyuki Mori, Koji Mori, Koji Mukai, Hiroshi Murakami, Richard F. Mushotzky, Takao Nakagawa, Hiroshi Nakajima, Takeshi Nakamori, Shinya Nakashima, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Kumiko K. Nobukawa, Masayoshi Nobukawa, Hirofumi Noda, Hirokazu Odaka, Takaya Ohashi, Masanori Ohno, Takashi Okajima, Naomi Ota, Masanobu Ozaki, Frits Paerels, StPhane Paltani, Robert Petre, Ciro Pinto, Frederick S. Porter, Katja Pottschmidt, Christopher S. Reynolds, Samar Safi-Harb, Shinya Saito, Kazuhiro Sakai, Toru Sasaki, Goro Sato, Kosuke Sato, Rie Sato, Makoto Sawada, Norbert Schartel, Peter J. Serlemitsos, Hiromi Seta, Megumi Shidatsu, Aurora Simionescu, Randall K. Smith, Yang Soong, Lukasz Stawarz, Yasuharu Sugawara, Satoshi Sugita, Andrew Szymkowiak, Hiroyasu Tajima, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Tadayuki Takahashi, Shin'ichiro Takeda, Yoh Takei, Toru Tamagawa, Takayuki Tamura, Takaaki Tanaka, Yasuo Tanaka, Yasuyuki T. Tanaka, Makoto S. Tashiro, Yuzuru Tawara, Yukikatsu Terada, Yuichi Terashima, Francesco Tombesi, Hiroshi Tomida, Yohko Tsuboi, Masahiro Tsujimoto, Hiroshi Tsunemi, Takeshi Go Tsuru, Hiroyuki Uchida, Hideki Uchiyama, Yasunobu Uchiyama, Shutaro Ueda, Yoshihiro Ueda, Shin'ichiro Uno, C. Megan Urry, Eugenio Ursino, Cor P. de Vries, Shin Watanabe, Norbert Werner, Daniel R. Wik, Dan R. Wilkins, Brian J. Williams, Shinya Yamada, Hiroya Yamaguchi, Kazutaka Yamaoka, Noriko Y. Yamasaki, Makoto Yamauchi, Shigeo Yamauchi, Tahir Yaqoob, Yoichi Yatsu, Daisuke Yonetoku, Irina Zhuravleva, Abderahmen Zoghbi

    NATURE   551 ( 7681 ) 478 - +  2017.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The metal abundance of the hot plasma that permeates galaxy clusters represents the accumulation of heavy elements produced by billions of supernovae(1). Therefore, X-ray spectroscopy of the intracluster medium provides an opportunity to investigate the nature of supernova explosions integrated over cosmic time. In particular, the abundance of the iron-peak elements (chromium, manganese, iron and nickel) is key to understanding how the progenitors of typical type Ia supernovae evolve and explode(2-6). Recent X-ray studies of the intracluster medium found that the abundance ratios of these elements differ substantially from those seen in the Sun(7-11), suggesting differences between the nature of type Ia supernovae in the clusters and in the Milky Way. However, because the K-shell transition lines of chromium and manganese are weak and those of iron and nickel are very close in photon energy, highresolution spectroscopy is required for an accurate determination of the abundances of these elements. Here we report observations of the Perseus cluster, with statistically significant detections of the resonance emission from chromium, manganese and nickel. Our measurements, combined with the latest atomic models, reveal that these elements have near-solar abundance ratios with respect to iron, in contrast to previous claims. Comparison between our results and modern nucleosynthesis calculations(12-14) disfavours the hypothesis that type Ia supernova progenitors are exclusively white dwarfs with masses well below the Chandrasekhar limit (about 1.4 times the mass of the Sun). The observed abundance pattern of the iron-peak elements can be explained by taking into account a combination of near-and sub-Chandrasekhar-mass type Ia supernova systems, adding to the mounting evidence that both progenitor types make a substantial contribution to cosmic chemical enrichment(5,15,16).

    DOI PubMed

  • Development of a new pinhole camera for imaging in high dose-rate environments

    K.Sueoka

    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A   912   115 - 118  2017.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    After Fukushima's nuclear disaster in Japan, the decontamination operation is successfully ongoing, and restrictions from some areas were lifted in April 2017. However, the radiation dose rate in the Fukushima Daiichi Plant is still so high (e.g., from a few mSv/h up to 530 Sv/h) that the decommissioning operation of the reactor remains a serious problem. Visualization of radioactive materials would help address this, but no gamma camera is available at this moment that can take images in such a high dose-rate environment. In this study, we developed a new gamma camera featuring a wide dynamic range from sub-mSv/h to more than 680 Sv/h, for a quick and accurate visualization of radioactive materials. The camera consists of a pinhole collimator, a Gd2O2S:Tb (GOS) scintillator sheet, and an electron multiplying charge-coupled device (EM-CCD). Gamma rays passing through the pinhole collimator hit the GOS scintillator sheet, which emits scintillation light. The luminescence of the GOS scintillator sheet is monitored in real-time with an EM-CCD with an internal multiplication gain of up to 20. By changing the exposure time, electron multiplication gain, and aperture of the EM-CCD, a wider dynamic range covering five orders of magnitude in the radiation dose can be monitored for the first time. We show that the positions of a 137Cs source (662 keV) and 60Co source (1173, 1333 keV) are identified correctly with a typical angular resolution of 10° full width at half maximum (FWHM). We also confirmed a linear relation between the absorbed dose and the luminescence of the GOS scintillator sheet. Finally, we propose a new concept of ”color imaging”, by using multi-layered scintillators consisting of a Ga3Al2Gd3O12 (GAGG) scintillator, fluorescent glass, and a plastic scintillator.

    DOI

  • Spatially resolved measurement of wideband prompt gamma-ray emission toward on-line monitor for the future proton therapy

    A.Koide

    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A   912   24 - 28  2017.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In proton therapy, the delivered dose should be monitored to a high degree of accuracy to avoid unnecessary exposure to healthy tissues and critical organs. Although positron emission tomography (PET) is most frequently used to verify the proton range, the nuclear reactions between protons and nuclei that generate positrons do not necessarily correspond to the actual proton range. Moreover, such imaging must be conducted after the treatment irradiation, because a PET gantry cannot be used in conjunction with a proton therapy beam. In this paper, we studied one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) distributions of prompt gamma rays of various energies, to determine the most suitable energy window for online monitoring in proton therapy. After an initial simulation study using the particle and heavy ion transport code system (PHITS), we irradiated a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) phantom with a 70-MeV proton beam to mimic proton range verification in a clinical situation. Using a newly developed Compton camera, we have experimentally confirmed for the first time that 4.4-MeV gamma rays emitted from 12C and 16O match the exact position of the Bragg peak in proton range verification.

    DOI

  • Development of LSI for a new kind of photon-counting computed tomography using multipixel photon counters

    M.Arimoto

    Nuclear instruments & methods in physics research. Section A   912   186 - 190  2017.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    X-ray imaging with computed tomography (CT) is widely used for nondestructive imaging of the interior of the human body. In the next decade, photon-counting X-ray CT is expected to reduce the dose needed and enable multicolor imaging. Recently, we proposed a novel photon-counting method that uses a multipixel photon counter (MPPC), with a significantly high signal gain (∼106) and fast temporal response (a few nanoseconds), combined with a high-speed scintillator. To realize photon-counting CT imaging in a wide area irradiated by an extremely high X-ray flux (106-107 Hz/mm2), a multichannel MPPC system is required. Thus, we developed a large-scale integrated circuit (LSI) with ultrafast signal-processing capability for use with a 16-channel MPPC. The developed LSI can extract a pulse current from an MPPC array with a large detector capacitance (∼200 pF) by utilizing an electrical circuit with low input impedance. The LSI offers a high photon count rate above 25 MHz/pixel with noise equal to 1.7 μA for a dynamic range of ∼ 1.3 mA and an energy resolution of 32 % (FWHM) at 60 keV, thereby enabling ultrafast multicolor CT imaging.

    DOI

  • Performance comparison of finely pixelated LYSO- and GAGG- based Si-PM gamma cameras for high resolution SPECT

    Kouhei Nakanishi, Seiichi Yamamoto, Jun Kataoka

    NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT   872 ( 11 ) 107 - 111  2017.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Although Lu-based scintillators, including Ce-doped Lu1.8Y0.2SiO5 (LYSO) scintillators, are often used for positron emission tomography (PET) detectors, they are not commonly used in gamma cameras for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) because background counts due to contamination of the natural radioisotope in Lu are detected. However, several studies report that deterioration in image contrast due to background counts of the natural radioisotope is not critical and thus LYSO is promising for use in SPECT detectors. Meanwhile, a new scintillator, the Ce-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 (GAGG) with a high light yield and no natural radioisotope, has been developed and is also thought to be a promising scintillator. Thus, we compared the performance of LYSO with that of GAGG to determine which is more appropriate for a silicon photomultiplier (Si-PM)-based high-resolution small field-of-view (FOV) gamma camera for SPECT. We used finely pixelated LYSO and GAGG plates that were optically coupled to Si-PM arrays to form gamma cameras and measured the basic performance for 122-keV gamma photons. The energy resolutions of the LYSO-and GAGG-based Si-PM gamma cameras were 30% and 23% full width at half maximum (FWHM), respectively. The intrinsic spatial resolution of the GAGG (similar to 0.5 mm FWHM) based gamma camera was better than that of the LYSO (similar to 0.6 mm FWHM). The background counts of the LYSO-based gamma camera were 28 times larger than that of the GAGG. Based on these results, we conclude that GAGG is more appropriate than LYSO for the development of a Si-PM based gamma camera for high resolution SPECT. (C) 2017 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • First demonstration of aerial gamma-ray imaging using drone for prompt radiation survey in Fukushima

    S. Mochizuki, J. Kataoka, L. Tagawa, Y. Iwamoto, H. Okochi, N. Katsumi, S. Kinno, M. Arimoto, T. Maruhashi, K. Fujieda, T. Kurihara, S. Ohsuka

    JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION   12 ( 11 ) P11014  2017.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Considerable amounts of radioactive substances (mainly Cs-137 and Cs-134) were released into the environment after the Japanese nuclear disaster in 2011. Some restrictions on residence areas were lifted in April 2017, owing to the successive and effective decontamination operations. However, the distribution of radioactive substances in vast areas of mountain, forest and satoyama close to the city is still unknown; thus, decontamination operations in such areas are being hampered. In this paper, we report on the first aerial gamma-ray imaging of a schoolyard in Fukushima using a drone that carries a high sensitivity Compton camera. We showthat the distribution of Cs-137 in regions with a diameter of several tens to a hundred meters can be imaged with a typical resolution of 2-5 m within a 10-20 min flights duration. The aerial gamma-ray images taken 10 m and 20 m above the ground are qualitatively consistent with a dose map reconstructed from the ground-based measurements using a survey meter. Although further quantification is needed for the distance and air-absorption corrections to derive in situ dose map, such an aerial drone system can reduce measurement time by a factor of ten and is suitable for place where ground-based measurement are difficult.

    DOI

  • Shedding new light on the Crab with polarized X-rays

    M. Chauvin, H. -G. Floren, M. Friis, M. Jackson, T. Kamae, J. Kataoka, T. Kawano, M. Kiss, V. Mikhalev, T. Mizuno, N. Ohashi, T. Stana, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, N. Uchida, M. Pearce

    SCIENTIFIC REPORTS   7 ( 1 ) 7816  2017.08  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Strong magnetic fields, synchrotron emission, and Compton scattering are omnipresent in compact celestial X-ray sources. Emissions in the X-ray energy band are consequently expected to be linearly polarized. X-ray polarimetry provides a unique diagnostic to study the location and fundamental mechanisms behind emission processes. The polarization of emissions from a bright celestial X-ray source, the Crab, is reported here for the first time in the hard X-ray band (similar to 20-160 keV). The Crab is a complex system consisting of a central pulsar, a diffuse pulsar wind nebula, as well as structures in the inner nebula including a jet and torus. Measurements are made by a purpose-built and calibrated polarimeter, PoGO+. The polarization vector is found to be aligned with the spin axis of the pulsar for a polarization fraction, PF = (20.9 +/- 5.0)%. This is higher than that of the optical diffuse nebula, implying a more compact emission site, though not as compact as, e.g., the synchrotron knot. Contrary to measurements at higher energies, no significant temporal evolution of phase-integrated polarisation parameters is observed. The polarization parameters for the pulsar itself are measured for the first time in the X-ray energy band and are consistent with observations at optical wavelengths.

    DOI PubMed

  • Optimization and verification of image reconstruction for a Compton camera towards application as an on-line monitor for particle therapy

    T. Taya, J. Kataoka, A. Kishimoto, L. Tagawa, S. Mochizuki, T. Toshito, M. Kimura, Y. Nagao, K. Kurita, M. Yamaguchi, N. Kawachi

    JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION   12 ( 7 ) P07015 - P07015  2017.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Particle therapy is an advanced cancer therapy that uses a feature known as the Bragg peak, in which particle beams suddenly lose their energy near the end of their range. The Bragg peak enables particle beams to damage tumors effectively. To achieve precise therapy, the demand for accurate and quantitative imaging of the beam irradiation region or dosage during therapy has increased. The most common method of particle range verification is imaging of annihilation gamma rays by positron emission tomography. Not only 511-keV gamma rays but also prompt gamma rays are generated during therapy; therefore, the Compton camera is expected to be used as an on-line monitor for particle therapy, as it can image these gamma rays in real time. Proton therapy, one of the most common particle therapies, uses a proton beam of approximately 200 MeV, which has a range of similar to 25 cm in water. As gamma rays are emitted along the path of the proton beam, quantitative evaluation of the reconstructed images of diffuse sources becomes crucial, but it is far from being fully developed for Compton camera imaging at present. In this study, we first quantitatively evaluated reconstructed Compton camera images of uniformly distributed diffuse sources, and then confirmed that our Compton camera obtained 3 %(1 sigma) and 5 %(1 sigma) uniformity for line and plane sources, respectively. Based on this quantitative study, we demonstrated on-line gamma imaging during proton irradiation. Through these studies, we show that the Compton camera is suitable for future use as an on-line monitor for particle therapy.

    DOI

  • Novel photon-counting low-dose computed tomography using a multi-pixel photon counter

    H. Morita, T. Oshima, J. Kataoka, M. Arimoto, H. Nitta

    NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT   857 ( 11 ) 58 - 65  2017.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is widely used in diagnostic imaging. Owing to a strong radiation exposure associated with this method, numerous proposals have been made for reducing the radiation dose. In addition, conventional CT does not provide information on the energy associated with each X-ray photon because intensity is rather high, typically amounts to 10(7-9) cps/mm(2). Here, we propose a novel, low-dose photon-counting CT system based on a multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) and a high-speed scintillator. To demonstrate high signal-to-noise ratio utilizing the internal gain and the fast time response of the MPPC, we compared CT images acquired under the same conditions among a photodiode (PD), an avalanche photodiode and a MPPC. In particular, the images' contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) acquired using the MPPC improved 12.6-fold compared with the images acquired in conventional CT using a PD. We also performed energy-resolved imaging by adopting 4 energy thresholds of 20, 40, 60, and 80 keV. We confirmed a substantial improvement of the imaging contrast as well as a reduction in the beam hardening for the CT images. We conclude that the proposed MPPC-based detector is likely to be a promising device for use in future CT scanners.

    DOI

  • Energy calibration of CALET onboard the International Space Station

    Y. Asaoka, Y. Akaike, Y. Komiya, R. Miyata, S. Torii, O. Adriani, K. Asano, M. G. Bagliesi, G. Bigongiari, W. R. Binns, S. Bonechi, M. Bongi, P. Brogi, J. H. Buckley, N. Cannady, G. Castellini, C. Checchia, M. L. Cherry, G. Collazuol, V. Di Felice, K. Ebisawa, H. Fuke, T. G. Guzik, T. Hams, M. Hareyama, N. Hasebe, K. Hibino, M. Ichimura, K. Ioka, W. Ishizaki, M. H. Israel, A. Javaid, K. Kasahara, J. Kataoka, R. Kataoka, Y. Katayose, C. Kato, N. Kawanaka, Y. Kawakubo, H. Kitamura, H. S. Krawczynski, J. F. Krizmanic, S. Kuramata, T. Lomtadze, P. Maestro, P. S. Marrocchesi, A. M. Messineo, J. W. Mitchell, S. Miyake, K. Mizutani, A. A. Moiseev, K. Mori, M. Mori, N. Mori, H. M. Motz, K. Munakata, H. Murakami, Y. E. Nakagawa, S. Nakahira, J. Nishimura, S. Okuno, J. F. Ormes, S. Ozawa, L. Pacini, F. Palma, P. Papini, A. V. Penacchioni, B. F. Rauch, S. Ricciarini, K. Sakai, T. Sakamoto, M. Sasaki, Y. Shimizu, A. Shiomi, R. Sparvoli, P. Spillantini, F. Stolzi, I. Takahashi, M. Takayanagi, M. Takita, T. Tamura, N. Tateyama, T. Terasawa, H. Tomida, Y. Tsunesada, Y. Uchihori, S. Ueno, E. Vannuccini, J. P. Wefel, K. Yamaoka, S. Yanagita, A. Yoshida, K. Yoshida, T. Yuda

    Astroparticle Physics   91   1 - 10  2017.05  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    © 2017 The Authors In August 2015, the CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET), designed for long exposure observations of high energy cosmic rays, docked with the International Space Station (ISS) and shortly thereafter began to collect data. CALET will measure the cosmic ray electron spectrum over the energy range of 1 GeV to 20 TeV with a very high resolution of 2% above 100 GeV, based on a dedicated instrument incorporating an exceptionally thick 30 radiation-length calorimeter with both total absorption and imaging (TASC and IMC) units. Each TASC readout channel must be carefully calibrated over the extremely wide dynamic range of CALET that spans six orders of magnitude in order to obtain a degree of calibration accuracy matching the resolution of energy measurements. These calibrations consist of calculating the conversion factors between ADC units and energy deposits, ensuring linearity over each gain range, and providing a seamless transition between neighboring gain ranges. This paper describes these calibration methods in detail, along with the resulting data and associated accuracies. The results presented in this paper show that a sufficient accuracy was achieved for the calibrations of each channel in order to obtain a suitable resolution over the entire dynamic range of the electron spectrum measurement.

    DOI

  • First demonstration of multi-color 3-D in vivo imaging using ultra-compact Compton camera

    Aya Kishimoto, Jun Kataoka, Takanori Taya, Leo Tagawa, Saku Mochizuki, Shinji Ohsuka, Yuto Nagao, Keisuke Kurita, Mitsutaka Yamaguchi, Naoki Kawachi, Keiko Matsunaga, Hayato Ikeda, Eku Shimosegawa, Jun Hatazawa

    SCIENTIFIC REPORTS   7 ( 1 ) 2110  2017.05  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In the field of nuclear medicine, single photon emission tomography and positron emission tomography are the two most common techniques in molecular imaging, but the available radioactive tracers have been limited either by energy range or difficulties in production and delivery. Thus, the use of a Compton camera, which features gamma-ray imaging of arbitrary energies from a few hundred keV to more than MeV, is eagerly awaited along with potential new tracers which have never been used in current modalities. In this paper, we developed an ultra-compact Compton camera that weighs only 580 g. The camera consists of fine-pixelized Ce-doped Gd3Al2Ga30O12 scintillators coupled with multi-pixel photon counter arrays. We first investigated the 3-D imaging capability of our camera system for a diffuse source of a planar geometry, and then conducted small animal imaging as pre-clinical evaluation. For the first time, we successfully carried out the 3-D color imaging of a live mouse in just 2 h. By using tri-color gamma-ray fusion images, we confirmed that I-131, Sr-85, and Zn-65 can be new tracers that concentrate in each target organ.

    DOI PubMed

  • Hitomi Constraints on the 3.5 keV Line in the Perseus Galaxy Cluster

    F. A. Aharonian, H. Akamatsu, F. Akimoto, S. W. Allen, L. Angelini, K. A. Arnaud, M. Audard, H. Awaki, M. Axelsson, A. Bamba, M. W. Bautz, R. D. Blandford, E. Bulbul, L. W. Brenneman, G. V. Brown, E. M. Cackett, M. Chernyakova, M. P. Chiao, P. Coppi, E. Costantini, J. de Plaa, J. -W. den Herder, C. Done, T. Dotani, K. Ebisawa, M. E. Eckart, T. Enoto, Y. Ezoe, A. C. Fabian, C. Ferrigno, A. R. Foster, R. Fujimoto, Y. Fukazawa, A. Furuzawa, M. Galeazzi, L. C. Gallo, P. Gandhi, M. Giustini, A. Goldwurm, L. Gu, M. Guainazzi, Y. Haba, K. Hagino, K. Hamaguchi, I. Harrus, I. Hatsukade, K. Hayashi, T. Hayashi, K. Hayashida, J. Hiraga, A. E. Hornschemeier, A. Hoshino, J. P. Hughes, Y. Ichinohe, R. Iizuka, H. Inoue, S. Inoue, Y. Inoue, K. Ishibashi, M. Ishida, K. Ishikawa, Y. Ishisaki, M. Itoh, M. Iwai, N. Iyomoto, J. S. Kaastra, T. Kallman, T. Kamae, E. Kara, J. Kataoka, S. Katsuda, J. Katsuta, M. Kawaharada, N. Kawai, R. L. Kelley, D. Khangulyan, C. A. Kilbourne, A. L. King, T. Kitaguchi, S. Kitamoto, T. Kitayama, T. Kohmura, M. Kokubun, S. Koyama, K. Koyama, P. Kretschmar, H. A. Krimm, A. Kubota, H. Kunieda, P. Laurent, F. Lebrun, S. -H. Lee, M. A. Leutenegger, O. Limousin, M. Loewenstein, K. S. Long, D. H. Lumb, G. M. Madejski, Y. Maeda, D. Maier, K. Makishima, M. Markevitch, H. Matsumoto, K. Matsushita, D. McCammon, B. R. McNamara, M. Mehdipour, E. D. Miller, J. M. Miller, S. Mineshige, K. Mitsuda, I. Mitsuishi, T. Miyazawa, T. Mizuno, H. Mori, K. Mori, H. Moseley, K. Mukai, H. Murakami, T. Murakami, R. F. Mushotzky, T. Nakagawa, H. Nakajima, T. Nakamori, T. Nakano, S. Nakashima, K. Nakazawa, K. Nobukawa, M. Nobukawa, H. Noda, M. Nomachi, S. L. O'Dell, H. Odaka, T. Ohashi, M. Ohno, T. Okajima, N. Ota, M. Ozaki, F. Paerels, S. Paltani, A. Parmar, R. Petre, C. Pinto, M. Pohl, F. S. Porter, K. Pottschmidt, B. D. Ramsey, C. S. Reynolds, H. R. Russell, S. Safi-Harb, S. Saito, K. Sakai, H. Sameshima, T. Sasaki, G. Sato, K. Sato, R. Sato, M. Sawada, N. Schartel, P. J. Serlemitsos, H. Seta, M. Shidatsu, A. Simionescu, R. K. Smith, Y. Soong, L. Stawarz, Y. Sugawara, S. Sugita, A. E. Szymkowiak, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, S. Takeda, Y. Takei, T. Tamagawa, K. Tamura, T. Tamura, T. Tanaka, Yasuo Tanaka, Yasuyuki Tanaka, M. Tashiro, Y. Tawara, Y. Terada, Y. Terashima, F. Tombesi, H. Tomida, Y. Tsuboi, M. Tsujimoto, H. Tsunemi, T. Tsuru, H. Uchida, H. Uchiyama, Y. Uchiyama, S. Ueda, Y. Ueda, S. Ueno, S. Uno, C. M. Urry, E. Ursino, C. P. de Vries, S. Watanabe, N. Werner, D. R. Wik, D. R. Wilkins, B. J. Williams, S. Yamada, H. Yamaguchi, K. Yamaoka, N. Y. Yamasaki, M. Yamauchi, S. Yamauchi, T. Yaqoob, Y. Yatsu, D. Yonetoku, A. Yoshida, I. Zhuravleva, A. Zoghbi

    ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS   837 ( 1 ) 668 - 672  2017.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    X-ray spectroscopy with Hitomi was expected to resolve the origin of the faint unidentified E approximate to 3.5 keV emission line reported in several low-resolution studies of various massive systems, such as galaxies and clusters, including the Perseus cluster. We have analyzed the Hitomi first-light observation of the Perseus cluster. The emission line expected for Perseus based on the XMM-Newton signal from the large cluster sample under the dark matter decay scenario is too faint to be detectable in the Hitomi data. However, the previously reported 3.5 keV flux from Perseus was anomalously high compared to the sample-based prediction. We find no unidentified line at the reported high flux level. Taking into account the XMM measurement uncertainties for this region, the inconsistency with Hitomi is at a 99% significance for a broad dark matter line and at 99.7% for a narrow line from the gas. We do not find anomalously high fluxes of the nearby faint K line or the Ar satellite line that were proposed as explanations for the earlier 3.5 keV detections. We do find a hint of a broad excess near the energies of high-n transitions of S XVI (E similar or equal to 3.44 keV rest-frame)-a possible signature of charge exchange in the molecular nebula and another proposed explanation for the unidentified line. While its energy is consistent with XMM pn detections, it is unlikely to explain the MOS signal. A confirmation of this interesting feature has to wait for a more sensitive observation with a future calorimeter experiment.

    DOI

  • Long-term Variations in the Distribution of Radioactive Cs in Plant, Soil, Stream Bottom Sand in a Small Forest in Fukushima Prefecture

    Kinno Shuntaro, Okochi Hiroshi, Katsumi Naoya, Ogata Hiroko, Kataoka Jun, Kishimoto Aya, Iwamoto Yasuhiro, Sorimachi Atsuyuki, Tokonami Shinji

    BUNSEKI KAGAKU   66 ( 3 ) 163 - 174  2017.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Radio-Cs concentrations in fresh leaves/needles, litter, surface soil, and stream sand were continuously investigated in a deciduous broadleaf forest and cedar forest in Namie-town, Fukushima prefecture from June 2012 to June 2016, except for snow-cover periods. The result of a car-borne survey from Fukushima city to Minamitsushima showed that the air dose rate declined faster than the physical attenuation due to decontamination, outside of forests. Radio-Cs concentrations (137Cs +134Cs) in litter and surface soil in broadleaf forest were constant at 52.0, 102 kBq kg-dry–1, respectively from 2014. In a cedar forest, however, the radio-Cs concentrations in fresh needles and litter declined from 2012 to 2015, probably because of washing and leaching by throughfall, and radio-Cs was accumulated in surface soil. In broadleaf forest, the buffer depth of radio-Cs in soil (1.26 cm) which indicates the extent of infiltration into deeper layers was greater than in the cedar forest (1.14 cm) in April 2013. However, the buffer depth in the cedar forest overtook that in the broadleaf forest in December, 2015 (1.5 cm in broadleaf forest and 2.6 cm in cedar forest). The radio-Cs values in the stream bottom sand were concentrated in smaller sand (over 2 mm, 3.04; 0.21-2.0 mm, 10.2; under 0.21 mm, 54.5 kBq kg-dry–1 in downstream near the broadleaf forest and over 2.0 mm, 2.67, 0.21-2.0 mm, 7.95; under 0.21 mm, 41.3 kBq kg-dry–1 in the upstream area near the cedar forest). It is concerned that a part of them causes the outflow of radio-Cs as suspended sand. The relative radio-Cs concentration ratio between smaller bottom sand and surface soil, which indicates the outflow of radio-Cs from forest via stream declined (2013: 0.54, 2016: 0.29 in downstream and 2013: 1.4, 2016: 0.31 in the upstream region). However, we found that floating male flowers of cedar containing high radio-Cs (23.8 kBq kg-dry–1) could be another transport media in the spring.

    DOI

  • Development of TOF-PET using Compton scattering by plastic scintillators

    M. Kuramoto, T. Nakamori, S. Kimura, S. Gunji, M. Takakura, J. Kataoka

    NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT   845   668 - 672  2017.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We propose a time-of-flight (TOF) technique using plastic scintillators which have fast decay time of a few ns for positron emission tomography (PET). While the photoelectric absorption probability of the plastic for 511 keV gamma rays are extremely low due to its small density and effective atomic number, the cross section of Compton scattering is comparable to that of absorption by conventional inorganic scintillators. We thus propose TOF-PET using Compton scattering with plastic scintillators (Compton PET), and performed fundamental experiments towards exploration of the Compton-PET capability. We demonstrated that the plastic scintillators achieved the better time resolution in comparison to LYSO(Ce) and GAGG(Ce) scintillators. In addition we evaluated the depth-of-interaction resolving capability with the plastic scintillators. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Development of a compact scintillator-based high-resolution Compton camera for molecular imaging

    A. Kishimoto, J. Kataoka, A. Koide, K. Sueoka, Y. Iwamoto, T. Taya, S. Ohsuka

    NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT   845 ( 11 ) 656 - 659  2017.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The Compton camera, which shows gamma-ray distribution utilizing the kinematics of Compton scattering, is a promising detector capable of imaging across a wide range of energy. In this study, we aim to construct a small-animal molecular imaging system in a wide energy range by using the Compton camera. We developed a compact medical Compton camera based on a Ce-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 (Ce:GAGG) scintillator and multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC). A basic performance confirmed that for 662 keV, the typical energy resolution was 7.4 % (FWHM) and the angular resolution was 4.5 degrees (FWHM). We then used the medical Compton camera to conduct imaging experiments based on a 3-D imaging reconstruction algorithm using the multi-angle data acquisition method. The result confirmed that for a Cs-137 point source at a distance of 4 cm, the image had a spatial resolution of 3.1 mm (FWHM). Furthermore, we succeeded in producing 3-D multi-color image of different simultaneous energy sources (Na-22 [511 keV], Cs-137 [662 keV], and Mn-54 [834 key]). (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • CTA Report 125:Status report for the construction of Focal Plane Instrument of LST-1

    Sakurai S., Orito R., Kataoka J., Katagiri H., Kimura S., Kushida J., Kubo H., Gunji S., Koyama S., Konno Y., Saito T., Ikeno M., Sawada M., Sunada Y., Takahashi M., Tanaka M., Tsujimoto S., Teshima M., Terada Y., Tokanai F., Nakajima D., Nakamori T., Inada T., Nagayoshi T., Nishijima K., Nishiyama G., Nozaki S., Hayashida M., Bamba A., Hirako J., Fukami S., Masuda S., Yamamoto T., Inome Y., Yoshida T., Hadasch D., Mazin D., the CTA-Japan consortium, Iwamura Y., Uchida T., Ohoka H., Okumura A., Okazaki N.

    Meeting Abstracts of the Physical Society of Japan   72 ( 0 ) 360 - 360  2017

    DOI CiNii

  • CTA Report 126 : Improvement and calibration of the focal plane detector for LST

    Sunada Y., Orito R., Kataoka J., Katagiri H., Kimura S., Kushida J., Kubo H., Gunji S., Koyama S., Konno Y., Saito T., Ikeno M., Sawada M., Sakurai S., Takahashi M., Tanaka M., Tsujimoto S., Teshima M., Terada Y., Tokanai F., Nakajima D., Nakamori T., Inada T., Nagayoshi T., Nishijima K., Nishiyama G., Nozaki S., Hayashida M., Bamba A., Hirako J., Fukami S., Masuda S., Yamamoto T., Inome Y., Yoshida T., Hadasch D., Mazin D., the CTA-Japan consortium, Iwamura Y., Uchida T., Ohoka H., Okumura A., Okazaki N.

    Meeting Abstracts of the Physical Society of Japan   72 ( 0 ) 361 - 361  2017

    DOI CiNii

  • Secondary-electron-bremsstrahlung imaging for proton therapy

    Yamaguchi Mitsutaka, Nagao Yuto, Ando Koki, Yamamoto Seiichi, Toshito Toshiyuki, Kataoka Jun, Kawachi Naoki

    NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT   833   199-207 - 207  2016.10  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    A feasibility study on an imaging technique of a therapeutic proton-beam trajectory using a gamma camera by measuring secondary electron bremsstrahlung (SEB) was performed by means of Monte Carlo simulations and a beam-irradiation experiment. From the simulation and experimental results, it was found that a significant amount of SEB yield exists between the beam-injection surface and the range position along the beam axis and the beam trajectory is clearly imaged by the SEB yield. It is concluded that the SEB imaging is a promising technique for monitoring of therapeutic proton-beam trajectories.

    DOI

  • Development and verification of signal processing system of avalanche photo diode for the active shields onboard ASTRO-H

    M. Ohno, T. Kawano, I. Edahiro, H. Shirakawa, N. Ohashi, C. Okada, S. Habata, J. Katsuta, Y. Tanaka, H. Takahashi, T. Mizuno, Y. Fukazawa, H. Murakami, S. Kobayashi, K. Miyake, K. Ono, Y. Kato, Y. Furuta, Y. Murota, K. Okuda, Y. Wada, K. Nakazawa, T. Mimura, J. Kataoka, Y. Ichinohe, Y. Uchida, M. Katsuragawa, H. Yoneda, G. Sato, R. Sato, M. Kawaharada, A. Harayama, H. Odaka, K. Hayashi, M. Ohta, S. Watanabe, M. Kokubun, T. Takahashi, S. Takeda, M. Kinoshita, K. Yamaoka, H. Tajima, Y. Yatsu, H. Uchiyama, S. Saito, T. Yuasa, K. Makishima

    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment   831   410 - 414  2016.09

     View Summary

    The hard X-ray Imager and Soft Gamma-ray Detector onboard ASTRO-H demonstrate high sensitivity to hard X-ray (5–80 keV) and soft gamma-rays (60–600 keV), respectively. To reduce the background, both instruments are actively shielded by large, thick Bismuth Germanate scintillators. We have developed the signal processing system of the avalanche photodiode in the BGO active shields and have demonstrated its effectiveness after assembly in the flight model of the HXI/SGD sensor and after integration into the satellite. The energy threshold achieved is about 150 keV and anti-coincidence efficiency for cosmic-ray events is almost 100%. Installed in the BGO active shield, the developed signal processing system successfully reduces the room background level of the main detector.

    DOI

  • The Si/CdTe semiconductor camera of the ASTRO-H Hard X-ray Imager (HXI)

    Goro Sato, Kouichi Hagino, Shin Watanabe, Kei Genba, Atsushi Harayama, Hironori Kanematsu, Jun Kataoka, Miho Katsuragawa, Madoka Kawaharada, Shogo Kobayashi, Motohide Kokubun, Yoshikatsu Kuroda, Kazuo Makishima, Kazunori Masukawa, Taketo Mimura, Katsuma Miyake, Hiroaki Murakami, Toshio Nakano, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Hirofumi Noda, Hirokazu Odaka, Mitsunobu Onishi, Shinya Saito, Rie Sato, Tamotsu Sato, Hiroyasu Tajima, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Tadayuki Takahashi, Shin'ichiro Takeda, Takayuki Yuasa

    NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT   831   235 - 241  2016.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The Hard X-ray Imager (HXI) is one of the instruments onboard the ASTRO-H mission [14 to be launched in early 2016. The HXI is the focal plane detector of the hard X-ray reflecting telescope that covers an energy range from 5 to 80 keV. It will execute observations of astronomical objects with a sensitivity for point sources as faint as 1/100,000 of the Crab nebula at &gt; 10 keV. The HXI camera - the imaging part of the HXI - is realized by a hybrid semiconductor detector system that consists of silicon (Si) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) semiconductor detectors. Here, we present the final design of the HXI camera and report on the development of the flight model. The camera is composed of four layers of Double-sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSDs) and one layer of CdTe Double -sided Strip Detector (CdTeDSD), each with an imaging area of 32 mm x 32 mm. The strip pitch of the Si and CdTe sensors is 250 pm, and the signals from all 1280 strips are processed by 40 Application Specified Integrated Circuits (ASICs) developed for the HXI. The five layers of sensors are vertically stacked with a 4 mm spacing to increase the detection efficiency. The thickness of the sensors is 0.5 mm for the Si, and 0.75 mm for the CdTe. In this configuration, soft X-ray photons will be absorbed in the Si part, while hard X-ray photons will go through the Si part and will be detected in the CdTe part. The design of the sensor trays, peripheral circuits, power connections, and readout schemes are also described. The flight models of the HXI camera have been manufactured, tested and installed in the HXI instrument and then on the satellite. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Performance evaluation of newly developed SrI2(Eu) scintillator

    M. Takabe, A. Kishimoto, J. Kataoka, S. Sakuragi, Y. Yamasaki

    NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT   831 ( 21 ) 260 - 264  2016.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The development of europium-doped strontium iodide (SrI2(Eu)) has attracted considerable attention, because of its excellent material properties as regards gamma -ray scintillator applications. These include its excellent energy resolution, high light output (&gt;80, 000 ph/MeV), and high effective atomic number (Z=49). Here we report on the performance of 0 1 in x 1 in SrI2(Eu) cylindrical crystals newly fabricated by Union Materials Inc. In this study, we measured the energy resolution and light output at 10 C temperature intervals between 40 and 40 degrees C, using an optically coupled 2 -in photomultiplier tube (PMT) (Super Bialkali, Hamamatsu). The SrI2(Eu) light output increased by 0.12%/degrees C as the temperature decreased. At 40 C, we obtained the optimal energy resolution recording 2.91 0.02% full width at half maximum (FWHM) for 662 keV gamma rays measured with 137Cs. For comparison, we also measured the same crystal using both a large-area (19 x 19 mm2) avalanche photodiode detector (APD) and 8 x 8 multi -pixel photon counter (MPPC) arrays of 3 x 3 mm2 pixels. The energy resolutions of 2.94 + 0.02%, 3.14 + 0.06% and 3.99 + 0.01% were obtained using PMT, APD, and MPPC, respectively, as measured at 20 degrees C. We also measured the inherent background of SrI2(Eu) in a cave composed of Cu Pb blocks with their thickness of 5-10 cm confirming that Srl2(Eu) has an extremely low inherent background radiation. In this study, we have shown that SrI2(Eu) is a promising scintillator that can be utilized for radiation measurements incorporating low-energy X-rays to high-energy gamma rays, and can thus be applied in various medical, industrial, and environmental treatment fields in the near future. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Novel methods for estimating 3D distributions of radioactive isotopes in materials

    Y. Iwamoto, J. Kataoka, A. Kishimoto, T. Nishiyama, T. Taya, H. Okochi, H. Ogata, S. Yamamoto

    NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT   831 ( 21 ) 295 - 300  2016.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In recent years, various gamma-ray visualization techniques, or gamma cameras, have been proposed. These techniques are extremely effective for identifying "hot spots" or regions where radioactive isotopes are accumulated. Examples of such would be nuclear-disaster-affected areas such as Fukushima or the vicinity of nuclear reactors. However, the images acquired with a gamma camera do not include distance information between radioactive isotopes and the camera, and hence are "degenerated" in the direction of the isotopes. Moreover, depth information in the images is lost when the isotopes are embedded in materials, such as water, sand, and concrete. Here, we propose two methods of obtaining depth information of radioactive isotopes embedded in materials by comparing (1) their spectra and (2) images of incident gamma rays scattered by the materials and direct gamma rays. In the first method, the spectra of radioactive isotopes and the ratios of scattered to direct gamma rays are obtained. We verify experimentally that the ratio increases with increasing depth, as predicted by simulations. Although the method using energy spectra has been studied for a long time, an advantage of our method is the use of low-energy (50-150 keV) photons as scattered gamma rays. In the second method, the spatial extent of images obtained for direct and scattered gamma rays is compared. By performing detailed Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4, we verify that the spatial extent of the position where gamma rays are scattered increases with increasing depth. To demonstrate this, we are developing various gamma cameras to compare low-energy (scattered) gamma -ray images with fully photo -absorbed gamma -ray images. We also demonstrate that the 3D reconstruction of isotopes/hotspots is possible with our proposed methods. These methods have potential applications in the medical fields, and in severe environments such as the nuclear-disaster-affected areas in Fukushima. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • First demonstration of real-time gamma imaging by using a handheld Compton camera for particle therapy

    T. Taya, J. Kataoka, A. Kishimoto, Y. Iwamoto, A. Koide, T. Nishio, S. Kabuki, T. Inaniwa

    NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT   831 ( 21 ) 355 - 361  2016.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The use of real-time gamma imaging for cancer treatment in particle therapy is expected to improve the accuracy of the treatment beam delivery. In this study, we demonstrated the imaging of gamma rays generated by the nuclear interactions during proton irradiation, using a handheld Compton camera (14 cm x 15 cm x 16 cm, 2.5 kg) based on scintillation detectors. The angular resolution of this Compton camera is similar to 8 degrees at full width at half maximum (FVVHM) for a 137Cs source. We measured the energy spectra of the gamma rays using a LaBr3(Ce) scintillator and photomultiplier tube, and using the handheld Compton camera, performed image reconstruction when using a 70 MeV proton beam to irradiate a water, Ca(OH)(2), and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom. In the energy spectra of all three phantoms, we found an obvious peak at 511 keV, which was derived from annihilation gamma rays, and in the energy spectrum of the PMMA phantom, we found another peak at 718 keV, which contains some of the prompt gamma rays produced from 10B. Therefore, we evaluated the peak positions of the projection from the reconstructed images of the PMMA phantom. The differences between the peak positions and the Bragg peak position calculated using simulation are 7 mm + 2 mm and 3 mm + 8 mm, respectively. Although we could quickly acquire online gamma imaging of both of the energy ranges during proton irradiation, we cannot arrive at a clear conclusion that prompt gamma rays sufficiently trace the Bragg peak from these results because of the uncertainty given by the spatial resolution of the Compton camera. We will develop a high -resolution Compton camera in the near future for further study. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Compton cameras for visualization of radioactive isotopes

    J.Kataoka, S.Takeda, T.Takahashi

      出版中  2016.08  [Refereed]  [Invited]

  • INVERSE COMPTON X-RAY EMISSION FROM TeV BLAZAR MRK 421 DURING A HISTORICAL LOW-FLUX STATE OBSERVED WITH NuSTAR

    Jun Kataoka, Lukasz Stawarz

    ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL   827 ( 1 ) 55  2016.08  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report on the detection of excess hard X-ray emission from the TeV BL Lac object Mrk 421 during the historical low-flux state of the source in 2013 January. Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array observations were conducted four times between MJD 56294 and MJD 56312 with a total exposure of 80.9 ks. The source flux in the 3-40 keV range was nearly constant, except for MJD 56307 when the average flux level increased by a factor of three. Throughout the exposure, the X-ray spectra of Mrk 421 were well represented by a steep power-law model with a photon index of Gamma similar or equal to 3.1, although a significant excess was noted above 20 keV in the MJD 56302 data when the source was in its faintest state. Moreover, Mrk 421 was detected at more than the 4 sigma level in the 40-79 keV count maps for both MJD 56307 and MJD 56302 but not during the remaining two observations. The detected excess hard X-ray emission connects smoothly with the extrapolation of the high-energy gamma-ray continuum of the blazar constrained by Fermi-LAT during source quiescence. These findings indicate that while the overall X-ray spectrum of Mrk 421 is dominated by the highest-energy tail of the synchrotron continuum, the variable excess hard X-ray emission above 20 keV (on the timescale of a week) is related to the inverse Compton emission component. We discuss the resulting constraints on the variability and spectral properties of the low-energy segment of the electron energy distribution in the source.

    DOI

  • The quiescent intracluster medium in the core of the Perseus cluster

    Felix Aharonian, Hiroki Akamatsu, Fumie Akimoto, Steven W. Allen, Naohisa Anabuki, Lorella Angelini, Keith Arnaud, Marc Audard, Hisamitsu Awaki, Magnus Axelsson, Aya Bamba, Marshall Bautz, Roger Blandford, Laura Brenneman, Gregory V. Brown, Esra Bulbul, Edward Cackett, Maria Chernyakova, Meng Chiao, Paolo Coppi, Elisa Costantini, Jelle De Plaa, Jan Willem Den Herder, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, Ken Ebisawa, Megan Eckart, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew C. Fabian, Carlo Ferrigno, Adam Foster, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Luigi Gallo, Poshak Gandhi, Margherita Giustini, Andrea Goldwurm, Liyi Gu, Matteo Guainazzi, Yoshito Haba, Kouichi Hagino, Kenji Hamaguchi, Ilana Harrus, Isamu Hatsukade, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Takayuki Hayashi, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Junko Hiraga, Ann Hornschemeier, Akio Hoshino, John Hughes, Ryo Iizuka, Hajime Inoue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Kazunori Ishibashi, Manabu Ishida, Kumi Ishikawa, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Masayuki Itoh, Naoko Iyomoto, Jelle Kaastra, Timothy Kallman, Tuneyoshi Kamae, Erin Kara, Jun Kataoka, Satoru Katsuda, Junichiro Katsuta, Madoka Kawaharada, Nobuyuki Kawai, Richard Kelley, Dmitry Khangulyan, Caroline Kilbourne, Ashley King, Takao Kitaguchi, Shunji Kitamoto, Tetsu Kitayama, Takayoshi Kohmura, Motohide Kokubun, Shu Koyama, Katsuji Koyama, Peter Kretschmar, Hans Krimm, Aya Kubota, Hideyo Kunieda, Philippe Laurent, François Lebrun, Shiu Hang Lee, Maurice Leutenegger, Olivier Limousin, Michael Loewenstein, Knox S. Long, David Lumb, Grzegorz Madejski, Yoshitomo Maeda, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Maxim Markevitch

    Nature   535 ( 7610 ) 117 - 121  2016.07

     View Summary

    Clusters of galaxies are the most massive gravitationally bound objects in the Universe and are still forming. They are thus important probes of cosmological parameters and many astrophysical processes. However, knowledge of the dynamics of the pervasive hot gas, the mass of which is much larger than the combined mass of all the stars in the cluster, is lacking. Such knowledge would enable insights into the injection of mechanical energy by the central supermassive black hole and the use of hydrostatic equilibrium for determining cluster masses. X-rays from the core of the Perseus cluster are emitted by the 50-million-kelvin diffuse hot plasma filling its gravitational potential well. The active galactic nucleus of the central galaxy NGC 1275 is pumping jetted energy into the surrounding intracluster medium, creating buoyant bubbles filled with relativistic plasma. These bubbles probably induce motions in the intracluster medium and heat the inner gas, preventing runaway radiative cooling - a process known as active galactic nucleus feedback. Here we report X-ray observations of the core of the Perseus cluster, which reveal a remarkably quiescent atmosphere in which the gas has a line-of-sight velocity dispersion of 164 ± 10 kilometres per second in the region 30-60 kiloparsecs from the central nucleus. A gradient in the line-of-sight velocity of 150 ± 70 kilometres per second is found across the 60-kiloparsec image of the cluster core. Turbulent pressure support in the gas is four per cent of the thermodynamic pressure, with large-scale shear at most doubling this estimate. We infer that a total cluster mass determined from hydrostatic equilibrium in a central region would require little correction for turbulent pressure.

    DOI

  • Development of a high resolution gamma camera system using finely grooved GAGG scintillator

    Seiichi Yamamoto, Jun Kataoka, Tsubasa Oshima, Yoshimune Ogata, Tadashi Watabe, Hayato Ikeda, Yasukazu Kanai, Jun Hatazawa

    NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT   821   28 - 33  2016.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    High resolution gamma cameras require small pixel scintillator blocks with high light output. However, manufacturing a small pixel scintillator block is difficult when the pixel size becomes small. To solve this limitation, we developed a high resolution gamma camera system using a finely grooved Ce-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 (GAGG) plate. Our gamma camera's detector consists of a 1-mm-thick finely grooved GAGG plate that is optically coupled to a 1-in. position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). The grooved GAGG plate has 0.2 x 0.2 mm pixels with 0.05-mm wide slits (between the pixels) that were manufactured using a dicing saw. We used a Hamamatsu PSPMT with a 1-in. square high quantum efficiency (HQE) PSPMT (R8900-100-C12). The energy resolution for the Co-57 gamma photons (122 keV) was 18.5% FWHM. The intrinsic spatial resolution was estimated to be 0.7-mm FVVHM. With a 0.5-mm diameter pinhole collimator mounted to its front, we achieved a high resolution, small field-of-view gamma camera. The system spatial resolution for the Co-57 gamma photons was 1.0-mm FWHM, and the sensitivity was 0.0025%, 10 mm from the collimator surface. The Tc-99m HMDP administered mouse images showed the fine structures of the mouse body's parts. Our developed high resolution small pixel GAGG gamma camera is promising for such small animal imaging. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • CO-to-H-2 conversion factor of molecular clouds using X-ray shadows

    Yoshiaki Sofue, Jun Kataoka

    PUBLICATIONS OF THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN   68 ( 3 ) L8  2016.06  [Refereed]

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    A new method to determine the CO-to-H-2 conversion factor X-CO using absorption of diffuse X-ray emission by local molecular clouds was developed. It was applied to the Ophiuchus (G353+17) and Corona Australis (G359-18) clouds using CO line and soft X-ray archival data. We obtained a value X-CO = 1.85 +/- 0.45 x 10(20) H-2 cm(-2) (Kkms(-1))(-1) as the average of least-chi(2) fitting results for R4 (0.7 keV) and R5 (0.8 keV) bands.

    DOI

  • Galactic Centre hypershell model for the North Polar Spurs

    Y. Sofue, A. Habe, J. Kataoka, T. Totani, Y. Inoue, S. Nakashima, H. Matsui, M. Akita

    MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY   459 ( 1 ) 108 - 120  2016.06  [Refereed]

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    The bipolar-hypershell (BHS) model for the North Polar Spurs (NPS-E, -W, and Loop I) and counter southern spurs (SPS-E and -W) is revisited based on numerical hydrodynamical simulations. Propagations of shock waves produced by energetic explosive events in the Galactic Centre are examined. Distributions of soft X-ray brightness on the sky at 0.25, 0.7, and 1.5 keV in the +/- 50 degrees x +/- 50 degrees region around the Galactic Centre are modelled by thermal emission from high-temperature plasma in the shock-compressed shell considering shadowing by the interstellar H I and H-2 gases. The result is compared with the ROSAT wide field X-ray images in R2, 4, and 6 bands. The NPS and southern spurs are well reproduced by the simulation as shadowed dumbbell-shaped shock waves. We discuss the origin and energetics of the event in relation to the starburst and/or active galactic nucleus activities in the Galactic Centre.

    DOI

  • THE FIRST FERMI LAT SUPERNOVA REMNANT CATALOG

    F. Acero, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, R. Bellazzini, E. Bissaldi, R. D. Blandford, E. D. Bloom, R. Bonino, E. Bottacini, T. J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, R. Caputo, M. Caragiulo, P. A. Caraveo, J. M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, A. Chekhtman, J. Chiang, G. Chiaro, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. M. Cohen, J. Cohen-Tanugi, L. R. Cominsky, B. Condon, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, F. D'Ammando, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, R. Desiante, S. W. Digel, L. Di Venere, P. S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, C. Favuzzi, E. C. Ferrara, A. Franckowiak, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, G. A. Gomez-Vargas, I. A. Grenier, M. H. Grondin, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, M. Gustafsson, D. Hadasch, A. K. Harding, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, J. W. Hewitt, A. B. Hill, D. Horan, X. Hou, G. Iafrate, T. Jogler, G. Jóhannesson, A. S. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Katsuta, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, D. Kocevski, M. Kuss, H. Laffon, J. Lande, S. Larsson, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, J. Li, L. Li, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, J. Magill, S. Maldera, M. Marelli, M. Mayer

    Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series   224 ( 1 )  2016.05

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    To uniformly determine the properties of supernova remnants (SNRs) at high energies, we have developed the first systematic survey at energies from 1 to 100 GeV using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Based on the spatial overlap of sources detected at GeV energies with SNRs known from radio surveys, we classify 30 sources as likely GeV SNRs. We also report 14 marginal associations and 245 flux upper limits. A mock catalog in which the positions of known remnants are scrambled in Galactic longitude allows us to determine an upper limit of 22% on the number of GeV candidates falsely identified as SNRs. We have also developed a method to estimate spectral and spatial systematic errors arising from the diffuse interstellar emission model, a key component of all Galactic Fermi LAT analyses. By studying remnants uniformly in aggregate, we measure the GeV properties common to these objects and provide a crucial context for the detailed modeling of individual SNRs. Combining our GeV results with multiwavelength (MW) data, including radio, X-ray, and TeV, we demonstrate the need for improvements to previously sufficient, simple models describing the GeV and radio emission from these objects. We model the GeV and MW emission from SNRs in aggregate to constrain their maximal contribution to observed Galactic cosmic rays.

    DOI

  • Initial in orbit performance of the Hard X-ray Imager onboard Hitomi X-ray satellite

    Nakazawa K., Takahashi T., Kokubun M., Watanabe S., Sato G., Ota M., Hagino K., Sato R., Lee Herman, Nomachi M., Yonetoku D., Tanaka T., Enoto T., Terada Y., Uchiyama H., Yatsu Y., Ichinohe Y., Noda H., Tajima H., Yamaoka K., Hayashi K., Fukazawa Y., Mizuno T., Ohno M., Takahashi H., Nakamori T., Uchiyama S., Saito S., Makishima K., Yuasa T., Nakano T., Kataoka J., Francois Lebrun, Andrea Goldwurm, Olivier Limousin, Philippe Laurent, Daniel Maier, Takeda Shinichiro, Odaka Hirokazu, the HXI team

    Meeting Abstracts of the Physical Society of Japan   71   370 - 370  2016

    DOI CiNii

  • In-orbit performance of Soft Gamma-ray Detector(SGD) onboard Hitomi (ASTRO-H) X-ray satellite

    Watanabe Shin, Tajima Hiroyasu, Fukazawa Yasushi, Ichinohe Yuto, Uchiyama Hideki, Uchiyama Yasunobu, Enoto Teruaki, Ohta Masayuki, Ohno Masanori, Odaka Hirokazu, Kataoka Jun, Katsuta Junichiro, Kitaguchi Takao, Kokubun Motohide, Goldwurm Andrea, Saito Shinya, Sato Goro, Sato Rie, Takahashi Tadayuki, Takahashi Hiromitsu, Takeda Shin'ichiro, Tanaka Takaaki, Tanaka Yasuyuki, Terada Yukikatsu, Nakazawa Kazuhiro, Nakano Toshio, Nakamori Takashi, Noda Hirofumi, Hagino Kouichi, Hayashi Katsuhiro, Blandford Roger, Makishima Kazuo, Madejski Grzegorz, Mizuno Tsunefumi, Mori Kunishiro, Yatsu Yoichi, Yamaoka Kazutaka, Yuasa Takayuki, Yonetoku Daisuke, Laurent Philippe, Limousin Olivier, Lebrun François, the SGD team

    Meeting Abstracts of the Physical Society of Japan   71   371 - 371  2016

    DOI CiNii

  • The ASTRO-H (Hitomi) X-ray astronomy satellite

    Tadayuki Takahashi, Motohide Kokubun, Kazuhisa Mitsuda, Richard Kelley, Takaya Ohashi, Felix Aharonian, Hiroki Akamatsu, Fumie Akimoto, Steve Allen, Naohisa Anabuki, Lorella Angelini, Keith Arnaud, Makoto Asai, Marc Audard, Hisamitsu Awaki, Magnus Axelsson, Philipp Azzarello, Chris Baluta, Aya Bamba, Nobutaka Bando, Marshall Bautz, Thomas Bialas, Roger Blandford, Kevin Boyce, Laura Brenneman, Greg Brown, Esra Bulbul, Edward Cackett, Edgar Canavan, Maria Chernyakova, Meng Chiao, Paolo Coppi, Elisa Costantini, Jelle De Plaa, Jan Willem Den Herder, Michael DiPirro, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, John Doty, Ken Ebisawa, Megan Eckart, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew Fabian, Carlo Ferrigno, Adam Foster, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Luigi Gallo, Poshak Gandhi, Kirk Gilmore, Margherita Giustini, Andrea Goldwurm, Liyi Gu, Matteo Guainazzi, Daniel Haas, Yoshito Haba, Kouichi Hagino, Kenji Hamaguchi, Atsushi Harayama, Ilana Harrus, Isamu Hatsukade, Takayuki Hayashi, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Junko Hiraga, Kazuyuki Hirose, Ann Hornschemeier, Akio Hoshino, John Hughes, Yuto Ichinohe, Ryo Iizuka, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Hajime Inoue, Kazunori Ishibashi, Manabu Ishida, Kumi Ishikawa, Kosei Ishimura, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Masayuki Itoh, Naoko Iwata, Naoko Iyomoto, Chris Jewell, Jelle Kaastra, Timothy Kallman, Tuneyoshi Kamae, Erin Kara, Jun Kataoka, Satoru Katsuda, Junichiro Katsuta, Madoka Kawaharada, Nobuyuki Kawai, Taro Kawano, Shigeo Kawasaki, Dmitry Khangulyan, Caroline Kilbourne, Mark Kimball, Ashley King

    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering   9905  2016

     View Summary

    The Hitomi (ASTRO-H) mission is the sixth Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite developed by a large international collaboration, including Japan, USA, Canada, and Europe. The mission aimed to provide the highest energy resolution ever achieved at E > 2 keV, using a microcalorimeter instrument, and to cover a wide energy range spanning four decades in energy from soft X-rays to gamma-rays. After a successful launch on 2016 February 17, the spacecraft lost its function on 2016 March 26, but the commissioning phase for about a month provided valuable information on the on-board instruments and the spacecraft system, including astrophysical results obtained from first light observations. The paper describes the Hitomi (ASTRO-H) mission, its capabilities, the initial operation, and the instruments/spacecraft performances confirmed during the commissioning operations for about a month.

    DOI

  • The hard X-ray imager (HXI) onboard ASTRO-H

    Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Goro Sato, Motohide Kokubun, Teruaki Enoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Kouichi Hagino, Atsushi Harayama, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Jun Kataoka, Junichiro Katsuta, Philippe Laurent, Francois Lebrung, Olivier Limousin, Kazuo Makishima, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Kunishiro Mori, Takeshi Nakamori, Toshio Nakano, Hirofumi Noda, Hirokazu Odaka, Masanori Ohno, Masayuki Ohta, Shinya Saito, Rie Sato, Hiroyasu Tajima, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Tadayuki Takahashi, Shin'ichiro Takeda, Yukikatsu Terada, Hideki Uchiyama, Yasunobu Uchiyama, Shin Watanabe, Kazutaka Yamaoka, Yoichi Yatsu, Takayuki Yuasa

    SPACE TELESCOPES AND INSTRUMENTATION 2016: ULTRAVIOLET TO GAMMA RAY   9905  2016  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Hitomi X-ray observatory launched in 17 February 2016 had a hard X-ray imaging spectroscopy system made of two hard X-ray imagers (HXIs) coupled with two hard X-ray telescopes (HXTs). With 12 m focal length, they provide fine (2' half-power diameter; HPD) imaging spectroscopy at 5 to 80 keV. The HXI main imagers are made of 4 layers of Si and a CdTe semiconductor double-sided strip detectors, stacked to enhance detection efficiency as well as to enable photon interaction-depth sensing. Active shield made of 9 BGO scintillators surrounds the imager to provide with low background. Following the deployment of the Extensible Optical Bench (EOB) on 28 February, the HXI was gradually turned on. Two imagers successfully started observation on 14 March, and was operational till the incident lead to Hitomo loss, on 26 March. All detector channels, 1280 ch of imager and 11 channel of active shields and others each, worked well and showed performance consistent with those seen on ground. From the first light observation of G21.5-0.9 and the following Crab observations, 5 80 keV energy coverage and good detection efficiency were confirmed. With blank sky observations, we checked our background level. In some geomagnetic region, strong background continuum, presumably caused by trapped electron with energy similar to 100 keV, is seen. But by cutting the high-background time-intervals, the background became significantly lower, typically with 1-3x10(-4) counts s(-1) keV(-1) cm(-2) (here cm(2) is shown with detector geometrical area). Above 30 keV, line and continuum emission originating from activation of CdTe was significantly seen, though the level of 1-4x10(-4) counts s(-1) keV(-1) cm(-2) is still comparable to those seen in NuSTAR. By comparing the effective area and background rate, preliminary analysis shows that the HXI had a statistical sensitivity similar to NuSTAR for point sources, and more than twice better for largely extended sources.

    DOI

  • 2FHL: THE SECOND CATALOG OF HARD FERMI-LAT SOURCES

    Ackermann, M, Ajello, M, Atwood, W. B, Baldini, L, Ballet, J, Barbiellini, G, Bastieri, D, Gonzalez, J. Becerra, Bellazzini, R, Bissaldi, E, Blandford, R. D, Bloom, E. D, Bonino, R, Bottacini, E, Brandt, T. J, Bregeon, J, Bruel, P, Buehler, R, Buson, S, Caliandro, G. A, Cameron, R. A, Caputo, R, Caragiulo, M, Caraveo, P. A, Cavazzuti, E, Cecchi, C, Charles, E, Chekhtman, A, Cheung, C. C, Chiang, J, Chiaro, G, Ciprini, S, Cohen, J. M, Cohen-Tanugi, J, Cominsky, L. R, Conrad, J, Cuoco, A, Cutini, S, D'Ammando, F, de Angelis, A, de Palma, F, Desiante, R, Di Mauro, M, Di Venere, L, Dominguez, A, Drell, P. S, Favuzzi, C, Fegan, S. J, Ferrara, E. C, Focke, W. B, Fortin, P, Franckowiak, A, Fukazawa, Y, Funk, S, Furniss, A. K, Fusco, P, Gargano, F, Gasparrini, D, Giglietto, N, Giommi, P, Giordano, F, Giroletti, M, Glanzman, T, Godfrey, G, Grenier, I. A, Grondin, M. -H, Guillemot, L, Guiriec, S, Harding, A. K, Hays, E, Hewitt, J. W, Hill, A. B, Horan, D, Iafrate, G, Hartmann, Dieter, Jogler, T, Johannesson, G, Johnson, A. S, Kamae, T, Kataoka, J, Knoedlseder, J, Kuss, M, La Mura, G, Larsson, S, Latronico, L, Lemoine-Goumard, M, Li, J, Li, L, Longo, F, Loparco, F, Lott, B, Lovellette, M. N, Lubrano, P, Madejski, G. M, Maldera, S, Manfreda, A, Mayer, M, Mazziotta, M. N, Michelson, P. F, Mirabal, N, Mitthumsiri, W, Mizuno, T, Moiseev, A. A, Monzani, M. E, Morselli, A, Moskalenko, I. V, Murgia, S, Nuss, E, Ohsugi, T, Omodei, N, Orienti, M, Orlando, E, Ormes, J. F, Paneque, D, Perkins, J. S, Pesce-Rollins, M, Petrosian, V, Piron, F, Pivato, G, Porter, T. A, Raino, S, Rando, R, Razzano, M, Razzaque, S, Reimer, A, Reimer, O, Reposeur, T, Romani, R. W, Sanchez-Conde, M, Parkinson, P. M. Saz, Schmid, J, Schulz, A, Sgro, C, Siskind, E. J, Spada, F, Spandre, G, Spinelli, P, Suson, D. J, Tajima, H, Takahashi, H, Takahashi, M, Takahashi, T, Thayer, J. B, Thompson, D. J, Tibaldo, L, Torres, D. F, Tosti, G, Troja, E, Vianello, G, Wood, K. S, Wood, M, Yassine, M, Zaharijas, G, Zimmer, S

    ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL SUPPLEMENT SERIES   222 ( 1 )  2016.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We present a catalog of sources detected above 50 GeV by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) in 80 months of data. The newly delivered Pass. 8 event-level analysis allows the detection and characterization of sources in the 50 GeV-2 TeV energy range. In this energy band, Fermi-LAT. has detected 360 sources, which constitute the second catalog of hard Fermi-LAT. sources (2FHL). The improved angular resolution enables the precise localization of point sources (similar to 1.&#039; 7 radius at 68% C.L.) and the detection and characterization of spatially extended sources. We find that 86% of the sources can be associated with counterparts at other wavelengths, of which the majority (75%) are active galactic nuclei and the rest (11%) are Galactic sources. Only 25% of the 2FHL sources have been previously detected by Cherenkov telescopes, implying that the 2FHL provides a reservoir of candidates to be followed up at very high energies. This work closes the energy gap between the observations performed at GeV energies by Fermi-LAT. on orbit and the observations performed at higher energies by Cherenkov telescopes from the ground.

    DOI

  • The soft gamma-ray detector (SGD) onboard ASTRO-H

    Watanabe Shin, Tajima Hiroyasu, Fukazawa Yasushi, Blandford Roger, Enoto Teruaki, Goldwurm Andrea, Hagino Kouichi, Hayashi Katsuhiro, Ichinohe Yuto, Kataoka Jun, Katsuta Junichiro, Kitaguchi Takao, Kokubun Motohide, Laurent Philippe, Lebrun Francois, Limousin Olivier, Madejski Grzegorz M, Makishima Kazuo, Mizunoe Tsunefumi, Mori Kunishiro, Nakamori Takeshi, Nakano Toshio, Nakazawa Kazuhiro, Noda Hirofumi, Odaka Hirokazu, Ohno Masanori, Ohta Masayuki, Saito Shinya, Sato Goro, Sato Rie, Takeda Shin'ichiro, Takahashi Hiromitsu, Takahashi Tadayuki, Tanaka Takaaki, Tanaka Yasuyuki, Terada Yukikatsu, Uchiyama Hideki, Uchiyama Yasunobu, Yamaoka Kazutaka, Yatsu Yoichi, Yonetoku Daisuke, Yuasa Takayuki

    SPACE TELESCOPES AND INSTRUMENTATION 2016: ULTRAVIOLET TO GAMMA RAY   9905  2016  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD) is one of science instruments onboard ASTRO-H (Hitomi) and features a wide energy band of 60{600 keV with low backgrounds. SGD is an instrument with a novel concept of "Narrow field-of-view" Compton camera where Compton kinematics is utilized to reject backgrounds which are inconsistent with the field-of-view defined by the active shield. After several years of developments, the flight hardware was fabricated and subjected to subsystem tests and satellite system tests. After a successful ASTRO-H (Hitomi) launch on February 17, 2016 and a critical phase operation of satellite and SGD in-orbit commissioning, the SGD operation was moved to the nominal observation mode on March 24, 2016. The Compton cameras and BGO-APD shields of SGD worked properly as designed. On March 25, 2016, the Crab nebula observation was performed, and, the observation data was successfully obtained.

    DOI

  • Observation of polarized hard X-ray emission from the Crab by the PoGOLite Pathfinder

    M. Chauvin, H. G. Florén, M. Jackson, T. Kamae, T. Kawano, M. Kiss, M. Kole, V. Mikhalev, E. Moretti, G. Olofsson, S. Rydström, H. Takahashi, A. Iyudin, M. Arimoto, Y. Fukazawa, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, T. Mizuno, F. Ryde, H. Tajima, T. Takahashi, M. Pearce

    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters   456 ( 1 ) L84 - L88  2016

     View Summary

    We have measured the linear polarization of hard X-ray emission from the Crab in a previously unexplored energy interval, 20-120 keV. The introduction of two new observational parameters, the polarization fraction and angle stands to disentangle geometrical and physical effects, thereby providing information on the pulsar wind geometry and magnetic field environment. Measurements are conducted using the PoGOLite Pathfinder - a balloon-borne polarimeter. Polarization is determined by measuring the azimuthal Compton scattering angle of incident X-rays in an array of plastic scintillators housed in an anticoincidence well. The polarimetric response has been characterized prior to flight using both polarized and unpolarized calibration sources. We address possible systematic effects through observations of a background field. The measured polarization fraction for the integrated Crab light curve is 18.4+9.8 -10.6 per cent, corresponding to an upper limit (99 per cent credibility) of 42.4 per cent, for a polarization angle of (149.2 ± 16.0)°.

    DOI

  • Development of a high-precision color gamma-ray image sensor based on TSV-MPPC and diced scintillator arrays

    T. Oshima, J. Kataoka, A. Kishimoto, T. Fujita, Y. Kurei, T. Nishiyama, H. Morita, S. Yamamoto, K. Ogawa

    NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT   803   8 - 14  2015.12  [Refereed]

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    We developed a high precision color gamma ray image sensor with fine spatial resolution that is cost effective, widely applicable, and very sensitive, by using a diced Ce-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 (Ce:CACC.) scintillator array coupled with a 3.0 x 3.0 mm(2)/pixel 8 x 8 MPPC-array. The proposed image sensor can measure the energy of individual X-ray photons transmitted through an object. The pixel size of the Ce:GACC scintillator array is 02 mm, and the pixels are separated by 50-mu m-wide micro grooves, The image sensor has an area of 20 x 20 mm(2) and a thickness of 1.0 mm, and it achieves an excellent spatial resolution of 0.3-0.4 mm and energy resolutions of 12% and 18% (FVVHM) for 122 and 59.5 keV gamma rays, respectively. We conducted an experiment to determine the local effective atomic number of metals using dual energy gamma ray sources. In addition, we developed a color composite image using mixed images Laken at three energies (31, 59.5, and 88 keV). (C). 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Demonstration of three-dimensional imaging based on handheld Compton camera

    A. Kishimoto, J. Kataoka, T. Nishiyama, T. Taya, S. Kabuki

    JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION   10 ( 11 )  2015.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Compton cameras are potential detectors that are capable of performing measurements across a wide energy range for medical imaging applications, such as in nuclear medicine and ion beam therapy. In previous work, we developed a handheld Compton camera to identify environmental radiation hotspots. This camera consists of a 3D position-sensitive scintillator array and multi-pixel photon counter arrays. In this work, we reconstructed the 3D image of a source via list-mode maximum likelihood expectation maximization and demonstrated the imaging performance of the handheld Compton camera. Based on both the simulation and the experiments, we confirmed that multi-angle data acquisition of the imaging region significantly improved the spatial resolution of the reconstructed image in the direction vertical to the detector. The experimental spatial resolutions in the X, Y, and Z directions at the center of the imaging region were 6.81 mm +/- 0.13 mm, 6.52 mm +/- 0.07 mm and 6.71 mm +/- 0.11 mm (FWHM), respectively. Results of multi-angle data acquisition show the potential of reconstructing 3D source images.

    DOI

  • Demonstration of three-dimensional imaging based on handheld Compton camera

    A. Kishimoto, J. Kataoka, T. Nishiyama, T. Taya, S. Kabuki

    JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION   10 ( 11 ) P11001  2015.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Compton cameras are potential detectors that are capable of performing measurements across a wide energy range for medical imaging applications, such as in nuclear medicine and ion beam therapy. In previous work, we developed a handheld Compton camera to identify environmental radiation hotspots. This camera consists of a 3D position-sensitive scintillator array and multi-pixel photon counter arrays. In this work, we reconstructed the 3D image of a source via list-mode maximum likelihood expectation maximization and demonstrated the imaging performance of the handheld Compton camera. Based on both the simulation and the experiments, we confirmed that multi-angle data acquisition of the imaging region significantly improved the spatial resolution of the reconstructed image in the direction vertical to the detector. The experimental spatial resolutions in the X, Y, and Z directions at the center of the imaging region were 6.81 mm +/- 0.13 mm, 6.52 mm +/- 0.07 mm and 6.71 mm +/- 0.11 mm (FWHM), respectively. Results of multi-angle data acquisition show the potential of reconstructing 3D source images.

    DOI

  • FIRST NuSTAR OBSERVATIONS of MRK 501 WITHIN A RADIO to TeV MULTI-INSTRUMENT CAMPAIGN

    A. Furniss, K. Noda, S. Boggs, J. Chiang, F. Christensen, W. Craig, P. Giommi, C. Hailey, F. Harisson, G. Madejski, K. Nalewajko, M. Perri, D. Stern, M. Urry, F. Verrecchia, W. Zhang, M. L. Ahnen, S. Ansoldi, L. A. Antonelli, P. Antoranz, A. Babic, B. Banerjee, P. Bangale, U. Barres De Almeida, J. A. Barrio, J. Becerra González, W. Bednarek, E. Bernardini, B. Biasuzzi, A. Biland, O. Blanch, S. Bonnefoy, G. Bonnoli, F. Borracci, T. Bretz, E. Carmona, A. Carosi, A. Chatterjee, R. Clavero, P. Colin, E. Colombo, J. L. Contreras, J. Cortina, S. Covino, P. Da Vela, F. Dazzi, A. De Angelis, G. De Caneva, B. De Lotto, E. De Oña Wilhelmi, C. Delgado Mendez, F. Di Pierro, D. Dominis Prester, D. Dorner, M. Doro, S. Einecke, D. Eisenacher Glawion, D. Elsaesser, A. Fernández-Barral, D. Fidalgo, M. V. Fonseca, L. Font, K. Frantzen, C. Fruck, D. Galindo, R. J. García López, M. Garczarczyk, D. Garrido Terrats, M. Gaug, P. Giammaria, N. Godinović, A. González Muñoz, D. Guberman, Y. Hanabata, M. Hayashida, J. Herrera, J. Hose, D. Hrupec, G. Hughes, W. Idec, H. Kellermann, K. Kodani, Y. Konno, H. Kubo, J. Kushida, A. La Barbera, D. Lelas, N. Lewandowska, E. Lindfors, S. Lombardi, F. Longo, M. López, R. López-Coto, A. López-Oramas, E. Lorenz, P. Majumdar, M. Makariev, K. Mallot, G. Maneva, M. Manganaro

    Astrophysical Journal   812 ( 1 )  2015.10

     View Summary

    We report on simultaneous broadband observations of the TeV-emitting blazar Markarian 501 between 2013 April 1 and August 10, including the first detailed characterization of the synchrotron peak with Swift and NuSTAR. During the campaign, the nearby BL Lac object was observed in both a quiescent and an elevated state. The broadband campaign includes observations with NuSTAR, MAGIC, VERITAS, the Fermi Large Area Telescope, Swift X-ray Telescope and UV Optical Telescope, various ground-based optical instruments, including the GASP-WEBT program, as well as radio observations by OVRO, Metsähovi, and the F-Gamma consortium. Some of the MAGIC observations were affected by a sand layer from the Saharan desert, and had to be corrected using event-by-event corrections derived with a Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) facility. This is the first time that LIDAR information is used to produce a physics result with Cherenkov Telescope data taken during adverse atmospheric conditions, and hence sets a precedent for the current and future ground-based gamma-ray instruments. The NuSTAR instrument provides unprecedented sensitivity in hard X-rays, showing the source to display a spectral energy distribution (SED) between 3 and 79 keV consistent with a log-parabolic spectrum and hard X-ray variability on hour timescales. None (of the four extended NuSTAR observations) show evidence of the onset of inverse-Compton emission at hard X-ray energies. We apply a single-zone equilibrium synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model to five simultaneous broadband SEDs. We find that the SSC model can reproduce the observed broadband states through a decrease in the magnetic field strength coinciding with an increase in the luminosity and hardness of the relativistic leptons responsible for the high-energy emission.

    DOI

  • THE THIRD CATALOG OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI DETECTED BY THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, W. B. Atwood, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, J. Becerra Gonzalez, R. Bellazzini, E. Bissaldi, R. D. Blandford, E. D. Bloom, R. Bonino, E. Bottacini, T. J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, R. J. Britto, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, M. Caragiulo, P. A. Caraveo, B. Carpenter, J. M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C. C. Cheung, J. Chiang, G. Chiaro, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, L. R. Cominsky, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, R. D'Abrusco, F. D'Ammando, A. De Angelis, R. Desiante, S. W. Digel, L. Di Venere, P. S. Drell, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, E. C. Ferrara, J. Finke, W. B. Focke, A. Franckowiak, L. Fuhrmann, Y. Fukazawa, A. K. Furniss, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I. A. Grenier, J. E. Grove, S. Guiriec, J. W. Hewitt, A. B. Hill, D. Horan, R. Itoh, G. Jóhannesson, A. S. Johnson, W. N. Johnson, J. Kataoka, T. Kawano, F. Krauss, M. Kuss, G. La Mura, S. Larsson, L. Latronico, C. Leto, J. Li, L. Li, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G. M. Madejski, M. Mayer, M. N. Mazziotta, J. E. McEnery, P. F. Michelson, T. Mizuno, A. A. Moiseev, M. E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I. V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia

    Astrophysical Journal   810 ( 1 )  2015.09

     View Summary

    The third catalog of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected by the Fermi-LAT (3LAC) is presented. It is based on the third Fermi-LAT catalog (3FGL) of sources detected between 100 MeV and 300 GeV with a Test Statistic greater than 25, between 2008 August 4 and 2012 July 31. The 3LAC includes 1591 AGNs located at high Galactic latitudes (), a 71% increase over the second catalog based on 2 years of data. There are 28 duplicate associations, thus 1563 of the 2192 high-latitude gamma-ray sources of the 3FGL catalog are AGNs. Most of them (98%) are blazars. About half of the newly detected blazars are of unknown type, i.e., they lack spectroscopic information of sufficient quality to determine the strength of their emission lines. Based on their gamma-ray spectral properties, these sources are evenly split between flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and BL Lacs. The most abundant detected BL Lacs are of the high-synchrotron-peaked (HSP) type. About 50% of the BL Lacs have no measured redshifts. A few new rare outliers (HSP-FSRQs and high-luminosity HSP BL Lacs) are reported. The general properties of the 3LAC sample confirm previous findings from earlier catalogs. The fraction of 3LAC blazars in the total population of blazars listed in BZCAT remains non-negligible even at the faint ends of the BZCAT-blazar radio, optical, and X-ray flux distributions, which hints that even the faintest known blazars could eventually shine in gamma-rays at LAT-detection levels. The energy-flux distributions of the different blazar populations are in good agreement with extrapolation from earlier catalogs.

    DOI

  • 25pSJ-5 Calibration Method for the Hard X-ray Imager On-board the ASTRO-H Satellite

    Mimura T, HXI team

      70 ( 2 )  2015.09

    CiNii

  • The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) for high-energy astroparticle physics on the International Space Station

    O. Adriani, Y. Akaike, K. Asano, Y. Asaoka, M. G. Bagliesi, G. Bigongiari, W. R. Binns, S. Bonechi, M. Bongi, J. H. Buckley, G. Castellini, M. L. Cherry, G. Collazuol, K. Ebisawa, V. Di Felice, H. Fuke, T. G. Guzik, T. Hams, M. Hareyama, N. Hasebe, K. Hibino, M. Ichimura, K. Ioka, M. H. Israel, A. Javaid, E. Kamioka, K. Kasahara, J. Kataoka, R. Kataoka, Y. Katayose, N. Kawanaka, H. Kitamura, T. Kotani, H. S. Krawczynski, J. F. Krizmanic, A. Kubota, S. Kuramata, T. Lomtadze, P. Maestro, L. Marcelli, P. S. Marrocchesi, J. W. Mitchell, S. Miyake, K. Mizutani, A. A. Moiseev, K. Mori, M. Mori, N. Mori, H. M. Motz, K. Munakata, H. Murakami, Y. E. Nakagawa, S. Nakahira, J. Nishimura, S. Okuno, J. F. Ormes, S. Ozawa, F. Palma, P. Papini, B. F. Rauch, S. B. Ricciarini, T. Sakamoto, M. Sasaki, M. Shibata, Y. Shimizu, A. Shiomi, R. Sparvoli, P. Spillantini, I. Takahashi, M. Takayanagi, M. Takita, T. Tamura, N. Tateyama, T. Terasawa, H. Tomida, S. Torii, Y. Tunesada, Y. Uchihori, S. Ueno, E. Vannuccini, J. P. Wefel, K. Yamaoka, S. Yanagita, A. Yoshida, K. Yoshida, T. Yuda

    Journal of Physics: Conference Series   632 ( 1 )  2015.08

     View Summary

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a space experiment, currently under development by Japan in collaboration with Italy and the United States, which will measure the flux of cosmic-ray electrons (and positrons) up to 20 TeV energy, of gamma rays up to 10 TeV, of nuclei with Z from 1 to 40 up to 1 PeV energy, and will detect gamma-ray bursts in the 7 keV to 20 MeV energy range during a 5 year mission. These measurements are essential to investigate possible nearby astrophysical sources of high energy electrons, study the details of galactic particle propagation and search for dark matter signatures. The main detector of CALET, the Calorimeter, consists of a module to identify the particle charge, followed by a thin imaging calorimeter (3 radiation lengths) with tungsten plates interleaving scintillating fibre planes, and a thick energy measuring calorimeter (27 radiation lengths) composed of lead tungstate logs. The Calorimeter has the depth, imaging capabilities and energy resolution necessary for excellent separation between hadrons, electrons and gamma rays. The instrument is currently being prepared for launch (expected in 2015) to the International Space Station ISS, for installation on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposure Facility (JEM-EF).

    DOI

  • Probing the precise location of the radio core in the TeV blazar Mrk 501 with VERA at 43 GHz

    Shoko Koyama, Motoki Kino, Akihiro Doi, Kotaro Niinuma, Kazuhiro Hada, Hiroshi Nagai, Mareki Honma, Kazunori Akiyama, Marcello Giroletti, Gabriele Giovannini, Monica Orienti, Naoki Isobe, Jun Kataoka, David Paneque, Hideyuki Kobayashi, Keiichi Asada

    PUBLICATIONS OF THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN   67 ( 4 )  2015.08  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We investigate the position of the radio core in a blazar by multi-epoch astrometric observations at 43 GHz. Using the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA), we have conducted four adjacent observations in 2011 February and another four in 2011 October, and succeeded in measuring the position of the radio core in the TeV blazar Mrk 501 relative to a distant compact quasar NRAO 512. During our observations, we find that (1) there is no positional change within similar to 0.2mas or similar to 2.0 pc de-projected with +/- 1 sigma s error for the weighted-mean phase-referenced positions of theMrk 501 core relative to NRAO 512 over four adjacent days, and (2) there is an indication of position change for the 3C 345 core relative to NRAO 512. By applying our results to the standard internal shock model for blazars, we constrain the bulk Lorenz factors of the ejecta.

    DOI

  • GLOBAL STRUCTURE OF ISOTHERMAL DIFFUSE X-RAY EMISSION ALONG THE FERMI BUBBLES

    J. Kataoka, M. Tahara, T. Totani, Y. Sofue, Y. Inoue, S. Nakashima, C. C. Cheung

    ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL   807 ( 1 )  2015.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In our previous works, we found absorbed thermal X-ray plasma with kT similar or equal to 0.3 keV observed ubiquitously near the edges of the Fermi bubbles and interpreted this emission as weakly shock-heated Galactic halo gas. Here we present a systematic and uniform analysis of archival Suzaku (29 pointings; 6 newly presented) and Swift (68 pointings; 49 newly presented) data within Galactic longitudes vertical bar l vertical bar &lt; 20 degrees and latitude 5 degrees less than or similar to vertical bar b vertical bar &lt; 60 degrees, covering the whole extent of the Fermi bubbles. We show that the plasma temperature is constant at kT similar or equal to 0.30 +/- 0.07 keV, while the emission measure (EM) varies by an order of magnitude, increasing toward the Galactic center (i.e., low vertical bar b vertical bar) with enhancements at the North Polar Spur (NPS), SE-claw, and NW-clump features. Moreover, the EM distribution of kT similar or equal to 0.30 keV plasma is highly asymmetric in the northern and southern bubbles. Although the association of the X-ray emission with the bubbles is not conclusive, we compare the observed EM properties with simple models assuming (i) a filled halo without bubbles, whose gas density follows a hydrostatic isothermal model (King profile), and (ii) a bubble-in-halo in which two identical bubbles expand into the halo, forming thick shells of swept halo gas. We argue that the EM profile in the north (b &gt; 0 degrees) favors (ii), whereas that of the south (b &lt; 0 degrees) is rather close to (i), but a weak excess signature is clearly detected also in the south like NPS (South Polar Spur). Such an asymmetry, if due to the bubbles, cannot be fully understood only by the inclination of bubbles' axis against the Galactic disk normal, thus suggesting asymmetric outflow due to different environmental/initial conditions.

    DOI

  • Global Structure of Isothermal Diffuse X-ray Emission along the Fermi Bubbles

    The Astrophysical Journal   807   77 - 89  2015.07  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE THIRD SOURCE CATALOG

    F. Acero, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Albert, W. B. Atwood, M. Axelsson, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, A. Belfiore, R. Bellazzini, E. Bissaldi, R. D. Blandford, E. D. Bloom, J. R. Bogart, R. Bonino, E. Bottacini, J. Bregeon, R. J. Britto, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, T. H. Burnett, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, R. Caputo, M. Caragiulo, P. A. Caraveo, J. M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, E. Charles, R. C.G. Chaves, A. Chekhtman, C. C. Cheung, J. Chiang, G. Chiaro, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, L. R. Cominsky, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, F. D'Ammando, A. De Angelis, M. Deklotz, F. De Palma, R. Desiante, S. W. Digel, L. Di Venere, P. S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, E. C. Ferrara, J. Finke, A. Franckowiak, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I. A. Grenier, M. H. Grondin, J. E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, A. K. Harding, E. Hays, J. W. Hewitt, A. B. Hill, D. Horan, G. Iafrate, T. Jogler, G. Jóhannesson, R. P. Johnson, A. S. Johnson, T. J. Johnson, W. N. Johnson, T. Kamae, J. Kataoka, J. Katsuta, M. Kuss, G. La Mura, D. Landriu, S. Larsson, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, J. Li, L. Li, F. Longo

    Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series   218 ( 2 )  2015.06

     View Summary

    We present the third Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) source catalog (3FGL) of sources in the 100 MeV-300 GeV range. Based on the first 4 yr of science data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope mission, it is the deepest yet in this energy range. Relative to the Second Fermi LAT catalog, the 3FGL catalog incorporates twice as much data, as well as a number of analysis improvements, including improved calibrations at the event reconstruction level, an updated model for Galactic diffuse γ-ray emission, a refined procedure for source detection, and improved methods for associating LAT sources with potential counterparts at other wavelengths. The 3FGL catalog includes 3033 sources above significance, with source location regions, spectral properties, and monthly light curves for each. Of these, 78 are flagged as potentially being due to imperfections in the model for Galactic diffuse emission. Twenty-five sources are modeled explicitly as spatially extended, and overall 238 sources are considered as identified based on angular extent or correlated variability (periodic or otherwise) observed at other wavelengths. For 1010 sources we have not found plausible counterparts at other wavelengths. More than 1100 of the identified or associated sources are active galaxies of the blazar class; several other classes of non-blazar active galaxies are also represented in the 3FGL. Pulsars represent the largest Galactic source class. From source counts of Galactic sources we estimate that the contribution of unresolved sources to the Galactic diffuse emission is ∼3% at 1 GeV.

    DOI

  • Erratum: THe second catalog of active galactic nuclei detected by the fermi large area telescope (Astrophysical Journal (2011) 743 (171))

    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, E. Antolini, W. B. Atwood, M. Axelsson, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R. D. Blandford, E. D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland, E. Bottacini, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, T. H. Burnett, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, P. A. Caraveo, J. M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, C. C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, L. Costamante, S. Cutini, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, C. D. Dermer, S. W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P. S. Drell, R. Dubois, L. Escande, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, E. C. Ferrara, J. Finke, W. B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I. A. Grenier, J. E. Grove, S. Guiriec, M. Gustafsson, D. Hadasch, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, S. E. Healey, D. Horan, X. Hou, R. E. Hughes, G. Iafrate, G. Jóhannesson, A. S. Johnson, W. N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, S. Larsson, L. Latronico, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G. M. Madejski, M. N. Mazziotta, W. McConville

    Astrophysical Journal   806 ( 1 )  2015.06

    DOI

  • Metal enrichment in the Fermi bubbles as a probe of their origin

    Yoshiyuki Inoue, Shinya Nakashima, Masaya Tahara, Jun Kataoka, Tomonori Totani, Yutaka Fujita, Yoshiaki Sofue

    PUBLICATIONS OF THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN   67 ( 3 )  2015.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The Fermi bubbles are gigantic gamma-ray structures in our Galaxy. The physical origin of the bubbles is still under debate. The leading scenarios can be divided into two categories. One is nuclear star-forming activity similar to extragalactic starburst galaxies and the other is past active galactic nucleus (AGN)-like activity of the Galactic center supermassive black hole. In this letter, we propose that metal abundance measurements will provide an important clue to probe their origin. Based on a simple spherically symmetric bubble model, we find that the generated metallicity and abundance patterns of the bubbles' gas strongly depend on assumed star formation or AGN activities. Star formation scenarios predict higher metallicities and abundance ratios of [O/Fe] and [Ne/Fe] than AGN scenarios do because of supernovae ejecta. Furthermore, the resultant abundance depends on the gamma-ray emission process because different mass injection histories are required for the different gamma-ray emission processes due to the acceleration and cooling time scales of non-thermal particles. Future X-ray missions such as ASTRO-H and Athena will give a clue to probe the origin of the bubbles through abundance measurements with their high energy resolution instruments.

    DOI

  • Recent progress of MPPC-based scintillation detectors in high precision X-ray and gamma-ray imaging

    J. Kataoka, A. Kishimoto, T. Fujita, T. Nishiyama, Y. Kurei, T. Tsujikawa, T. Oshima, T. Taya, Y. Iwamoto, H. Ogata, H. Okochi, S. Ohsuka, H. Ikeda, S. Yamamoto

    NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT   784   248 - 254  2015.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) is a promising light sensor for various applications, not only in physics experiments but also in nuclear medicine, industry, and even high-energy astrophysics. In this paper, we present the current status and most recent progress of the MPPC-based scintillation detectors, such as (1) a high-precision X-ray and gamma-ray spectral image sensor, (2) next-generation PET detectors with MRI, TOF, and DOI measurement capabilities, and (3) a compact gamma camera for environmental radiation surveys. We first present a new method of fabricating a Ce:GAGG scintillator plate (1 or 2 mm thick) with ultra-fine resolution (0.2 mm/pixel), cut using a dicing saw to create 50 mu m wide micro-grooves. When the plate is optically coupled with a large-area MPPC array, excellent spatial resolution of 0.48 mm (FWHM) and energy resolution of 14% (FWHM) are obtained for 122 keV gamma rays. Hence, the detector can act as a convenient "multi-color" imaging device that can potentially be used for future SPECT and photon-counting CT. We then show a prototype system for a high-resolution MPPC-based PET scanner that can realize similar or equal to 1 mm (FWHM) spatial resolution, even under a strong magnetic field of 4.7 T. We develop a front-end ASIC intended for future TOF-PET scanner with a 16-channel readout that achieves a coincidence time resolution of 489 ps (FWHM). A novel design for a module with DOI-measurement capability for gamma rays is also presented by measuring the pulse height ratio of double-sided MPPCs coupled at both ends of scintillation crystal block. Finally, we present the concept of a two-plane Compton camera consisting of Ce:GAGG scintillator arrays coupled with thin MPPC arrays. As a result of the thin and compact features of the MPPC device, the camera not only achieves a small size (14 x 14 x 15 cm(3)) and light weight (1.9 kg) but also excellent sensitivity, compared to the conventional PMT-based pinhole camera used in Fukushima. Finally, we briefly describe a new product recently developed in conjunction with Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. that offers improved sensitivity and angular resolution of Delta theta similar to 8 degrees (FWHM) at 662 key, by incorporating DOI-segmented scintillator arrays. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Recent progress of MPPC-based scintillation detectors in high precision X-ray and gamma-ray imaging

    J. Kataoka, A. Kishimoto, T. Fujita, T. Nishiyama, Y. Kurei, T. Tsujikawa, T. Oshima, T. Taya, Y. Iwamoto, H. Ogata, H. Okochi, S. Ohsuka, H. Ikeda, S. Yamamoto

    NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT   784   248 - 254  2015.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) is a promising light sensor for various applications, not only in physics experiments but also in nuclear medicine, industry, and even high-energy astrophysics. In this paper, we present the current status and most recent progress of the MPPC-based scintillation detectors, such as (1) a high-precision X-ray and gamma-ray spectral image sensor, (2) next-generation PET detectors with MRI, TOF, and DOI measurement capabilities, and (3) a compact gamma camera for environmental radiation surveys. We first present a new method of fabricating a Ce:GAGG scintillator plate (1 or 2 mm thick) with ultra-fine resolution (0.2 mm/pixel), cut using a dicing saw to create 50 mu m wide micro-grooves. When the plate is optically coupled with a large-area MPPC array, excellent spatial resolution of 0.48 mm (FWHM) and energy resolution of 14% (FWHM) are obtained for 122 keV gamma rays. Hence, the detector can act as a convenient "multi-color" imaging device that can potentially be used for future SPECT and photon-counting CT. We then show a prototype system for a high-resolution MPPC-based PET scanner that can realize similar or equal to 1 mm (FWHM) spatial resolution, even under a strong magnetic field of 4.7 T. We develop a front-end ASIC intended for future TOF-PET scanner with a 16-channel readout that achieves a coincidence time resolution of 489 ps (FWHM). A novel design for a module with DOI-measurement capability for gamma rays is also presented by measuring the pulse height ratio of double-sided MPPCs coupled at both ends of scintillation crystal block. Finally, we present the concept of a two-plane Compton camera consisting of Ce:GAGG scintillator arrays coupled with thin MPPC arrays. As a result of the thin and compact features of the MPPC device, the camera not only achieves a small size (14 x 14 x 15 cm(3)) and light weight (1.9 kg) but also excellent sensitivity, compared to the conventional PMT-based pinhole camera used in Fukushima. Finally, we briefly describe a new product recently developed in conjunction with Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. that offers improved sensitivity and angular resolution of Delta theta similar to 8 degrees (FWHM) at 662 key, by incorporating DOI-segmented scintillator arrays. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) for high-energy astroparticle physics on the International Space Station

    O. Adriani, Y. Akaike, K. Asano, Y. Asaoka, M. G. Bagliesi, G. Bigongiari, W. R. Binns, S. Bonechi, M. Bongi, J. H. Buckley, G. Castellini, M. L. Cherry, G. Collazuol, K. Ebisawa, V. Di Felice, H. Fuke, T. G. Guzik, T. Hams, M. Hareyama, N. Hasebe, K. Hibino, M. Ichimura, K. Ioka, M. H. Israel, A. Javaid, E. Kamioka, K. Kasahara, J. Kataoka, R. Kataoka, Y. Katayose, N. Kawanaka, H. Kitamura, T. Kotani, H. S. Krawczynski, J. F. Krizmanic, A. Kubota, S. Kuramata, T. Lomtadze, P. Maestro, L. Marcelli, P. S. Marrocchesi, J. W. Mitchell, S. Miyake, K. Mizutani, A. A. Moiseev, K. Mori, M. Mori, N. Mori, H. M. Motz, K. Munakata, H. Murakami, Y. E. Nakagawa, S. Nakahira, J. Nishimura, S. Okuno, J. F. Ormes, S. Ozawa, F. Palma, P. Papini, B. F. Rauch, S. B. Ricciarini, T. Sakamoto, M. Sasaki, M. Shibata, Y. Shimizu, A. Shiomi, R. Sparvoli, P. Spillantini, I. Takahashi, M. Takayanagi, M. Takita, T. Tamura, N. Tateyama, T. Terasawa, H. Tomida, S. Torii, Y. Tunesada, Y. Uchihori, S. Ueno, E. Vannuccini, J. P. Wefel, K. Yamaoka, S. Yanagita, A. Yoshida, K. Yoshida, T. Yuda

    EPJ Web of Conferences   95  2015.05

     View Summary

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a space experiment, currently under development by Japan in collaboration with Italy and the United States, which will measure the flux of cosmic-ray electrons (and positrons) up to 20 TeV energy, of gamma rays up to 10 TeV, of nuclei with Z from 1 to 40 up to 1 PeV energy, and will detect gamma-ray bursts in the 7 keV to 20 MeV energy range during a 5 year mission. These measurements are essential to investigate possible nearby astrophysical sources of high energy electrons, study the details of galactic particle propagation and search for dark matter signatures. The main detector of CALET, the Calorimeter, consists of a module to identify the particle charge, followed by a thin imaging calorimeter (3 radiation lengths) with tungsten plates interleaving scintillating fibre planes, and a thick energy measuring calorimeter (27 radiation lengths) composed of lead tungstate logs. The Calorimeter has the depth, imaging capabilities and energy resolution necessary for excellent separation between hadrons, electrons and gamma rays. The instrument is currently being prepared for launch (expected in 2015) to the International Space Station ISS, for installation on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposure Facility (JEM-EF).

    DOI

  • MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF THE BLACK WIDOW PULSAR 2FGL J2339.6-0532 WITH OISTER AND SUZAKU

    Yoichi Yatsu, Jun Kataoka, Yosuke Takahashi, Yutaro Tachibana, Nobuyuki Kawai, Shimpei Shibata, Sean Pike, Taketoshi Yoshii, Makoto Arimoto, Yoshihiko Saito, Takeshi Nakamori, Kazuhiro Sekiguchi, Daisuke Kuroda, Kenshi Yanagisawa, Hidekazu Hanayama, Makoto Watanabe, Ko Hamamoto, Hikaru Nakao, Akihito Ozaki, Kentaro Motohara, Masahiro Konishi, Ken Tateuchi, Noriyuki Matsunaga, Tomoki Morokuma, Takahiro Nagayama, Katsuhiro Murata, Hiroshi Akitaya, Michitoshi Yoshida, Gamal B. Ali, A. Essam Mohamed, Mizuki Isogai, Akira Arai, Hidenori Takahashi, Osamu Hashimoto, Ryo Miyanoshita, Toshihiro Omodaka, Jun Takahashi, Noritaka Tokimasa, Kentaro Matsuda, Shin-Ichiro Okumura, Kota Nishiyama, Seitaro Urakawa, Daisaku Nogami, Yumiko Oasa

    ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL   802 ( 2 )  2015.04

     View Summary

    Multi-wavelength observations of the black widow binary system 2FGL J2339.6-0532 are reported. The Fermi gamma-ray source 2FGL J2339.6-0532 was recently categorized as a black widow in which a recycled millisecond pulsar (MSP) is evaporating the companion star with its powerful pulsar wind. Our optical observations show clear sinusoidal light curves due to the asymmetric temperature distribution of the companion star. Assuming a simple geometry, we constrained the range of the inclination angle of the binary system to 52 degrees &lt; i &lt; 59 degrees, which enables us to discuss the interaction between the pulsar wind and the companion in detail. The X-ray spectrum consists of two components: a soft, steady component that seems to originate from the surface of the MSP, and a hard, variable component from the wind-termination shock near the companion star. The measured X-ray luminosity is comparable to the bolometric luminosity of the companion, meaning that the heating efficiency is less than 0.5. In the companion orbit, 10(11) cm from the pulsar, the pulsar wind is already in the particle-dominant stage with a magnetization parameter of sigma &lt; 0.1. In addition, we precisely investigated the time variations of the X-ray periodograms and detected a weakening of the orbital modulation. The observed phenomenon may be related to unstable pulsar wind activity or weak mass accretion, both of which can result in the temporal extinction of the radio pulse.

    DOI

  • MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF THE BLACK WIDOW PULSAR 2FGL J2339.6-0532 WITH OISTER AND SUZAKU

    Yoichi Yatsu, Jun Kataoka, Yosuke Takahashi, Yutaro Tachibana, Nobuyuki Kawai, Shimpei Shibata, Sean Pike, Taketoshi Yoshii, Makoto Arimoto, Yoshihiko Saito, Takeshi Nakamori, Kazuhiro Sekiguchi, Daisuke Kuroda, Kenshi Yanagisawa, Hidekazu Hanayama, Makoto Watanabe, Ko Hamamoto, Hikaru Nakao, Akihito Ozaki, Kentaro Motohara, Masahiro Konishi, Ken Tateuchi, Noriyuki Matsunaga, Tomoki Morokuma, Takahiro Nagayama, Katsuhiro Murata, Hiroshi Akitaya, Michitoshi Yoshida, Gamal B. Ali, A. Essam Mohamed, Mizuki Isogai, Akira Arai, Hidenori Takahashi, Osamu Hashimoto, Ryo Miyanoshita, Toshihiro Omodaka, Jun Takahashi, Noritaka Tokimasa, Kentaro Matsuda, Shin-Ichiro Okumura, Kota Nishiyama, Seitaro Urakawa, Daisaku Nogami, Yumiko Oasa

    ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL   802 ( 2 ) 84  2015.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Multi-wavelength observations of the black widow binary system 2FGL J2339.6-0532 are reported. The Fermi gamma-ray source 2FGL J2339.6-0532 was recently categorized as a black widow in which a recycled millisecond pulsar (MSP) is evaporating the companion star with its powerful pulsar wind. Our optical observations show clear sinusoidal light curves due to the asymmetric temperature distribution of the companion star. Assuming a simple geometry, we constrained the range of the inclination angle of the binary system to 52 degrees &lt; i &lt; 59 degrees, which enables us to discuss the interaction between the pulsar wind and the companion in detail. The X-ray spectrum consists of two components: a soft, steady component that seems to originate from the surface of the MSP, and a hard, variable component from the wind-termination shock near the companion star. The measured X-ray luminosity is comparable to the bolometric luminosity of the companion, meaning that the heating efficiency is less than 0.5. In the companion orbit, 10(11) cm from the pulsar, the pulsar wind is already in the particle-dominant stage with a magnetization parameter of sigma &lt; 0.1. In addition, we precisely investigated the time variations of the X-ray periodograms and detected a weakening of the orbital modulation. The observed phenomenon may be related to unstable pulsar wind activity or weak mass accretion, both of which can result in the temporal extinction of the radio pulse.

    DOI

  • SUZAKU X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE FERMI BUBBLES: NORTHERNMOST CAP AND SOUTHEAST CLAW DISCOVERED WITH MAXI-SSC

    M. Tahara, J. Kataoka, Y. Takeuchi, T. Totani, Y. Sofue, J. S. Hiraga, H. Tsunemi, Y. Inoue, M. Kimura, C. C. Cheung, S. Nakashima

    ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL   802 ( 2 ) 91  2015.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report on Suzaku observations of large-scale X-ray structures possibly related to the Fermi Bubbles obtained in 2013 with a total duration of similar or equal to 80 ks. The observed regions were (1) the northern cap (N-cap; l similar to 0 degrees, 45 degrees&lt;b&lt; 55 degrees) seen in the mid-band (1.7-4.0 keV) map recently provided by Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image Solid-state Slit Camera (MAXI-SSC) and (2) the southeast claw (SE-claw; l similar to 10 degrees, -20 degrees &lt; b &lt; -10 degrees) seen in the ROSAT all-sky map and MAXI-SSC low-band (0.7-1.7 keV) map. In each region, we detected diffuse X-ray emission, which is represented by a three-component plasma model consisting of an unabsorbed thermal component (kT similar or equal to 0.1 keV) from the Local Hot Bubble, absorbed kT = 0.30 +/- 0.05 keV emission representing the Galactic halo (GH), and a power-law component due to the isotropic cosmic X-ray background radiation. The emission measure of the GH component in the SE-claw shows an excess by a factor of similar or equal to 2.5 over the surrounding emission at 2 degrees away. We also found a broad excess in the 1.7-4.0 keV count rates across the N-cap after compiling other archival data from Suzaku and Swift. The spectral stacking analysis of the N-cap data indicates the presence of another thermal component with kT = 0.70(-0.11)(+0.22)keV. The temperature kT similar or equal to 0.3 keV of the GH is higher than the ubiquitous value of kT similar or equal to 0.2 keV near the Fermi bubbles, and can be even higher (similar to 0.7 keV). We discuss our findings in the context of the bubble-halo interaction.

    DOI

  • Six Years of Fermi-LAT and Multi-Wavelength Monitoring of the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy 3c 120: Jet Dissipation At Sub-Parsec Scales from the Central Engine

    Tanaka Y.~T, Doi A, Inoue Y, Cheung C.~C, Stawarz L, Fukazawa Y, Gurwell M.~A, Tahara M, Kataoka J, Itoh R

    The Astrophysical Journal Letters   799 ( 2 ) L18 - 6  2015.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We present multi-wavelength monitoring results for the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 120 in the MeV/GeV, sub-millimeter, and 43 GHz bands over 6 yr. Over the past 2 yr, the Fermi-Large Area Telescope sporadically detected 3C 120 with high significance and the 230 GHz data also suggest an enhanced activity of the source. After the MeV/GeV detection from 3C 120 in MJD 56240-56300, 43 GHz Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) monitoring revealed a brightening of the radio core, followed by the ejection of a superluminal knot. Since we observed the γ-ray and VLBA phenomena in temporal proximity to each other, it is naturally assumed that they are physically connected. This assumption was further supported by the subsequent observation that the 43 GHz core brightened again after a γ-ray flare occurred around MJD 56560. We can then infer that the MeV/GeV emission took place inside an unresolved 43 GHz core of 3C 120 and that the jet dissipation occurred at sub-parsec distances from the central black hole (BH), if we take the distance of the 43 GHz core from the central BH as ∼0.5 pc, as previously estimated from the time lag between X-ray dips and knot ejections. Based on our constraints on the relative locations of the emission regions and energetic arguments, we conclude that the γ rays are more favorably produced via the synchrotron self-Compton process, rather than inverse Compton scattering of external photons coming from the broad line region or hot dusty torus. We also derived the electron distribution and magnetic field by modeling the simultaneous broadband spectrum.

    DOI

  • The spectrum of isotropic diffuse gamma-ray emission between 100 MeV and 820 GeV

    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Albert, W. B. Atwood, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, E. Bissaldi, R. D. Blandford, E. D. Bloom, E. Bottacini, T. J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, M. Caragiulo, P. A. Caraveo, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, J. Chiang, G. Chiaro, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, A. Cuoco, S. Cutini, F. D'Ammando, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, C. D. Dermer, S. W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P. S. Drell, C. Favuzzi, E. C. Ferrara, W. B. Focke, A. Franckowiak, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, G. Godfrey, G. A. Gomez-Vargas, I. A. Grenier, S. Guiriec, M. Gustafsson, D. Hadasch, K. Hayashi, E. Hays, J. W. Hewitt, P. Ippoliti, T. Jogler, G. Jóhannesson, A. S. Johnson, W. N. Johnson, T. Kamae, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, S. Larsson, L. Latronico, J. Li, L. Li, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G. M. Madejski, A. Manfreda, F. Massaro, M. Mayer, M. N. Mazziotta, J. E. McEnery, P. F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A. A. Moiseev, M. E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I. V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, R. Nemmen, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi

    Astrophysical Journal   799 ( 1 )  2015.01

     View Summary

    The γ-ray sky can be decomposed into individually detected sources, diffuse emission attributed to the interactions of Galactic cosmic rays with gas and radiation fields, and a residual all-sky emission component commonly called the isotropic diffuse γ-ray background (IGRB). The IGRB comprises all extragalactic emissions too faint or too diffuse to be resolved in a given survey, as well as any residual Galactic foregrounds that are approximately isotropic. The first IGRB measurement with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi ) used 10 months of sky-survey data and considered an energy range between 200 MeV and 100 GeV. Improvements in event selection and characterization of cosmic-ray backgrounds, better understanding of the diffuse Galactic emission (DGE), and a longer data accumulation of 50 months allow for a refinement and extension of the IGRB measurement with the LAT, now covering the energy range from 100 MeV to 820 GeV. The IGRB spectrum shows a significant high-energy cutoff feature and can be well described over nearly four decades in energy by a power law with exponential cutoff having a spectral index of 2.32 ± 0.02 and a break energy of (279 ± 52) GeV using our baseline DGE model. The total intensity attributed to the IGRB is (7.2 ± 0.6) x 10-6 cm-2 s-1 sr-1 above 100 MeV, with an additional +15%/-30% systematic uncertainty due to the Galactic diffuse foregrounds.

    DOI

  • 24aDJ-3 Balloon-borne Polarized Gamma-ray Observer : PoGOLite, Toward the 2nd flight in 2016

    Takahashi H., Pearce M., Chauvin M., Kiss M., Kole M., Mikhalev V., Moretti E., PoGOLino team

    Meeting Abstracts of the Physical Society of Japan   70   495 - 495  2015

    DOI CiNii

  • 23pDK-3 Test results of flight models for Soft Gamma-ray Detector on board ASTRO-H

    Tajima Hiroyasu, Blandford Roger, Madejski Grzegorz, Laurent Philippe, Limousin Olivier, Lebrun Francois, SGD team

    Meeting Abstracts of the Physical Society of Japan   70   470 - 470  2015

    DOI CiNii

  • 21pDD-12 Six Years of Fermi-LAT and Multi-wavelength Monitoring of the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy 3C 120: Jet Dissipation at Sub-parsec Scales from the Central Engine

    Tanaka Y. T., Doi A., Inoue Y., Cheung C. C., Stawarz L., Fukazawa Y., Gurwell M. A., Tahara M., Kataoka J., Itoh R.

    Meeting Abstracts of the Physical Society of Japan   70   416 - 416  2015

    DOI CiNii

  • Development and evaluation of an ultra-fast ASIC for future PET scanners using TOF-capable MPPC array detectors

    T. Ambe, H. Ikeda, J. Kataoka, H. Matsuda, T. Kato

    NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT   771   66 - 73  2015.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We developed a front-end AMC for future PET scanners with Time-Of-Flight (TOF) capability to be coupled with 4 x 4 Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) arrays. The ASIC is designed based on the open-IP project proposed by JAXA and realized in TSNIC 0.35 mu m CMOS technology. The circuit comprises 16-channel, low impedance current conveyors for effectively acquiring fast MPPC signals. For precise measurement of the coincidence timing of 511-keV gamma rays, the leading-edge method was used to discriminate the signals. We First tested the time response of the FOC by illuminating each channel of a MPPC array device 3 x 3 mm(2) in size with a Pico-second Light Pulsar with a light emission peak of 655 nm and pulse duration of 54 ps (FWHM). We obtained 105 ps (FWHM) on average for each channel in time jitter measurements. Moreover, we compensated for the time lag of each channel with inner delay circuits and succeeded in suppressing about a 700-ps lag to only 15 ps. This paper reports TOE measurements using back-to-back 511-key signals, and suggests that the ASIC can be a promising device for future TOF-PET scanners based on the MPPC array. (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.

    DOI

  • Development of high-precision color gamma-ray image sensor based on TSV-MPPC and diced scintillator arrays

    Tsubasa Oshima, Jun Kataoka, Aya Kishimoto, Takuya Fujita, Yota Kurei, Toru Nishiyama, Seiichi Yamamoto, Koichi Ogawa

    2015 IEEE NUCLEAR SCIENCE SYMPOSIUM AND MEDICAL IMAGING CONFERENCE (NSS/MIC)   803   8 - 14  2015  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We developed a high-precision color gamma-ray image sensor with fine spatial resolution that is cost-effective, widely applicable, and very sensitive by using a diced cerium-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 (Ce:GAGG) scintillator array coupled with a 3.0 x 3.0 mm(2)/pixel 8 x 8 MPPC-array. The proposed image sensor can measure the energy of individual X-ray photons transmitted through an object. The pixel size of the Ce: GAGG scintillator array is 0.2 mm, and the pixels are separated by 50-mu m-wide micro-grooves. The image sensor has a size of 20 x 20 mm(2) and thickness of 1.0 mm, and it achieved an excellent spatial resolution of 0.3-0.4 mm and energy resolutions of 12% and 18% (FWHM) for 122 and 59.5 keV gamma-rays, respectively. We conducted an experiment to determine the local effective atomic number of metals by using dual-energy gamma-ray sources. In addition, we developed a color-composite image using mixed images taken at three energies (31, 59.5, and 88 keV).

    DOI

  • Status and performance of the CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) on the international space station

    O. Adriani, Y. Akaike, Y. Asaoka, K. Asano, M. G. Bagliesi, G. Bigongiari, W. R. Binns, M. Bongi, J. H. Buckley, A. Cassese, G. Castellini, M. L. Cherry, G. Collazuol, K. Ebisawa, V. di Felice, H. Fuke, T. G. Guzik, T. Hamsa, N. Hasebe, M. Hareyama, K. Hibino, M. Ichimura, K. Ioka, M. H. Israel, A. Javaid, E. Kamioka, K. Kasahara, Y. Katayose, J. Kataoka, R. Kataoka, N. Kawanaka, H. Kitamura, T. Kotani, H. S. Krawczynski, J. F. Krizmanic, A. Kubota, S. Kuramata, T. Lomtadze, P. Maestro, L. Marcelli, P. S. Marrocchesi, J. W. Mitchell, S. Miyake, K. Mizutani, H. M. Motz, A. A. Moiseev, K. Mori, M. Mori, N. Mori, K. Munakata, H. Murakami, Y. E. Nakagawa, S. Nakahira, J. Nishimura, S. Okuno, J. F. Ormes, S. Ozawa, F. Palma, P. Papini, B. F. Rauch, S. Ricciarini, T. Sakamoto, M. Sasaki, M. Shibata, Y. Shimizu, A. Shiomi, R. Sparvoli, P. Spillantini, I. Takahashi, M. Takayanagi, M. Takita, T. Tamura, N. Tateyama, T. Terasawa, H. Tomida, S. Torii, Y. Tunesada, Y. Uchihori, S. Ueno, E. Vannuccini, J. P. Wefel, K. Yamaoka, S. Yanagita, A. Yoshida, K. Yoshida, T. Yuda

    Nuclear Physics B - Proceedings Supplements   256-257   225 - 232  2014.12

     View Summary

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) space experiment, currently under development by Japan in collaboration with Italy and the United States, will measure the flux of cosmic-ray electrons (including positrons) to 20 TeV, gamma rays to 10 TeV and nuclei with Z=1 to 40 up to 1,000 TeV during a two-year mission on the International Space Station (ISS), extendable to five years. These measurements are essential to search for dark matter signatures, investigate the mechanism of cosmic-ray acceleration and propagation in the Galaxy and discover possible astrophysical sources of high-energy electrons nearby the Earth. The instrument consists of two layers of segmented plastic scintillators for the cosmic-ray charge identification (CHD), a 3 radiation length thick tungsten-scintillating fiber imaging calorimeter (IMC) and a 27 radiation length thick lead-tungstate calorimeter (TASC). CALET has sufficient depth, imaging capabilities and excellent energy resolution to allow for a clear separation between hadrons and electrons and between charged particles and gamma rays. The instrument will be launched to the ISS within 2014 Japanese Fiscal Year (by the end of March 2015) and installed on the Japanese Experiment Module-Exposed Facility (JEM-EF). In this paper, we will review the status and main science goals of the mission and describe the instrument configuration and performance.

    DOI

  • Development of prototype PET scanner using dual-sided readout DOI-PET modules

    T. Fujita, J. Kataoka, A. Kishimoto, Y. Kurei, T. Nishiyama, T. Ohshima, T. Taya

    JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION   9 ( 12 ) P12015  2014.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In our previous work, we proposed a novel design for a gamma-ray detector module capable of measuring the depth of interaction (DOI). In this paper, we further developed DOI-PET detector modules and a data acquisition system, and evaluated its performance. Each detector module was composed of a 3-D scintillator array and two large-area monolithic Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) arrays coupled to both ends of the 3-D scintillator array, leading to only 8-ch signal outputs from a module. The 3-D scintillator array was composed of 9 x 9 x 7 matrices of 1.0 x 1.0 x 3.0 mm(3) Ce:GAGG crystals. The detector module showed good energy resolution of 10.6% as measured at 511 keV and a high average peak to valley ratio higher than 8 for each pixel crystal identified in the X-Y-Z directions. Moreover, we evaluated the spatial resolution of a virtual 18-ch PET gantry simulated by using two detector modules that were flexibly controlled using both the X-stage and theta-stage in 20-degree steps. By measuring a Na-22 point source (0.25 mm in diameter), we showed that spatial resolution substantially degrades from 1.0 mm to 7.8 mm (FWHM; as measured at 0 mm and 28 mm off-center) with a non-DOI configuration, whereas the corresponding values for the DOI configuration were 0.9 mm and 1.5 mm, respectively (FWHM; as measured at 0 mm and 28 mm off-center). This preliminary study confirms that our DOI-PET module is useful for future high spatial resolution and compact small-animal PET scanners without radial image distortions at the peripheral regions of the field of view (FOV).

    DOI

  • A novel Compton camera design featuring a rear-panel shield for substantial noise reduction in gamma-ray images

    T. Nishiyama, J. Kataoka, A. Kishimoto, T. Fujita, Y. Iwamoto, T. Taya, S. Ohsuka, S. Nakamura, M. Hirayanagi, N. Sakurai, S. Adachi, T. Uchiyama

    JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION   9 ( 12 ) C12031  2014.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    After the Japanese nuclear disaster in 2011, large amounts of radioactive isotopes were released and still remain a serious problem in Japan. Consequently, various gamma cameras are being developed to help identify radiation hotspots and ensure effective decontamination operation. The Compton camera utilizes the kinematics of Compton scattering to contract images without using a mechanical collimator, and features a wide field of view. For instance, we have developed a novel Compton camera that features a small size (13x14x15 cm(3)) and light weight (1.9 kg), but which also achieves high sensitivity thanks to Ce:GAGG scintillators optically coupled wiith MPPC arrays. By definition, in such a Compton camera, gamma rays are expected to scatter in the "scatterer" and then be fully absorbed in the "absorber" (in what is called a forward-scattered event). However, high energy gamma rays often interact with the detector in the opposite direction-initially scattered in the absorber and then absorbed in the scatterer-in what is called a "back-scattered" event. Any contamination of such back-scattered events is known to substantially degrade the quality of gamma-ray images, but determining the order of gamma-ray interaction based solely on energy deposits in the scatterer and absorber is quite difficult. For this reason, we propose a novel yet simple Compton camera design that includes a rear-panel shield (a few mm thick) consisting of W or Pb located just behind the scatterer. Since the energy of scattered gamma rays in back-scattered events is much lower than that in forward-scattered events, we can effectively discriminate and reduce back-scattered events to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in the images. This paper presents our detailed optimization of the rear-panel shield using Geant4 simulation, and describes a demonstration test using our Compton camera.

    DOI

  • Development of a MPPC-based prototype gantry for future MRI-PET scanners

    Y. Kurei, J. Kataoka, T. Kato, T. Fujita, T. Ohshima, T. Taya, S. Yamamoto

    JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION   9 ( 12 ) C12052  2014.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We have developed a high spatial resolution, compact Positron Emission Tomography (PET) module designed for small animals and intended for use in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems. This module consists of large-area, 4x4 ch MPPC arrays (S11830-3344MF; Hamamatsu Photonics K. K.) optically coupled with Ce-doped (Lu, Y)(2)(SiO4)O (Ce: LYSO) scintillators fabricated into 16 x 16 matrices of 0.5 x 0.5 mm(2) pixels. We set the temperature sensor (LM73CIMK-0; National Semiconductor Corp.) at the rear of the MPPC acceptance surface, and apply optimum voltage to maintain the gain. The eight MPPC-based PET modules and coincidence circuits were assembled into a gantry arranged in a ring 90 mmin diameter to form the MPPC-based PET system. We have developed two types PET gantry: one made of non-magnetic metal and the other made of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) resins. The PET gantry was positioned around the RF coil of the 4.7 T MRI system. We took an image of a point Na-22 source under fast spin echo (FSE) and gradient echo (GE), in order to measure the interference between the MPPC-based PET and MRI. The spatial resolution of PET imaging in a transaxial plane of about 1 mm (FWHM) was achieved in all cases. Operating with PET made of ABS has no effect on MR images, while operating with PET made of non-magnetic metal has a significant detrimental effect on MR images. This paper describes our quantitative evaluations of PET images and MR images, and presents a more advanced version of the gantry for future MRI/DOI-PET systems.

    DOI

  • Performance and field tests of a handheld Compton camera using 3-D position-sensitive scintillators coupled to multi-pixel photon counter arrays

    A. Kishimoto, J. Kataoka, T. Nishiyama, T. Fujita, K. Takeuchi, H. Okochi, H. Ogata, H. Kuroshima, S. Ohsuka, S. Nakamura, M. Hirayanagi, S. Adachi, T. Uchiyama, H. Suzuki

    JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION   9 ( 11 )  2014.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    After the nuclear disaster in Fukushima, radiation decontamination has become particularly urgent. To help identify radiation hotspots and ensure effective decontamination operation, we have developed a novel Compton camera based on Ce-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 scintillators and multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) arrays. Even though its sensitivity is several times better than that of other cameras being tested in Fukushima, we introduce a depth-of-interaction (DOI) method to further improve the angular resolution. For gamma rays, the DOI information, in addition to 2-D position, is obtained by measuring the pulse-height ratio of the MPPC arrays coupled to ends of the scintillator. We present the detailed performance and results of various field tests conducted in Fukushima with the prototype 2-D and DOI Compton cameras. Moreover, we demonstrate stereo measurement of gamma rays that enables measurement of not only direction but also approximate distance to radioactive hotspots.

    DOI

  • Qualification test of a MPPC-based PET module for future MRI-PET scanners

    Y. Kurei, J. Kataoka, T. Kato, T. Fujita, H. Funamoto, T. Tsujikawa, S. Yamamoto

    NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT   765   275 - 279  2014.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We have developed a high-resolution, compact Positron Emission Tomography (PET) module for future use in MRI-PET scanners. The module consists of large-area, 4 x 4 ch MPPC arrays (Hamamatsu S11827-3344MG) optically coupled with Ce:LYSO scintillators fabricated into 12 x 12 matrices of 1 x 1 mm(2) pixels. At this stage, a pair of module and coincidence circuits was assembled into an experimental prototype gantry arranged in a ring of 90 mm in diameter to form the MPPC-based PET system. The PET detector ring was then positioned around the RF coil of the 4.7 T MRI system. We took an image of a point Na-22 source under fast spin echo (FSE) and gradient echo (GE), in order to measure interference between the MPPC-based PET and the MRI We only found a slight degradation in the spatial resolution of the PET image from 1.63 to 1.70 mm (FWHM; x-direction), or 1.48-1.55 mm (FWHM; y-direction) when operating with the MRI, while the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the MRI image was only degraded by 5%. These results encouraged us to develop a more advanced version of the MRI-PET gantry with eight MPPC-based PET modules, whose detailed design and first qualification Lest are also presented in this paper. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Two-dimensional diced scintillator array for innovative, fine-resolution gamma camera

    T. Fujita, J. Kataoka, T. Nishiyama, S. Ohsuka, S. Nakamura, S. Yamamoto

    NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT   765   262 - 268  2014.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We are developing a technique to fabricate fine spatial resolution (FWHM &lt; 0.5 mm) and cost-effective photon counting detectors, by using silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) coupled with a finely pixelated scintillator plate. Unlike traditional X-ray imagers that use a micro-columnar CskTI) plate, we can pixelate various scintillation crystal plates more than 1 mm thick, and easily develop large-area, finepitch scintillator arrays with high precision. Coupling a fine pitch scintillator array with a SiPM array results in a compact, fast-response detector that is ideal for X-ray, gamma-ray, and charged particle detection as used in autoradiography, gamma cameras, and photon counting CTs. As the first step, we fabricated a 2-D, cerium-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 (Ce:GAGG) scintillator array of 0.25 mm pitch, by using a dicing saw to cut micro-grooves 50 um wide into a 1.0 mm thick Ce:GAGG plate. The scinfillator plate is optically coupled with a 3.0 x 3.0 mm pixel 4 x 4 SiPM array and read-out via the resistive chargedivision network. Even when using this simple system as a gamma camera, we obtained excellent spatial resolution of 0.48 mm (F\NHM) for 122 keV gamma-rays. We will present our plans to further improve the signal-to-noise ratio in the image, and also discuss a variety of possible applications in the near future. (C) 2014 Elsevier By, All rights reserved,

    DOI

  • "Stereo Compton cameras" for the 3-D localization of radioisotopes

    K. Takeuchi, J. Kataoka, T. Nishiyama, T. Fujita, A. Kishimoto, S. Ohsuka, S. Nakamura, S. Adachi, M. Hirayanagi, T. Uchiyama, Y. Ishikawa, T. Kato

    NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT   765 ( 21 ) 187 - 191  2014.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The Compton camera is a viable and convenient tool used to visualize the distribution of radioactive isotopes that emit gamma rays. After the nuclear disaster in Fukushima in 2011, there is a particularly urgent need to develop "gamma cameras", which can visualize the distribution of such radioisotopes. In response, we propose a portable Compton camera, which comprises 3-0 position-sensitive GAGG scintillators coupled with thin monolithic MPPC arrays. The pulse-height ratio of two MPPC-arrays allocated at both ends of the scintillator block determines the depth of interaction (DOI), which dramatically improves the position resolution of the scintillation detectors. We report on the detailed optimization of the detector design, based on Geant4 simulation. The results indicate that detection efficiency reaches up to 0.54%, or more than 10 times that of other cameras being tested in Fukushima, along with a moderate angular resolution of 8.1 (FWHM). By applying the triangular surveying method, we also propose a new concept for the stereo measurement of gamma rays by using two Compton cameras, thus enabling the 3-D positional measurement of radioactive isotopes for the first time. From one point source simulation data, we ensured that the source position and the distance to the same could be determined typically to within 2 meters' accuracy and we also confirmed that more than two sources are clearly separated by the event selection from two point sources of simulation data. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Performance of the latest MPPCs with reduced dark counts and improved photon detection efficiency

    T. Tsujikawa, H. Funamoto, J. Kataoka, T. Fujita, T. Nishiyama, Y. Kurei, K. Sato, K. Yamamura, S. Nakamura

    NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT   765 ( 21 ) 247 - 251  2014.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We have tested the performance of two types of the latest Multi-Pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs; measuring 3 x 3 mm2 in size) developed by Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. The new S12572-050C is a successor to the S10362-33-050C (i.e., conventional 3 x 3-mm2 pixel MPPC of 50 pm pitch), comprises 3600 Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes (APDs), and also features high gain (up to 125 x 10(6)), a low dark count (up to 10(6) cps), and improved photon detection efficiency (PDE) by up to 30%. The S12572015C is a new type of fine-pitch (15 pM) MPPC featuring a wide dynamic range and fast timing response. This paper first presents the detailed performance of these latest MPPCs as photon counting devices. It then describes our fabrication of a prototype detector consisting of a MPPC optically coupled with a Ce: GAGG scintillator. We obtained average FVVHM energy resolutions o17,3% (15 mu M) and 6.7% (new-50 [iri), as compared Lo 6.9% (old-50 mu M) for 662-key gamma rays from the Cs-137 source, as measured at 20 degrees C. Moreover, the number of fired pixels for 662-keV gamma rays increased by 30% for the new-50 mu m (as compared to the old-50 mu m). We confirmed that the low energy threshold improved from 10 kV to 4 keY, when using the latest MPPC device (new-50 pm). We also confirmed that the timing resolution of the new MPPC is 50 ps or even better, as compared to 89 ps of the old MPPC. The results thus confirm that these new types of IVIPPCs are promising for various applications as scintillation detectors. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • The spectrum and morphology of the Fermi bubbles

    M. Ackermann, A. Albert, W. B. Atwood, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, R. Bellazzini, E. Bissaldi, R. D. Blandford, E. D. Bloom, E. Bottacini, T. J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, M. Caragiulo, P. A. Caraveo, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, J. Chiang, G. Chiaro, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, F. D'Ammando, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, C. D. Dermer, S. W. Digel, L. Di Venere, E. Do Couto E Silva, P. S. Drell, C. Favuzzi, E. C. Ferrara, W. B. Focke, A. Franckowiak, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, G. Godfrey, G. A. Gomez-Vargas, I. A. Grenier, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, A. K. Harding, E. Hays, J. W. Hewitt, X. Hou, T. Jogler, G. Jóhannesson, A. S. Johnson, W. N. Johnson, T. Kamae, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, D. Kocevski, M. Kuss, S. Larsson, L. Latronico, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, D. Malyshev, A. Manfreda, F. Massaro, M. Mayer, M. N. Mazziotta, J. E. McEnery, P. F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, M. E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I. V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, R. Nemmen, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, M. Orienti, E. Orlando, J. F. Ormes, D. Paneque, J. H. Panetta

    Astrophysical Journal   793 ( 1 )  2014.09

     View Summary

    The Fermi bubbles are two large structures in the gamma-ray sky extending to 55° above and below the Galactic center. We analyze 50 months of Fermi Large Area Telescope data between 100 MeV and 500 GeV above 10° in Galactic latitude to derive the spectrum and morphology of the Fermi bubbles. We thoroughly explore the systematic uncertainties that arise when modeling the Galactic diffuse emission through two separate approaches. The gamma-ray spectrum is well described by either a log parabola or a power law with an exponential cutoff. We exclude a simple power law with more than 7σ significance. The power law with an exponential cutoff has an index of 1.9 ± 0.2 and a cutoff energy of 110 ± 50 GeV. We find that the gamma-ray luminosity of the bubbles is erg s-1. We confirm a significant enhancement of gamma-ray emission in the southeastern part of the bubbles, but we do not find significant evidence for a jet. No significant variation of the spectrum across the bubbles is detected. The width of the boundary of the bubbles is estimated to be deg. Both inverse Compton (IC) models and hadronic models including IC emission from secondary leptons fit the gamma-ray data well. In the IC scenario, synchrotron emission from the same population of electrons can also explain the WMAP and Planck microwave haze with a magnetic field between 5 and 20 μG.

    DOI

  • Pre-flight performance of a micro-satellite TSUBAME for X-ray polarimetry of gamma-ray bursts

    Yatsu Yoichi, Ito Kei, Kurita Shin, Arimoto Makoto, Kawai Nobuyuki, Matsushita Masanori, Kawajiri Shota, Kitamura Shogo, Matunaga Saburo, Kimura Shin'ichi, Kataoka Jun, Nakamori Takeshi, Kubo Sin

    SPACE TELESCOPES AND INSTRUMENTATION 2014: ULTRAVIOLET TO GAMMA RAY   9144  2014.07

     View Summary

    To measure the polarization of gamma-ray bursts in X-ray energy band, we have developed a 50 kg micro-satellite named "SUBAME". The satellite has a compact and high-sensitive hard X-ray polarimeter employing newly-developed shock resistant multi-anode photomultipliers and Si avalanche photodiodes. Thanks to the ultra low-noise detectors and signal processors, the polarimeter can cover a wide energy range of 30 200 keV even at 25°C with a high modulation factor of 62 %. TSUBAME is in the phase of final functional tests waiting for shipping to Baikonur and will be launched into a sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 700 km in late 2014. In this paper, the pre-ight performance of the gamma-ray detector system and the satellite bus system are presented.

    DOI

  • EXTREME BLAZARS STUDIED WITH FERMI-LAT AND SUZAKU: 1ES 0347-121 AND BLAZAR CANDIDATE HESS J1943+213

    Tanaka, Y. T, Stawarz, L, Finke, J, Cheung, C. C, Dermer, C. D, Kataoka, J, Bamba, A, Dubus, G, De Naurois, M, Wagner, S. J

    ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL   787 ( 2 )  2014.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report on our study of high-energy properties of two peculiar TeV emitters: the extreme blazar&quot; 1ES 0347-121 and the &quot;extreme blazar candidate&quot; HESS J1943+213 located near the Galactic plane. Both objects are characterized by quiescent synchrotron emission with flat spectra extending up to the hard X-ray range, and both were reported to be missing GeV counterparts in the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) two-year Source Catalog. We analyze a 4.5 yr accumulation of the Fermi-LAT data, resulting in the detection of 1ES 0347-121 in the GeV band, as well as in improved upper limits for HESS J1943+213. We also present the analysis results of newly acquired Suzaku data for HESS J1943+213. The X-ray spectrum is well represented by a single power law extending up to 25 keV with photon index 2.00 +/- 0.02 and a moderate absorption in excess of the Galactic value, which is in agreement with previous X-ray observations. No short-term X-ray variability was found over the 80 ks duration of the Suzaku exposure. Under the blazar hypothesis, we modeled the spectral energy distributions of 1ES 0347-121 and HESS J1943+213, and we derived constraints on the intergalactic magnetic fie

    DOI

  • Search for cosmic-ray-induced gamma-ray emission in galaxy clusters

    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Albert, A. Allafort, W. B. Atwood, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, E. D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, E. Bottacini, T. J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, P. A. Caraveo, E. Cavazzuti, R. C.G. Chaves, J. Chiang, G. Chiaro, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, F. D'Ammando, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, C. D. Dermer, S. W. Digel, P. S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, C. Favuzzi, A. Franckowiak, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, G. Godfrey, G. A. Gomez-Vargas, I. A. Grenier, S. Guiriec, M. Gustafsson, D. Hadasch, M. Hayashida, J. Hewitt, R. E. Hughes, T. E. Jeltema, G. Jóhannesson, A. S. Johnson, T. Kamae, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, S. Larsson, L. Latronico, M. Llena Garde, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, M. Mayer, M. N. Mazziotta, J. E. McEnery, P. F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, M. E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I. V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, R. Nemmen, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, M. Orienti, E. Orlando, J. F. Ormes, J. S. Perkins, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, G. Pivato, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, S. Razzaque, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, J. Ruan, M. Sánchez-Conde

    Astrophysical Journal   787 ( 1 )  2014.05

     View Summary

    Current theories predict relativistic hadronic particle populations in clusters of galaxies in addition to the already observed relativistic leptons. In these scenarios hadronic interactions give rise to neutral pions which decay into γ rays that are potentially observable with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi space telescope. We present a joint likelihood analysis searching for spatially extended γ-ray emission at the locations of 50 galaxy clusters in four years of Fermi-LAT data under the assumption of the universal cosmic-ray (CR) model proposed by Pinzke & Pfrommer. We find an excess at a significance of 2.7σ, which upon closer inspection, however, is correlated to individual excess emission toward three galaxy clusters: A400, A1367, and A3112. We discuss these cases in detail and conservatively attribute the emission to unmodeled background systems (for example, radio galaxies within the clusters).Through the combined analysis of 50 clusters, we exclude hadronic injection efficiencies in simple hadronic models above 21% and establish limits on the CR to thermal pressure ratio within the virial radius, R 200, to be below 1.25%-1.4% depending on the morphological classification. In addition, we derive new limits on the γ-ray flux from individual clusters in our sample. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Contemporaneous observations of the radio galaxy NGC 1275 from radio to very high energy γ-rays

    J. Aleksić, S. Ansoldi, L. A. Antonelli, P. Antoranz, A. Babic, P. Bangale, U. Barres De Almeida, J. A. Barrio, J. Becerra González, W. Bednarek, K. Berger, E. Bernardini, A. Biland, O. Blanch, R. K. Bock, S. Bonnefoy, G. Bonnoli, F. Borracci, T. Bretz, E. Carmona, A. Carosi, D. Carreto Fidalgo, P. Colin, E. Colombo, J. L. Contreras, J. Cortina, S. Covino, P. Da Vela, F. Dazzi, A. De Angelis, G. De Caneva, B. De Lotto, C. Delgado Mendez, M. Doert, A. Domínguez, D. Dominis Prester, D. Dorner, M. Doro, S. Einecke, D. Eisenacher, D. Elsaesser, E. Farina, D. Ferenc, M. V. Fonseca, L. Font, K. Frantzen, C. Fruck, R. J. García López, M. Garczarczyk, D. Garrido Terrats, M. Gaug, G. Giavitto, N. Godinović, A. González Muñoz, S. R. Gozzini, A. Hadamek, D. Hadasch, A. Herrero, D. Hildebrand, J. Hose, D. Hrupec, W. Idec, V. Kadenius, H. Kellermann, M. L. Knoetig, J. Krause, J. Kushida, A. La Barbera, D. Lelas, N. Lewandowska, E. Lindfors, S. Lombardi, M. López, R. López-Coto, A. López-Oramas, E. Lorenz, I. Lozano, M. Makariev, K. Mallot, G. Maneva, N. Mankuzhiyil, K. Mannheim, L. Maraschi, B. Marcote, M. Mariotti, M. Martínez, D. Mazin, U. Menzel, M. Meucci, J. M. Miranda, R. Mirzoyan, A. Moralejo, P. Munar-Adrover, D. Nakajima, A. Niedzwiecki, K. Nilsson, N. Nowak, R. Orito, A. Overkemping, S. Paiano

    Astronomy and Astrophysics   564  2014.04

     View Summary

    Aims. The radio galaxy NGC≠1275, recently identified as a very high energy (VHE, >100 GeV) γ-ray emitter by MAGIC, is one of the few non-blazar active galactic nuclei detected in the VHE regime. The purpose of this work is to better understand the origin of the γ-ray emission and locate it within the galaxy. Methods. We studied contemporaneous multifrequency observations of NGC≠1275 and modeled the overall spectral energy distribution. We analyzed unpublished MAGIC observations carried out between October 2009 and February 2010, and the previously published observations taken between August 2010 and February 2011. We studied the multiband variability and correlations by analyzing data of Fermi-LAT in the 100 MeV-100 GeV energy band, as well as Chandra (X-ray), KVA (optical), and MOJAVE (radio) data taken during the same period. Results. Using customized Monte Carlo simulations corresponding to early MAGIC stereoscopic data, we detect NGC≠1275 also in the earlier MAGIC campaign. The flux level and energy spectra are similar to the results of the second campaign. The monthly light curve above 100 GeV shows a hint of variability at the 3.6σ level. In the Fermi-LAT band, both flux and spectral shape variabilities are reported. The optical light curve is also variable and shows a clear correlation with the γ-ray flux above 100 MeV. In radio, three compact components are resolved in the innermost part of the jet. One of these components shows a similar trend as the Fermi-LAT and KVA light curves. The γ-ray spectra measured simultaneously with MAGIC and Fermi-LAT from 100 MeV to 650 GeV can be well fitted either by a log-parabola or by a power-law with a subexponential cutoff for the two observation campaigns. A single-zone synchrotron-self-Compton model, with an electron spectrum following a power-law with an exponential cutoff, can explain the broadband spectral energy distribution and the multifrequency behavior of the source. However, this model suggests an untypical low bulk-Lorentz factor or a velocity alignment closer to the line of sight than the parsec-scale radio jet. © 2014 ESO.

    DOI

  • Development of a Prototype Detector Using APD-Arrays Coupled With Pixelized Ce:GAGG Scintillator for High Resolution Radiation Imaging

    Kei Kamada, Kenji Shimazoe, Shigeki Ito, Masao Yoshino, Takanori Endo, Kousuke Tsutsumi, Jun Kataoka, Shunsuke Kurosawa, Yuui Yokota, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Akira Yoshikawa

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE   61 ( 1 ) 348 - 352  2014.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    A novel digital PET scanner based on Time over Threshold method is developed. The positron emission tomography (PET) is composed of 144channel Ce:Gd3Al2Ga3O12 (GAGG)-Avaranche photodiode (APD) detector arrays individually coupled with custom designed Time over Threshold (ToT) application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) to realize the high count rate and good spatial resolution. Such an imaging system provides a simple front-end circuit and flexible digital signal processing like multiplexing such as a pulse train method. The measured energy resolution of the detector system was 6.7% for the 511 keV peak, and 4.25 ns time resolution was measured with a single detector module. The measured spatial resolution for a point source was 1.37 mm FWHM for our initial data with a columnar Na-22 source.

    DOI

  • Observational aspects of AGN jets at high energy

    Jun Kataoka

    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union   10 ( S313 ) 1 - 11  2014

     View Summary

    For the last two decades, significant and dramatic progress has been made in understanding astrophysical jet sources, particularly in the X-ray and gamma-ray energy bands. For example, the Chandra X-ray observatory reveals a number of AGN jets extending from kpc to Mpc scales. More recently, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescopes launched in 2008 started monitoring the gamma-ray sky with excellent sensitivity of about ten times greater than that of EGRET onboard CGRO, and has detected more than 2, 000 sources (mostly AGNs) as of 2014. Moreover, Fermi-LAT has discovered gamma-ray emissions not only from blazars but from a dozen radio galaxies not previously known to emit gamma-rays. Closer to home, the Fermi-bubbles were discovered to extend 50 degrees above and below the Galactic center. These large scale diffuse gamma-ray structures are similar in structure to AGN lobes such as those seen in Cen A and provide evidence for past activity in our Galactic center. In this review, I will first summarize recent highlights of large scale jets in radio galaxies, specifically resolved by the Chandra X-ray observatory. Next I will move on to the gamma-ray sky to present some highlights from Fermi-LAT observations of "misaligned" blazars, namely radio galaxies. I will discuss a unification scheme connecting blazars and misaligned radio galaxies. In the last part, I will also briefly comment on recent multiband observations of the Fermi-bubble and possible impacts on the AGN jet physics in the near future.

    DOI

  • Development and verification of signal processing system of BGO active shield onboard Astro-H

    Masanori Ohno, Shin'ya Tokuda, Takafumi Kawano, Shunya Furui, Ikumi Edahiro, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Kunihiro Goto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Hiroaki Murakami, Syogo Kobayashi, Soki Sakurai, Makoto Sasano, Shunsuke Torii, Toshio Nakano, Ko Ono, Kazuma Miyake, Terukazu Nishida, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Kazuo Makishima, Kouichi Hagino, Takayuki Yuasa, Hirokazu Odaka, Rie Sato, Shin Watanabe, Motohide Kokubun, Tadayuki Takahashi, Goro Sato, Jun Kataoka, Tatsuhiko Saito, Kazutaka Yamaoka, Hiroyasu Tajima, Yoichi Yatsu, Takeshi Nakamori, Hideki Uchiyama, Daisuke Yonetoku

    SPACE TELESCOPES AND INSTRUMENTATION 2014: ULTRAVIOLET TO GAMMA RAY   9144  2014  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The hard X-ray imager (HXI) and soft gamma-ray detector (SGD) onboard Astro-H observe astronomical objects with high sensitivity in the hard X-ray (5-80 keV) and soft gamma-ray (40-600 keV) energy bands. To achieve this high sensitivity, background rejection is essential, and these detectors are surrounded by large and thick bismuth germinate scintillators as an active shield. We have developed adequate trigger logic for both the HXI and SGD to process signals from main detector and BGO shield simultaneously and then we optimized the trigger delay and width, with consideration of the trigger latch efficiency. The shield detector system performs well, even after it is assembled as the HXI sensor. The energy threshold maintains the same level as that observed during the prototype development phase, and the experimental room background level of the main detector is successfully reduced by our optimized trigger timing.

    DOI

  • Development of the camera for the Large Size Telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Y. Inome, G. Ambrosi, Y. Awane, H. Baba, A. Bamba, M. Barcelo, U. Barres de Almeida, J. A. Barrio, O. Blanch Bigas, J. Boix, L. Brunetti, E. Carmona, E. Chabanne, M. Chikawa, N. Cho, P. Colin, J. L. Conteras, J. Cortina, F. Dazzi, A. Deangelis, G. Deleglise, C. Delgado, C. Diaz, F. Dubois, A. Fiasson, D. Fink, N. Fouque, L. Freixas, C. Fruck, A. Gadola, R. Garcia, D. Gascon, N. Geffroy, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, F. Granena, S. Gunji, R. Hagiwara, N. Hamer, Y. Hanabata, T. Hassan, K. Hatanaka, T. Haubold, M. Hayashida, R. Hermel, D. Herranz, K. Hirotani, J. Hose, D. Hugh, S. Inoue, Y. Inoue, K. Ioka, C. Jablonski, M. Kagaya, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, H. Kellermann, T. Kishimoto, M. Knoetig, K. Kodani, K. Kohri, T. Kojima, Y. Konno, S. Koyama, H. Kubo, J. Kushida, G. Lamanna, T. Le Flour, M. Lopez-Moya, R. Lopez, E. Lorenz, P. Majumdar, A. Manalaysay, M. Mariotti, G. Martinez, M. Martinez, S. Masuda, S. Matsuoka, D. Mazin, U. Menzel, J. M. Miranda, R. Mirzoyan, I. Monteiro, A. Moralejo, K. Murase, S. Nagataki, T. Nagayoshi, D. Nakajima, T. Nakamori, K. Nishijima, K. Noda, A. Nozato, M. Ogino, Y. Ohira, M. Ohishi, H. Ohoka, A. Okumura, S. Ono, R. Orito, J. L. Panazol, D. Paneque, R. Paoletti, J. M. Paredes, G. Pauletta, S. Podkladkin, J. Prast, R. Rando, O. Reimann, M. Ribo, S. Rosier-Lees, K. Saito, T. Saito, Y. Saito, N. Sakaki, R. Sakonaka, A. Sanuy, M. Sawada, V. Scalzotto, S. Schultz, T. Schweizer, T. Shibata, S. Shu, J. Sieiro, V. Stamatescu, S. Steiner, U. Straumann, R. Sugawara, H. Tajima, H. Takami, M. Takahashi, S. Tanaka, M. Tanaka, L. A. Tejedor, Y. Terada, M. Teshima, Y. Tomono, T. Totani, T. Toyama, Y. Tsubone, Y. Tsuchiya, S. Tsujimoto, H. Ueno, K. Umehara, Y. Umetsu, A. Vollhardt, R. Wagner, H. Wetteskind, T. Yamamoto, R. Yamazaki, A. Yoshida, T. Yoshida, T. Yoshikoshi

    ADVANCES IN OPTICAL AND MECHANICAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR TELESCOPES AND INSTRUMENTATION   9151   914542 - 8pp  2014

     View Summary

    The Large Size Telescopes, LSTs, located at the center of the Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA, will be sensitive for low energy gamma-rays. The camera on the LST focal plane is optimized to detect low energy events based on a high photon detection efficiency and high speed electronics. Also the trigger system is designed to detect low energy showers as much as possible. In addition, the camera is required to work stably without maintenance in a few tens of years. In this contribution we present the design of the camera for the first LST and the status of its development and production.

    DOI

  • Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD) onboard the ASTRO-H

    Fukazawa Yasushi, Tajima Hiroyasu, Watanabe Shin, Blandford Roger, Hayashi Katsuhiro, Harayama Atsushi, Kataoka Jun, Kawaharada Madoka, Kokubun Motohide, Laurent Philippe, Lebrun Francois, Limousin Olivier, Madejski Grzegorz M, Makishima Kazuo, Mizuno Tsunefumi, Mori Kunishiro, Nakamori Takeshi, Nakazawa Kazuhiro, Noda Hirofumi, Odaka Hirokazu, Ohno Masanori, Ohta Masayuki, Saito Shin'ya, Sato Goro, Sato Rie, Takeda Shin'ichiro, Takahashi Hiromitsu, Takahashi Tadayuki, Tanaka Yasuyuki, Terada Yukikatsu, Uchiyama Hideki, Uchiyama Yasunobu, Yamaoka Kazutaka, Yatsu Yoichi, Yonetoku Daisuke, Yuasa Takayuki

    SPACE TELESCOPES AND INSTRUMENTATION 2014: ULTRAVIOLET TO GAMMA RAY   9144  2014  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD) is one of observational instruments onboard the ASTRO-H, and will provide 10 times better sensitivity in 60{600 keV than the past and current observatories. The SGD utilizes similar technologies to the Hard X-ray Imager (HXI) onboard the ASTRO-H. The SGD achieves low background by constraining gamma-ray events within a narrow field-of-view by Compton kinematics, in addition to the BGO active shield. In this paper, we will present the results of various tests using engineering models and also report the flight model production and evaluations.

    DOI

  • The hard X-ray imager (HXI) for the ASTRO-H mission

    Sato G, Kokubun M, Nakazawa K, Enoto T, Fukazawa Y, Harayama A, Hayashi K, Kataoka J, Katsuta J, Kawaharada M, Laurent P, Lebrun F, Limousin O, Makishima K, Mizuno T, Mori K, Nakamori T, Noda H, Odaka H, Ohno M, Ohta M, Saito S, Sato R, Tajima H, Takahashi H, Takahashi T, Takeda S, Terada Y, Uchiyama H, Uchiyama Y, Watanabe S, Yamaoka K, Yatsu Y, Yuasa T

    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering   9144  2014  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The 6th Japanese X-ray satellite, ASTRO-H, is scheduled for launch in 2015. The hard X-ray focusing imaging system will observe astronomical objects with the sensitivity for detecting point sources with a brightness of 1/100,000 times fainter than the Crab nebula at > 10 keV. The Hard X-ray Imager (HXI) is a focal plane detector 12 m below the hard X-ray telescope (HXT) covering the energy range from 5 to 80 keV. The HXI is composed of a stacked Si/CdTe semiconductor detector module and surrounding BGO scintillators. The latter work as active shields for efficient reduction of background events caused by cosmic-ray particles, cosmic X-ray background, and in-orbit radiation activation. In this paper, we describe the detector system, and present current status of flight model development, and performance of HXI using an engineering model of HXI.

    DOI

  • 大面積MPPC array を用いた放射線検出器の最前線

    片岡 淳

    放射線(応用物理学会・放射線分科会)   39 ( 3 ) 117 - 126  2014

  • Evaluation of the performance limit of MPPC for ToF-PET

    Takayuki Tsujikawa, Jun Kataoka, Takahiro Ambe, Takuya Fujita, Yota Kurei, Goro Sato, Hirolazu Ikeda

    2014 IEEE NUCLEAR SCIENCE SYMPOSIUM AND MEDICAL IMAGING CONFERENCE (NSS/MIC)    2014  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In recent years, multi-pixel photon counters (MP-PCs) have been actively studied for use in a module for such next-generation PET systems as MRI-PET, DoI-PET, and ToF-PET scanners. In particular, Time of Flight (ToF) measurement is a challenging approach to identify the position of a gamma-ray source, according to differences in the arrival times of annihilation gamma rays after positron decay. Several simulations suggest a substantial improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of PET images when using ToF information. However, ToF-PET performance is determined by the time resolution of a gamma-ray sensor (including scintillators, photo-sensors and readout electronics) as a whole, thus making it often difficult to achieve ToF resolution as good as 500 ps (FWHM) in actual PET systems. This paper describes our development of a new method of ToF measurement using MPPC-based scintillation detectors. We showed that our method effectively reduces the contamination of dark noise, and minimizes the effects of time walk and timing jitter. The best ToF resolution of 213 ps (FWHM) was achieved by coupling 3x3x10 mm(3) Ce:LYSO crystal with a 3x3 mm(2) pixel detector. We conclude by commenting on our ultra-fast ASIC for 16-ch MPPC readout as pertaining to future applications in MPPC-PET scanners with ToF measurement capability.

    DOI

  • The first FERMI-LAT catalog of sources above 10 GeV

    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, W. B. Atwood, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, A. Belfiore, R. Bellazzini, E. Bernieri, E. Bissaldi, E. D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, T. J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, T. H. Burnett, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, R. Campana, P. A. Caraveo, J. M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, R. C.G. Chaves, A. Chekhtman, C. C. Cheung, J. Chiang, G. Chiaro, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, L. R. Cominsky, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, F. D'Ammando, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, C. D. Dermer, R. Desiante, S. W. Digel, L. Di Venere, P. S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, E. C. Ferrara, W. B. Focke, P. Fortin, A. Franckowiak, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, G. Godfrey, G. A. Gomez-Vargas, I. A. Grenier, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, Y. Hanabata, A. K. Harding, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, J. Hewitt, A. B. Hill, D. Horan, R. E. Hughes, T. Jogler, G. Jóhannesson, A. S. Johnson, T. J. Johnson, W. N. Johnson, T. Kamae, J. Kataoka, T. Kawano, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, S. Larsson, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, E. Massaro, M. Mayer

    Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series   209 ( 2 )  2013.12

     View Summary

    We present a catalog of γ-ray sources at energies above 10 GeV based on data from the Large Area Telescope (LAT) accumulated during the first 3 yr of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope mission. The first Fermi-LAT catalog of >10 GeV sources (1FHL) has 514 sources. For each source we present location, spectrum, a measure of variability, and associations with cataloged sources at other wavelengths. We found that 449 (87%) could be associated with known sources, of which 393 (76% of the 1FHL sources) are active galactic nuclei. Of the 27 sources associated with known pulsars, we find 20 (12) to have significant pulsations in the range >10 GeV (>25 GeV). In this work we also report that, at energies above 10 GeV, unresolved sources account for 27% ± 8% of the isotropic γ-ray background, while the unresolved Galactic population contributes only at the few percent level to the Galactic diffuse background. We also highlight the subset of the 1FHL sources that are best candidates for detection at energies above 50-100 GeV with current and future ground-based γ-ray observatories. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..

    DOI

  • Handy Compton camera using 3D position-sensitive scintillators coupled with large-area monolithic MPPC arrays

    J. Kataoka, A. Kishimoto, T. Nishiyama, T. Fujita, K. Takeuchi, T. Kato, T. Nakamori, S. Ohsuka, S. Nakamura, M. Hirayanagi, S. Adachi, T. Uchiyama, K. Yamamoto

    NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT   732   403 - 407  2013.12

     View Summary

    The release of radioactive isotopes (mainly Cs-137, Cs-134 and till) from the crippled Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant remains a serious problem in japan. To help identify radiation hotspots and ensure effective decontamination operation, we are developing a novel Compton camera weighting only 1 kg and measuring just similar to 10 cm(2) in size. Despite its compactness, the camera realizes a wide 180 degrees field of vision with a sensitivity about 50 times superior to other cameras being tested in Fukushima. We expect that a hotspot producing a 5 mu Sv/h dose at a distance of 3 m can be imaged every 10 s, with angular resolution better than 10 degrees (FWHM). The 3D position sensitive scintillators and thin monolithic MPPC arrays are the key technologies developed here. By measuring the pulse height ratio of MPPC-arrays coupled at both ends of a Ce:GAGG scintillator block, the depth of interaction (DOI) is obtained for incident gamma rays as well as the usual 2D positions, with accuracy better than 2 mm. By using two identical 10 mm cubic Ce:GAGG scintillators as a scatterer and an absorber, we confirmed that the 3D configuration works well as a high resolution gamma camera, and also works as spectrometer achieving typical energy resolution of 9.8% (FWHM) for 662 keV gamma rays. We present the current status of the prototype camera (weighting 1.5 kg and measuring 8.5 x 14 x 16 cm(3) in size) being fabricated by Hamamatsu Photonics K. K. Although the camera still operates in non-DOI mode, angular resolution as high as 14 degrees (FWHM) was achieved with an integration time of 30s for the assumed hotspot described above. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All tights reserved.

    DOI

  • SUZAKU OBSERVATIONS OF THE DIFFUSE X-RAY EMISSION ACROSS THE FERMI BUBBLES' EDGES

    J. Kataoka, M. Tahara, T. Totani, Y. Sofue, L. Stawarz, Y. Takahashi, Y. Takeuchi, H. Tsunemi, M. Kimura, Y. Takei, C. C. Cheung, Y. Inoue, T. Nakamori

    ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL   779 ( 1 )  2013.12

     View Summary

    We present Suzaku X-ray observations along two edge regions of the Fermi Bubbles, with eight similar or equal to 20 ks pointings across the northern part of the North Polar Spur (NPS) surrounding the north bubble and six across the southernmost edge of the south bubble. After removing compact X-ray features, diffuse X-ray emission is clearly detected and is well reproduced by a three-component spectral model consisting of unabsorbed thermal emission (temperature kT similar or equal to 0.1 keV) from the Local Bubble, absorbed kT similar or equal to 0.3 keV thermal emission related to the NPS and/or Galactic halo (GH), and a power-law component at a level consistent with the cosmic X-ray background. The emission measure (EM) of the 0.3 keV plasma decreases by similar or equal to 50% toward the inner regions of the northeast bubble, with no accompanying temperature change. However, such a jump in the EM is not clearly seen in the south bubble data. While it is unclear whether the NPS originates from a nearby supernova remnant or is related to previous activity within or around the Galactic center, our Suzaku observations provide evidence that suggests the latter scenario. In the latter framework, the presence of a large amount of neutral matter absorbing the X-ray emission as well as the existence of the kT similar or equal to 0.3 keV gas can be naturally interpreted as a weak shock driven by the bubbles' expansion in the surrounding medium, with velocity v(exp) similar or equal to 300 km s(-1) (corresponding to shock Mach number M similar or equal to 1.5), compressing the GH gas to form the NPS feature. We also derived an upper limit for any non-thermal X-ray emission component associated with the bubbles and demonstrate that, in agreement with the aforementioned findings, the non-thermal pressure and energy estimated from a one-zone leptonic model of its broadband spectrum, are in rough equilibrium with that of the surrounding thermal plasma.

    DOI

  • Handy Compton camera using 3D position-sensitive scintillators coupled with large-area monolithic MPPC arrays

    J. Kataoka, A. Kishimoto, T. Nishiyama, T. Fujita, K. Takeuchi, T. Kato, T. Nakamori, S. Ohsuka, S. Nakamura, M. Hirayanagi, S. Adachi, T. Uchiyama, K. Yamamoto

    NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT   732   403 - 407  2013.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The release of radioactive isotopes (mainly Cs-137, Cs-134 and till) from the crippled Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant remains a serious problem in japan. To help identify radiation hotspots and ensure effective decontamination operation, we are developing a novel Compton camera weighting only 1 kg and measuring just similar to 10 cm(2) in size. Despite its compactness, the camera realizes a wide 180 degrees field of vision with a sensitivity about 50 times superior to other cameras being tested in Fukushima. We expect that a hotspot producing a 5 mu Sv/h dose at a distance of 3 m can be imaged every 10 s, with angular resolution better than 10 degrees (FWHM). The 3D position sensitive scintillators and thin monolithic MPPC arrays are the key technologies developed here. By measuring the pulse height ratio of MPPC-arrays coupled at both ends of a Ce:GAGG scintillator block, the depth of interaction (DOI) is obtained for incident gamma rays as well as the usual 2D positions, with accuracy better than 2 mm. By using two identical 10 mm cubic Ce:GAGG scintillators as a scatterer and an absorber, we confirmed that the 3D configuration works well as a high resolution gamma camera, and also works as spectrometer achieving typical energy resolution of 9.8% (FWHM) for 662 keV gamma rays. We present the current status of the prototype camera (weighting 1.5 kg and measuring 8.5 x 14 x 16 cm(3) in size) being fabricated by Hamamatsu Photonics K. K. Although the camera still operates in non-DOI mode, angular resolution as high as 14 degrees (FWHM) was achieved with an integration time of 30s for the assumed hotspot described above. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All tights reserved.

    DOI

  • SUZAKU OBSERVATIONS OF THE DIFFUSE X-RAY EMISSION ACROSS THE FERMI BUBBLES' EDGES

    J. Kataoka, M. Tahara, T. Totani, Y. Sofue, L. Stawarz, Y. Takahashi, Y. Takeuchi, H. Tsunemi, M. Kimura, Y. Takei, C. C. Cheung, Y. Inoue, T. Nakamori

    ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL   779 ( 1 ) 57 - 72  2013.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We present Suzaku X-ray observations along two edge regions of the Fermi Bubbles, with eight similar or equal to 20 ks pointings across the northern part of the North Polar Spur (NPS) surrounding the north bubble and six across the southernmost edge of the south bubble. After removing compact X-ray features, diffuse X-ray emission is clearly detected and is well reproduced by a three-component spectral model consisting of unabsorbed thermal emission (temperature kT similar or equal to 0.1 keV) from the Local Bubble, absorbed kT similar or equal to 0.3 keV thermal emission related to the NPS and/or Galactic halo (GH), and a power-law component at a level consistent with the cosmic X-ray background. The emission measure (EM) of the 0.3 keV plasma decreases by similar or equal to 50% toward the inner regions of the northeast bubble, with no accompanying temperature change. However, such a jump in the EM is not clearly seen in the south bubble data. While it is unclear whether the NPS originates from a nearby supernova remnant or is related to previous activity within or around the Galactic center, our Suzaku observations provide evidence that suggests the latter scenario. In the latter framework, the presence of a large amount of neutral matter absorbing the X-ray emission as well as the existence of the kT similar or equal to 0.3 keV gas can be naturally interpreted as a weak shock driven by the bubbles' expansion in the surrounding medium, with velocity v(exp) similar or equal to 300 km s(-1) (corresponding to shock Mach number M similar or equal to 1.5), compressing the GH gas to form the NPS feature. We also derived an upper limit for any non-thermal X-ray emission component associated with the bubbles and demonstrate that, in agreement with the aforementioned findings, the non-thermal pressure and energy estimated from a one-zone leptonic model of its broadband spectrum, are in rough equilibrium with that of the surrounding thermal plasma.

    DOI

  • Erratum: Fermi large area telescope study of cosmic-rays and the interstellar medium in nearby molecular clouds (ApJ (2012) 755 (22))

    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R. D. Blandford, E. D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland, E. Bottacini, T. J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, G. Busetto, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, P. A. Caraveo, J. M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, F. D'Ammando, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, C. D. Dermer, S. W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P. S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, L. Falletti, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, E. C. Ferrara, W. B. Focke, Y. Fukazawa, Y. Fukui, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I. A. Grenier, M. H. Grondin, J. E. Grove, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, Y. Hanabata, A. K. Harding, K. Hayashi, D. Horan, X. Hou, R. E. Hughes, R. Itoh, M. S. Jackson, G. Jóhannesson, A. S. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, S. Larsson, S. H. Lee, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, P. Martin, M. N. Mazziotta, J. E. McEnery, J. Mehault, P. F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A. A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M. E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I. V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia

    Astrophysical Journal   778 ( 1 )  2013.11

    DOI

  • The First Fermi-LAT Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog

    Ackermann M, Ajello M, Asano K, Axelsson M, Baldini L, Ballet J, Barbiellini G, Bastieri D, Bechtol K, Bellazzini R, Bhat P.~N, Bissaldi E, Bloom E.~D, Bonamente E, Bonnell J, Bouvier A, Brandt T.~J, Bregeon J, Brigida M, Bruel P, Buehler R, Burgess J.~M, Buson S, Byrne D, Caliandro G.~A, Cameron R.~A, Caraveo P.~A, Cecchi C, Charles E, Chaves R.~C.~G, Chekhtman A, Chiang J, Chiaro G, Ciprini S, Claus R, Cohen-Tanugi J, Connaughton V, Conrad J, Cutini S, D'Ammando F, de Angelis A, de Palma F, Dermer C.~D, Desiante R, Digel S.~W, Dingus B.~L, Di Venere L, Drell P.~S, Drlica-Wagner A, Dubois R, Favuzzi C, Ferrara E.~C, Fitzpatrick G, Foley S, Franckowiak A, Fukazawa Y, Fusco P, Gargano F, Gasparrini D, Gehrels N, Germani S, Giglietto N, Giommi P, Giordano F, Giroletti M, Glanzman T, Godfrey G, Goldstein A, Granot J, Grenier I.~A, Grove J.~E, Gruber D, Guiriec S, Hadasch D, Hanabata Y, Hayashida M, Horan D, Hou X, Hughes R.~E, Inoue Y, Jackson M.~S, Jogler T, J{\'o}hannesson G, Johnson A.~S, Johnson W.~N, Kamae T, Kataoka J, Kawano T, Kippen R.~M, Kn{\"o}dlseder J, Kocevski D, Kouveliotou C, Kuss M, Lande J, Larsson S, Latronico L, Lee S.-H, Longo F, Loparco F, Lovellette M.~N, Lubrano P, Massaro F, Mayer M, Mazziotta M.~N, McBreen S, McEnery J.~E, McGlynn S, Michelson P.~F, Mizuno T, Moiseev A.~A, Monte C, Monzani M.~E, Moretti E, Morselli A, Murgia S, Nemmen R, Nuss E, Nymark T, Ohno M, Ohsugi T, Omodei N, Orienti M, Orlando E, Paciesas W.~S, Paneque D, Panetta J.~H, Pelassa V, Perkins J.~S, Pesce-Rollins M, Piron F, Pivato G, Porter T.~A, Preece R, Racusin J.~L, Rain{\`o} S, Rando R, Rau A, Razzano M, Razzaque S, Reimer A, Reimer O, Reposeur T, Ritz S, Romoli C, Roth M, Ryde F, Saz Parkinson P.~M, Schalk T.~L, Sgr{\`o} C, Siskind E.~J, Sonbas E, Spandre G, Spinelli P, Suson D.~J, Tajima H, Takahashi H, Takeuchi Y, Tanaka Y, Thayer J.~G, Thayer J.~B, Thompson D.~J, Tibaldo L, Tierney D, Tinivella M, Torres D.~F, Tosti G, Troja E, Tronconi V, Usher T.~L, Vandenbroucke J, van der Horst A.~J, Vasileiou V, Vianello G, Vitale V, von Kienlin A, Winer B.~L, Wood K.~S, Wood M, Xiong S, Yang Z

    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement   209 ( 1 ) 11  2013.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In three years of observations since the beginning of nominal science operations in 2008 August, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has observed high-energy (≳ 20 MeV) γ-ray emission from 35 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Among these, 28 GRBs have been detected above 100 MeV and 7 GRBs above ∼20 MeV. The first Fermi-LAT catalog of GRBs is a compilation of these detections and provides a systematic study of high-energy emission from GRBs for the first time. To generate the catalog, we examined 733 GRBs detected by the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on Fermi and processed each of them using the same analysis sequence. Details of the methodology followed by the LAT collaboration for the GRB analysis are provided. We summarize the temporal and spectral properties of the LAT-detected GRBs. We also discuss characteristics of LAT-detected emission such as its delayed onset and longer duration compared with emission detected by the GBM, its power-law temporal decay at late times, and the fact that it is dominated by a power-law spectral component that appears in addition to the usual Band model. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • THE SECOND FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE CATALOG OF GAMMA-RAY PULSARS

    A. A. Abdo, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, M. G. Baring, D. Bastieri, A. Belfiore, R. Bellazzini, B. Bhattacharyya, E. Bissaldi, E. D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, E. Bottacini, T. J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, M. Burgay, T. H. Burnett, G. Busetto, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, F. Camilo, P. A. Caraveo, J. M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, Oe . Celik, E. Charles, S. Chaty, R. C. G. Chaves, A. Chekhtman, A. W. Chen, J. Chiang, G. Chiaro, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, I. Cognard, J. Cohen-Tanugi, L. R. Cominsky, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, F. D'Ammando, A. De Angelis, M. E. DeCesar, A. De Luca, P. R. Den Hartog, F. De Palma, C. D. Dermer, G. Desvignes, S. W. Digel, L. Di Venere, P. S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. M. Espinoza, L. Falletti, C. Favuzzi, E. C. Ferrara, W. B. Focke, A. Franckowiak, P. C. C. Freire, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, E. V. Gotthelf, I. A. Grenier, M. -H. Grondin, J. E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, Y. Hanabata, A. K. Harding, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, J. Hessels, J. Hewitt, A. B. Hill, D. Horan, X. Hou, R. E. Hughes, M. S. Jackson, G. H. Janssen, T. Jogler, G. Johannesson, R. P. Johnson, A. S. Johnson, T. J. Johnson, W. N. Johnson, S. Johnston, T. Kamae, J. Kataoka, M. Keith, M. Kerr, J. Knoedlseder, M. Kramer, M. Kuss, J. Lande, S. Larsson, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A. G. Lyne, R. N. Manchester, M. Marelli, F. Massaro, M. Mayer, M. N. Mazziotta, J. E. McEnery, M. A. McLaughlin, J. Mehault, P. F. Michelson, R. P. Mignani, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A. A. Moiseev, M. E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I. V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, R. Nemmen, E. Nuss, M. Ohno, T. Ohsugi, M. Orienti, E. Orlando, J. F. Ormes, D. Paneque, J. H. Panetta, D. Parent, J. S. Perkins, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pierbattista, F. Piron, G. Pivato, H. J. Pletsch, T. A. Porter, A. Possenti, S. Raino, R. Rando, S. M. Ransom, P. S. Ray, M. Razzano, N. Rea, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, N. Renault, T. Reposeur, S. Ritz, R. W. Romani, M. Roth, R. Rousseau, J. Roy, J. Ruan, A. Sartori, P. M. Saz Parkinson, J. D. Scargle, A. Schulz, C. Sgro, R. Shannon, E. J. Siskind, D. A. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, B. W. Stappers, A. W. Strong, D. J. Suson, H. Takahashi, J. G. Thayer, J. B. Thayer, G. Theureau, D. J. Thompson, S. E. Thorsett, L. Tibaldo, O. Tibolla, M. Tinivella, D. F. Torres, G. Tosti, E. Troja, Y. Uchiyama, T. L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, C. Venter, G. Vianello, V. Vitale, N. Wang, P. Weltevrede, B. L. Winer, M. T. Wolff, D. L. Wood, K. S. Wood, M. Wood, Z. Yang

    ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL SUPPLEMENT SERIES   208 ( 2 ) 17  2013.10  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This catalog summarizes 117 high-confidence &gt;= 0.1 GeV gamma-ray pulsar detections using three years of data acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi satellite. Half are neutron stars discovered using LAT data through periodicity searches in gamma-ray and radio data around LAT unassociated source positions. The 117 pulsars are evenly divided into three groups: millisecond pulsars, young radio-loud pulsars, and young radio-quiet pulsars. We characterize the pulse profiles and energy spectra and derive luminosities when distance information exists. Spectral analysis of the off-peak phase intervals indicates probable pulsar wind nebula emission for four pulsars, and off-peak magnetospheric emission for several young and millisecond pulsars. We compare the gamma-ray properties with those in the radio, optical, and X-ray bands. We provide flux limits for pulsars with no observed gamma-ray emission, highlighting a small number of gamma-faint, radio-loud pulsars. The large, varied gamma-ray pulsar sample constrains emission models. Fermi's selection biases complement those of radio surveys, enhancing comparisons with predicted population distributions.

    DOI

  • MULTIBAND DIAGNOSTICS OF UNIDENTIFIED 1FGL SOURCES WITH SUZAKU AND SWIFT X-RAY OBSERVATIONS

    Y. Takeuchi, J. Kataoka, K. Maeda, Y. Takahashi, T. Nakamori, M. Tahara

    ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL SUPPLEMENT SERIES   208 ( 2 ) 25 - 57  2013.10  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We have analyzed all the archival X-ray data of 134 unidentified (unID) gamma-ray sources listed in the first Fermi/LAT (1FGL) catalog and subsequently followed up by the Swift/XRT. We constructed the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from radio to gamma-rays for each X-ray source detected, and tried to pick up unique objects that display anomalous spectral signatures. In these analyses, we target all the 1FGL unID sources, using updated data from the second Fermi/LAT (2FGL) catalog on the Large Area Telescope (LAT) position and spectra. We found several potentially interesting objects, particularly three sources, 1FGL J0022.2-1850, 1FGL J0038.0+1236, and 1FGL J0157.0-5259, which were then more deeply observed with Suzaku as a part of an AO-7 program in 2012. We successfully detected an X-ray counterpart for each source whose X-ray spectra were well fitted by a single power-law function. The positional coincidence with a bright radio counterpart (currently identified as an active galactic nucleus, AGN) in the 2FGL error circles suggests these sources are definitely the X-ray emission from the same AGN, but their SEDs show a wide variety of behavior. In particular, the SED of 1FGL J0038.0+1236 is not easily explained by conventional emission models of blazars. The source 1FGL J0022.2-1850 may be in a transition state between a low-frequency peaked and a high-frequency peaked BL Lac object, and 1FGL J0157.0-5259 could be a rare kind of extreme blazar. We discuss the possible nature of these three sources observed with Suzaku, together with the X-ray identification results and SEDs of all 134 sources observed with the Swift/XRT.

    DOI

  • Development of a high-sensitivity, handy Compton camera for fast gamma-ray imaging

    KATAOKA Jun, NISHIYAMA Toru, FUJITA Takuya, TAKEUCHI Kenshiro, KISHIMOTO Aya, OHSUKA Shinji, NAKAMURA Shigeyuki, HIRAYANAGI Masato, ADACHI Shunsuke, UCHIYAMA Tetsuya, KATO Takuya, SUZUKI Hiroki

      2013 ( 1 ) 1 - 6  2013.09

    CiNii

  • Erratum: Constraints on the cosmic-ray density gradient beyond the solar circle from fermi γ-ray observations of the third galactic quadrant (Astrophysical Journal (2011) 726 (81))

    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, T.J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, C.D. Dermer, F. De Palma, S.W. Digel, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, C. Favuzzi, E.C. Ferrara, W.B. Focke, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, K. Hayashi, M. Hayashida, R.E. Hughes, R. Itoh, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, M. Llena-Garde, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A. Makeev, P. Martin, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, J. Mehault, P.F. Michelson, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, M. Naumann-Godo, S. Nishino, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, J. Ripken, T. Sada, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, M.S. Strickman, A.W. Strong, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T. Uehara, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.E. Vladimirov, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, K.S. Wood, Z. Yang, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal   772 ( 2 )  2013.08  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • X-RAY AND RADIO FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH-REDSHIFT BLAZAR CANDIDATES IN THE FERMI-LAT UNASSOCIATED SOURCE POPULATION

    Y. Takahashi, J. Kataoka, K. Niinuma, M. Honma, Y. Inoue, T. Totani, S. Inoue, T. Nakamori, K. Maeda

    ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL   773 ( 1 ) 36 - 46  2013.08  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report on the results of X-ray and radio follow-up observations of two GeV gamma-ray sources 2FGL J0923.5+1508 and 2FGL J1502.1+5548, selected as candidates for high-redshift blazars from unassociated sources in the Fermi Large Area Telescope Second Source Catalog. We utilize the Suzaku satellite and the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) telescopes for X-ray and radio observations, respectively. For 2FGL J0923.5+1508, a possible radio counterpart NVSS J092357+150518 is found at 1.4 GHz from an existing catalog, but we do not detect any X-ray emission from it and derive a flux upper limit F2-8 (keV) &lt; 1.37 x 10(-14) erg cm(-2) s(-1). Radio observations at 6.7 GHz also result in an upper limit of S-6.7 (GHz) &lt; 19 mJy, implying a steep radio spectrum that is not expected for a blazar. On the other hand, we detect X-rays from NVSS J150229+555204, the potential 1.4 GHz radio counterpart of 2FGL J1502.1+5548. The X-ray spectrum can be fitted with an absorbed power-law model with a photon index gamma = 1.8(-0.2)(+0.3) and the unabsorbed flux is F2-8 (keV) = 4.3(-1.0)(+1.1) x 10(-14) erg cm(-2) s(-1). Moreover, we detect unresolved radio emission at 6.7 GHz with flux S-6.7 (GHz) = 30.1 mJy, indicating a compact, flat-spectrum radio source. If NVSS J150229+555204 is indeed associated with 2FGL J1502.1+5548, then we find that its multiwavelength spectrum is consistent with a blazar at redshift z similar to 3-4.

    DOI

  • Development of Radiation-hardened Multi Pixel Photon Counters

    Nakamori, T, Kurei, Y, Takeuchi, K, Saito, T, Kataoka, J, Fujita, T, Kato, T, Sato, K, Yamada, R, Kawabata, N, Kokubun, M

    Proceedings of 33rd International Cosmic Ray Conference   2013-October  2013.07

     View Summary

    We developed several kinds of trial radiation-hardened MPPC models by changing structures; targeting future space applications for gamma-ray detectors. We produced two sample packages with 15 µ-type 1×1 mm2 MPPC elements for every 9 prototypes and then irradiated 150 MeV protons up to 10- and 100 krad for respective samples. We also used 15-, 25-, 50- and 100-µm-type MPPCs with the current design as controls. We evaluated the radiation tolerance mainly by increasing ratio of post-irradiation dark currents. Consequently we found that all trial models achieved significantly improved radiation tolerance peaking at a factor of 7−8 in the best case. We also present differences among control samples due to the various pixel sizes.

  • The Fermi all-sky variability analysis: A list of flaring gamma-ray sources and the search for transients in our galaxy

    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Albert, A. Allafort, E. Antolini, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, R. D. Blandford, E. D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, E. Bottacini, A. Bouvier, T. J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, P. A. Caraveo, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C. C. Cheung, J. Chiang, G. Chiaro, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, M. Dalton, F. D'Ammando, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, C. D. Dermer, L. Di Venere, P. S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, E. C. Ferrara, W. B. Focke, A. Franckowiak, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I. A. Grenier, M. H. Grondin, J. E. Grove, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, Y. Hanabata, A. K. Harding, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, J. Hewitt, A. B. Hill, D. Horan, X. Hou, R. E. Hughes, Y. Inoue, M. S. Jackson, T. Jogler, G. Jóhannesson, W. N. Johnson, T. Kamae, J. Kataoka, T. Kawano, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, S. Larsson, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, M. Mayer, M. N. Mazziotta, J. E. McEnery, P. F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno

    Astrophysical Journal   771 ( 1 )  2013.07

     View Summary

    In this paper, we present the Fermi All-sky Variability Analysis (FAVA), a tool to systematically study the variability of the gamma-ray sky measured by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. For each direction on the sky, FAVA compares the number of gamma-rays observed in a given time window to the number of gamma-rays expected for the average emission detected from that direction. This method is used in weekly time intervals to derive a list of 215 flaring gamma-ray sources. We proceed to discuss the 27 sources found at Galactic latitudes smaller than 10° and show that, despite their low latitudes, most of them are likely of extragalactic origin. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • High resolution phoswich gamma-ray imager utilizing monolithic MPPC arrays with submillimeter pixelized crystals

    T. Kato, J. Kataoka, T. Nakamori, A. Kishimoto, S. Yamamoto, K. Sato, Y. Ishikawa, K. Yamamura, N. Kawabata, H. Ikeda, K. Kamada

    JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION   8 ( 5 ) P05022  2013.05  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report the development of a high spatial resolution tweezers-type coincidence gamma-ray camera for medical imaging. This application consists of large-area monolithic Multi-Pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs) and submillimeter pixelized scintillator matrices. The MPPC array has 4x4 channels with a three-side buttable, very compact package. For typical operational gain of 7.5x10(5) at + 20 degrees C, gain fluctuation over the entire MPPC device is only +/- 5.6%, and dark count rates (as measured at the 1 p.e. level) amount to &lt;= 400 kcps per channel. We selected Ce-doped (Lu, Y)(2)(SiO4)O (Ce:LYSO) and a brand-new scintillator, Ce-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 (Ce:GAGG) due to their high light yield and density. To improve the spatial resolution, these scintillators were fabricated into 15x15 matrices of 0.5x0.5 mm(2) pixels. The Ce: LYSO and Ce: GAGG scintillator matrices were assembled into phosphor sandwich (phoswich) detectors, and then coupled to the MPPC array along with an acrylic light guide measuring 1 mm thick, and with summing operational amplifiers that compile the signals into four position-encoded analog outputs being used for signal readout. Spatial resolution of 1.1 mm was achieved with the coincidence imaging system using a Na-22 point source. These results suggest that the gamma-ray imagers offer excellent potential for applications in high spatial medical imaging.

    DOI

  • GIANT LOBES OF CENTAURUS A RADIO GALAXY OBSERVED WITH THE SUZAKU X-RAY SATELLITE

    Stawarz, L, Tanaka, Y. T, Madejski, G, O'Sullivan, S. P, Cheung, C. C, Feain, I. J, Fukazawa, Y, Gandhi, P, Hardcastle, M. J, Kataoka, J

    ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL   766 ( 1 )  2013.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report on Suzaku observations of selected regions within the southern giant lobe of the radio galaxy Centaurus A. In our analysis we focus on distinct X-ray features detected with the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer within the range 0.5-10 keV, some of which are likely associated with fine structure of the lobe revealed by recent high-quality radio intensity and polarization maps. With the available photon statistics, we find that the spectral properties of the detected X-ray features are equally consistent with thermal emission from hot gas with temperatures kT &gt; 1 keV, or with a power-law radiation continuum characterized by photon indices Gamma similar to 2.0 +/- 0.5. However, the plasma parameters implied by these different models favor a synchrotron origin for the analyzed X-ray spots, indicating that a very efficient acceleration of electrons up to greater than or similar to 10 TeV energies is taking place within the giant structure of Centaurus A, albeit only in isolated and compact regions associated with extended and highly polarized radio filaments. We also present a detailed analysis of the diffuse X-ray emission filling the whole field of view of the instrument, resulting

    DOI

  • Introducing the CTA concept

    Acharya, B. S., Actis, M., Aghajani, T., Agnetta, G., Aguilar, J., Aharonian, F., Ajello, M., Akhperjanian, A., Alcubierre, M., Aleksić, J., Alfaro, R., Aliu, E., Allafort, A. J., Allan, D., Allekotte, I., Amato, E., Anderson, J., Angüner, E. O., Antonelli, L. A., Antoranz, P. Aravantinos, A., Arlen, T., Armstrong, T., Arnaldi, H., Arrabito, L., Asano, K., Ashton, T., Asorey, H. G., Awane, Y., Baba, H., Babic, A., Baby, N., Bähr, J., Bais, A., Baixeras, C., Bajtlik, S., Balbo, M., Balis, D., Balkowski, C., Bamba, A., Bandiera, R., Barber, A., Barbier, C., Barceló, M., Barnacka, A., Barnstedt, J., Barres de Almeida, U., Barrio, J. A., Basili, A., Basso, S., Bastieri, D., Bauer, C., Baushev, A., Becerra, J., Becherini, Y., Bechtol, K. C., Becker Tjus, J., Beckmann, V., Bednarek, W., Behera, B., Belluso, M., Benbow, W., Berdugo, J., Berger, K., Bernard, F., Bernardino, T., Bernlöhr, K., Bhat, N., Bhattacharyya, S., Bigongiari, C., Biland, A., Billotta, S., Bird, T., Birsin, E., Bissaldi, E., Biteau, J., Bitossi, M., Blake, S., Blanch Bigas, O., Blasi, P., Bobkov, A., Boccone, V., Boettcher, M., Bogacz, L., Bogart, J., Bogdan, M., Boisson, C., Boix Gargallo, J., Bolmont, J., Bonanno, G., Bonardi, A., Bonev, T., Bonifacio, P., Bonnoli, G., Bordas, P., Borgland, A., Borkowski, J., Bose, R., Botner, O., Bottani, A., Bouchet, L., Bourgeat, M., Boutonnet, C., Bouvier, A., Brau-Nogué, S., Braun, I., Bretz, T., Briggs, M., Bringmann, T., Brook, P., Brun, P., Brunetti, L., Buanes, T., Buckley, J., Buehler, R., Bugaev, V., Bulgarelli, A., Bulik, T., Busetto, G., Buson, S., Byrum, K., Cailles, M., Cameron, R., Camprecios, J., Canestrari, R., Cantu, S., Capalbi, M., Caraveo, P., Carmona, E., Carosi, A., Carr, J., Carton, P. -H., Casanova, S., Casiraghi, M., Catalano, O., Cavazzani, S., Cazaux, S., Cerruti, M., Chabanne, E., Chadwick, P., Champion, C., Chen, A., Chiang, J., Chiappetti, L., Chikawa, M., Chitnis, V. R., Chollet, F., Chudoba, J., Cieślar, M., Cillis, A., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Colafrancesco, S., Colin, P., Colome, J., Colonges, S., Compin, M., Conconi, P., Conforti, V., Connaughton, V., Conrad, J., Contreras, J. L., Coppi, P., Corona, P., Corti, D., Cortina, J., Cossio, L., Costantini, H., Cotter, G., Courty, B., Couturier, S., Covino, S., Crimi, G., Criswell, S. J., Croston, J., Cusumano, G., Dafonseca, M., Dale, O., Daniel, M., Darling, J., Davids, I., Dazzi, F., De Angelis, A., De Caprio, V., De Frondat, F., de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M., de la Calle, I., De La Vega, G. A., de los Reyes Lopez, R., De Lotto, B., De Luca, A., de Mello Neto, J. R. T., de Naurois, M., de Oliveira, Y., de Oña Wilhelmi, E., de Souza, V., Decerprit, G., Decock, G., Deil, C., Delagnes, E., Deleglise, G., Delgado, C., Della Volpe, D., Demange, P., Depaola, G., Dettlaff, A., Di Paola, A., Di Pierro, F., Díaz, C., Dick, J., Dickherber, R., Dickinson, H., Diez-Blanco, V., Digel, S., Dimitrov, D., Disset, G., Djannati-Ataï, A., Doert, M., Dohmke, M., Domainko, W., Dominis Prester, D., Donat, A., Dorner, D., Doro, M., Dournaux, J. -L., Drake, G., Dravins, D., Drury, L., Dubois, F., Dubois, R., Dubus, G., Dufour, C., Dumas, D., Dumm, J., Durand, D., Dyks, J., Dyrda, M., Ebr, J., Edy, E., Egberts, K., Eger, P., Einecke, S., Eleftheriadis, C., Elles, S., Emmanoulopoulos, D., Engelhaupt, D., Enomoto, R., Ernenwein, J. -P., Errando, M., Etchegoyen, A., Evans, P., Falcone, A., Fantinel, D., Farakos, K., Farnier, C., Fasola, G., Favill, B., Fede, E., Federici, S., Fegan, S., Feinstein, F., Ferenc, D., Ferrando, P., Fesquet, M., Fiasson, A., Fillin-Martino, E., Fink, D., Finley, C., Finley, J. P., Fiorini, M., Firpo Curcoll, R., Flores, H., Florin, D., Focke, W., Föhr, C., Fokitis, E., Font, L., Fontaine, G., Fornasa, M., Förster, A., Fortson, L., Fouque, N., Franckowiak, A., Fransson, C., Fraser, G., Frei, R., Albuquerque, I. F. M., Fresnillo, L., Fruck, C., Fujita, Y., Fukazawa, Y., Fukui, Y., Funk, S., Gäbele, W., Gabici, S., Gabriele, R., Gadola, A., Galante, N., Gall, D., Gallant, Y., Gámez-García, J., García, B., Garcia López, R., Gardiol, D., Garrido, D., Garrido, L., Gascon, D., Gaug, M., Gaweda, J., Gebremedhin, L., Geffroy, N., Gerard, L., Ghedina, A., Ghigo, M., Giannakaki, E., Gianotti, F., Giarrusso, S., Giavitto, G., Giebels, B., Gika, V., Giommi, P., Girard, N., Giro, E., Giuliani, A., Glanzman, T., Glicenstein, J. -F., Godinovic, N., Golev, V., Gomez Berisso, M., Gómez-Ortega, J., Gonzalez, M. M., González, A., González, F., González Muñoz, A., Gothe, K. S., Gougerot, M., Graciani, R., Grandi, P., Grañena, F., Granot, J., Grasseau, G., Gredig, R., Green, A., Greenshaw, T., Grégoire, T., Grimm, O., Grube, J., Grudzinska, M., Gruev, V., Grünewald, S., Grygorczuk, J., Guarino, V., Gunji, S., Gyuk, G., Hadasch, D., Hagiwara, R., Hahn, J., Hakansson, N., Hallgren, A., Hamer Heras, N., Hara, S., Hardcastle, M. J., Harris, J., Hassan, T., Hatanaka, K., Haubold, T., Haupt, A., Hayakawa, T., Hayashida, M., Heller, R., Henault, F., Henri, G., Hermann, G., Hermel, R., Herrero, A., Hidaka, N., Hinton, J., Hoffmann, D., Hofmann, W., Hofverberg, P., Holder, J., Horns, D., Horville, D., Houles, J., Hrabovsky, M., Hrupec, D., Huan, H., Huber, B., Huet, J. -M., Hughes, G., Humensky, T. B., Huovelin, J., Ibarra, A., Illa, J. M., Impiombato, D., Incorvaia, S., Inoue, S., Inoue, Y., Ioka, K., Ismailova, E., Jablonski, C., Jacholkowska, A., Jamrozy, M., Janiak, M., Jean, P., Jeanney, C., Jimenez, J. J., Jogler, T., Johnson, T., Journet, L., Juffroy, C., Jung, I., Kaaret, P., Kabuki, S., Kagaya, M., Kakuwa, J., Kalkuhl, C., Kankanyan, R., Karastergiou, A., Kärcher, K., Karczewski, M., Karkar, S., Kasperek, J., Kastana, D., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Katarzyński, K., Katz, U., Kawanaka, N., Kellner-Leidel, B., Kelly, H., Kendziorra, E., Khélifi, B., Kieda, D. B., Kifune, T., Kihm, T., Kishimoto, T., Kitamoto, K., Kluźniak, W., Knapic, C., Knapp, J., Knödlseder, J., Köck, F., Kocot, J., Kodani, K., Köhne, J. -H., Kohri, K., Kokkotas, K., Kolitzus, D., Komin, N., Kominis, I., Konno, Y., Köppel, H., Korohoda, P., Kosack, K., Koss, G., Kossakowski, R., Kostka, P., Koul, R., Kowal, G., Koyama, S., Kozioł, J., Krähenbühl, T., Krause, J., Krawzcynski, H., Krennrich, F., Krepps, A., Kretzschmann, A., Krobot, R., Krueger, P., Kubo, H., Kudryavtsev, V. A., Kushida, J., Kuznetsov, A., La Barbera, A., La Palombara, N., La Parola, V., La Rosa, G., Lacombe, K., Lamanna, G., Lande, J., Languignon, D., Lapington, J., Laporte, P., Lavalley, C., Le Flour, T., Le Padellec, A., Lee, S. -H., Lee, W. H., Leigui de Oliveira, M. A., Lelas, D., Lenain, J. -P., Leopold, D. J., Lerch, T., Lessio, L., Lieunard, B., Lindfors, E., Liolios, A., Lipniacka, A., Lockart, H., Lohse, T., Lombardi, S., Lopatin, A., Lopez, M., López-Coto, R., López-Oramas, A., Lorca, A., Lorenz, E., Lubinski, P., Lucarelli, F., Lüdecke, H., Ludwin, J., Luque-Escamilla, P. L., Lustermann, W., Luz, O., Lyard, E., Maccarone, M. C., Maccarone, T. J., Madejski, G. M., Madhavan, A., Mahabir, M., Maier, G., Majumdar, P., Malaguti, G., Maltezos, S., Manalaysay, A., Mancilla, A., Mandat, D., Maneva, G., Mangano, A., Manigot, P., Mannheim, K., Manthos, I., Maragos, N., Marcowith, A., Mariotti, M., Marisaldi, M., Markoff, S., Marszałek, A., Martens, C., Martí, J., Martin, J. -M., Martin, P., Martínez, G., Martínez, F., Martínez, M., Masserot, A., Mastichiadis, A., Mathieu, A., Matsumoto, H., Mattana, F., Mattiazzo, S., Maurin, G., Maxfield, S., Maya, J., Mazin, D., Mc Comb, L., McCubbin, N., McHardy, I., McKay, R., Medina, C., Melioli, C., Melkumyan, D., Mereghetti, S., Mertsch, P., Meucci, M., Michałowski, J., Micolon, P., Mihailidis, A., Mineo, T., Minuti, M., Mirabal, N., Mirabel, F., Miranda, J. M., Mirzoyan, R., Mizuno, T., Moal, B., Moderski, R., Mognet, I., Molinari, E., Molinaro, M., Montaruli, T., Monteiro, I., Moore, P., Moralejo Olaizola, A., Mordalska, M., Morello, C., Mori, K., Mottez, F., Moudden, Y., Moulin, E., Mrusek, I., Mukherjee, R., Munar-Adrover, P., Muraishi, H., Murase, K., Murphy, A., Nagataki, S., Naito, T., Nakajima, D., Nakamori, T., Nakayama, K., Naumann, C., Naumann, D., Naumann-Godo, M., Nayman, P., Nedbal, D., Neise, D., Nellen, L., Neustroev, V., Neyroud, N., Nicastro, L., Nicolau-Kukliński, J., Niedźwiecki, A., Niemiec, J., Nieto, D., Nikolaidis, A., Nishijima, K., Nolan, S., Northrop, R., Nosek, D., Nowak, N., Nozato, A., O'Brien, P., Ohira, Y., Ohishi, M., Ohm, S., Ohoka, H., Okuda, T., Okumura, A., Olive, J. -F., Ong, R. A., Orito, R., Orr, M., Osborne, J., Ostrowski, M., Otero, L. A., Otte, N., Ovcharov, E., Oya, I., Ozieblo, A., Padilla, L., Paiano, S., Paillot, D., Paizis, A., Palanque, S., Palatka, M., Pallota, J., Panagiotidis, K., Panazol, J. -L., Paneque, D., Panter, M., Paoletti, R., Papayannis, A., Papyan, G., Paredes, J. M., Pareschi, G., Parks, G., Parraud, J. -M., Parsons, D., Paz Arribas, M., Pech, M., Pedaletti, G., Pelassa, V., Pelat, D., Perez, M. d. C., Persic, M., Petrucci, P. -O., Peyaud, B., Pichel, A., Pita, S., Pizzolato, F., Platos, Ł., Platzer, R., Pogosyan, L., Pohl, M., Pojmanski, G., Ponz, J. D., Potter, W., Poutanen, J., Prandini, E., Prast, J., Preece, R., Profeti, F., Prokoph, H., Prouza, M., Proyetti, M., Puerto-Gimenez, I., Pühlhofer, G., Puljak, I., Punch, M., Pyzioł, R., Quel, E. J., Quinn, J., Quirrenbach, A., Racero, E., Rajda, P. J., Ramon, P., Rando, R., Rannot, R. C., Rataj, M., Raue, M., Reardon, P., Reimann, O., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reitberger, K., Renaud, M., Renner, S., Reville, B., Rhode, W., Ribó, M., Ribordy, M., Richer, M. G., Rico, J., Ridky, J., Rieger, F., Ringegni, P., Ripken, J., Ristori, P. R., Riviére, A., Rivoire, S., Rob, L., Roeser, U., Rohlfs, R., Rojas, G., Romano, P., Romaszkan, W., Romero, G. E., Rosen, S., Rosier Lees, S., Ross, D., Rouaix, G., Rousselle, J., Rousselle, S., Rovero, A. C., Roy, F., Royer, S., Rudak, B., Rulten, C., Rupiński, M., Russo, F., Ryde, F., Sacco, B., Saemann, E. O., Saggion, A., Sahakian, V., Saito, K., Saito, T., Saito, Y., Sakaki, N., Sakonaka, R., Salini, A., Sanchez, F., Sanchez-Conde, M., Sandoval, A., Sandaker, H., Sant'Ambrogio, E., Santangelo, A., Santos, E. M., Sanuy, A., Sapozhnikov, L., Sarkar, S., Sartore, N., Sasaki, H., Satalecka, K., Sawada, M., Scalzotto, V., Scapin, V., Scarcioffolo, M., Schafer, J., Schanz, T., Schlenstedt, S., Schlickeiser, R., Schmidt, T., Schmoll, J., Schovanek, P., Schroedter, M., Schultz, C., Schultze, J., Schulz, A., Schure, K., Schwab, T., Schwanke, U., Schwarz, J., Schwarzburg, S., Schweizer, T., Schwemmer, S., Segreto, A., Seiradakis, J. -H., Sembroski, G. H., Seweryn, K., Sharma, M., Shayduk, M., Shellard, R. C., Shi, J., Shibata, T., Shibuya, A., Shum, E., Sidoli, L., Sidz, M., Sieiro, J., Sikora, M., Silk, J., Sillanpää, A., Singh, B. B., Sitarek, J., Skole, C., Smareglia, R., Smith, A., Smith, D., Smith, J., Smith, N., Sobczyńska, D., Sol, H., Sottile, G., Sowiński, M., Spanier, F., Spiga, D., Spyrou, S., Stamatescu, V., Stamerra, A., Starling, R., Stawarz, Ł., Steenkamp, R., Stegmann, C., Steiner, S., Stergioulas, N., Sternberger, R., Sterzel, M., Stinzing, F., Stodulski, M., Straumann, U., Strazzeri, E., Stringhetti, L., Suarez, A., Suchenek, M., Sugawara, R., Sulanke, K. -H., Sun, S., Supanitsky, A. D., Suric, T., Sutcliffe, P., Sykes, J., Szanecki, M., Szepieniec, T., Szostek, A., Tagliaferri, G., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, K., Takalo, L., Takami, H., Talbot, G., Tammi, J., Tanaka, M., Tanaka, S., Tasan, J., Tavani, M., Tavernet, J. -P., Tejedor, L. A., Telezhinsky, I., Temnikov, P., Tenzer, C., Terada, Y., Terrier, R., Teshima, M., Testa, V., Tezier, D., Thuermann, D., Tibaldo, L., Tibolla, O., Tiengo, A., Tluczykont, M., Todero Peixoto, C. J., Tokanai, F., Tokarz, M., Toma, K., Torii, K., Tornikoski, M., Torres, D. F., Torres, M., Tosti, G., Totani, T., Toussenel, F., Tovmassian, G., Travnicek, P., Trifoglio, M., Troyano, I., Tsinganos, K., Ueno, H., Umehara, K., Upadhya, S. S., Usher, T., Uslenghi, M., Valdes-Galicia, J. F., Vallania, P., Vallejo, G., van Driel, W., van Eldik, C., Vandenbrouke, J., Vanderwalt, J., Vankov, H., Vasileiadis, G., Vassiliev, V., Veberic, D., Vegas, I., Vercellone, S., Vergani, S., Veyssiére, C., Vialle, J. P., Viana, A., Videla, M., Vincent, P., Vincent, S., Vink, J., Vlahakis, N., Vlahos, L., Vogler, P., Vollhardt, A., von Gunten, H. -P., Vorobiov, S., Vuerli, C., Waegebaert, V., Wagner, R., Wagner, R. G., Wagner, S., Wakely, S. P., Walter, R., Walther, T., Warda, K., Warwick, R., Wawer, P., Wawrzaszek, R., Webb, N., Wegner, P., Weinstein, A., Weitzel, Q., Welsing, R., Werner, M., Wetteskind, H., White, R., Wierzcholska, A., Wiesand, S., Wilkinson, M., Williams, D. A., Willingale, R., Winiarski, K., Wischnewski, R., Wiśniewski, Ł., Wood, M., Wörnlein, A., Xiong, Q., Yadav, K. K., Yamamoto, H., Yamamoto, T., Yamazaki, R., Yanagita, S., Yebras, J. M., Yelos, D., Yoshida, A., Yoshida, T., Yoshikoshi, T., Zabalza, V., Zacharias, M., Zajczyk, A., Zanin, R., Zdziarski, A., Zech, A., Zhao, A., Zhou, X., Ziętara, K., Ziolkowski, J., Ziółkowski, P., Zitelli, V., Zurbach, C., Żychowski, P., CTA Consortium

    Astroparticle Physics   43   3 - 18  2013.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a new observatory for very high-energy (VHE) gamma rays. CTA has ambitions science goals, for which it is necessary to achieve full-sky coverage, to improve the sensitivity by about an order of magnitude, to span about four decades of energy, from a few tens of GeV to above 100 TeV with enhanced angular and energy resolutions over existing VHE gamma-ray observatories. An international collaboration has formed with more than 1000 members from 27 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa and North and South America. In 2010 the CTA Consortium completed a Design Study and started a three-year Preparatory Phase which leads to production readiness of CTA in 2014. In this paper we introduce the science goals and the concept of CTA, and provide an overview of the project. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Determination of the point-spread function for the fermi large area telescope from on-orbit data and limits on pair halos of active galactic nuclei

    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, K. Asano, W.B. Atwood, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, E. Bottacini, T.J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, T.H. Burnett, G. Busetto, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, S. Chaty, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, A.N. Cillis, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, S. Colafrancesco, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, F. D'Ammando, F. De Palma, C.D. Dermer, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, R. Dubois, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, E.C. Ferrara, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, P. Grandi, I.A. Grenier, J.E. Grove, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, D. Horan, X. Hou, R.E. Hughes, M.S. Jackson, T. Jogler, G. Jóhannesson, R.P. Johnson, A.S. Johnson, T. Kamae, J. Kataoka, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, S. Larsson, L. Latronico, C. Lavalley, S.-H. Lee, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, M.N. Mazziotta, W. McConville, J.E. McEnery, J. Mehault, P.F. Michelson, R.P. Mignani, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, M. Naumann-Godo, R. Nemmen, S. Nishino, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, M. Orienti, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, V. Pelassa, J.S. Perkins, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pierbattista, F. Piron, G. Pivato, H. Poon, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, S. Razzaque, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, L.C. Reyes, S. Ritz, L.S. Rochester, C. Romoli, M. Roth, D.A. Sanchez, P.M. Saz Parkinson, J.D. Scargle, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, A. Snyder, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, T.E. Stephens, D.J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.G. Thayer, J.B. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, O. Tibolla, M. Tinivella, G. Tosti, E. Troja, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, G. Vianello, V. Vitale, A. Von Kienlin, A.P. Waite, E. Wallace, P. Weltevrede, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, M. Wood, Z. Yang, S. Zimmer

    Astrophysical Journal   765 ( 1 )  2013.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to detect photons with energies from ≈20 MeV to >300 GeV. The pre-launch response functions of the LAT were determined through extensive Monte Carlo simulations and beam tests. The point-spread function (PSF) characterizing the angular distribution of reconstructed photons as a function of energy and geometry in the detector is determined here from two years of on-orbit data by examining the distributions of γ rays from pulsars and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Above 3 GeV, the PSF is found to be broader than the pre-launch PSF. We checked for dependence of the PSF on the class of γ-ray source and observation epoch and found none. We also investigated several possible spatial models for pair-halo emission around BL Lac AGNs. We found no evidence for a component with spatial extension larger than the PSF and set upper limits on the amplitude of halo emission in stacked images of low- and high-redshift BL Lac AGNs and the TeV blazars 1ES0229+200 and 1ES0347-121. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Radio-Quiet Millisecond Pulsars : Fermi Discovery of New Type Pulsars

    YATSU Yoichi, KAWAI Nobuyuki, KATAOKA Jun, TAKAHASHI Yosuke

      106 ( 4 ) 254 - 262  2013.03

    CiNii

  • Detection of the characteristic pion-decay signature in supernova remnants

    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, M.G. Baring, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, E. Bottacini, T.J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, G. Busetto, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, E. Charles, S. Chaty, R.C.G. Chaves, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, G. Chiaro, A.N. Cillis, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, L.R. Cominsky, J. Conrad, S. Corbel, S. Cutini, F. D'Ammando, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, C.D. Dermer, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, L. Falletti, C. Favuzzi, E.C. Ferrara, A. Franckowiak, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, M. Hayashida, K. Hayashi, E. Hays, J.W. Hewitt, A.B. Hill, R.E. Hughes, M.S. Jackson, T. Jogler, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, T. Kamae, J. Kataoka, J. Katsuta, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, S. Larsson, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G.M. Madejski, F. Massaro, M. Mayer, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, J. Mehault, P.F. Michelson, R.P. Mignani, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, R. Nemmen, E. Nuss, M. Ohno, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, M. Orienti, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, D. Paneque, J.S. Perkins, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, G. Pivato, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, S. Razzaque, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, S. Ritz, C. Romoli, M. Sánchez-Conde, A. Schulz, C. Sgrò, P.E. Simeon, E.J. Siskind, D.A. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, F.W. Stecker, A.W. Strong, D.J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.G. Thayer, J.B. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, S.E. Thorsett, L. Tibaldo, O. Tibolla, M. Tinivella, E. Troja, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, G. Vianello, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, M. Werner, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, M. Wood, R. Yamazaki, Z. Yang, S. Zimmer

    Science   339 ( 6121 ) 807 - 811  2013.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Cosmic rays are particles (mostly protons) accelerated to relativistic speeds. Despite wide agreement that supernova remnants (SNRs) are the sources of galactic cosmic rays, unequivocal evidence for the acceleration of protons in these objects is still lacking. When accelerated protons encounter interstellar material, they produce neutral pions, which in turn decay into gamma rays. This offers a compelling way to detect the acceleration sites of protons. The identification of pion-decay gamma rays has been difficult because high-energy electrons also produce gamma rays via bremsstrahlung and inverse Compton scattering. We detected the characteristic pion-decay feature in the gamma-ray spectra of two SNRs, IC 443 and W44, with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. This detection provides direct evidence that cosmic-ray protons are accelerated in SNRs.

    DOI

  • Development of ultra-fast ASIC for future PET scanners using TOF-capable MPPC detectors

    H. Matsuda, J. Kataoka, H. Ikeda, T. Kato, T. Anbe, S. Nakamura, Y. Ishikawa, K. Sato, K. Yamamura

    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment   699   211 - 215  2013.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We have developed a front-end ASIC (MPPC32) intended for future PET scanners that offers time-of-flight (TOF) capability in conjunction with a multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) array. The ASIC design is based on the open-IP project proposed by JAXA and was realized in TSMC 0.35-μm CMOS technology. The circuit comprises 32-channel, low impedance CMOS current conveyors (CCs) to effectively acquire fast MPPC signals. In order to precisely measure the coincidence timing of 511 keV gamma rays, the leading-edge method was employed instead of conventional zero-crossing measurement to discriminate signals. As a result, we obtained time jitter and walk measurement of 67 ps (FWHM) and 98 ps (within 511 keV±20%), respectively. Moreover, excellent energy resolutions of 9.8% (662 keV
    FWHM) and 10.5% (511 keV
    FWHM) were obtained by utilizing a 3×3 mm2 MPPC (of 50μm pitch) coupled with a Ce-doped LYSO (Ce:LYSO) crystal 3×3×10 mm3 in size. We finally report on the TOF measurements, and demonstrate that the MPPC32 developed here can be a promising device for future TOF-PET scanners using the MPPC array. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

    DOI

  • Current status and optimization of handy compton camera using 3D position-sensitive scintillators

    Toru Nishiyama, Jun Kataoka, Aya Kishimoto, Takuya Fujita, Kenshiro Takeuchi, Shinji Ohsuka, Sigeyuki Nakamura, Syunsuke Adachi, Michito Hirayanagi, Tetsuya Uchiyama, Yoshitaka Ishikawa, Takuya Kato

    IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record    2013

     View Summary

    After the Japanese nuclear disaster in 2011, a large amount of radioactive isotopes was released and still remains a serious problem in Japan. To help identify radiation hotspots and ensure effective decontamination operation, we are developing a novel Compton camera weighing only 1.9 kg and measuring just 14×14×15 cm3 in size. Despite its compactness, the camera realizes a wide 180° field of vision, Δθ ∼ 10°(FWHM) angular resolution, and offers excellent sensitivity that can image a hotspot producing a 5 μSv/h dose at a distance of three meters, every 10 sec. Our key technology using 3D position-sensitive scintillators coupled with thin monolithic MPPC arrays has made this innovation possible for the first time. In this paper, we present the detailed optimization and simulation of the Compton camera currently under production with Hamamatsu Photonics. © 2013 IEEE.

    DOI

  • Gamma-ray visualization module

    H. Suzuki, S. Nakamura, M. Hirayanagi, S. Adachi, T. Uchiyama, S. Ohsuka, K. Nakamoto, J. Kataoka, T. Nishiyama, T. Fujita, K. Takeuchi

    IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record    2013

     View Summary

    Gamma ray cameras can easily locate radiation hotspots where decontamination is required. Among them, the Compton camera that utilizes the Compton scattering is compact and lightweight because no radiation shielding is required. We have developed a Compton camera for quick visualization of the radioactive contamination. It features high detection efficiency by utilizing gamma ray detectors which is a combination of Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) array and Gadolinium Aluminum Gallium Garnet (GAGG) scintillator arrays. © 2013 IEEE.

    DOI

  • Stereo Compton cameras for the 3-D localization of radioactive isotopes optimized by Geant4

    K. Takeuchi, J. Kataoka, T. Nishiyama, T. Fujita, A. Kishimoto, S. Ohsuka, S. Nakamura, A. Adachi, M. Hirayanagi, T. Uchiyama, Y. Ishikawa, T. Kato

    IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record    2013

     View Summary

    The Compton camera is a convenient tool used to visualize the distribution of radioisotopes that emit gamma rays. Following the nuclear disaster in Fukushima in 2011, there is a particularly urgent need to develop 'gamma cameras', which can visualize the distribution of such radioisotopes. In response, we propose a portable Compton camera, which comprises 3-D position-sensitive GAGG scintillators coupled with thin monolithic MPPC arrays. We report on the detailed optimization of the detector design, based on Geant4 simulation. The results show that detection efficiency reaches up to 0.54%, or more than 10 times that of other cameras being tested in Fukushima, along with a moderate angular resolution of 8.1° (FWHM). By applying the triangular surveying method, we also propose a new concept for the 'stereo' measurement of gamma rays by using two Compton cameras, thus enabling the 3-D positional measurement of radioactive isotopes for the first time. From one point source simulation data, we ensured that the source position and the distance to the same could be determined typically to within 2 meters' accuracy and we also confirmed that more than two sources are clearly separated by the event selection from two point sources of simulation data. © 2013 IEEE.

    DOI

  • Development of the photomultiplier-tube readout system for the CTA large size telescope

    H. Kubo, R. Paoletti, Y. Awane, A. Bamba, M. Barcelo, J. A. Barrio, O. Blanch, J. Boix, C. Delgado, D. Fink, D. Gascon, S. Gunji, R. Hagiwara, Y. Hanabata, K. Hatanaka, M. Hayashida, M. Ikeno, S. Kabuki, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, Y. Konno, S. Koyama, T. Kishimoto, J. Kushida, G. Martínez, S. Masuda, J. M. Miranda, R. Mirzoyan, T. Mizuno, T. Nagayoshi, D. Nakajima, T. Nakamori, H. Ohoka, A. Okumura, R. Orito, T. Saito, A. Sanuy, H. Sasaki, M. Sawada, T. Schweizer, R. Sugawara, K. H. Sulanke, H. Tajima, M. Tanaka, S. Tanaka, L. A. Tejedor, Y. Terada, M. Teshima, F. Tokanai, Y. Tsuchiya, T. Uchida, H. Ueno, K. Umehara, T. Yamamoto

    Proceedings of the 33rd International Cosmic Rays Conference, ICRC 2013   2013-October  2013

     View Summary

    We have developed a prototype of the photomultiplier tube (PMT) readout system for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) Large Size Telescope (LST). Two thousand PMTs along with their readout systems are arranged on the focal plane of each telescope, with one readout system per 7-PMT cluster. The Cherenkov light pulses generated by the air showers are detected by the PMTs and amplified in a compact, low noise and wide dynamic range gain block. The output of this block is then digitized at a sampling rate of the order of GHz using the Domino Ring Sampler DRS4, an analog memory ASIC developed at Paul Scherrer Institute. The sampler has 1,024 capacitors per channel and four channels are cascaded for increased depth. After a trigger is generated in the system, the charges stored in the capacitors are digitized by an external slow sampling ADC and then transmitted via Gigabit Ethernet. An onboard FPGA controls the DRS4, trigger threshold, and Ethernet transfer. In addition, the control and monitoring of the Cockcroft-Walton circuit that provides high voltage for the 7-PMT cluster are performed by the same FPGA. A prototype named Dragon has been developed that has successfully sampled PMT signals at a rate of 2 GHz, and generated single photoelectron spectra.

  • MAGIC and multi-wavelength observations of the radio galaxy NGC 1275

    Pierre Colin, Dorit Eisenacher, Dorothée Hildebrand, Elina Lindfors, Saverio Lombardi, Kari Nilsson, Serena Partini, Fabrizio Tavecchio, Fabio Zandanel, Barabara Balmaverde, Jun Kataoka, Rami Rekola, Yosuke Takahashi

    Proceedings of the 33rd International Cosmic Rays Conference, ICRC 2013   2013-October  2013

     View Summary

    The massive radio galaxy NGC 1275 at the center of the Perseus cluster is regularly observed with the MAGIC telescopes since 2009. The observation campaign (in stereoscopic mode) between August 2010 and February 2011 leads to the first detection of the source in very high energy (VHE, >100 GeV) γ rays. NGC 1275 is one of the few non-Blazar AGNs detected in this domain which is highly dominated by BL Lac objects. The proximity and the relatively large angle between the jet axis and the line of sight allow to resolve inner-jet structures with radio interferometry and to test non-thermal emission model for larger viewing angles. NGC 1275 is then a good laboratory to locate the γ -ray emission region and understand acceleration process at work in AGNs. Here we present the long term monitoring of NGC 1275 with MAGIC as well as with Fermi-LAT (in GeV band), KVA (optical) and VLBA (15 GHz). The multiwavelength lightcurves show a correlation between γ - ray, optical and a radio component of the inner-jet. We reconstructed the broad band spectral energy distributions (SED) of the source during two separated MAGIC campaigns which both lead to the detection of NGC 1275 in VHE. We applied a one-zone Synchrotron Self Compton model with a small Doppler factor (2) which can fit the SEDs and reproduces the optical/gamma correlation. Finally, we will discuss the validity of this simple model and the implication of our results for the AGN physics.

  • Fermi -LAT and Suzaku observations of the radio galaxy Centaurus B

    J. Katsuta, Y. T. Tanaka, L. Stawarz, S. P. O'Sullivan, C. C. Cheung, J. Kataoka, S. Funk, T. Yuasa, H. Odaka, T. Takahashi, J. Svoboda

    Astronomy and Astrophysics   550  2013

     View Summary

    Centaurus B is a nearby radio galaxy positioned in the southern hemisphere close to the Galactic plane. Here we present a detailed analysis of about 43 months of accumulated Fermi-LAT data of the γ-ray counterpart of the source initially reported in the 2nd Fermi-LAT catalog, and of newly acquired Suzaku X-ray data. We confirm its detection at GeV photon energies and analyze the extension and variability of the γ-ray source in the LAT dataset, in which it appears as a steady γ-ray emitter. The X-ray core of Centaurus B is detected as a bright source of a continuum radiation. We do not detect, however, any diffuse X-ray emission from the known radio lobes, with the provided upper limit only marginally consistent with the previously claimed ASCA flux. Two scenarios that connect the X-ray and γ-ray properties are considered. In the first one, we assume that the diffuse non-thermal X-ray emission component is not significantly below the derived Suzaku upper limit. In this case, modeling the inverse-Compton emission shows that the observed γ-ray flux of the source may in principle be produced within the lobes. This association would imply that efficient in-situ acceleration of the radiating electrons is occurring and that the lobes are dominated by the pressure from the relativistic particles. In the second scenario, with the diffuse X-ray emission well below the Suzaku upper limits, the lobes in the system are instead dominated by the magnetic pressure. In this case, the observed γ-ray flux is not likely to be produced within the lobes, but instead within the nuclear parts of the jet. By means of synchrotron self-Compton modeling, we show that this possibility could be consistent with the broad-band data collected for the unresolved core of Centaurus B, including the newly derived Suzaku spectrum. © ESO, 2013.

    DOI

  • Geometry dependence of the light collection efficiency of BGO crystal scintillators read out by avalanche photo diodes

    M. Sasano, H. Nishioka, S. Okuyama, K. Nakazawa, K. Makishima, S. Yamada, T. Yuasa, A. Okumura, J. Kataoka, Y. Fukazawa, Y. Hanabata, K. Hayashi

    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment   715   105 - 111  2013

     View Summary

    Abstract Light collection efficiency from BGO crystal scintillators of various sizes and shapes was measured by reading them using 1×1 cm 2 avalanche photo diodes. When the crystals have simple geometry, the light collection efficiency was found to depend on their size, shape and the read-out position through a rather well-defined empirical scaling relation. The light collection efficiency of tapered crystals was seen to depend on both the position of γ-ray irradiation, and the read-out position of the avalanche photo diodes. Using optical Monte-Carlo simulations, the relation was reproduced assuming plausible proper parameters for surface conditions and the attenuation length. This results were reproduced with a reasonable accuracy by optical Monte-Carlo simulations. Simple physical explanations are given to these geometrical effects. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

    DOI

  • Development of signal processing system of avalanche photo diode for space observations by Astro-H

    Ohno M, Goto K, Hanabata Y, Takahashi H, Fukazawa Y, Yoshino M, Saito T, Nakamori T, Kataoka J, Sasano M, Torii S, Uchiyama H, Nakazawa K, Watanabe S, Kokubun M, Ohta M, Sato T, Takahashi T, Tajima H

    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment   699   112 - 115  2013  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Astro-H is the sixth Japanese X-ray space observatory which will be launched in 2014. Two of onboard instruments of Astro-H, Hard X-ray Imager and Soft Gamma-ray Detector are surrounded by many number of large Bismuth Germanate (Bi4Ge3O12; BGO) scintillators. Optimum readout system of scintillation lights from these BGOs are essential to reduce the background signals and achieve high performance for main detectors because most of gamma-rays from out of field-of-view of main detectors or radio-isotopes produced inside them due to activation can be eliminated by anti-coincidence technique using BGO signals. We apply Avalanche Photo Diode (APD) for light sensor of these BGO detectors since their compactness and high quantum efficiency make it easy to design such large number of BGO detector system. For signal processing from APDs, digital filter and other trigger logics on the Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used instead of discrete analog circuits due to limitation of circuit implementation area on spacecraft. For efficient observations, we have to achieve as low threshold of anti-coincidence signal as possible by utilizing the digital filtering. In addition, such anti-coincident signals should be sent to the main detector within 5μs to make it in time to veto the A-D conversion. Considering this requirement and constraint from logic size of FPGA, we adopt two types of filter, 8 delay taps filter with only 2 bit precision coefficient and 16 delay taps filter with 8 bit precision coefficient. The data after former simple filter provides anti-coincidence signal quickly in orbit, and the latter filter is used for detail analysis after the data is down-linked. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

    DOI

  • A novel gamma-ray detector with submillimeter resolutions using a monolithic MPPC array with pixelized Ce:LYSO and Ce:GGAG crystals

    T. Kato, J. Kataoka, T. Nakamori, T. Miura, H. Matsuda, A. Kishimoto, K. Sato, Y. Ishikawa, K. Yamamura, S. Nakamura, N. Kawabata, H. Ikeda, S. Yamamoto, K. Kamada

    NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT   699   235 - 241  2013.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We have developed a large-area monolithic Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) array consisting of 4 x 4 channels with a three-side buttable package. Each channel has a photosensitive area of 3 x 3 mm(2) and 3600 Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes (APDs). For typical operational gain of 7.5 x 10(5) at +20 degrees C, gain fluctuation over the entire MPPC device is only +/- 5.6%, and dark count rates (as measured at the 1 p.e. level) amount to &lt;= 400 kcps per channel. We first fabricated a gamma-ray camera consisting of the MPPC array with one-to-one coupling to a Ce-doped (Lu, Y)(2)(SiO4)O (Ce:LYSO) crystal array (4 x 4 array of 3 x 3 x 10 mm(3) crystals). Energy and time resolutions of 11.5 +/- 0.5% (FWHM at 662 keV) and 493 +/- 22 ps were obtained, respectively. When using the charge division resistor network, which compiles signals into four position-encoded analog outputs, the ultimate positional resolution is estimated as 0.19 mm in both X and Y directions, while energy resolution of 10.2 +/- 0.4% (FWHM) was obtained. Finally, we fabricated submillimeter Ce:LYSO and Ce-doped Gd3Ga3Al2O12 (Ce:GGAG) scintillator matrices each consisting of 1.0 x 1.0, 0.7 x 0.7 and 0.5 x 0.5 mm(2) pixels, to further improve the spatial resolution. In all types of Ce:LYSO and Ce:GGAG matrices, each crystal was clearly resolved in the position histograms when irradiated by a Cs-137 source. The energy resolutions for 662 keV gamma-rays for each Ce:LYSO and Ce:GGAG scintillator matrix were &lt;= 14.3%. These results suggest excellent potential for its use as a high spatial medical imaging device, particularly in positron emission tomography (PET). (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Development of high performance Avalanche Photodiodes and dedicated analog systems for HXI/SGD detectors onboard the Astro-H mission

    T. Saito, T. Nakamori, M. Yoshino, H. Mizoma, J. Kataoka, K. Kawakami, Y. Yatsu, M. Ohno, K. Goto, Y. Hanabata, H. Takahashi, Y. Fukazawa, M. Sasano, S. Torii, H. Uchiyama, K. Nakazawa, K. Makishima, S. Watanabe, M. Kokubun, T. Takahashi, K. Mori, H. Tajima

    NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT   699   230 - 234  2013.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Hard X-ray Imager and Soft Gamma-ray Detector are being developed as onboard instruments for the Astro-H mission, which is scheduled for launch in 2014. In both detectors, EGO scintillators play key roles in achieving high sensitivity in low Earth orbit (LEO), by generating active veto signals to reject cosmic-ray events and gamma-ray backgrounds from radio-activated detector materials. In order to maximize background rejection power, it is also important to minimize the energy threshold of this shield. As a readout sensor of weak scintillation light from a number of EGO crystals in a complicated detector system, high performance, reverse-type Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs), with an effective area of 10 x 10 mm(2) are being employed, instead of bulky photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Another advantage of using APDs is their low power consumption, although the relatively low gain of APDs (compared to conventional PMTs) requires dedicated analog circuits for noise suppression. In this paper, we report on the development and performance of APD detectors specifically designed for the Astro-H mission. In addition to APD performance, various environmental tests, including radiation hardness and qualification thermal cycling, will be described in detail. Moreover, a dedicated charge sensitive amplifier and analog filters are newly developed and tested here to optimize the performance of APDs to activate fast veto signals within a few is from the EGO trigger. We will also report on overall performance testing of a prototype EGO detector system that mimics the data acquisition system onboard Astro-H. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Development of a dual-sided readout DOI-PET module using large-area monolithic mppc-arrays

    Aya Kishimoto, Jun Kataoka, Takuya Kato, Takamasa Miura, Takeshi Nakamori, Kei Kamada, Shigeyuki Nakamura, Kenichi Sato, Yoshitaka Ishikawa, Kazuhisa Yamamura, Nobuyuki Kawabata, Seiichi Yamamoto

    IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science   60 ( 1 ) 38 - 43  2013

     View Summary

    We are proposing a novel design for a module with depth of interaction (DOI) capability for gamma rays by measuring the pulse-height ratio of double-sided Multi-Pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs) coupled at both ends of a scintillation crystal block. Thanks to newly developed monolithic MPPC arrays consisting of 4 × 4 channels with a three-side buttable package, the module is very thin and compact, thereby enabling less dead space between each module when arranged into a fully designed gantry. To demonstrate our concept of a DOI measuring technique, we first made a 1-D crystal array consisting of five Ce-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 (Ce:GAGG) cubic crystals measuring 3× 3× 3\\mm3 in size, separated by a layer of air approximately 10 μ m-thick. When the light signals output from both ends are read with the 3× 3 mm2 MPPCs, the position of each crystal is clearly distinguished. The same measurements were also made using Ce-doped (Lu,Y)2(SiO4)O(Ce:LYSO), achieving a similarly good separation. We then fabricated thin Ce:GAGG 2-D crystal arrays consisting of two types: [A] 4 × 4 matrix of 3× 3× 3mm} 3 pixels, and [B] 10 × 10 matrix of 0.8× 0.8× 5 mm3 pixels, with each pixel divided by a BaSO4 reflector 0.2 mm-thick. Then four arrays are laid on top of each other facing the DOI direction through a layer of air 10 μm-thick. We demonstrated that the 3-D position of each Ce:GAGG pixel is clearly distinguished in both the 2-D and DOI directions for type A and B when illuminated by 662 keV gamma rays. Average energy resolutions of 9.8 ± 0.8% and 11.8 ± 1.3% were obtained for types A and B, respectively. These results suggest that our proposed method is simple and offers promise in achieving both excellent spatial and energy resolutions for future medical imaging, particularly in positron emission tomography (PET). © 1963-2012 IEEE.

    DOI

  • Development of a dual-sided readout DOI-PET module using large-area monolithic mppc-arrays

    Aya Kishimoto, Jun Kataoka, Takuya Kato, Takamasa Miura, Takeshi Nakamori, Kei Kamada, Shigeyuki Nakamura, Kenichi Sato, Yoshitaka Ishikawa, Kazuhisa Yamamura, Nobuyuki Kawabata, Seiichi Yamamoto

    IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science   60 ( 1 ) 38 - 43  2013

     View Summary

    We are proposing a novel design for a module with depth of interaction (DOI) capability for gamma rays by measuring the pulse-height ratio of double-sided Multi-Pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs) coupled at both ends of a scintillation crystal block. Thanks to newly developed monolithic MPPC arrays consisting of 4 × 4 channels with a three-side buttable package, the module is very thin and compact, thereby enabling less dead space between each module when arranged into a fully designed gantry. To demonstrate our concept of a DOI measuring technique, we first made a 1-D crystal array consisting of five Ce-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 (Ce:GAGG) cubic crystals measuring 3× 3× 3\\mm3 in size, separated by a layer of air approximately 10 μ m-thick. When the light signals output from both ends are read with the 3× 3 mm2 MPPCs, the position of each crystal is clearly distinguished. The same measurements were also made using Ce-doped (Lu,Y)2(SiO4)O(Ce:LYSO), achieving a similarly good separation. We then fabricated thin Ce:GAGG 2-D crystal arrays consisting of two types: [A] 4 × 4 matrix of 3× 3× 3mm} 3 pixels, and [B] 10 × 10 matrix of 0.8× 0.8× 5 mm3 pixels, with each pixel divided by a BaSO4 reflector 0.2 mm-thick. Then four arrays are laid on top of each other facing the DOI direction through a layer of air 10 μm-thick. We demonstrated that the 3-D position of each Ce:GAGG pixel is clearly distinguished in both the 2-D and DOI directions for type A and B when illuminated by 662 keV gamma rays. Average energy resolutions of 9.8 ± 0.8% and 11.8 ± 1.3% were obtained for types A and B, respectively. These results suggest that our proposed method is simple and offers promise in achieving both excellent spatial and energy resolutions for future medical imaging, particularly in positron emission tomography (PET). © 1963-2012 IEEE.

    DOI

  • Binary millisecond pulsar discovery via gamma-ray pulsations

    H.J. Pletsch, L. Guillemot, H. Fehrmann, B. Allen, M. Kramer, C. Aulbert, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. De Angelis, W.B. Atwood, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, A.W. Borgland, E. Bottacini, T.J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, E. Charles, R.C.G. Chaves, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, F. D'Ammando, C.D. Dermer, S.W. Digel, P.S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Favuzzi, E.C. Ferrara, A. Franckowiak, Y. Fukazawa, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, P.R. Den Hartog, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, A.B. Hill, X. Hou, R.E. Hughes, G. Jóhannesson, M.S. Jackson, T. Jogler, A.S. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, J. Kataoka, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, S. Larsson, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, F. Massaro, M. Mayer, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, J. Mehault, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, R. Nemmen, E. Nuss, M. Ohno, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, M. Orienti, E. Orlando, F. De Palma, D. Paneque, J.S. Perkins, F. Piron, G. Pivato, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, P.S. Ray, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, S. Ritz, R.W. Romani, C. Romoli, D.A. Sanchez, P.M. Saz Parkinson, A. Schulz, C. Sgrò, E. Do Couto E Silva, E.J. Siskind, D.A. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, M. Tinivella, E. Troja, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, G. Vianello, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, M. Wood, Z. Yang, S. Zimmer

    Science   338 ( 6112 ) 1314 - 1317  2012.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Millisecond pulsars, old neutron stars spun up by accreting matter from a companion star, can reach high rotation rates of hundreds of revolutions per second. Until now, all such "recycled"rotation-powered pulsars have been detected by their spin-modulated radio emission. In a computing-intensive blind search of gamma-ray data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (with partial constraints from optical data), we detected a 2.5-millisecond pulsar, PSR J1311-3430. This unambiguously explains a formerly unidentified gamma-ray source that had been a decade-long enigma, confirming previous conjectures. The pulsar is in a circular orbit with an orbital period of only 93 minutes, the shortest of any spin-powered pulsar binary ever found.

    DOI

  • The imprint of the extragalactic background light in the gamma-ray spectra of blazars

    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, P. Schady, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, R. Bellazzini, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, A.W. Borgland, E. Bottacini, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, R.C.G. Chaves, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, G. Chiaro, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, F. D'Ammando, F. De Palma, C.D. Dermer, S.W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, A. Domínguez, P.S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, W.B. Focke, A. Franckowiak, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, J.E. Grove, S. Guiriec, M. Gustafsson, D. Hadasch, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, M.S. Jackson, T. Jogler, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, S. Larsson, L. Latronico, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, J. Mehault, P.F. Michelson, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, A. Tramacere, E. Nuss, J. Greiner, M. Ohno, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, M. Orienti, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, D. Paneque, J.S. Perkins, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, G. Pivato, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, S. Razzaque, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, L.C. Reyes, S. Ritz, A. Rau, C. Romoli, M. Roth, M. Sánchez-Conde, D.A. Sanchez, J.D. Scargle, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, Ł. Stawarz, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, M. Tinivella, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, E. Troja, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, G. Vianello, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, M. Wood

    Science   338 ( 6111 ) 1190 - 1192  2012.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The light emitted by stars and accreting compact objects through the history of the universe is encoded in the intensity of the extragalactic background light (EBL). Knowledge of the EBL is important to understand the nature of star formation and galaxy evolution, but direct measurements of the EBL are limited by galactic and other foreground emissions. Here, we report an absorption feature seen in the combined spectra of a sample of gamma-ray blazars out to a redshift of z ∼ 1.6. This feature is caused by attenuation of gamma rays by the EBL at optical to ultraviolet frequencies and allowed us to measure the EBL flux density in this frequency band.

    DOI

  • The fermi large area telescope on orbit: Event classification, instrument response functions, and calibration

    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Albert, A. Allafort, W. B. Atwood, M. Axelsson, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, E. Bissaldi, R. D. Blandford, E. D. Bloom, J. R. Bogart, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland, E. Bottacini, A. Bouvier, T. J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, T. H. Burnett, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, P. A. Caraveo, J. M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, Ö Çelik, E. Charles, R. C.G. Chaves, A. Chekhtman, C. C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, R. Corbet, S. Cutini, F. D'Ammando, D. S. Davis, A. De Angelis, M. Deklotz, F. De Palma, C. D. Dermer, S. W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P. S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, R. Dubois, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, E. C. Ferrara, W. B. Focke, P. Fortin, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I. A. Grenier, J. E. Grove, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, D. Horan, X. Hou, R. E. Hughes, M. S. Jackson, T. Jogler, G. Jóhannesson, R. P. Johnson, T. J. Johnson, W. N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, S. Larsson, L. Latronico, C. Lavalley, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo

    Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series   203 ( 1 )  2012.11

     View Summary

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy γ-ray telescope, covering the energy range from 20MeV to more than 300GeV. During the first years of the mission, the LAT team has gained considerable insight into the in-flight performance of the instrument. Accordingly, we have updated the analysis used to reduce LAT data for public release as well as the instrument response functions (IRFs), the description of the instrument performance provided for data analysis. In this paper, we describe the effects that motivated these updates. Furthermore, we discuss how we originally derived IRFs from Monte Carlo simulations and later corrected those IRFs for discrepancies observed between flight and simulated data. We also give details of the validations performed using flight data and quantify the residual uncertainties in the IRFs. Finally, we describe techniques the LAT team has developed to propagate those uncertainties into estimates of the systematic errors on common measurements such as fluxes and spectra of astrophysical sources. © 2012 The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Development of a MPPC-based DOI-PET module with submillimeter 3-D resolution

    Kishimoto, A, Kataoka, J, Kato, T, Miura, T, Nakamori, T, Kamada, K, Nakamura, S, Sato, K, Ishikawa, Y, Ymamura, K, Yamamoto, S

    2012 IEEE NSS/MIC Conference Record     3128 - 3133  2012.10

     View Summary

    We are proposing a novel design for a module with depth of interaction (DOI) capability for gamma rays by measuring the pulse-height ratio of double-sided Multi-Pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs) coupled at both ends of a scintillation crystal block. Thanks to newly developed monolithic MPPC arrays consisting of 4×4 channels with a three-side buttable package, the module is very thin and compact, thereby enabling less dead space between each module when arranged into a fully designed gantry. To demonstrate our concept of a DOI measuring technique, we first made a 1-D crystal array consisting of five Ce-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 (Ce:GAGG) cubic crystals measuring 3×3×3 mm3 in size, separated by a layer of air. When the light signals output from both ends are read with the MPPCs, the position of each crystal is clearly distinguished with a spatial uncertainty of 0.48±0.03 mm. For 3-D measurements, we then fabricated three different type arrays: [A] 4×4×4 matrix of 3×3×3 mm3 pixels, [B] 5×5×5 matrix of 2×2×2 mm 3 pixels, and [C] 10×10×10 matrix of 1×1×1 mm3 pixels, with each pixel divided by a BaSO4 reflector in the 2-D direction and by a layer of air in the DOI direction. We demonstrated that the 3-D position of each Ce:GAGG pixel was clearly distinguished when illuminated by 662 keV gamma rays uniformly. Average energy resolutions of 9.8±0.8 %, 9.8±0.9 %, and 13.2±1.7 % were obtained for types A, B and C, respectively. These results suggest that our proposed method is simple and offers promise in achieving 1 mm 3-D spatial resolution for future medical imaging, particularly in positron emission tomography (PET). © 2012 IEEE.

    DOI

  • High position resolution gamma-ray imagers consisting of a monolithic MPPC array with submillimeter pixelized scintillator crystals

    Kato, T, Kataoka, J, Nakamori, T, Kishimoto, A, Yamamoto, S, Sato, K, Ishikawa, Y, Yamamura, K, Nakamura, S, Kawabata, N, Ikeda, H, Kamada, K

    2012 IEEE NSS/MIC Conference Record     3146 - 3152  2012.10

     View Summary

    We report on the development of two versatile, high spatial resolution gamma-ray imagers for medical imaging. One is a compact gamma-ray camera, the other is a tweezers type coincidence imaging system. These applications consisting of a large-area monolithic Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) and submillimeter pixelized scintillator matrices. The MPPC array has 4×4 channels with a three-side buttable, very compact package. Each channel has a photosensitive area of 3×3 mm2 and 3600 Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes (APD). For a typical operational gain of 7.5×105 at + 20 degrees, gain fluctuation over the entire MPPC device is only ±5.6%, and dark count rates (as measured at the 1 p.e. level) amount to ≤400 kcps per channel. We particularly selected Ce-doped (Lu,Y) 2(SiO4)O (Ce:LYSO) and a brand-new scintillator, Ce-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 (Ce:GAGG) due to their high light yield and density. To improve the spatial resolution, these scintillators were fabricated to 22×22 or 15×15 matrices of 0.5×0.5 mm2 pixels. These scintillator matrices were coupled to the MPPC array with an acrylic light guide with 1 mm thick, and signals were read out using the charge division resistor network, which compiles signals into four position-encoded analog outputs. The spatial resolution of 1.2 mm was achieved with the compact gamma-ray camera using collimated 57Co source, and a radiography image of a bearing was successfully obtained. On the other hand, the spatial resolution of 1.1 mm was achieved with the coincidence imaging system using a 22Na source. Furthermore the experimental measurements for a PET scanner was performed, and the spatial resolution of 0.91 mm was achieved. These results suggest that the gamma-ray imagers has excellent potential for their uses as a high spatial medical imaging, and also be promising for positron emission tomography (PET). © 2012 IEEE.

    DOI

  • Fermi observations of γ-ray emission from the moon

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, W.B. Atwoo, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, E. Bottacini, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, F. D'Ammando, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, C.D. Dermer, S.W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, R. Dubois, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, G.A. Gomez-Vargas, I.A. Grenier, J.E. Grove, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, E. Hays, A.B. Hill, D. Horan, X. Hou, R.E. Hughes, G. Iafrate, M.S. Jackson, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, S. Larsson, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, J. Mehault, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, M. Naumann-Godo, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, M. Ohno, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, M. Orienti, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pierbattista, F. Piron, G. Pivato, H. Poon, T.A. Porter, D. Prokhorov, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, S. Razzaque, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, L.S. Rochester, M. Roth, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, D.A. Sanchez, C. Sbarra, T.L. Schalk, C. Sgrò, G.H. Share, E.J. Siskind, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, Ł. Stawarz, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.G. Thayer, J.B. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, M. Tinivella, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, E. Troja, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, G. Vianello, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, D.L. Wood, K.S. Wood, Z. Yang, S. Zimmer

    Astrophysical Journal   758 ( 2 )  2012.10  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report on the detection of high-energy γ-ray emission from the Moon during the first 24 months of observations by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). This emission comes from particle cascades produced by cosmic-ray (CR) nuclei and electrons interacting with the lunar surface. The differential spectrum of the Moon is soft and can be described as a log-parabolic function with an effective cutoff at 2-3GeV, while the average integral flux measured with the LAT from the beginning of observations in 2008 August to the end of 2010 August is F(>cm-2s-1. This flux is about a factor 2-3 higher than that observed between 1991 and 1994 by the EGRET experiment on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, F(>100 MeV) ≈ 5 × 10-7cm-2s-1, when solar activity was relatively high. The higher γ-ray flux measured by Fermi is consistent with the deep solar minimum conditions during the first 24 months of the mission, which reduced effects of heliospheric modulation, and thus increased the heliospheric flux of Galactic CRs. A detailed comparison of the light curve with McMurdo Neutron Monitor rates suggests a correlation of the trends. The Moon and the Sun are so far the only known bright emitters of γ-rays with fast celestial motion. Their paths across the sky are projected onto the Galactic center and high Galactic latitudes as well as onto other areas crowded with high-energy γ-ray sources. Analysis of the lunar and solar emission may thus be important for studies of weak and transient sources near the ecliptic. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • TOWARD IDENTIFYING THE UNASSOCIATED GAMMA-RAY SOURCE 1FGL J1311.7-3429 WITH X-RAY AND OPTICAL OBSERVATIONS

    J. Kataoka, Y. Yatsu, N. Kawai, Y. Urata, C. C. Cheung, Y. Takahashi, K. Maeda, T. Totani, R. Makiya, H. Hanayama, T. Miyaji, A. Tsai

    ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL   757 ( 2 ) 176 - 184  2012.10  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We present deep optical and X-ray follow-up observations of the bright unassociated Fermi-LAT gamma-ray source 1FGL J1311.7-3429. The source was already known as an unidentified EGRET source (3EG J1314-3431, EGR J1314-3417), hence its nature has remained uncertain for the past two decades. For the putative counterpart, we detected a quasi-sinusoidal optical modulation of Delta m similar to 2 mag with a period of similar or equal to 1.5 hr in the Rc, r', and g' bands. Moreover, we found that the amplitude of the modulation and peak intensity changed by greater than or similar to 1 mag and similar to 0.5 mag, respectively, over our total six nights of observations from 2012 March to May. Combined with Swift UVOT data, the optical-UV spectrum is consistent with a blackbody temperature, kT similar or equal to 1 eV and the emission volume radius R-bb similar or equal to 1.5 x 10(4) d(kpc) km (d(kpc) is the distance to the source in units of 1 kpc). In contrast, deep Suzaku observations conducted in 2009 and 2011 revealed strong X-ray flares with a light curve characterized with a power spectrum density of P(f) proportional to f(-2.0 +/- 0.4), but the folded X-ray light curves suggest an orbital modulation also in X-rays. Together with the non-detection of a radio counterpart, and significant curved spectrum and non-detection of variability in gamma-rays, the source may be the second "radio-quiet" gamma-ray emitting millisecond pulsar candidate after 1FGL J2339.7-0531, although the origin of flaring X-ray and optical variability remains an open question.

    DOI

  • TOWARD IDENTIFYING THE UNASSOCIATED GAMMA-RAY SOURCE 1FGL J1311.7-3429 WITH X-RAY AND OPTICAL OBSERVATIONS

    J. Kataoka, Y. Yatsu, N. Kawai, Y. Urata, C. C. Cheung, Y. Takahashi, K. Maeda, T. Totani, R. Makiya, H. Hanayama, T. Miyaji, A. Tsai

    ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL   757 ( 2 )  2012.10

     View Summary

    We present deep optical and X-ray follow-up observations of the bright unassociated Fermi-LAT gamma-ray source 1FGL J1311.7-3429. The source was already known as an unidentified EGRET source (3EG J1314-3431, EGR J1314-3417), hence its nature has remained uncertain for the past two decades. For the putative counterpart, we detected a quasi-sinusoidal optical modulation of Delta m similar to 2 mag with a period of similar or equal to 1.5 hr in the Rc, r', and g' bands. Moreover, we found that the amplitude of the modulation and peak intensity changed by greater than or similar to 1 mag and similar to 0.5 mag, respectively, over our total six nights of observations from 2012 March to May. Combined with Swift UVOT data, the optical-UV spectrum is consistent with a blackbody temperature, kT similar or equal to 1 eV and the emission volume radius R-bb similar or equal to 1.5 x 10(4) d(kpc) km (d(kpc) is the distance to the source in units of 1 kpc). In contrast, deep Suzaku observations conducted in 2009 and 2011 revealed strong X-ray flares with a light curve characterized with a power spectrum density of P(f) proportional to f(-2.0 +/- 0.4), but the folded X-ray light curves suggest an orbital modulation also in X-rays. Together with the non-detection of a radio counterpart, and significant curved spectrum and non-detection of variability in gamma-rays, the source may be the second "radio-quiet" gamma-ray emitting millisecond pulsar candidate after 1FGL J2339.7-0531, although the origin of flaring X-ray and optical variability remains an open question.

    DOI

  • Gamma-ray observations of the orion molecular clouds with the fermi large area telescope

    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, E. Antolini, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, E. Bottacini, T.J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, C. Cecchi, A. Chekhtman, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, F. D'Ammando, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, C.D. Dermer, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, T. Enoto, L. Falletti, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, E.C. Ferrara, W.B. Focke, Y. Fukazawa, Y. Fukui, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, M. Hayashida, K. Hayashi, D. Horan, X. Hou, R.E. Hughes, M.S. Jackson, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, S. Larsson, S.-H. Lee, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, K. Makishima, M.N. Mazziotta, J. Mehault, W. Mitthumsiri, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, M. Naumann-Godo, S. Nishino, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, M. Ohno, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, M. Orienti, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pierbattista, F. Piron, G. Pivato, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, M. Roth, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, A.W. Strong, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.G. Thayer, J.B. Thayer, O. Tibolla, M. Tinivella, D.F. Torres, A. Tramacere, E. Troja, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, G. Vianello, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, Z. Yang, S. Zimmer

    Astrophysical Journal   756 ( 1 )  2012.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report on the gamma-ray observations of giant molecular clouds Orion A and B with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The gamma-ray emission in the energy band between 100MeV and 100GeV is predicted to trace the gas mass distribution in the clouds through nuclear interactions between the Galactic cosmic rays (CRs) and interstellar gas. The gamma-ray production cross-section for the nuclear interaction is known to 10% precision which makes the LAT a powerful tool to measure the gas mass column density distribution of molecular clouds for a known CR intensity. We present here such distributions for Orion A and B, and correlate them with those of the velocity-integrated CO intensity (W CO) at a 1° × 1°pixel level. The correlation is found to be linear over a W CO range of ∼10-fold when divided in three regions, suggesting penetration of nuclear CRs to most of the cloud volumes. The W CO-to-mass conversion factor, X CO, is found to be ∼2.3 × 1020 cm-2(K km s-1)-1 for the high-longitude part of Orion A (l > ∼212°), 1.7times higher than ∼1.3 × 10 20 found for the rest of Orion A and B. We interpret the apparent high X CO in the high-longitude region of Orion A in the light of recent works proposing a nonlinear relation between H2 and CO densities in the diffuse molecular gas. W CO decreases faster than the H2 column density in the region making the gas "darker" to W CO. © © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..

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  • Development of a micro-satellite TSUBAME for X-ray polarimetry of GRBs

    Yatsu, Y, Hayashi, M, Kawakami, K, Tokoyoda, K, Enomoto, T, Toizumi, T, Kawai, N, Ishizaka, K, Muta, A, Morishita, H, Matsunaga, S, Nakamori, T, Kataoka, J, Kubo, S

    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union   279 ( S279 ) 423 - 424  2012.09

     View Summary

    Hard X-ray polarization is believed to be one of the most promising methods to investigate the physical processes just around the central engines by constraining the magnetic environment. For this purpose we are now developing a compact and highly sensitive hard X-ray polarimeter aboard a university class micro-satellite TSUBAME. We are now developing the flight model of the satellite aiming for the launch in late 2012 from Russia. © 2012 International Astronomical Union.

    DOI

  • GeV observations of star-forming galaxies with the fermi large area telescope

    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, A.N. Cillis, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, F. De Palma, C.D. Dermer, S.W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, P. Fortin, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, S. Guiriec, M. Gustafsson, D. Hadasch, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, R.E. Hughes, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G.M. Madejski, P. Martin, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, P.F. Michelson, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, S. Nishino, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, M. Ohno, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, M. Ozaki, D. Parent, M. Persic, M. Pesce-Rollins, V. Petrosian, M. Pierbattista, F. Piron, G. Pivato, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, S. Ritz, M. Roth, C. Sbarra, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, L. Stawarz, A.W. Strong, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, L. Tibaldo, M. Tinivella, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, E. Troja, Y. Uchiyama, J. Vandenbroucke, G. Vianello, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, M. Wood, Z. Yang

    Astrophysical Journal   755 ( 2 )  2012.08  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Recent detections of the starburst galaxies M82 and NGC253 by gamma-ray telescopes suggest that galaxies rapidly forming massive stars are more luminous at gamma-ray energies compared to their quiescent relatives. Building upon those results, we examine a sample of 69 dwarf, spiral, and luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies at photon energies 0.1-100 GeV using 3years of data collected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). Measured fluxes from significantly detected sources and flux upper limits for the remaining galaxies are used to explore the physics of cosmic rays in galaxies. We find further evidence for quasi-linear scaling relations between gamma-ray luminosity and both radio continuum luminosity and total infrared luminosity which apply both to quiescent galaxies of the Local Group and low-redshift starburst galaxies (conservative P-values ≲ 0.05 accounting for statistical and systematic uncertainties). The normalizations of these scaling relations correspond to luminosity ratios of log (L 0.1-100 GeV/L 1.4 GHz) = 1.7 ± 0.1 (statistical) ± 0.2(dispersion) and log (L 0.1-100 GeV/L 8-1000 μm) = -4.3 ± 0.1 (statistical) ± 0.2(dispersion) for a galaxy with a star formation rate of 1 M yr-1, assuming a Chabrier initial mass function. Using the relationship between infrared luminosity and gamma-ray luminosity, the collective intensity of unresolved star-forming galaxies at redshifts 0 < z < 2.5 above 0.1 GeV is estimated to be 0.4-2.4 × 10-6 ph cm-2 s-1 sr-1 (4%-23% of the intensity of the isotropic diffuse component measured with the LAT). We anticipate that 10 galaxies could be detected by their cosmic-ray-induced gamma-ray emission during a 10 year Fermi mission. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Fermi large area telescope study of cosmic rays and the interstellar medium in nearby molecular clouds

    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, E. Bottacini, T.J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, G. Busetto, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, F. D'Ammando, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, C.D. Dermer, S.W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, L. Falletti, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, E.C. Ferrara, W.B. Focke, Y. Fukazawa, Y. Fukui, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, K. Hayashi, D. Horan, X. Hou, R.E. Hughes, R. Itoh, M.S. Jackson, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, S. Larsson, S.-H. Lee, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, P. Martin, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, J. Mehault, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, M. Naumann-Godo, R. Nemmen, S. Nishino, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, M. Ohno, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pierbattista, F. Piron, G. Pivato, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, C. Romoli, M. Roth, T. Sada, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, D.A. Sanchez, C. Sbarra, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, A.W. Strong, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.G. Thayer, J.B. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, O. Tibolla, M. Tinivella, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, E. Troja, Y. Uchiyama, T. Uehara, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, G. Vianello, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, H. Yamamoto, Z. Yang, S. Zimmer

    Astrophysical Journal   755 ( 1 )  2012.08  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report an analysis of the interstellar γ-ray emission from the Chamaeleon, R Coronae Australis (R CrA), and Cepheus and Polaris flare regions with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. They are among the nearest molecular cloud complexes, within 300pc from the solar system. The γ-ray emission produced by interactions of cosmic rays (CRs) and interstellar gas in those molecular clouds is useful to study the CR densities and distributions of molecular gas close to the solar system. The obtained γ-ray emissivities above 250MeV are (5.9 ± 0.1stat+0.9-1.0sys) × 10-27photonss-1sr-1 H-atom-1, (10.2 ± 0.4stat+1.2-1.7sys) × 10 -27photonss-1sr-1 H-atom-1, and (9.1 ± 0.3stat+1.5-0.6sys) × 10 -27photonss-1sr-1 H-atom-1 for the Chamaeleon, R CrA, and Cepheus and Polaris flare regions, respectively. Whereas the energy dependences of the emissivities agree well with that predicted from direct CR observations at the Earth, the measured emissivities from 250MeV to 10 GeV indicate a variation of the CR density by 20% in the neighborhood of the solar system, even if we consider systematic uncertainties. The molecular mass calibrating ratio, X CO = N(H2)/W CO, is found to be (0.96 ± 0.06stat+0.15-0.12sys) × 1020 H2-moleculecm-2 (Kkms -1)-1, (0.99 ± 0.08stat+0.18-0.10sys) × 1020 H2-moleculecm -2 (Kkms-1)-1, and (0.63 ± 0.02 stat+0.09-0.07sys) × 1020 H2-moleculecm-2 (Kkms-1)-1 for the Chamaeleon, R CrA, and Cepheus and Polaris flare regions, respectively, suggesting a variation of X CO in the vicinity of the solar system. From the obtained values of X CO, the masses of molecular gas traced by W CO in the Chamaeleon, R CrA, and Cepheus and Polaris flare regions are estimated to be 5 × 103 M, 103 M, and 3.3 × 104 M ,respectively. A comparable amount of gas not traced well by standard H I and CO surveys is found in the regions investigated. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Constraining the high-energy emission from gamma-ray bursts with Fermi

    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, L. Baldini, G. Barbiellini, M.G. Baring, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, E. Bottacini, A. Bouvier, M. Brigida, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, S. Cutini, F. D'Ammando, F. De Palma, C.D. Dermer, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, C. Favuzzi, Y. Fukazawa, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, J. Granot, I.A. Grenier, J.E. Grove, D. Hadasch, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, E. Hays, D. Horan, G. Jóhannesson, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, D. Kocevski, M. Kuss, J. Lande, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, M.N. Mazziotta, J. McEnery, S. McGlynn, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, M.E. Monzani, E. Moretti, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, M. Naumann-Godo, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Nymark, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, G. Pivato, J.L. Racusin, S. Rainò, R. Rando, S. Razzaque, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, S. Ritz, F. Ryde, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, E. Sonbas, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, M. Stamatikos, Ł. Stawarz, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.G. Thayer, J.B. Thayer, L. Tibaldo, M. Tinivella, G. Tosti, T. Uehara, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, G. Vianello, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, V. Connaughton, M.S. Briggs, S. Guirec, A. Goldstein, J.M. Burgess, P.N. Bhat, E. Bissaldi, A. Camero-Arranz, J. Fishman, G. Fitzpatrick, S. Foley, D. Gruber, P. Jenke, R.M. Kippen, C. Kouveliotou, S. McBreen, C. Meegan, W.S. Paciesas, R. Preece, A. Rau, D. Tierney, A.J. Van, Der Horst, A. Von Kienlin, C. Wilson-Hodge, S. Xiong

    Astrophysical Journal   754 ( 2 )  2012.08  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We examine 288 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope's Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) that fell within the field of view of Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT) during the first 2.5years of observations, which showed no evidence for emission above 100MeV. We report the photon flux upper limits in the 0.1-10GeV range during the prompt emission phase as well as for fixed 30s and 100s integrations starting from the trigger time for each burst. We compare these limits with the fluxes that would be expected from extrapolations of spectral fits presented in the first GBM spectral catalog and infer that roughly half of the GBM-detected bursts either require spectral breaks between the GBM and LAT energy bands or have intrinsically steeper spectra above the peak of the νF ν spectra (E pk). In order to distinguish between these two scenarios, we perform joint GBM and LAT spectral fits to the 30 brightest GBM-detected bursts and find that a majority of these bursts are indeed softer above E pk than would be inferred from fitting the GBM data alone. Approximately 20% of this spectroscopic subsample show statistically significant evidence for a cutoff in their high-energy spectra, which if assumed to be due to γγ attenuation, places limits on the maximum Lorentz factor associated with the relativistic outflow producing this emission. All of these latter bursts have maximum Lorentz factor estimates that are well below the minimum Lorentz factors calculated for LAT-detected GRBs, revealing a wide distribution in the bulk Lorentz factor of GRB outflows and indicating that LAT-detected bursts may represent the high end of this distribution. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..

    DOI

  • Large size single crystal growth of Lu3Al5O12:Pr and their uniformity of scintillation properties

    Kei Kamada, Takayuki Yanagida, Takanori Endo, Kousuke Tsutumi, Masao Yoshino, Jun Kataoka, Yoshiyuki Usuki, Yutaka Fujimoto, Akihiro Fukabori, Akira Yoshikawa

    JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH   352 ( 1 ) 91 - 94  2012.08  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Pr-doped Lu3Al5O12 (Pr:LuAG) single crystals were grown by the Czochralski method. The crystal was seeded-grown in the [100] direction. Dimensions up to 100 mm in length and 92 mm in diameter were achieved without cracking. Using 10 x 10 x 10 mm size sample coupled with photomultiplier (Hamamatsu R3998), energy resolution of 4.6% at 662 keV was achieved. Uniformity of light yield and energy resolution was also evaluated in whole crystal. The deviations of light output, energy resolution, and decay time were +/- 7.9%, 7.2%, and 4.8%, respectively. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • A statistical approach to recognizing source classes for unassociated sources in the first Fermi-lat catalog

    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, E. Antolini, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, T.J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, T.H. Burnett, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, A.W. Chen, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, A. De Angelis, M.E. Decesar, A. De Luca, F. De Palma, C.D. Dermer, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, R. Dubois, T. Enoto, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, E.C. Ferrara, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, M. Gustafsson, D. Hadasch, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, S.E. Healey, A.B. Hill, D. Horan, X. Hou, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, T.J. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G.M. Madejski, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, J. Mehault, P.F. Michelson, R.P. Mignani, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, M. Naumann-Godo, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pierbattista, F. Piron, G. Pivato, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, P.S. Ray, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, R.W. Romani, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, D. Salvetti, P.M.S. Parkinson, T.L. Schalk, C. Sgrò, M.S. Shaw, E.J. Siskind, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.G. Thayer, J.B. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, O. Tibolla, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, E. Troja, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, G. Vianello, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, E. Wallace, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, M.T. Wolff, D.L. Wood, K.S. Wood, Z. Yang, S. Zimmer

    Astrophysical Journal   753 ( 1 )  2012.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) First Source Catalog (1FGL) provided spatial, spectral, and temporal properties for a large number of γ-ray sources using a uniform analysis method. After correlating with the most-complete catalogs of source types known to emit γ rays, 630 of these sources are "unassociated" (i.e., have no obvious counterparts at other wavelengths). Here, we employ two statistical analyses of the primary γ-ray characteristics for these unassociated sources in an effort to correlate their γ-ray properties with the active galactic nucleus (AGN) and pulsar populations in 1FGL. Based on the correlation results, we classify 221 AGN-like and 134 pulsar-like sources in the 1FGL unassociated sources. The results of these source "classifications" appear to match the expected source distributions, especially at high Galactic latitudes. While useful for planning future multiwavelength follow-up observations, these analyses use limited inputs, and their predictions should not be considered equivalent to "probable source classes" for these sources. We discuss multiwavelength results and catalog cross-correlations to date, and provide new source associations for 229 Fermi-LAT sources that had no association listed in the 1FGL catalog. By validating the source classifications against these new associations, we find that the new association matches the predicted source class in ∼80% of the sources. © 2012 The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • VLBI and single-dish monitoring of 3C 84 for the period 2009-2011

    H. Nagai, M. Orienti, M. Kino, K. Suzuki, G. Giovannini, A. Doi, K. Asada, M. Giroletti, J. Kataoka, F. D'Ammando, M. Inoue, A. Lähteenmäki, M. Tornikoski, J. Léon-Tavares, S. Kameno, U. Bach

    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters   423 ( 1 )  2012.06

     View Summary

    The radio galaxy 3C 84 is a representative of γ -ray-bright misaligned active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and one of the best laboratories to study the radio properties of the subparsec jet in connection with the γ -ray emission. In order to identify possible radio counterparts of γ -ray emissions in 3C 84, we study the change in structure within the central 1 pc and the light curve of subparsec-sized components C1, C2 and C3. We search for any correlation between changes in the radio components and the γ -ray flares by making use of the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and single-dish data. Throughout the radio monitoring spanning over two GeV γ -ray flares detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope and theMAGIC Cherenkov Telescope during 2009 April-May and 2010 June-August, the total flux density in the radio band increases on average. This flux increase mostly originates in C3. Although γ -ray flares span the time-scale of days to weeks, no clear correlation with the radio light curve on this time-scale is found. No new prominent components and change in morphology associated with the γ -ray flares are found on VLBI images. © 2012 The Authors. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. © 2012 RAS.

    DOI

  • Multi-wavelength observations of blazar AO 0235+164 in the 2008-2009 flaring state

    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, R. Bellazzini, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, E. Bottacini, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, S. Cutini, F. D'Ammando, F. De Palma, C.D. Dermer, E. Do Couto E. Silva, P.S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, R. Dubois, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, E.C. Ferrara, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, L. Fuhrmann, Y. Fukazawa, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, M. Hayashida, R.E. Hughes, R. Itoh, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, S. Larsson, S.-H. Lee, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G.M. Madejski, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, J. Mehault, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, M. Naumann-Godo, S. Nishino, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, V. Pelassa, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pierbattista, F. Piron, G. Pivato, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, D. Rastawicki, M. Razzano, A. Readhead, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, L.C. Reyes, J.L. Richards, C. Sbarra, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, A. Szostek, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.G. Thayer, J.B. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, M. Tinivella, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, E. Troja, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, G. Vianello, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, Z. Yang, S. Zimmer, R. Moderski, K. Nalewajko, M. Sikora, M. Villata, C.M. Raiteri, H.D. Aller, M.F. Aller, A.A. Arkharov, E. Benítez, A. Berdyugin, D.A. Blinov, M. Boettcher, O.J.A, Bravo Calle, C.S. Buemi, D. Carosati, W.P. Chen, C. Diltz, A. Dipaola, M. Dolci, N.V. Efimova, E. Forné, M.A. Gurwell, J. Heidt, D. Hiriart, B. Jordan, G. Kimeridze, T.S. Konstantinova, E.N. Kopatskaya, E. Koptelova, O.M. Kurtanidze, A. Lähteenmäki, E.G. Larionova, L.V. Larionova, V.M. Larionov, P. Leto, E. Lindfors, H.C. Lin, D.A. Morozova, M.G. Nikolashvili, K. Nilsson, M. Oksman, P. Roustazadeh, A. Sievers, L.A. Sigua, A. Sillanpää, T. Takahashi, L.O. Takalo, M. Tornikoski, C. Trigilio, I.S. Troitsky, G. Umana, E. Angelakis, T.P. Krichbaum, I. Nestoras, D. Riquelme, M. Krips, S. Trippe, A. Arai, K.S. Kawabata, K. Sakimoto, M. Sasada, S. Sato, M. Uemura, M. Yamanaka, M. Yoshida, T. Belloni, G. Tagliaferri, E.W. Bonning, J. Isler, C.M. Urry, E. Hoversten, A. Falcone, C. Pagani, M. Stroh

    Astrophysical Journal   751 ( 2 )  2012.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The blazar AO 0235+164 (z = 0.94) has been one of the most active objects observed by Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) since its launch in Summer 2008. In addition to the continuous coverage by Fermi, contemporaneous observations were carried out from the radio to γ-ray bands between 2008 September and 2009 February. In this paper, we summarize the rich multi-wavelength data collected during the campaign (including F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, Kanata, OVRO, RXTE, SMARTS, Swift, and other instruments), examine the cross-correlation between the light curves measured in the different energy bands, and interpret the resulting spectral energy distributions in the context of well-known blazar emission models. We find that the γ-ray activity is well correlated with a series of near-IR/optical flares, accompanied by an increase in the optical polarization degree. On the other hand, the X-ray light curve shows a distinct 20 day high state of unusually soft spectrum, which does not match the extrapolation of the optical/UV synchrotron spectrum. We tentatively interpret this feature as the bulk Compton emission by cold electrons contained in the jet, which requires an accretion disk corona with an effective covering factor of 19% at a distance of 100 R g. We model the broadband spectra with a leptonic model with external radiation dominated by the infrared emission from the dusty torus. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Expected radiation damage of reverse-type APDs for the Astro-H mission

    J. Kataoka, T. Saito, M. Yoshino, H. Mizoma, T. Nakamori, Y. Yatsu, Y. Ishikawa, Y. Matsunaga, H. Tajima, M. Kokubun, P. G. Edwards

    JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION   7 ( 6 )  2012.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Scheduled for launch in 2014, Astro-H is the sixth Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite mission. More than 60 silicon avalanche photodiodes (Si-APDs; hereafter APDs) will be used to read out BGO scintillators, which are implemented to generate a veto signal to reduce background contamination for the hard X-ray imager (HXI) and a soft gamma-ray detector (SGD). To date, however, APDs have rarely been used in space experiments. Moreover, strict environmental tests are necessary to guarantee APD performance for missions expected to extend beyond five years. The radiation hardness of APDs, as for most semiconductors, is particularly crucial, since radiation in the space environment is severe. In this paper, we present the results of radiation tests conducted on reverse-type APDs (provided by Hamamatsu Photonics) irradiated by gamma rays (Co-60) and 150 MeV protons. We show that, even under the same 100 Gy dose, high energy protons can cause displacement (bulk) damage in the depletion region and possibly change the activation energy, whereas gamma-ray irradiation is less prone to cause damage, because ionization damage dominates only the surface region. We also present quantitative guidance on how to estimate APD noise deterioration over a range of temperatures and radiation doses. As a practical example, we discuss the expected degradation of the BGO energy threshold for the generation of veto signals, following several years of Astro-H operation in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), and directly compare it to experimental results obtained using a small BGO crystal.

    DOI

  • Expected radiation damage of reverse-type APDs for the Astro-H mission

    J. Kataoka, T. Saito, M. Yoshino, H. Mizoma, T. Nakamori, Y. Yatsu, Y. Ishikawa, Y. Matsunaga, H. Tajima, M. Kokubun, P. G. Edwards

    JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION   7 ( 6 )  2012.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Scheduled for launch in 2014, Astro-H is the sixth Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite mission. More than 60 silicon avalanche photodiodes (Si-APDs; hereafter APDs) will be used to read out BGO scintillators, which are implemented to generate a veto signal to reduce background contamination for the hard X-ray imager (HXI) and a soft gamma-ray detector (SGD). To date, however, APDs have rarely been used in space experiments. Moreover, strict environmental tests are necessary to guarantee APD performance for missions expected to extend beyond five years. The radiation hardness of APDs, as for most semiconductors, is particularly crucial, since radiation in the space environment is severe. In this paper, we present the results of radiation tests conducted on reverse-type APDs (provided by Hamamatsu Photonics) irradiated by gamma rays (Co-60) and 150 MeV protons. We show that, even under the same 100 Gy dose, high energy protons can cause displacement (bulk) damage in the depletion region and possibly change the activation energy, whereas gamma-ray irradiation is less prone to cause damage, because ionization damage dominates only the surface region. We also present quantitative guidance on how to estimate APD noise deterioration over a range of temperatures and radiation doses. As a practical example, we discuss the expected degradation of the BGO energy threshold for the generation of veto signals, following several years of Astro-H operation in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), and directly compare it to experimental results obtained using a small BGO crystal.

    DOI

  • Discovery of the millisecond pulsar PSR J2043+1711 in a Fermi source with the Nançay Radio Telescope

    L. Guillemot, P. C.C. Freire, I. Cognard, T. J. Johnson, Y. Takahashi, J. Kataoka, G. Desvignes, F. Camilo, E. C. Ferrara, A. K. Harding, G. H. Janssen, M. Keith, M. Kerr, M. Kramer, D. Parent, S. M. Ransom, P. S. Ray, P. M. Saz Parkinson, D. A. Smith, B. W. Stappers, G. Theureau

    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society   422 ( 2 ) 1294 - 1305  2012.05

     View Summary

    We report the discovery of the millisecond pulsar PSR J2043+1711 in a search of a Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) source with no known associations, with the Nançay Radio Telescope. The new pulsar, confirmed with the Green Bank Telescope, has a spin period of 2.38ms, is relatively nearby (kpc) and is in a 1.48-d orbit around a low-mass companion, probably an He-type white dwarf. Using an ephemeris based on Arecibo, Nançay and Westerbork timing measurements, pulsed gamma-ray emission was detected in the data recorded by the Fermi LAT. The gamma-ray light curve and spectral properties are typical of other gamma-ray millisecond pulsars seen with Fermi. X-ray observations of the pulsar with Suzaku and the Swift X-ray Telescope yielded no detection. At 1.4GHz, we observe strong flux density variations because of interstellar diffractive scintillation; however, a sharp peak can be observed at this frequency during bright scintillation states. At 327MHz, the pulsar is detected with a much higher signal-to-noise ratio and its flux density is far more steady. However, at that frequency the Arecibo instrumentation cannot yet fully resolve the pulse profile. Despite that, our pulse time-of-arrival measurements have a post-fit residual rms of 2s. This and the expected stability of this system have made PSR J2043+1711 one of the first new Fermi-selected millisecond pulsars to be added to pulsar gravitational wave timing arrays. It has also allowed a significant measurement of relativistic delays in the times of arrival of the pulses due to the curvature of space-time near the companion, but not yet with enough precision to derive useful masses for the pulsar and the companion. Nevertheless, a mass for the pulsar between 1.7 and 2.0M ⊙ can be derived if a standard millisecond pulsar formation model is assumed. In this paper, we also present a comprehensive summary of pulsar searches in Fermi LAT sources with the Nançay Radio Telescope to date. © 2012 The Authors Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society © 2012 RAS.

    DOI

  • Fermi-LAT observations of the diffuse γ-ray emission: Implications for cosmic rays and the interstellar medium

    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, W.B. Atwood, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, T.J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, C.D. Dermer, S.W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, L. Falletti, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, E.C. Ferrara, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, D. Gaggero, F. Gargano, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, J.E. Grove, S. Guiriec, M. Gustafsson, D. Hadasch, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, D. Horan, X. Hou, R.E. Hughes, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, R.P. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, M. Naumann-Godo, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pierbattista, F. Piron, G. Pivato, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, S. Razzaque, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, A.W. Strong, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.G. Thayer, J.B. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, M. Tinivella, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, E. Troja, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, G. Vianello, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, M. Wood, Z. Yang, M. Ziegler, S. Zimmer

    Astrophysical Journal   750 ( 1 )  2012.05  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The γ-ray sky >100 MeV is dominated by the diffuse emissions from interactions of cosmic rays with the interstellar gas and radiation fields of the Milky Way. Observations of these diffuse emissions provide a tool to study cosmic-ray origin and propagation, and the interstellar medium. We present measurements from the first 21 months of the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) mission and compare with models of the diffuse γ-ray emission generated using the GALPROP code. The models are fitted to cosmic-ray data and incorporate astrophysical input for the distribution of cosmic-ray sources, interstellar gas, and radiation fields. To assess uncertainties associated with the astrophysical input, a grid of models is created by varying within observational limits the distribution of cosmic-ray sources, the size of the cosmic-ray confinement volume (halo), and the distribution of interstellar gas. An all-sky maximum-likelihood fit is used to determine the X CO factor, the ratio between integrated CO-line intensity and H2 column density, the fluxes and spectra of the γ-ray point sources from the first Fermi-LAT catalog, and the intensity and spectrum of the isotropic background including residual cosmic rays that were misclassified as γ-rays, all of which have some dependency on the assumed diffuse emission model. The models are compared on the basis of their maximum-likelihood ratios as well as spectra, longitude, and latitude profiles. We also provide residual maps for the data following subtraction of the diffuse emission models. The models are consistent with the data at high and intermediate latitudes but underpredict the data in the inner Galaxy for energies above a few GeV. Possible explanations for this discrepancy are discussed, including the contribution by undetected point-source populations and spectral variations of cosmic rays throughout the Galaxy. In the outer Galaxy, we find that the data prefer models with a flatter distribution of cosmic-ray sources, a larger cosmic-ray halo, or greater gas density than is usually assumed. Our results in the outer Galaxy are consistent with other Fermi-LAT studies of this region that used different analysis methods than employed in this paper. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Fermi large area telescope second source catalog

    P. L. Nolan, A. A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, E. Antolini, W. B. Atwood, M. Axelsson, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, A. Belfiore, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, G. F. Bignami, R. D. Blandford, E. D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, J. Bonnell, A. W. Borgland, E. Bottacini, A. Bouvier, T. J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, T. H. Burnett, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, R. Campana, B. Cañadas, A. Cannon, P. A. Caraveo, J. M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, M. Ceccanti, C. Cecchi, Ö Çelik, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C. C. Cheung, J. Chiang, R. Chipaux, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, L. R. Cominsky, J. Conrad, R. Corbet, S. Cutini, F. D'Ammando, D. S. Davis, A. De Angelis, M. E. Decesar, M. Deklotz, A. De Luca, P. R. Den Hartog, F. De Palma, C. D. Dermer, S. W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P. S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, T. Enoto, L. Escande, D. Fabiani, L. Falletti, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, E. C. Ferrara, W. B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I. A. Grenier, M. H. Grondin, J. E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, M. Gustafsson, D. Hadasch

    Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series   199 ( 2 )  2012.04

     View Summary

    We present the second catalog of high-energy γ-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), derived from data taken during the first 24months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. Source detection is based on the average flux over the 24month period. The second Fermi-LAT catalog (2FGL) includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and spectral fits in terms of power-law, exponentially cutoff power-law, or log-normal forms. Also included are flux measurements in five energy bands and light curves on monthly intervals for each source. Twelve sources in the catalog are modeled as spatially extended. We provide a detailed comparison of the results from this catalog with those from the first Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL). Although the diffuse Galactic and isotropic models used in the 2FGL analysis are improved compared to the 1FGL catalog, we attach caution flags to 162 of the sources to indicate possible confusion with residual imperfections in the diffuse model. The 2FGL catalog contains 1873 sources detected and characterized in the 100MeV to 100GeV range of which we consider 127 as being firmly identified and 1171 as being reliably associated with counterparts of known or likely γ-ray-producing source classes. © 2012 The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • SUZAKU X-RAY IMAGING OF THE EXTENDED LOBE IN THE GIANT RADIO GALAXY NGC 6251 ASSOCIATED WITH THE FERMI-LAT SOURCE 2FGL J1629.4+8236

    Y. Takeuchi, J. Kataoka, L. Stawarz, Y. Takahashi, K. Maeda, T. Nakamori, C. C. Cheung, A. Celotti, Y. Tanaka, T. Takahashi

    ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL   749 ( 1 ) 66  2012.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report the results of a Suzaku X-ray imaging study of NGC 6251, a nearby giant radio galaxy with intermediate FR I/II radio properties. Our pointing direction was centered on the gamma-ray emission peak recently discovered with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) around the position of the northwest (NW) radio lobe 15 arcmin offset from the nucleus. After subtracting two "off-source" pointings adjacent to the radio lobe and removing possible contaminants in the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer field of view, we found significant residual X-ray emission most likely diffuse in nature. The spectrum of the excess X-ray emission is well fitted by a power law with a photon index Gamma = 1.90 +/- 0.15 and a 0.5-8 keV flux of 4x10(-13) erg cm(-2) s(-1). We interpret this diffuse X-ray emission component as being due to inverse Compton upscattering of the cosmic microwave background photons by ultrarelativistic electrons within the lobe, with only a minor contribution from the beamed emission of the large-scale jet. Utilizing archival radio data for the source, we demonstrate by means of broadband spectral modeling that the gamma-ray flux of the Fermi-LAT source 2FGL J1629.4+8236 may well be accounted for by the high-energy tail of the inverse Compton continuum of the lobe. Thus, this claimed association of gamma-rays from the NW lobe of NGC 6251, together with the recent Fermi-LAT imaging of the extended lobes of Centaurus A, indicates that particles may be efficiently (re-)accelerated up to ultrarelativistic energies within extended radio lobes of nearby radio galaxies in general.

    DOI

  • Development of X-ray/gamma-ray imaging spectrometers using reach-through APD arrays

    Nakamori, T, Enomoto, T, Toizumi, T, Tokoyoda, K, Yatsu, Y, Kawai, N, Kataoka, J, Ishikawa, Y, Kawai, T, Kawabata, N, Matsunaga, Y

    Journal of Instrumentaion   7 ( 3 ) C03038 - 10pp  2012.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We present spectroscopic capability of a position sensitive detector using a large area reach-through avalanche photodiode (APD) array, mainly for astronomical applications. It is quite important to obtain wide band spectra of high energy astrophysical phenomena simultaneously in order to probe emission processes or structures. Especially observations of transient objects, such as gamma-ray bursts of active galactic nuclei, require detectors with wide energy band coverage for the sake of an efficient spectroscopy within limited time windows. An APD is a compact semiconductor photon sensor with an internal gain which is often up to ∼ 100. A reach-through type APD has a thicker depletion layer thus higher efficiency for direct X-ray detection compared to a reverse type APD. We have developed 1-dimensional reach-through APD arrays which consist of 8 and 16 segments with a pixel size of 2.2 × 16 and 1.1 × 16 mm2. We demonstrated quite uniform gain and energy resolution for 5.9 keV X-ray over the pixels of these arrays. Subsequently we constructed X-ray/gamma-ray detector using the APD array optically coupled to a conventional CsI(Tl) scintillator which demonstrated energy coverage typically from 1 keV to 1 MeV. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl.

    DOI

  • Search for gamma-ray emission from X-ray-selected Seyfert galaxies with Fermi-lat

    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, F. D'Ammando, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, C.D. Dermer, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, T. Enoto, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, E.C. Ferrara, P. Fortin, Y. Fukazawa, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, G. Godfrey, J.E. Grove, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, R.E. Hughes, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, M.L. Garde, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G.M. Madejski, M.N. Mazziotta, P.F. Michelson, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, S. Nishino, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, M. Ohno, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, E. Orlando, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pierbattista, F. Piron, G. Pivato, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, S. Ritz, M. Roth, D.A. Sanchez, C. Sbarra, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, Ł. Stawarz, A.W. Strong, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, M. Tinivella, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, E. Troja, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, G. Vianello, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, M. Wood, Z. Yang, S. Zimmer

    Astrophysical Journal   747 ( 2 )  2012.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report on a systematic investigation of the γ-ray properties of 120 hard X-ray-selected Seyfert galaxies classified as "radio-quiet" objects, utilizing the three-year accumulation of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. Our sample of Seyfert galaxies is selected using the Swift Burst Alert Telescope 58 month catalog, restricting the analysis to the bright sources with average hard X-ray fluxes F14 - 195 keV ≥ 2.5 × 10-11erg cm-2 s-1at high Galactic latitudes (|b| > 10°). In order to remove "radio-loud" objects from the sample, we use the "hard X-ray radio loudness parameter," R rX, defined as the ratio of the total 1.4 GHz radio to 14-195 keV hard X-ray energy fluxes. Among 120 X-ray bright Seyfert galaxies with R rX <10-4, we did not find a statistically significant γ-ray excess (TS > 25) positionally coincident with any target Seyferts, with possible exceptions of ESO 323-G077 and NGC6814. The mean value of the 95% confidence level γ-ray upper limit for the integrated photon flux above 100MeV from the analyzed Seyferts is ≃ 4 × 10 -9photons cm-2 s-1, and the upper limits derived for several objects reach ≃ 1 × 10-9photons cm-2 s-1. Our results indicate that no prominent γ-ray emission component related to active galactic nucleus activity is present in the spectra of Seyferts around GeV energies. The Fermi-LAT upper limits derived for our sample probe the ratio of γ-ray to X-ray luminosities Lγ/LX < 0.1, and even <0.01 in some cases. The obtained results impose novel constraints on the models for high-energy radiation of "radio-quiet" Seyfert galaxies. © 2012 The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

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  • Search for dark matter satellites using fermi-LAT

    M. Ackermann, A. Albert, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, E. Bottacini, T.J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, T.H. Burnett, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, F. De Palma, C.D. Dermer, S.W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, R. Essig, L. Falletti, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, W.B. Focke, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, S. Guiriec, M. Gustafsson, D. Hadasch, M. Hayashida, X. Hou, R.E. Hughes, R.P. Johnson, A.S. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, A.M. Lionetto, M.L. Garde, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, M. Naumann-Godo, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, V. Pelassa, M. Pierbattista, F. Piron, G. Pivato, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, S. Ritz, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, N. Sehgal, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, P. Spinelli, L. Strigari, D.J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.G. Thayer, J.B. Thayer, L. Tibaldo, M. Tinivella, D.F. Torres, E. Troja, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, G. Vianello, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, Z. Yang, S. Zalewski, S. Zimmer

    Astrophysical Journal   747 ( 2 )  2012.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Numerical simulations based on the δCDM model of cosmology predict a large number of as yet unobserved Galactic dark matter satellites.We report the results of a Large Area Telescope (LAT) search for these satellites via the γ -ray emission expected from the annihilation ofweakly interactingmassive particle (WIMP) darkmatter. Some dark matter satellites are expected to have hard γ -ray spectra, finite angular extents, and a lack of counterparts at other wavelengths. We sought to identify LAT sources with these characteristics, focusing on γ -ray spectra consistent with WIMP annihilation through the b-b channel. We found no viable dark matter satellite candidates using one year of data, and we present a framework for interpreting this result in the context of numerical simulations to constrain the velocity-averaged annihilation cross section for a conventional 100 GeVWIMP annihilating through the b-b channel. © 2012 The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

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  • Discovery of an unidentified Fermi object as a black widow-like millisecond pulsar

    A. K.H. Kong, R. H.H. Huang, K. S. Cheng, J. Takata, Y. Yatsu, C. C. Cheung, D. Donato, L. C.C. Lin, J. Kataoka, Y. Takahashi, K. Maeda, C. Y. Hui, P. H.T. Tam

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   747 ( 1 )  2012.03

     View Summary

    The Fermi γ-ray Space Telescope has revolutionized our knowledge of the γ-ray pulsar population, leading to the discovery of almost 100 γ-ray pulsars and dozens of γ-ray millisecond pulsars (MSPs). Although the outer-gap model predicts different sites of emission for the radio and γ-ray pulsars, until now all of the known γ-ray MSPs have been visible in the radio. Here we report the discovery of a "radio-quiet" γ-ray-emitting MSP candidate by using Fermi, Chandra, Swift, and optical observations. The X-ray and γ-ray properties of the source are consistent with known γ-ray pulsars. We also found a 4.63 hr orbital period in optical and X-ray data. We suggest that the source is a black widow-like MSP with a 0.1 M ⊙ late-type companion star. Based on the profile of the optical and X-ray light curves, the companion star is believed to be heated by the pulsar while the X-ray emissions originate from pulsar magnetosphere and/or from intrabinary shock. No radio detection of the source has been reported yet, and although no γ-ray/radio pulsation has been found we estimate that the spin period of the MSP is 3-5 ms based on the inferred γ-ray luminosity. © 2012 The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

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  • SUZAKU X-RAY FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS OF SEVEN UNASSOCIATED FERMI-LAT GAMMA-RAY SOURCES AT HIGH GALACTIC LATITUDES

    Y. Takahashi, J. Kataoka, T. Nakamori, K. Maeda, R. Makiya, T. Totani, C. C. Cheung, L. Stawarz, L. Guillemot, P. C. C. Freire, I. Cognard

    ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL   747 ( 1 ) 64 - 79  2012.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report on our second-year campaign of X-ray follow-up observations of unidentified Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) gamma-ray sources at high Galactic latitudes (vertical bar b vertical bar &gt; 10 degrees) using the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer on board the Suzaku X-ray Observatory. In this second year of the project, seven new targets were selected from the First Fermi-LAT Catalog, and studied with 20-40 ks effective Suzaku exposures. We detected an X-ray point source coincident with the position of the recently discovered millisecond pulsar (MSP) PSR J2302+4442 within the 95% confidence error circle of 1FGL J2302.8+4443. The X-ray spectrum of the detected counterpart was well fit by a blackbody model with temperature of kT similar or equal to 0.3 keV, consistent with an origin of the observed X-ray photons from the surface of a rotating magnetized neutron star. For four other targets that were also recently identified with a normal pulsar (1FGL J0106.7+4853) and MSPs (1FGL J1312.6+0048, J1902.0-5110, and J2043.2+1709), only upper limits in the 0.5-10 keV band were obtained at the flux levels of similar or equal to 10(-14) erg cm(-2) s(-1). A weak X-ray source was found in the field of 1FGL J1739.4+8717, but its association with the variable gamma-ray emitter could not be confirmed with the available Suzaku data alone. For the remaining Fermi-LAT object 1FGL J1743.8-7620 no X-ray source was detected within the LAT 95% error ellipse. We briefly discuss the general properties of the observed high Galactic-latitude Fermi-LAT objects by comparing their multiwavelength properties with those of known blazars and MSPs.

    DOI

  • Limits on large extra dimensions based on observations of neutron stars with the Fermi-LAT

    M. Ajello, L. Baldini, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, E. D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, P. A. Caraveo, J. M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, C. D. Dermer, E. Do Couto E Silva, P. S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, T. Enoto, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, E. C. Ferrara, Y. Fukazawa, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, P. Graham, I. A. Grenier, S. Guiriec, M. Gustafsson, D. Hadasch, M. Hayashida, R. E. Hughes, A. S. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, A. M. Lionetto, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, M. N. Mazziotta, P. F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M. E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I. V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, J. P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, E. Orlando, J. F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pierbattista, F. Piron, G. Pivato, S. Rainò, M. Razzano, S. Ritz, M. Roth, P. M. Saz Parkinson, J. D. Scargle, T. L. Schalk, C. Sgrò, E. J. Siskind, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli

    Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics   2012 ( 2 )  2012.02

     View Summary

    We present limits for the compactification scale in the theory of Large Extra Dimensions (LED) proposed by Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, and Dvali. We use 11 months of data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) to set gamma ray flux limits for 6 gamma-ray faint neutron stars (NS). To set limits on LED we use the model of Hannestad and Raffelt (HR) that calculates the Kaluza-Klein (KK) graviton production in supernova cores and the large fraction subsequently gravitationally bound around the resulting NS. The predicted decay of the bound KK gravitons to γγ should contribute to the flux from NSs. Considering 2 to 7 extra dimensions of the same size in the context of the HR model, we use Monte Carlo techniques to calculate the expected differential flux of gamma-rays arising from these KK gravitons, including the effects of the age of the NS, graviton orbit, and absorption of gamma-rays in the magnetosphere of the NS. We compare our Monte Carlo-based differential flux to the experimental differential flux using maximum likelihood techniques to obtain our limits on LED. Our limits are more restrictive than past EGRET-based optimistic limits that do not include these important corrections. Additionally, our limits are more stringent than LHC based limits for 3 or fewer LED, and comparable for 4 LED. We conclude that if the effective Planck scale is around a TeV, then for 2 or 3 LED the compactification topology must be more complicated than a torus. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd and SISSA.

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  • Development of a scintillation detector using a MPPC as an alternative to an APD

    T. Miura, T. Nakamori, J. Kataoka, T. Kato, K. Sato, Y. Ishikawa, K. Yamamura, N. Kawabata

    JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION   7 ( 2 ) C020306  2012.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We conducted a study to examine the performance of the multi-pixel photon counter(MPPC). The MPPC is a novel type of semiconductor photodetector consisting of multiple avalanche photodiode (APD) pixels operated in Geiger mode. Whereas the MPPC offers a great advantage in signal multiplication comparable to that achieved by the photomultiplier tube (PMT), the detection of weak scintillation light signals is difficult due to the severe contamination of dark counts. In this study, we first compared the energy resolutions and energy thresholds of a 3x3 mm(2) MPPC with those of a 3x3 mm(2) APD as scintillation detectors. The MPPC and APD were optically coupled with 5x5x5 mm(3) scintillation crystals of BGO, Tl:CsI, Pr:LuAG, and YAG. It turned out that the APD had better energy resolutions for 662 keV gamma-rays, while the MPPC had lower energy thresholds as measured using a test pulse. Despite the low energy thresholds, it is difficult for the MPPC to detect low energy gamma-rays due to the contamination of dark counts. Secondly, we applied a coincidence technique to discriminate weak gamma-ray signals from dark counts by using scintillation detectors that consisted of a 2x2 MPPC-array optically coupled with 10x10x10 mm(3) crystals of GSO, BGO, and Pr: LuAG. With this technique, we demonstrated that dark counts achieved a rejection efficiency of more than 99.8%. As a result, 22.2 keV gamma-rays were successfully detected with a GSO scintillator as measured at + 20 degrees C.

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  • EXPLORING THE CENTRAL SUB-PARSEC REGION OF THE gamma-RAY BRIGHT RADIO GALAXY 3C 84 WITH VLBA AT 43 GHz IN THE PERIOD OF 2002-2008

    Kenta Suzuki, Hiroshi Nagai, Motoki Kino, Jun Kataoka, Keiichi Asada, Akihiro Doi, Makoto Inoue, Monica Orienti, Gabriele Giovannini, Marcello Giroletti, Anne Lahteenmaki, Merja Tornikoski, Jonathan Leon-Tavares, Uwe Bach, Seiji Kameno, Hideyuki Kobayashi

    ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL   746 ( 2 )  2012.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Following the discovery of a new radio component right before the GeV gamma-ray detection since 2008 August by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, we present a detailed study of the kinematics and light curve on the central sub-parsec scale of 3C 84 using the archival Very Long Baseline Array 43 GHz data covering the period between 2002 January and 2008 November. We find that the new component "C3," previously reported by the observations with the Very Long Baseline Interferometer Exploration of Radio Astrometry, was already formed in 2003. The flux density of C3 increases moderately until 2008, and then it becomes brighter rapidly after 2008. The radio core, C1, also shows a similar trend. The apparent speed of C3 with reference to the core C1 shows moderate acceleration from 0.10c to 0.47c between 2003 November and 2008 November, but is still sub-relativistic. We further try to fit the observed broadband spectrum by the one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model using the measured apparent speed of C3. The fit can reproduce the observed gamma-ray emission, but does not agree with the observed radio spectral index between 22 and 43 GHz.

    DOI

  • Development of a gamma-ray imager using a large area monolithic 4× 4 MPPC array for a future PET scanner

    Nakamori, T, Kato, T, Kataoka, J, Miura, T, Matsuda, H, Sato, K, Ishikawa, Y, Yamamura, K, Kawabata, N, Ikeda, H, Sato, G, Kamada, K

    Journal of Instrumentaion   7 ( 1 ) C01083 - 13pp  2012.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report the development of a monolithic MPPC array, which consists of 3 × 3 mm2 elements arranged as a 4 × 4 array manufactured by Hamamatsu applicable to next generation PET scanners. We show that the MPPC is suitable for time of flight PET applications by simple measurement using coincident back-to-back 511 keV gamma rays. We demonstrated that the MPPC has much better timing resolution of ∼ 600 ps than the APD. We coupled the monolithic MPPC array with the Ce:LYSO and Pr:LuAG scintillator matrices as gamma-ray detectors. The energy resolutions were evaluated as ∼ 14% with 662 keV gamma-rays and the Ce:LYSO achieved the best. We also used a resistor network readout circuit with some optimization. The averaged positional resolution is estimated as ∼ 0.27 mm in both x and y directions, while the energy resolution of each pixel was 9.9% for 662 keV gamma rays. Finally we applied the GHz class fast sampling waveform acquisition system to improve performance, and demonstrated efficient noise reduction by the clear detection of 22 keV gamma rays. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd and SISSA.

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  • Periodic emission from the gamma-ray binary 1FGL J1018.6-5856

    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, A. Belfiore, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, E. Charles, S. Chaty, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, S. Corbel, R.H.D. Corbet, S. Cutini, A. De Luca, P.R. Den Hartog, F. De Palma, C.D. Dermer, S.W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, D. Donato, P.S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, R. Dubois, G. Dubus, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, E.C. Ferrara, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, J.E. Grove, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, A.B. Hill, R.E. Hughes, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, T.J. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, M. Naumann-Godo, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, M. Ohno, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, D. Parent, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pierbattista, F. Piron, G. Pivato, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, S. Ritz, R.W. Romani, M. Roth, P.M. Saz Parkinson, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.G. Thayer, J.B. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, M. Tinivella, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, E. Troja, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, G. Vianello, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, M. Wood, Z. Yang, S. Zimmer, M.J. Coe, F. Di Mille, P.G. Edwards, M.D. Filipović, J.L. Payne, J. Stevens, M.A.P. Torres

    Science   335 ( 6065 ) 189 - 193  2012.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Gamma-ray binaries are stellar systems containing a neutron star or black hole, with gamma-ray emission produced by an interaction between the components. These systems are rare, even though binary evolution models predict dozens in our Galaxy. A search for gamma-ray binaries with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) shows that 1FGL J1018.6-5856 exhibits intensity and spectral modulation with a 16.6-day period. We identified a variable x-ray counterpart, which shows a sharp maximum coinciding with maximum gamma-ray emission, as well as an O6V((f)) star optical counterpart and a radio counterpart that is also apparently modulated on the orbital period. 1FGL J1018.6-5856 is thus a gamma-ray binary, and its detection suggests the presence of other fainter binaries in the Galaxy.

    DOI

  • The cosmic-ray and gas content of the Cygnus region as measured in γ-rays by the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, A. Belfiore, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R. D. Blandford, E. D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland, E. Bottacini, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, P. A. Caraveo, J. M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, A. Chekhtman, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, C. D. Dermer, E. Do Couto E Silva, P. S. Drell, D. Dumora, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, W. B. Focke, P. Fortin, Y. Fukazawa, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I. A. Grenier, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, Y. Hanabata, A. K. Harding, M. Hayashida, K. Hayashi, E. Hays, G. Jóhannesson, A. S. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S. H. Lee, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, P. Martin, M. N. Mazziotta, J. E. McEnery, J. Mehault, P. F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M. E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I. V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, M. Naumann-Godo, P. L. Nolan, J. P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J. F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, D. Parent, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pierbattista, F. Piron

    Astronomy and Astrophysics   538  2012

     View Summary

    Context. The Cygnus region hosts a giant molecular-cloud complex that actively forms massive stars. Interactions of cosmic rays with interstellar gas and radiation fields make it shine at γ-ray energies. Several γ-ray pulsars and other energetic sources are seen in this direction. Aims. In this paper we analyze the γ-ray emission measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) in the energy range from 100 MeV to 100 GeV in order to probe the gas and cosmic-ray content on the scale of the whole Cygnus complex. The γ-ray emission on the scale of the central massive stellar clusters and from individual sources is addressed elsewhere. Methods. The signal from bright pulsars is greatly reduced by selecting photons in their off-pulse phase intervals. We compare the diffuse γ-ray emission with interstellar gas maps derived from radio/mm-wave lines and visual extinction data. A general model of the region, including other pulsars and γ-ray sources, is sought. Results. The integral H i emissivity above 100 MeV averaged over the whole Cygnus complex amounts to [2.06 ± 0.11 (stat.) -0.84+0.15(syst.)] × 10 -26 photons s -1 sr -1 H-atom -1, where the systematic error is dominated by the uncertainty on the H i opacity to calculate its column densities. The integral emissivity and its spectral energy distribution are both consistent within the systematics with LAT measurements in the interstellar space near the solar system. The average X CO = N(H 2)/W CO ratio is found to be [1.68 ± 0.05 (stat.) -0.10+0.87(HI opacity)] × 10 20 molecules cm -2 (K km s -1) -1, consistent with other LAT measurements in the Local Arm. We detect significant γ-ray emission from dark neutral gas for a mass corresponding to ~40% of what is traced by CO. The total interstellar mass in the Cygnus complex inferred from its γ-ray emission amounts to 8 -1+5 × 10 6 M ⊙ at a distance of 1.4 kpc. Conclusions. Despite the conspicuous star formation activity and high masses of the interstellar clouds, the cosmic-ray population in the Cygnus complex averaged over a few hundred parsecs is similar to that of the local interstellar space. © 2012 ESO.

    DOI

  • The ASTRO-H X-ray observatory

    Tadayuki Takahashi, Kazuhisa Mitsuda, Richard Kelley, Henri Aarts, Felix Aharonian, Hiroki Akamatsu, Fumie Akimotoe, Steve Allen, Naohisa Anabuki, Lorella Angelini, Keith Arnaud, Makoto Asai, Marc Audard, Hisamitsu Awaki, Philipp Azzarello, Chris Baluta, Aya Bamba, Nobutaka Bando, Mark Bautz, Roger Blandford, Kevin Boyce, Greg Brown, Ed Cackett, Maria Chernyakova, Paolo Coppi, Elisa Costantini, Jelle De Plaa, Jan Willem Den Herder, Michael DiPirro, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, John Doty, Ken Ebisawa, Megan Eckart, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew Fabian, Carlo Ferrigno, Adam Foster, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Stefan Funk, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Luigi Gallo, Poshak Gandhi, Keith Gendreau, Kirk Gilmore, Daniel Haas, Yoshito Haba, Kenji Hamaguchi, Isamu Hatsukade, Takayuki Hayashi, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Junko Hiraga, Kazuyuki Hirose, Ann Hornschemeier, Akio Hoshino, John Hughes, Una Hwang, Ryo Iizuka, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Kazunori Ishibashi, Manabu Ishida, Kosei Ishimura, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Masayuki Ito, Naoko Iwat, Naoko Iyomoto, Jelle Kaastr, Timothy Kallman, Tuneyoshi Kamae, Jun Kataoka, Satoru Katsuda, Hajime Kawahara, Madoka Kawaharada, Nobuyuki Kawai, Shigeo Kawasaki, Dmitry Khangaluyan, Caroline Kilbourne, Masashi Kimura, Kenzo Kinugasaa, Shunji Kitamoto, Tetsu Kitayama, Takayoshi Kohmura, Motohide Kokubun, Tatsuro Kosaka, Alex Koujelev, Katsuji Koyama, Hans Krimm, Aya Kubota, Hideyo Kunieda, Stephanie LaMass, Philippe Laurent, Francois Lebrun, Maurice Leutenegger, Olivier Limousin, Michael Loewenstein, Knox Long, David Lumb

    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering   8443  2012

     View Summary

    The joint JAXA/NASA ASTRO-H mission is the sixth in a series of highly successful X-ray missions initiated by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS). ASTRO-H will investigate the physics of the highenergy universe via a suite of four instruments, covering a very wide energy range, from 0.3 keV to 600 keV. These instruments include a high-resolution, high-Throughput spectrometer sensitive over 0.3-12 keV with high spectral resolution of ?E 5 7 eV, enabled by a micro-calorimeter array located in the focal plane of thin-foil X-ray optics; hard X-ray imaging spectrometers covering 5-80 keV, located in the focal plane of multilayer-coated, focusing hard X-ray mirrors; a wide-field imaging spectrometer sensitive over 0.4-12 keV, with an X-ray CCD camera in the focal plane of a soft X-ray telescope; and a non-focusing Compton-camera type soft gamma-ray detector, sensitive in the 40-600 keV band. The simultaneous broad bandpass, coupled with high spectral resolution, will enable the pursuit of a wide variety of important science themes. © 2012 SPIE.

    DOI

  • Γ-ray emission from the Perseus cluster of galaxies observed with the MAGIC telescopes

    P. Colin, D. Eisenacher, D. Hildebrand, S. Lombardi, E. Lindfors, D. Paneque, S. Partini, F. Prada, J. Sitarek, F. Zandanel, Magic Collaboration, T. Dauser, M. Kadler, F. Krauss, J. Kataoka, C. Pfrommer, A. Pinzke, Y. Takahashi, S. Wilbert, J. Wilms

    AIP Conference Proceedings   1505   578 - 581  2012

     View Summary

    The Perseus cluster of galaxies is a nearby cool-core cluster with an intra-clustermedium (ICM) characterized by very high central densities. The observation of the Perseus cluster with the MAGIC telescopes, during 85 h from 2009 to 2011, resulted in the discovery of 2 point-like sources at very high energy (>100 GeV, VHE) coinciding with the central radio galaxy NGC1275 and the radio galaxy IC310. The γ-ray properties of these 2 sources are presented, taking into account contemporaneous Fermi-LAT as well as multi-wavelength data. Flux variability and spectral energy distribution shapes indicate that the VHE γ-rays do not originate from large-scale interaction of the radio galaxies with ICM but more likely from the active nuclei of these two galaxies. They could be both misaligned version of BL Lac objects, the most common TeV AGN. Our results provide vital clues to understand emission mechanisms of such misaligned objects, and how they may be related to the beamed emission seen in BL Lacs. No evidence of large-scale VHE γ-ray emission from hadronic cosmic ray (CR) interactions with the ICM has been found. The flux upper limit above 1 TeV reaches the signal expected by some theoretical models, constraining the cluster CR physics. In the framework of the hadronicmodel of the radiomini-halos, this limit implies aminimal magnetic field ranging from 4-9μG for the central cluster region. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

    DOI

  • Sub-geiger mode single-photon detector using a low-darkcurrent InGaAs avalanche photodiode

    Yoshito Miyamoto, Kenji Tsujino, Jun Kataoka, Akihisa Tomita

    European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC    2012

     View Summary

    We have developed a single-photon detector that uses an InGaAs avalanche photodiode (APD) operating in sub-Geiger mode. Sub-Geiger mode operation is a technique in which an APD is operated at a bias voltage that is lower than the breakdown voltage. This mode considerably reduces afterpulse probability, and single photons that arrive randomly can be detected. In the present study, we reduced the dark count rate of the sub-Geiger mode single-photon detector by using a low-darkcurrent InGaAs APD. Consequently, we obtained a dark count rate (DCR) of 5.6 counts per second (cps) with single-photon detection efficiency (SPDE) of 0.2%. Our single-photon detector is comparable in DCR to that of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors. © 2012 OSA.

    DOI

  • In-flight measurement of the absolute energy scale of the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, W.B. Atwood, M. Axelsson, L. Baldini, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, S. Cutini, F. De Palma, C.D. Dermer, S.W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, R. Dubois, T. Enoto, L. Falletti, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, J.E. Grove, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, R.E. Hughes, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, T.J. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G.M. Madejski, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, P.F. Michelson, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, M. Naumann-Godo, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pierbattista, F. Piron, S. Rain, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, S. Ritz, L.S. Rochester, C. Sgr, E.J. Siskind, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.G. Thayer, J.B. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, G. Tosti, E. Troja, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, G. Vianello, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, Z. Yang, S. Zimmer

    Astroparticle Physics   35 ( 6 ) 346 - 353  2012.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to survey the gamma-ray sky from 20 MeV to several hundreds of GeV. In this energy band there are no astronomical sources with sufficiently well known and sharp spectral features to allow an absolute calibration of the LAT energy scale. However, the geomagnetic cutoff in the cosmic ray electron-plus-positron (CRE) spectrum in low Earth orbit does provide such a spectral feature. The energy and spectral shape of this cutoff can be calculated with the aid of a numerical code tracing charged particles in the Earth's magnetic field. By comparing the cutoff value with that measured by the LAT in different geomagnetic positions, we have obtained several calibration points between ∼6 and ∼13 GeV with an estimated uncertainty of ∼2%. An energy calibration with such high accuracy reduces the systematic uncertainty in LAT measurements of, for example, the spectral cutoff in the emission from gamma ray pulsars. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of the supernova remnant G8.7-0.1

    M. Ajello, A. Allafort, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, S. Cutini, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, C.D. Dermer, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, R. Dubois, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, E.C. Ferrara, W.B. Focke, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, Y. Fukui, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, J.E. Grove, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, K. Hayashi, E. Hays, R. Itoh, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, H. Kubo, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, A.M. Lionetto, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, M.N. Mazziotta, J. Mehault, P.F. Michelson, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, M. Naumann-Godo, S. Nishino, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, M. Ohno, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, D. Paneque, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pierbattista, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, M. Roth, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, D.J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.G. Thayer, J.B. Thayer, L. Tibaldo, O. Tibolla, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, E. Troja, Y. Uchiyama, T. Uehara, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, A. Van Etten, V. Vasileiou, G. Vianello, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, H. Yamamoto, R. Yamazaki, Z. Yang, H. Yasuda, M. Ziegler, S. Zimmer

    Astrophysical Journal   744 ( 1 )  2012.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We present a detailed analysis of the GeV gamma-ray emission toward the supernova remnant (SNR) G8.7-0.1 with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. An investigation of the relationship between G8.7-0.1 and the TeV unidentified source HESS J1804-216 provides us with an important clue on diffusion process of cosmic rays if particle acceleration operates in the SNR. TheGeV gamma-ray emission is extended with most of the emission in positional coincidence with the SNR G8.7-0.1 and a lesser part located outside the western boundary of G8.7-0.1. The region of the gamma-ray emission overlaps spatially connected molecular clouds, implying a physical connection for the gamma-ray structure. The total gamma-ray spectrum measured with LAT from 200MeV-100GeV can be described by a broken power-law function with a break of 2.4 ± 0.6 (stat) ± 1.2 (sys)GeV, and photon indices of 2.10 ± 0.06 (stat) ± 0.10 (sys) below the break and 2.70 ± 0.12 (stat) ± 0.14 (sys) above the break. Given the spatial association among the gamma rays, the radio emission of G8.7-0.1, and the molecular clouds, the decay of π0s produced by particles accelerated in the SNR and hitting the molecular clouds naturally explains theGeV gamma-ray spectrum. We also find that theGeV morphology is not well represented by the TeV emission from HESS J1804-216 and that the spectrum in theGeV band is not consistent with the extrapolation of the TeV gamma-ray spectrum. The spectral index of the TeV emission is consistent with the particle spectral index predicted by a theory that assumes energy-dependent diffusion of particles accelerated in an SNR. We discuss the possibility that the TeV spectrum originates from the interaction of particles accelerated in G8.7-0.1 with molecular clouds, and we constrain the diffusion coefficient of the particles.

    DOI

  • Measurement of separate cosmic-ray electron and positron spectra with the fermi large area telescope

    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, W.B. Atwood, L. Baldini, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, C.D. Dermer, S.W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, E.C. Ferrara, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, J.E. Grove, S. Guiriec, M. Gustafsson, D. Hadasch, A.K. Harding, M. Hayashida, R.E. Hughes, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, M. Llena Garde, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G.M. Madejski, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, M. Ohno, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, D. Parent, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pierbattista, F. Piron, G. Pivato, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, S. Razzaque, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, S. Ritz, R.W. Romani, M. Roth, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, C. Sbarra, T.L. Schalk, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, A.W. Strong, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.G. Thayer, J.B. Thayer, L. Tibaldo, M. Tinivella, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, E. Troja, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, G. Vianello, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, M. Wood, Z. Yang, S. Zimmer

    Physical Review Letters   108 ( 1 )  2012  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We measured separate cosmic-ray electron and positron spectra with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Because the instrument does not have an onboard magnet, we distinguish the two species by exploiting Earth's shadow, which is offset in opposite directions for opposite charges due to Earth's magnetic field. We estimate and subtract the cosmic-ray proton background using two different methods that produce consistent results. We report the electron-only spectrum, the positron-only spectrum, and the positron fraction between 20 and 200 GeV. We confirm that the fraction rises with energy in the 20-100 GeV range. The three new spectral points between 100 and 200 GeV are consistent with a fraction that is continuing to rise with energy. © 2012 American Physical Society.

    DOI

  • Soft Gamma-ray Detector for the ASTRO-H mission

    Watanabe Shin, Talima Hiroyasu, Fukazawa Yasushi, Blandford Roger, Enoto Teruaki, Kataoka Jun, Kawaharada Madoka, Kokubun Motohide, Laurent Philippe, Lebrun Francois, Limousin Olivier, Madejski Greg, Makishima Kazuo, Mizuno Tsunefumi, Nakamori Takeshi, Nakazawa Kazuhiro, Mori Kunishiro, Odaka Hirokazu, Ohno Masanori, Ohta Masayuki, Sato Goro, Sato Rie, Takeda Shin'ichiro, Takahashi Hiromitsu, Takahashi Tadayuki, Tanaka Takaaki, Tashiro Makoto, Terada Yukikatsu, Uchiyama Hideki, Uchiyama Yasunobu, Yamada Shinya, Yatsu Yoichi, Yonetoku Daisuke, Yuasa Takayuki

    SPACE TELESCOPES AND INSTRUMENTATION 2012: ULTRAVIOLET TO GAMMA RAY   8443  2012  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    ASTRO-H is the next generation JAXA X-ray satellite, intended to carry instruments with broad energy coverage and exquisite energy resolution. The Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD) is one of ASTRO-H instruments and will feature wide energy band (60-600 keV) at a background level 10 times better than the current instruments on orbit. The SGD is complimentary to ASTRO-H's Hard X-ray Imager covering the energy range of 5-80 keV. The SGD achieves low background by combining a Compton camera scheme with a narrow field-of-view active shield where Compton kinematics is utilized to reject backgrounds. The Compton camera in the SGD is realized as a hybrid semiconductor detector system which consists of silicon and CdTe (cadmium telluride) sensors. Good energy resolution is afforded by semiconductor sensors, and it results in good background rejection capability due to better constraints on Compton kinematics. Utilization of Compton kinematics also makes the SGD sensitive to the gamma-ray polarization, opening up a new window to study properties of gamma-ray emission processes. In this paper, we will present the detailed design of the SGD and the results of the final prototype developments and evaluations. Moreover, we will also present expected performance based on the measurements with prototypes. © 2012 SPIE.

    DOI

  • フェルミ・バブルから探る銀河系中心の過去の活動性

    片岡 淳, 戸谷 友則, 井岡 邦仁

    日本天文学会誌   105   542 - 553  2012

  • The second catalog of active galactic nuclei detected by the Fermi large area telescope

    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, E. Antolini, W.B. Atwood, M. Axelsson, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, E. Bottacini, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, T.H. Burnett, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, L. Costamante, S. Cutini, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, C.D. Dermer, S.W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, L. Escande, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, E.C. Ferrara, J. Finke, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, J.E. Grove, S. Guiriec, M. Gustafsson, D. Hadasch, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, S.E. Healey, D. Horan, X. Hou, R.E. Hughes, G. Iafrate, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, S. Larsson, L. Latronico, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G.M. Madejski, M.N. Mazziotta, W. McConville, J.E. McEnery, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, E. Moretti, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, M. Naumann-Godo, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, M. Ohno, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, M. Orienti, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, D. Parent, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pierbattista, S. Piranomonte, F. Piron, G. Pivato, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, S. Razzaque, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, S. Ritz, L.S. Rochester, R.W. Romani, M. Roth, D.A. Sanchez, C. Sbarra, J.D. Scargle, T.L. Schalk, C. Sgrò, M.S. Shaw, E.J. Siskind, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, A.W. Strong, D.J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.G. Thayer, J.B. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, M. Tinivella, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, E. Troja, Y. Uchiyama, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, G. Vianello, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, E. Wallace, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, D.L. Wood, K.S. Wood, S. Zimmer

    Astrophysical Journal   743 ( 2 )  2011.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The second catalog of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) in two years of scientific operation is presented. The second LAT AGN catalog (2LAC) includes 1017 γ-ray sources located at high Galactic latitudes (|b| > 10°) that are detected with a test statistic (TS) greater than 25 and associated statistically with AGNs. However, some of these are affected by analysis issues and some are associated with multiple AGNs. Consequently, we define a Clean Sample which includes 886 AGNs, comprising 395 BLLacertae objects (BLLac objects), 310 flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), 157 candidate blazars of unknown type (i.e., with broadband blazar characteristics but with no optical spectral measurement yet), 8 misaligned AGNs, 4 narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1s), 10 AGNs of other types, and 2 starburst galaxies. Where possible, the blazars have been further classified based on their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) as archival radio, optical, and X-ray data permit. While almost all FSRQs have a synchrotron-peak frequency <1014 Hz, about half of the BLLac objects have a synchrotron-peak frequency >1015 Hz. The 2LAC represents a significant improvement relative to the first LAT AGN catalog (1LAC), with 52% more associated sources. The full characterization of the newly detected sources will require more broadband data. Various properties, such as γ-ray fluxes and photon power-law spectral indices, redshifts, γ-ray luminosities, variability, and archival radio luminosities and their correlations are presented and discussed for the different blazar classes. The general trends observed in 1LAC are confirmed. © 2011 The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Constraining dark matter models from a combined analysis of Milky Way satellites with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Albert, W. B. Atwood, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R. D. Blandford, E. D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, T. H. Burnett, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, B. Cañadas, P. A. Caraveo, J. M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, C. D. Dermer, S. W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P. S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, L. Falletti, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, E. C. Ferrara, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I. A. Grenier, S. Guiriec, M. Gustafsson, D. Hadasch, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, R. E. Hughes, T. E. Jeltema, G. Jóhannesson, R. P. Johnson, A. S. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, A. M. Lionetto, M. Llena Garde, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G. M. Madejski, M. N. Mazziotta, J. E. McEnery, J. Mehault, P. F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M. E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I. V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, M. Naumann-Godo, J. P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura

    Physical Review Letters   107 ( 24 )  2011.12

     View Summary

    Satellite galaxies of the Milky Way are among the most promising targets for dark matter searches in gamma rays. We present a search for dark matter consisting of weakly interacting massive particles, applying a joint likelihood analysis to 10 satellite galaxies with 24 months of data of the Fermi Large Area Telescope. No dark matter signal is detected. Including the uncertainty in the dark matter distribution, robust upper limits are placed on dark matter annihilation cross sections. The 95% confidence level upper limits range from about 10-26cmm3s-1 at 5 GeV to about 5×10-23cm3s-1 at 1 TeV, depending on the dark matter annihilation final state. For the first time, using gamma rays, we are able to rule out models with the most generic cross section (∼3×10-26cm3s-1 for a purely s-wave cross section), without assuming additional boost factors. © 2011 American Physical Society.

    DOI

  • シンポジウム「二次元放射線検出器の最前線」開催への思い

    片岡 淳

    放射線   37 ( 4 )  2011.12

    CiNii

  • Gas slit camera (GSC) onboard MAXI on ISS

    Tatehiro Mihara, Motoki Nakajima, Mutsumi Sugizaki, Motoko Serino, Masaru Matsuoka, Mitsuhiro Kohama, Kazuyoshi Kawasaki, Hiroshi Tomida, Shiro Ueno, Nobuyuki Kawai, Jun Kataoka, Mikio Morii, Atsumasa Yoshida, Kazutaka Yamaoka, Satoshi Nakahira, Hitoshi Negoro, Naoki Isobe, Makoto Yamauchi, Ikuya Sakurai

    Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan   63 ( SPEC. ISSUE 3 )  2011.11

     View Summary

    The Gas Slit Camera (GSC) is an X-ray instrument on the MAXI (Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image) mission aboard the International Space Station. It is designed to scan the entire sky every 92-minute orbital period in the 2-30 keV band and to achieve the highest sensitivity among the X-ray all-sky monitors ever flown so far. The GSC employs large-area position-sensitive proportional counterswith a total detector area of 5350cm2. The on-board data processor has functions to format telemetry data as well as to control the high voltage of the proportional counters so as to protect them from particle irradiation. This paper describes the instruments, on-board data processing, telemetry data formats, and performance specifications expected from ground calibration tests. © 2011. Astronomical Society of Japan.

    DOI

  • A cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays detected by fermi in the cygnus superbubble

    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, A. Belfiore, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, E. Bottacini, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, C.D. Dermer, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, D. Dumora, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, Y. Fukazawa, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, M. Hayashida, K. Hayashi, E. Hays, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, P. Martin, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, J. Mehault, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, M. Naumann-Godo, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, D. Parent, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pierbattista, F. Piron, M. Pohl, D. Prokhorov, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, T. Reposeur, S. Ritz, P.M. Saz Parkinson, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, P.D. Smith, P. Spinelli, A.W. Strong, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.G. Thayer, J.B. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, E. Troja, Y. Uchiyama, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, G. Vianello, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, Z. Yang, S. Zimmer, S. Bontemps

    Science   334 ( 6059 ) 1103 - 1107  2011.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The origin of Galactic cosmic rays is a century-long puzzle. Indirect evidence points to their acceleration by supernova shockwaves, but we know little of their escape from the shock and their evolution through the turbulent medium surrounding massive stars. Gamma rays can probe their spreading through the ambient gas and radiation fields. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has observed the star-forming region of Cygnus X. The 1- to 100-gigaelectronvolt images reveal a 50-parsec-wide cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays that flood the cavities carved by the stellar winds and ionization fronts from young stellar clusters. It provides an example to study the youth of cosmic rays in a superbubble environment before they merge into the older Galactic population.

    DOI

  • Fermi detection of a luminous γ-ray pulsar in a globular cluster

    P.C.C. Freire, A.A. Abdo, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, F. Camilo, P.A. Caraveo, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, I. Cognard, J. Cohen-Tanugi, L.R. Cominsky, F. De Palma, C.D. Dermer, E. Do Couto E Silva, M. Dormody, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C.M. Espinoza, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, E.C. Ferrara, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, Y. Fukazawa, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, A.K. Harding, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, T.J. Johnson, S. Johnston, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, M. Keith, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kramer, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A.G. Lyne, R.N. Manchester, M. Marelli, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, P.F. Michelson, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, D. Parent, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pierbattista, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, S.M. Ransom, P.S. Ray, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, S. Ritz, R.W. Romani, M. Roth, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, P.M. Saz Parkinson, C. Sgrò, R. Shannon, E.J. Siskind, D.A. Smith, P.D. Smith, P. Spinelli, B.W. Stappers, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, T.M. Tauris, J.B. Thayer, G. Theureau, D.J. Thompson, S.E. Thorsett, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, E. Troja, J. Vandenbroucke, A. Van Etten, V. Vasileiou, C. Venter, G. Vianello, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, K.S. Wood, Z. Yang, M. Ziegler, S. Zimmer

    Science   334 ( 6059 ) 1107 - 1110  2011.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report on the Fermi Large Area Telescope's detection of γ-ray (>100 mega-electron volts) pulsations from pulsar J1823-3021A in the globular cluster NGC 6624 with high significance (∼7 σ). Its γ-ray luminosity, Lγ = (8.4 ± 1.6) × 1034 ergs per second, is the highest observed for any millisecond pulsar (MSP) to date, and it accounts for most of the cluster emission. The nondetection of the cluster in the off-pulse phase implies that it contains <32 γ-ray MSPs, not ∼100 as previously estimated. The γ-ray luminosity indicates that the unusually large rate of change of its period is caused by its intrinsic spin-down. This implies that J1823-3021A has the largest magnetic field and is the youngest MSP ever detected and that such anomalous objects might be forming at rates comparable to those of the more normal MSPs.

    DOI

  • γ -Ray and parsec-scale jet properties of a complete sample of blazars from the mojave program

    M. L. Lister, M. Aller, H. Aller, T. Hovatta, K. I. Kellermann, Y. Y. Kovalev, E. T. Meyer, A. B. Pushkarev, E. Ros, M. Ackermann, E. Antolini, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R. D. Blandford, E. D. Bloom, M. Boeck, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, P. A. Caraveo, J. M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, C. S. Chang, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C. C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, F. De Palma, C. D. Dermer, E. Do Couto E Silva, P. S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, E. C. Ferrara, J. Finke, W. B. Focke, P. Fortin, Y. Fukazawa, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I. A. Grenier, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, D. Horan, R. E. Hughes, G. Jóhannesson, A. S. Johnson, M. Kadler, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G. M. Madejski, M. N. Mazziotta, W. McConville, J. E. McEnery, J. Mehault, P. F. Michelson, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M. E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I. V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, M. Naumann-Godo, S. Nishino

    Astrophysical Journal   742 ( 1 )  2011.11

     View Summary

    We investigate the Fermi Large Area Telescope γ -ray and 15 GHz Very Long Baseline Array radio properties of a joint γ -ray and radio-selected sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) obtained during the first 11 months of the Fermi mission (2008 August 4-2009 July 5). Our sample contains the brightest 173 AGNs in these bands above declination -30° during this period, and thus probes the full range of γ -ray loudness (γ -ray to radio band luminosity ratio) in the bright blazar population. The latter quantity spans at least 4 orders of magnitude, reflecting a wide range of spectral energy distribution (SED) parameters in the bright blazar population. The BL Lac objects, however, display a linear correlation of increasing γ -ray loudness with synchrotron SED peak frequency, suggesting a universal SED shape for objects of this class. The synchrotron self-Compton model is favored for the γ -ray emission in these BL Lac objects over external seed photon models, since the latter predict a dependence of Compton dominance on Doppler factor that would destroy any observed synchrotron SED-peak-γ -ray-loudness correlation. The high-synchrotron peaked (HSP) BL Lac objects are distinguished by lower than average radio core brightness temperatures, and none display large radio modulation indices or high linear core polarization levels. No equivalent trends are seen for the flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in our sample. Given the association of such properties with relativistic beaming, we suggest that the HSP BL Lac objects have generally lower Doppler factors than the lower-synchrotron peaked BL Lac objects or FSRQs in our sample.

    DOI

  • The radio/gamma-ray connection in active galactic nuclei in the era of the fermi large area telescope

    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, E. Angelakis, M. Axelsson, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, A. Cannon, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, S. Cutini, F. De Palma, C.D. Dermer, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, L. Escande, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, L. Fuhrmann, Y. Fukazawa, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, P. Grandi, I.A. Grenier, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, S.E. Healey, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, S.-H. Lee, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A. Makeev, W. Max-Moerbeck, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, J. Mehault, P.F. Michelson, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, M. Naumann-Godo, S. Nishino, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, V. Pavlidou, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pierbattista, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, M. Razzano, A. Readhead, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, J.L. Richards, R.W. Romani, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, J.D. Scargle, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, G.B. Taylor, J.G. Thayer, J.B. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, E. Troja, J. Vandenbroucke, G. Vianello, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, Z. Yang, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal   741 ( 1 )  2011.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We present a detailed statistical analysis of the correlation between radio and gamma-ray emission of the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected by Fermi during its first year of operation, with the largest data sets ever used for this purpose. We use both archival interferometric 8.4GHz data (from the Very Large Array and ATCA, for the full sample of 599 sources) and concurrent single-dish 15GHz measurements from the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO, for a sub sample of 199 objects). Our unprecedentedly large sample permits us to assess with high accuracy the statistical significance of the correlation, using a surrogate data method designed to simultaneously account for common-distance bias and the effect of a limited dynamical range in the observed quantities. We find that the statistical significance of a positive correlation between the centimeter radio and the broadband (E > 100MeV) gamma-ray energy flux is very high for the whole AGN sample, with a probability of <10 -7 for the correlation appearing by chance. Using the OVRO data, we find that concurrent data improve the significance of the correlation from 1.6 × 10-6 to 9.0 × 10-8. Our large sample size allows us to study the dependence of correlation strength and significance on specific source types and gamma-ray energy band. We find that the correlation is very significant (chance probability < 10-7) for both flat spectrum radio quasars and BL Lac objects separately; a dependence of the correlation strength on the considered gamma-ray energy band is also present, but additional data will be necessary to constrain its significance. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • BROAD-LINE RADIO GALAXIES OBSERVED WITH FERMI-LAT: THE ORIGIN OF THE GeV gamma-RAY EMISSION

    J. Kataoka, L. Stawarz, Y. Takahashi, C. C. Cheung, M. Hayashida, P. Grandi, T. H. Burnett, A. Celotti, S. J. Fegan, P. Fortin, K. Maeda, T. Nakamori, G. B. Taylor, G. Tosti, S. W. Digel, W. McConville, J. Finke, F. D'Ammando

    ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL   740 ( 1 )  2011.10

     View Summary

    We report on a detailed investigation of the gamma-ray emission from 18 broad-line radio galaxies (BLRGs) based on two years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data. We confirm the previously reported detections of 3C 120 and 3C 111 in the GeV photon energy range; a detailed look at the temporal characteristics of the observed gamma-ray emission reveals in addition possible flux variability in both sources. No statistically significant gamma-ray detection of the other BLRGs was found, however, in the considered data set. Though the sample size studied is small, what appears to differentiate 3C 111 and 3C 120 from the BLRGs not yet detected in gamma-rays is the particularly strong nuclear radio flux. This finding, together with the indications of the gamma-ray flux variability and a number of other arguments presented, indicates that the GeV emission of BLRGs is most likely dominated by the beamed radiation of relativistic jets observed at intermediate viewing angles. In this paper we also analyzed a comparison sample of high-accretion-rate Seyfert 1 galaxies, which can be considered radio-quiet counterparts of BLRGs, and found that none were detected in gamma-rays. A simple phenomenological hybrid model applied for the broadband emission of the discussed radio-loud and radio-quiet type 1 active galaxies suggests that the relative contribution of the nuclear jets to the accreting matter is &gt;= 1% on average for BLRGs, whereas it is &lt;= 0.1% for Seyfert 1 galaxies.

    DOI

  • BROAD-LINE RADIO GALAXIES OBSERVED WITH FERMI-LAT: THE ORIGIN OF THE GeV gamma-RAY EMISSION

    J. Kataoka, L. Stawarz, Y. Takahashi, C. C. Cheung, M. Hayashida, P. Grandi, T. H. Burnett, A. Celotti, S. J. Fegan, P. Fortin, K. Maeda, T. Nakamori, G. B. Taylor, G. Tosti, S. W. Digel, W. McConville, J. Finke, F. D'Ammando

    ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL   740 ( 1 ) 29 - 44  2011.10  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report on a detailed investigation of the gamma-ray emission from 18 broad-line radio galaxies (BLRGs) based on two years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data. We confirm the previously reported detections of 3C 120 and 3C 111 in the GeV photon energy range; a detailed look at the temporal characteristics of the observed gamma-ray emission reveals in addition possible flux variability in both sources. No statistically significant gamma-ray detection of the other BLRGs was found, however, in the considered data set. Though the sample size studied is small, what appears to differentiate 3C 111 and 3C 120 from the BLRGs not yet detected in gamma-rays is the particularly strong nuclear radio flux. This finding, together with the indications of the gamma-ray flux variability and a number of other arguments presented, indicates that the GeV emission of BLRGs is most likely dominated by the beamed radiation of relativistic jets observed at intermediate viewing angles. In this paper we also analyzed a comparison sample of high-accretion-rate Seyfert 1 galaxies, which can be considered radio-quiet counterparts of BLRGs, and found that none were detected in gamma-rays. A simple phenomenological hybrid model applied for the broadband emission of the discussed radio-loud and radio-quiet type 1 active galaxies suggests that the relative contribution of the nuclear jets to the accreting matter is &gt;= 1% on average for BLRGs, whereas it is &lt;= 0.1% for Seyfert 1 galaxies.

    DOI

  • Development micro-satellite TSUBAME for polarimetry of gamma-ray bursts

    Yatsu, Y, Enomoto, T, Kawakami, K, Tokoyoda, K, Toizumi, T, Kawai, N, Ishizaka, K, Matsunaga, S, Nakamori, T, Kataoka, J, Kubo, S

    Proc. of SPIE   8145   814508  2011.09

     View Summary

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most drastic and intriguing phenomena in high energy astrophysics. The nature of relativistic collimated outflows that bight be generated by gravitational collapses of massive stars is to investigate the physical process just around the central engines by constraining magnetic environment. For this purpose we developed a compact and high sensitive hard x-ray polarimeter aboard a university class micro-satellite "TSUBAME." Unsurprisingly, any micro-satellites have stringent limitations on size, mass, and power consumption restricting the effective area of detectors. However, high luminosities of GRBs allow us to measure their polarizations only if we start observations just after the ignitions. TSUBAME overcomes this problem by using compact an high-torque actuators, control moment gyroscopes, that enable high speed attitude control faster than 6°s-1. Cooperating with a wide field burst monitor on board for real time position determination of GRBs, TSUBAME can start a pointing observation within ∼15 s after the detection for any GRBs in the half-sky field of view of the burst monitor. © 2011 Copyright Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

    DOI

  • Improvement of Energy Thresholds for Scintillation Detectors Using a Monolithic 2 x 2 Multi-Pixel Photon Counter Array with a Coincidence Technique

    Takamasa Miura, Takeshi Nakamori, Jun Kataoka, Takuya Kato, Kenichi Sato, Yoshitaka Ishikawa, Kazuhisa Yamamura, Nobuyuki Kawabata

    JOURNAL OF THE PHYSICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN   80 ( 9 )  2011.09

     View Summary

    The performance of a large-area, monolithic Hamamatsu multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) was tested consisting of a 2 x 2 array of 3 x 3 mm(2) pixels. MPPC is a novel type of semiconductor photodetector comprising multiple avalanche photodiode (APD) pixels operated in Geiger mode. Despite its great advantage of signal multiplication comparable to that achieved with the photomultiplier tube (PMT), the detection of weak scintillation light signals is quite difficult due to the severe contamination of dark counts, which typically amounts to similar or equal to 1 Mcps/3 x 3 mm(2) at room temperature. In this study, a coincidence technique was applied for scintillation detectors to improve the detection efficiency for low energy gamma-rays. The detector consisted of a 10 x 10 x 10 mm(3) crystals of GSO, BGO, and Pr:LuAG optically coupled with the 2 x 2 MPPC-array. With this technique, we demonstrated that the contamination of dark counts was reduced with a rejection efficiency of more than 99.8%. As a result, 22.2 keV gamma-rays were successfully detected with a GSO scintillator as measured at +20 degrees C.

    DOI

  • Improvement of Energy Thresholds for Scintillation Detectors Using a Monolithic 2 x 2 Multi-Pixel Photon Counter Array with a Coincidence Technique

    Takamasa Miura, Takeshi Nakamori, Jun Kataoka, Takuya Kato, Kenichi Sato, Yoshitaka Ishikawa, Kazuhisa Yamamura, Nobuyuki Kawabata

    JOURNAL OF THE PHYSICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN   80 ( 9 ) 094203  2011.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The performance of a large-area, monolithic Hamamatsu multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) was tested consisting of a 2 x 2 array of 3 x 3 mm(2) pixels. MPPC is a novel type of semiconductor photodetector comprising multiple avalanche photodiode (APD) pixels operated in Geiger mode. Despite its great advantage of signal multiplication comparable to that achieved with the photomultiplier tube (PMT), the detection of weak scintillation light signals is quite difficult due to the severe contamination of dark counts, which typically amounts to similar or equal to 1 Mcps/3 x 3 mm(2) at room temperature. In this study, a coincidence technique was applied for scintillation detectors to improve the detection efficiency for low energy gamma-rays. The detector consisted of a 10 x 10 x 10 mm(3) crystals of GSO, BGO, and Pr:LuAG optically coupled with the 2 x 2 MPPC-array. With this technique, we demonstrated that the contamination of dark counts was reduced with a rejection efficiency of more than 99.8%. As a result, 22.2 keV gamma-rays were successfully detected with a GSO scintillator as measured at +20 degrees C.

    DOI

  • The Small Satellite ``Tsubame'' for Polarimetry of GRBs

    Toizumi, T, Kawakami, K, Tokoyoda, K, Enomoto, T, Yatsu, Y, Kawai, N, Nakamori, T, Kataoka, J, Kubo, S

    AIP Conference Proceedings   1357   355 - 357  2011.08

     View Summary

    "Tsubame" is a university-built small satellite mission that measures polarization of hard X-ray photons (30-100 keV) from gamma-ray bursts (GRB) using azimuthal angle anisotropy of Compton scattering. The satellite is intended for a piggy-back launch on the H-IIA rocket. It uses Control moment gyros to quickly orient itself to GRBs within 15 seconds from triggers. We are now developing the engineering model of the two detector systems on Tsubame, the polarimeter and the bust monitor. In this paper, we present an overview of the Tsubame mission, and detail of development of engineering model of our polarimeter and burst monitor. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

    DOI

  • Constraints on dark matter models from a Fermi LAT search for high-energy cosmic-ray electrons from the Sun

    M. Ajello, W. B. Atwood, L. Baldini, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R. D. Blandford, E. D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland, E. Bottacini, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, P. A. Caraveo, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, S. Cutini, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, C. D. Dermer, S. W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P. S. Drell, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, W. B. Focke, Y. Fukazawa, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I. A. Grenier, S. Guiriec, M. Gustafsson, D. Hadasch, G. Iafrate, G. Jóhannesson, A. S. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, M. Kuss, L. Latronico, A. M. Lionetto, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, M. N. Mazziotta, J. E. McEnery, P. F. Michelson, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M. E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I. V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, M. Naumann-Godo, J. P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J. F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, J. H. Panetta, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pierbattista, F. Piron, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, S. Ritz, T. L. Schalk, C. Sgrò, J. Siegal-Gaskins, E. J. Siskind, P. D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, D. J. Suson

    Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology   84 ( 3 )  2011.08

     View Summary

    During its first year of data taking, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has collected a large sample of high-energy cosmic-ray electrons and positrons (CREs). We present the results of a directional analysis of the CRE events, in which we searched for a flux excess correlated with the direction of the Sun. Two different and complementary analysis approaches were implemented, and neither yielded evidence of a significant CRE flux excess from the Sun. We derive upper limits on the CRE flux from the Sun's direction, and use these bounds to constrain two classes of dark matter models which predict a solar CRE flux: (1) models in which dark matter annihilates to CREs via a light intermediate state, and (2) inelastic dark matter models in which dark matter annihilates to CREs. © 2011 American Physical Society.

    DOI

  • Fermi large area telescope observations of Markarian 421: The missing piece of its spectral energy distribution

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, A. Cannon, P.A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J.M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, C.D. Dermer, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, L. Escande, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, J. Finke, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, L. Fuhrmann, Y. Fukazawa, T. Fukuyama, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, M. Georganopoulos, S. Germani, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, D. Horan, R.E. Hughes, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, M. Kadler, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G.M. Madejski, A. Makeev, W. Max-Moerbeck, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. Mcenery, J. Mehault, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, M. Naumann-Godo, S. Nishino, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pavlidou, T.J. Pearson, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pierbattista, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Readhead, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, L.C. Reyes, J.L. Richards, S. Ritz, M. Roth, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, Ł. Stawarz, M. Stevenson, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.G. Thayer, J.B. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, E. Troja, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, G. Vianello, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, A.E. Wehrle, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, Z. Yang, Y. Yatsu, T. Ylinen, J.A. Zensus, M. Ziegler, J. Aleksić, L.A. Antonelli, P. Antoranz, M. Backes, J.A. Barrio, J.B. González, W. Bednarek, A. Berdyugin, K. Berger, E. Bernardini, A. Biland, O. Blanch, R.K. Bock, A. Boller, G. Bonnoli, P. Bordas, D.B. Tridon, V. Bosch-Ramon, D. Bose, I. Braun, T. Bretz, M. Camara, E. Carmona, A. Carosi, P. Colin, E. Colombo, J.L. Contreras, J. Cortina, S. Covino, F. Dazzi, A. De Angelis, E. De Cea Del Pozo, C.D. Mendez, B. De Lotto, M. De Maria, F. De Sabata, A.D. Ortega, M. Doert, A. Domínguez, D.D. Prester, D. Dorner, M. Doro, D. Elsaesser, D. Ferenc, M.V. Fonseca, L. Font, R.J.G. López, M. Garczarczyk, M. Gaug, G. Giavitto, N. Godinovi, D. Hadasch, A. Herrero, D. Hildebrand, D. Höhne-Mönch, J. Hose, D. Hrupec, T. Jogler, S. Klepser, T. Krä

    Astrophysical Journal   736 ( 2 )  2011.08  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report on the γ-ray activity of the high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacertae object Markarian 421 (Mrk421) during the first 1.5years of Fermi operation, from 2008 August 5 to 2010 March 12. We find that the Large Area Telescope (LAT) γ-ray spectrum above 0.3GeV can be well described by a power-law function with photon index Γ = 1.78 0.02 and average photon flux F(> 0.3GeV) = (7.23 0.16) × 10-8phcm-2s -1. Over this time period, the Fermi-LAT spectrum above 0.3GeV was evaluated on seven-day-long time intervals, showing significant variations in the photon flux (up to a factor 3 from the minimum to the maximum flux) but mild spectral variations. The variability amplitude at X-ray frequencies measured by RXTE/ASM and Swift/BAT is substantially larger than that in γ-rays measured by Fermi-LAT, and these two energy ranges are not significantly correlated. We also present the first results from the 4.5 month long multifrequency campaign on Mrk421, which included the VLBA, Swift, RXTE, MAGIC, the F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, and other collaborations and instruments that provided excellent temporal and energy coverage of the source throughout the entire campaign (2009 January 19 to 2009 June 1). During this campaign, Mrk421 showed a low activity at all wavebands. The extensive multi-instrument (radio toTeV) data set provides an unprecedented, complete look at the quiescent spectral energy distribution (SED) for this source. The broadband SED was reproduced with a leptonic (one-zone synchrotron self-Compton) and a hadronic model (synchrotron proton blazar). Both frameworks are able to describe the average SED reasonably well, implying comparable jet powers but very different characteristics for the blazar emission site. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • The Small Satellite ``Tsubame'' for Polarimetry of GRBs

    Toizumi, T, Kawakami, K, Tokoyoda, K, Enomoto, T, Yatsu, Y, Kawai, N, Nakamori, T, Kataoka, J, Kubo, S

    AIP Conference Proceedings   1358   435 - 437  2011.08

     View Summary

    "Tsubame" is a university-built small satellite mission that measures polarization of hard X-ray photons (30-100 keV) from gamma-ray bursts (GRB) using azimuthal angle anisotropy of Compton scattering. The satellite is intended for a piggy-back launch on the H-IIA rocket. It uses Control moment gyros to quickly orient itself to GRBs within 15 seconds from triggers. We are now developing the engineering model of the two detector systems on Tsubame, the polarimeter and the bust monitor. In this paper, we present an overview of the Tsubame mission, and detail of development of engineering model of our polarimeter and burst monitor. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

    DOI

  • Discovery of high-energy gamma-ray emission from the binary system PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 around periastron with Fermi

    A. A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R. D. Blandford, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, F. Camilo, P. A. Caraveo, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, S. Chaty, A. Chekhtman, M. Chernyakova, C. C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, L. R. Cominsky, S. Corbel, S. Cutini, F. D'Ammando, A. De Angelis, P. R. Den Hartog, F. De Palma, C. D. Dermer, S. W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, M. Dormody, P. S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, R. Dubois, G. Dubus, D. Dumora, T. Enoto, C. M. Espinoza, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, E. C. Ferrara, W. B. Focke, P. Fortin, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I. A. Grenier, M. H. Grondin, J. E. Grove, E. Grundstrom, S. Guiriec, C. Gwon, D. Hadasch, A. K. Harding, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, G. Jóhannesson, A. S. Johnson, T. J. Johnson, S. Johnston, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, M. Keith, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kramer, M. Kuss, J. Lande, S. H. Lee, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, R. N. Manchester, M. Marelli, M. N. Mazziotta

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   736 ( 1 )  2011.07

     View Summary

    We report on the discovery of ≥100MeV γ-rays from the binary system PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 using the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board Fermi. The system comprises a radio pulsar in orbit around a Be star. We report on LAT observations from near apastron to ∼128 days after the time of periastron, ∼tp , on 2010 December 15. No γ-ray emission was detected from this source when it was far from periastron. Faint γ-ray emission appeared as the pulsar approached periastron. At ∼tp + 30 days, the ≥100MeV γ-ray flux increased over a period of a few days to a peak flux 20-30 times that seen during the pre-periastron period, but with a softer spectrum. For the following month, it was seen to be variable on daily timescales, but remained at ∼(1-4) × 10-6 cm-2 s-1 before starting to fade at ∼tp + 57 days. The total γ-ray luminosity observed during this period is comparable to the spin-down power of the pulsar. Simultaneous radio and X-ray observations of the source showed no corresponding dramatic changes in radio and X-ray flux between the pre-periastron and post-periastron flares. We discuss possible explanations for the observed γ-ray-only flaring of the source. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • The development and performance of UV-enhanced APD-arrays for high resolution PET imaging coupled with pixelized Pr: LuAG crystal

    Yoshino, M, Kataoka, J, Nakamori, T, Matsuda, H, Miura, T, Katou, T, Ishikawa, Y, Kawabata, N, Matsunaga, Y, Kamada, K, Usuki, Y, Yoshikawa, A, Yanagida, T

    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A   643 ( 1 ) 57 - 63  2011.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The development of high-resolution, UV-enhanced avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays usable in high-resolution PET imaging is underway. These APD arrays were specifically designed as photosensors capable of direct coupling with pixelized Pr-doped Lu3Al5O12 (Pr:LuAG) scintillators. An excellent quantum efficiency (QE) of 55% was achieved at the peak emission of Pr:LuAG (310 nm), namely, a substantial improvement from the QE ≤5% as measured with the conventional Hamamatsu reverse-type APDs (S8664 series). Each APD device has 8×8 (TYP1) and 12×12 (TYP2) pixel structures with active areas of 3×3 mm2 and 2×2 mm2 in each pixel, respectively. A gain uniformity of ±8% and low dark noise of ≤2nA/pixel have been achieved, measured at 25 °C. We also report on the large size single crystal growth of improved Pr:LuAG scintillators and the preliminary performance test of the same. An energy resolution of 4.2% (FWHM) was obtained for 662 keV gamma-rays for 10×10×10 mm3 crystal, measured with a PMT employing a super-bialkali photocathode. We made a test module consisting of a UV-enhanced APD-array (either TYP1 or TYP2) optically coupled with an 8×8 (or 12×12) pixel Pr:LuAG matrix. The linearity between the output signals and incident gamma-ray energy of TYP1 and TYP2 gamma-ray detectors were only 0.27 and 0.33%, as measured at 25 °C for various gamma-ray sources, respectively. Energy resolutions of 7.0±0.2% (FWHM) and 9.0±0.6% (FWHM) were, respectively, obtained for TYP1 and TYP2 detector arrays for 662 keV gamma-rays. The uniformity of the pulse height distributions was also measured at less than 8% for both detectors. Finally, we measured the coincidence timing resolution of these gamma-ray detectors and obtained 4.0±0.1 ns (FWHM) for the 511 keV annihilation quanta from a 22Na source. These results suggest that UV-enhanced APD-arrays coupled with Pr:LuAG scintillators could be a promising device for future application in nuclear medicine. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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  • Detection of high-energy gamma-ray emission during the X-ray flaring activity in GRB 100728A

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, M.G. Baring, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, P.N. Bhat, E. Bissaldi, R.D. Blandford, E. Bonamente, J. Bonnell, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, V. Connaughton, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, C.D. Dermer, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, C. Favuzzi, Y. Fukazawa, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, J. Granot, I.A. Grenier, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, Y. Hanabata, R.E. Hughes, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, P. Lubrano, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, P. Mészros, P.F. Michelson, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, M. Naumann-Godo, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, W.S. Paciesas, V. Pelassa, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pierbattista, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, J.L. Racusin, S. Rainò, M. Razzano, S. Razzaque, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, L.C. Reyes, M. Roth, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, P.D. Smith, E. Sonbas, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, M. Stamatikos, M.S. Strickman, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, J.G. Thayer, J.B. Thayer, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, E. Troja, T. Uehara, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, G. Vianello, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A. Von Kienlin, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, R. Yamazaki, Z. Yang, M. Ziegler, L. Piro

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   734 ( 2 )  2011.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We present the simultaneous Swift and Fermi observations of the bright GRB 100728A and its afterglow. The early X-ray emission is dominated by a vigorous flaring activity continuing until 1ks after the burst. In the same time interval, high-energy emission is significantly detected by the Fermi/Large Area Telescope. Marginal evidence ofGeV emission is observed up to later times. We discuss the broadband properties of this burst within both the internal and external shock scenarios, with a particular emphasis on the relation between X-ray flares, theGeV emission, and a continued long-duration central engine activity as their power source. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Fermi large area telescope observations of two gamma-ray emission components from the quiescent sun

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, C.D. Dermer, S.W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, L. Grillo, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, E. Hays, R.E. Hughes, G. Iafrate, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, T.J. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, A.M. Lionetto, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A. Makeev, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, J. Mehault, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, M. Naumann-Godo, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, V. Pelassa, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pierbattista, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, S. Ritz, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, T.L. Schalk, C. Sgrò, G.H. Share, E.J. Siskind, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, M.S. Strickman, A.W. Strong, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.G. Thayer, J.B. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, E. Troja, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, G. Vianello, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.E. Vladimirov, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, Z. Yang, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal   734 ( 2 )  2011.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report the detection of high-energy γ-rays from the quiescent Sun with the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope (Fermi) during the first 18 months of the mission. These observations correspond to the recent period of low solar activity when the emission induced by cosmic rays (CRs) is brightest. For the first time, the high statistical significance of the observations allows clear separation of the two components: the point-like emission from the solar disk due to CR cascades in the solar atmosphere and extended emission from the inverse Compton (IC) scattering of CR electrons on solar photons in the heliosphere. The observed integral flux (≥100MeV) from the solar disk is (4.6 ± 0.2[statistical error] +1.0- 0.8[systematic error]) × 10 -7cm-2s-1, which is 7 times higher than predicted by the "nominal" model of Seckel etal. In contrast, the observed integral flux (≥100MeV) of the extended emission from a region of 20° radius centered on the Sun, but excluding the disk itself, (6.8 ± 0.7[stat.]+0.5- 0.4[syst.]) × 10 -7cm-2s-1, along with the observed spectrum and the angular profile, is in good agreement with the theoretical predictions for the IC emission. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Observations of the young supernova remnant RX J1713.7-3946 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, M.G. Baring, D. Bastieri, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, T.J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, S. Chaty, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, A.N. Cillis, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, S. Corbel, S. Cutini, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, C.D. Dermer, S.W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Favuzzi, E.C. Ferrara, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, Y. Fukui, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, M. Hayashida, K. Hayashi, E. Hays, D. Horan, M.S. Jackson, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G.M. Madejski, A. Makeev, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, P.F. Michelson, R.P. Mignani, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, M. Naumann-Godo, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, D. Paneque, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pierbattista, F. Piron, M. Pohl, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, S. Ritz, R.W. Romani, M. Roth, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, P.M. Saz Parkinson, C. Sgrò, D.A. Smith, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, M.S. Strickman, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.G. Thayer, J.B. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, O. Tibolla, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, E. Troja, Y. Uchiyama, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, G. Vianello, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, H. Yamamoto, R. Yamazaki, Z. Yang, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal   734 ( 1 )  2011.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We present observations of the young supernova remnant (SNR) RXJ1713.7-3946 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). We clearly detect a source positionally coincident with the SNR. The source is extended with a best-fit extension of 055 ± 004 matching the size of the non-thermal X-ray and TeV gamma-ray emission from the remnant. The positional coincidence and the matching extended emission allow us to identify the LAT source with SNR RXJ1713.7-3946. The spectrum of the source can be described by a very hard power law with a photon index of Γ = 1.5 0.1 that coincides in normalization with the steeper H.E.S.S.-detected gamma-ray spectrum at higher energies. The broadband gamma-ray emission is consistent with a leptonic origin as the dominant mechanism for the gamma-ray emission. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Fermi gamma-ray space telescope observations of the gamma-ray outburst from 3C454.3 in November 2010

    A. A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R. D. Blandford, E. D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, P. A. Caraveo, J. M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C. C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, F. D'Ammando, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, C. D. Dermer, S. W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P. S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, L. Escande, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, E. C. Ferrara, P. Fortin, Y. Fukazawa, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I. A. Grenier, J. E. Grove, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, D. Horan, R. Itoh, G. Jóhannesson, A. S. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, S. Larsson, L. Latronico, S. H. Lee, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G. M. Madejski, A. Makeev, M. N. Mazziotta, W. McConville, J. E. McEnery, P. F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A. A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M. E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I. V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, M. Naumann-Godo, S. Nishino

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   733 ( 2 PART 2 )  2011.06

     View Summary

    The flat-spectrum radio quasar 3C454.3 underwent an extraordinary 5 day γ-ray outburst in 2010 November when the daily flux measured with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) at photon energies E > 100MeV reached (66 2) × 10-6 photons cm-2 s-1. This is a factor of three higher than its previous maximum flux recorded in 2009 December and ≳ 5 times brighter than the Vela pulsar, which is normally the brightest source in the γ-ray sky. The 3hr peak flux was (85 5)×10-6 photons cm-2 s-1, corresponding to an apparent isotropic luminosity of (2.1 0.2)×1050 erg s-1, the highest ever recorded for a blazar. In this Letter, we investigate the features of this exceptional event in the γ-ray band of the Fermi-LAT. In contrast to previous flares of the same source observed with the Fermi-LAT, clear spectral changes are observed during the flare. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

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  • Development of a large-area monolithic 4 x 4 MPPC array for a future PET scanner employing pixelized Ce:LYSO and Pr:LuAG crystals

    T. Kato, J. Kataoka, T. Nakamori, T. Miura, H. Matsuda, K. Sato, Y. Ishikawa, K. Yamamura, N. Kawabata, H. Ikeda, G. Sato, K. Kamada

    NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT   638 ( 1 ) 83 - 91  2011.05  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We have developed a new type of large-area monolithic Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) array consisting of a 4 x 4 matrix of 3 x 3 mm(2) pixels. Each pixel comprises 3600 Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes (APDs) that achieve an average gain of 9.68 x 10(5) at 71.9 V at 0 degrees C with variations of only +/- 7.2% over 4 x 4 pixels. Excellent uniformity was also obtained for photon detection efficiencies (PDE) of +/- 6.4%, whilst dark count rates at the single photoelectron (1 p.e.) level amounted to similar or equal to 2 Mcps/pixel, measured at 0 degrees C. As the first step toward using the device in scintillation photon detectors, we fabricated a prototype gamma-ray camera consisting of an MPPC array optically coupled with a scintillator matrix, namely a 4 x 4 array of 3 x 3 x 10 mm(3) crystals. Specifically, we tested the performance with Ce-doped (Lu, Y)(2)(SiO(4))O (Ce:LYSO), Pr-doped Lu(3)Al(5)O(12) (Pr:LuAG) and "surface coated" Pr:LuAG (Pr:LuAG (WES)) matrices whereby the emission peak of Pr:LuAG was shifted from 310 to 420 nm via a wavelength shifter (WLS). Average energy resolutions of 13.83%, 14.70% and 13.96% (FWHM) were obtained for 662 keV gamma-rays, as measured at 0 degrees C with Ce:LYSO, Pr:LuAG and Pr:LuAG (WLS) scintillator matrices, respectively. We confirmed that the effective PDE for Pr:LuAG (WLS) had improved by more than 30% compared to original, non-coated Pr:LuAG matrix. These results suggest that a large-area monolithic MPPC array developed here could be promising for future medical imaging, particularly in positron emission tomography (PET). (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Erratum: Multi-wavelength observations of the flaring gamma-ray blazar 3C 66A in 2008 october (Astrophysical Journal (2011) 726 (43))

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J.M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, L. Costamante, S. Cutini, D.S. Davis, C.D. Dermer, F. De Palma, S.W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, L. Fuhrmann, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, D. Horan, R.E. Hughes, R. Itoh, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, T.J. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A. Makeev, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, J. Mehault, P.F. Michelson, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, M. Naumann-Godo, I. Nestoras, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, L.C. Reyes, J. Ripken, S. Ritz, R.W. Romani, M. Roth, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, J.D. Scargle, C. Sgrò, M.S. Shaw, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, Z. Yang, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler, V.A. Acciari, E. Aliu, T. Arlen, T. Aune, M. Beilicke, W. Benbow, M. Böttcher, D. Boltuch, S.M. Bradbury, J.H. Buckley, V. Bugaev, K. Byrum, A. Cannon, A. Cesarini, J.L. Christiansen, L. Ciupik, W. Cui, I. De La Calle Perez, R. Dickherber, M. Errando, A. Falcone, J.P. Finley, G. Finnegan, L. Fortson, A. Furniss, N. Galante, D. Gall, G.H. Gillanders, S. Godambe, J. Grube, R. Guenette, G. Gyuk, D. Hanna, J. Holder, C.M. Hui, T.B. Humensky, A. Imran, P. Kaaret, N. Karlsson, M. Kertzman, D. Kieda, A. Konopelko, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, M.J. Lang, S. Lebohec, G. Maier, S. McArthur, A. McCann, M. McCutcheon, P. Moriarty, R. Mukherjee, R.A. Ong, A.N. Otte, D. Pandel, J.S. Perkins, A. Pichel, M. Pohl, J. Quinn, K. Ragan, P.T. Reynolds, E. Roache, H.J. Rose, M. Schroedter, G.H. Sembroski, G.D. Senturk, A.W. Smith, D. Steele, S.P. Swordy, G. Teić, M. Theiling, S. Thibadeau, A. Varlotta, V.V. Vassiliev, S. Vincent, S.P. Wakely, J.E

    Astrophysical Journal   731 ( 1 )  2011.04  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • The first fermi multifrequency campaign on BL Lacertae: Characterizing the low-activity state of the eponymous blazar

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, E. Antolini, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, A. Cannon, P.A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çlik, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, L. Costamante, S. Cutini, C.D. Dermer, F. De Palma, D. Donato, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, L. Escande, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, J. Finke, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, R.E. Hughes, R. Itoh, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, S. Larsson, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, M.L. Garde, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A. Makeev, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, J. Mehault, P.F. Michelson, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, M. Naumann-Godo, S. Nishino, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, S. Ritz, M. Roth, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, F.K. Schinzel, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, P.D. Smith, K.V. Sokolovsky, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, T. Uehara, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, E. Wallace, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, Z. Yang, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler, A. Berdyugin, M. Boettcher, A. Carramĩana, L. Carrasco, E. De La Fuente, C. Diltz, T. Hovatta, V. Kadenius, Y.Y. Kovalev, A. Lähteenmäki, E. Lindfors, A.P. Marscher, K. Nilsson, D. Pereira, R. Reinthal, P. Roustazadeh, T. Savolainen, A. Sillanpää, L.O. Takalo, M. Tornikoski

    Astrophysical Journal   730 ( 2 )  2011.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report on observations of BLLacertae during the first 18 months of Fermi LAT science operations and present results from a 48 day multifrequency coordinated campaign from 2008 August 19 to 2008 October 7. The radio to gamma-ray behavior of BLLac is unveiled during a low-activity state thanks to the coordinated observations of radio-band (Metsähovi and VLBA), near-IR/optical (Tuorla, Steward, OAGH, and MDM), and X-ray (RXTE and Swift) observatories. No variability was resolved in gamma rays during the campaign, and the brightness level was 15 times lower than the level of the 1997 EGRET outburst. Moderate and uncorrelated variability has been detected in UV and X-rays. The X-ray spectrum is found to be concave, indicating the transition region between the low- and high-energy components of the spectral energy distribution (SED). VLBA observation detected a synchrotron spectrum self-absorption turnover in the innermost part of the radio jet appearing to be elongated and inhomogeneous, and constrained the average magnetic field there to be less than 3 G. Over the following months, BLLac appeared variable in gamma rays, showing flares (in 2009 April and 2010 January). There is no evidence for the correlation of gamma rays with the optical flux monitored from the ground in 18 months. The SED may be described by a single-zone or a two-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model, but a hybrid SSC plus external radiation Compton model seems to be preferred based on the observed variability and the fact that it provides a fit closest to equipartition. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

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  • Searching for X-ray counterparts of Fermi Gamma-ray pulsars in Suzaku observations

    Aoki, Y, Enomoto, T, Yatsu, Y, Kawai, N, Nakamori, T, Kataoka, J, Saz Parkinson, P

    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union   7 ( S279 ) 317 - 318  2011.04

     View Summary

    We report the Suzaku follow-up observations of the Gamma-ray pulsars, 1FGL J0614,13328, J1044.55737, J1741.82101, and J1813.31246, which were discovered by the Fermi Gamma-ray observatory. Analysing Suzaku/XIS data, we detected X-ray counterparts of these pulsars in the Fermi error circle and interpreted their spectra with absorbed power-law functions. These results indicate that the origin of these X-ray sources is non-thermal emission from the pulsars or from Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe) surrounding them. Moreover we found that J1741.82101 exhibits a peculiar profile: spin-down luminosity vs flux ratio between X-and gamma-rays is unusually large compared to usual radio pulsars. © 2012 International Astronomical Union.

    DOI

  • Detection of a spectral break in the extra hard component of GRB 090926A

    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, K. Asano, M. Axelsson, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, M.G. Baring, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, P.N. Bhat, E. Bissaldi, R.D. Blandford, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M.S. Briggs, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, V. Chaplin, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, V. Connaughton, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, C.D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, B.L. Dingus, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, E.C. Ferrara, W.B. Focke, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, A. Goldstein, J. Granot, J. Greiner, I.A. Grenier, J.E. Grove, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, K. Hayashi, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, D. Horan, R.E. Hughes, R. Itoh, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, R.M. Kippen, J. Knödlseder, D. Kocevski, C. Kouveliotou, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, M. Llena Garde, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A. Makeev, M.N. Mazziotta, S. McBreen, J.E. McEnery, S. McGlynn, C. Meegan, J. Mehault, P. Mészáros, P.F. Michelson, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, E. Moretti, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, H. Nakajima, T. Nakamori, M. Naumann-Godo, S. Nishino, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, M. Ohno, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, W.S. Paciesas, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, V. Petrosian, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, R. Preece, J.L. Racusin, S. Rainò, R. Rando, A. Rau, M. Razzano, S. Razzaque, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, L.C. Reyes, J. Ripken, S. Ritz, M. Roth, F. Ryde, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, A. Sander, J.D. Scargle, T.L. Schalk, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, M. Stamatikos, F.W. Stecker, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, L. Tibaldo, D. Tierney, K. Toma, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T. Uehara, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, A.J. Van, Der Horst, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A. Von Kienlin, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, C. Wilson-Hodge, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, X.F. Wu, R. Yamazaki, Z. Yang, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal   729 ( 2 )  2011.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report on the observation of the bright, long gamma-ray burst, GRB090926A, by the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope (LAT) instruments on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. GRB090926A shares several features with other bright LAT bursts. In particular, it clearly shows a short spike in the light curve that is present in all detectors that see the burst, and this in turn suggests that there is a common region of emission across the entire Fermi energy range. In addition, while a separate high-energy power-law component has already been observed in other gamma-ray bursts, here we report for the first time the detection with good significance of a high-energy spectral break (or cutoff) in this power-law component around 1.4 GeV in the time-integrated spectrum. If the spectral break is caused by opacity to electron-positron pair production within the source, then this observation allows us to compute the bulk Lorentz factor for the outflow, rather than a lower limit. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • THE FIRST FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE CATALOG OF GAMMA-RAY PULSARS (vol 187, pg 460, 2010)

    A. A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, W. B. Atwood, M. Axelsson, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, M. G. Baring, D. Bastieri, B. M. Baughman, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R. D. Blandford, E. D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T. H. Burnett, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, F. Camilo, P. A. Caraveo, J. M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, Oe. Celik, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C. C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, I. Cognard, J. Cohen-Tanugi, L. R. Cominsky, J. Conrad, R. Corbet, S. Cutini, P. R. den Hartog, C. D. Dermer, A. de Angelis, A. de Luca, F. de Palma, S. W. Digel, M. Dormody, E. do Couto e Silva, P. S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Espinoza, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, E. C. Ferrara, W. B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, P. C. C. Freire, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, G. Giavitto, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, E. V. Gotthelf, I. A. Grenier, M. -H. Grondin, J. E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, C. Gwon, Y. Hanabata, A. K. Harding, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, R. E. Hughes, M. S. Jackson, G. Johannesson, A. S. Johnson, R. P. Johnson, T. J. Johnson, W. N. Johnson, S. Johnston, T. Kamae, G. Kanbach, V. M. Kaspi, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, M. Kerr, J. Knoedlseder, M. L. Kocian, M. Kramer, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, M. Livingstone, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A. G. Lyne, G. M. Madejski, A. Makeev, R. N. Manchester, M. Marelli, M. N. Mazziotta, W. McConville, J. E. McEnery, S. McGlynn, C. Meurer, P. F. Michelson, T. Mineo, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A. A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M. E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I. V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, P. L. Nolan, J. P. Norris, A. Noutsos, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J. F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, J. H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T. A. Porter, S. Raino, R. Rando, S. M. Ransom, P. S. Ray, M. Razzano, N. Rea, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, S. Ritz, A. Y. Rodriguez, R. W. Romani, M. Roth, F. Ryde, H. F. -W. Sadrozinski, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, P. M. Saz Parkinson, J. D. Scargle, T. L. Schalk, A. Sellerholm, C. Sgro, E. J. Siskind, D. A. Smith, P. D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, B. W. Stappers, J. -L. Starck, E. Striani, M. S. Strickman, A. W. Strong, D. J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J. B. Thayer, J. G. Thayer, G. Theureau, D. J. Thompson, S. E. Thorsett, L. Tibaldo, O. Tibolla, D. F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T. L. Usher, A. Van Etten, V. Vasileiou, C. Venter, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A. P. Waite, P. Wang, N. Wang, K. Watters, P. Weltevrede, B. L. Winer, K. S. Wood, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL SUPPLEMENT SERIES   193 ( 1 ) 460 - 494  2011.03  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • 27pGS-11 Structure designs of active shields for the ASTRO-H Hard X-ray and Soft Gamma-ray Detector

    Nakajima K, Nakano T, Nakazawa K, Makishima K, Hanabata Y, Fukazawa Y, Yamaoka K, Tajima H, Kataoka J, Takahashi H, Mizuno T, Ohno M, Kokubun M, Takahashi T, Watanabe S, Tashiro M, Terada Y

    Meeting abstracts of the Physical Society of Japan   66 ( 1 )  2011.03

    CiNii

  • 28aGP-6 High resolution gamma-ray imagers using APD/MPPC

    Kataoka Jun

    Meeting abstracts of the Physical Society of Japan   66 ( 1 )  2011.03

    CiNii

  • UNRAVELING THE NATURE OF UNIDENTIFIED HIGH GALACTIC LATITUDE FERMI/LAT GAMMA-RAY SOURCES WITH SUZAKU

    K. Maeda, J. Kataoka, T. Nakamori, L. Stawarz, R. Makiya, T. Totani, C. C. Cheung, D. Donato, N. Gehrels, P. Saz Parkinson, Y. Kanai, N. Kawai, Y. Tanaka, R. Sato, T. Takahashi, Y. Takahashi

    ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL   729 ( 2 ) 103 - 116  2011.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Here we report on the results of deep X-ray follow-up observations of four unidentified gamma-ray sources detected by the Fermi/LAT instrument at high Galactic latitudes using the X-ray Imaging Spectrometers on board the Suzaku satellite. All of the studied objects were detected with high significance during the first three months of Fermi/LAT operation and subsequently better localized in the first Fermi/LAT catalog (1FGL). For some of them, possible associations with pulsars and active galaxies have subsequently been discussed, and our observations provide an important contribution to this debate. In particular, a bright X-ray point source has been found within the 95% confidence error circle of 1FGL J1231.1-1410. The X-ray spectrum of the discovered Suzaku counterpart of 1FGL J1231.1-1410 is well fitted by a blackbody with an additional power-law component. This supports the recently claimed identification of this source with a millisecond pulsar PSR J1231-1411. For the remaining three Fermi objects, on the other hand, the X-ray observations performed are less conclusive. In the case of 1FGL J1311.7-3429, two bright X-ray point sources were found within the LAT 95% error circle. Even though the X-ray spectral and variability properties for these sources were robustly assessed, their physical nature and relationship with the gamma-ray source remain uncertain. Similarly, we found several weak X-ray sources in the field of 1FGL J1333.2+5056, one coinciding with the high-redshift blazar CLASS J1333+5057. We argue that the available data are consistent with the physical association between these two objects, although the large positional uncertainty of the gamma-ray source hinders a robust identification. Finally, we have detected an X-ray point source in the vicinity of 1FGL J2017.3+0603. This Fermi object was recently suggested to be associated with a newly discovered millisecond radio pulsar PSR J2017+0603, because of the spatial coincidence and the detection of the gamma-ray pulsations in the light curve of 1FGL J2017.3+0603. Interestingly, we have detected the X-ray counterpart of the high-redshift blazar CLASS J2017+0603, located within the error circle of the gamma-ray source, while we were only able to determine an X-ray flux upper limit at the pulsar position. All in all, our studies indicate that while a significant fraction of unidentified high Galactic latitude gamma-ray sources is related to the pulsar and blazar phenomena, associations with other classes of astrophysical objects are still valid options.

    DOI

  • Radio and γ-ray constraints on the emission geometry and birthplace of PSR j2043+2740

    A. Noutsos, A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, M.G. Baring, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, G. Busetto, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, F. Camilo, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, S. Chaty, A. Chekhtman, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, I. Cognard, J. Cohen-Tanugi, S. Colafrancesco, S. Cutini, C.D. Dermer, F. De Palma, P.S. Drell, D. Dumora, C.M. Ea, C. Favuzzi, E.C. Ferrara, W.B. Focke, M. Frailis, P.C.C. Freire, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, G. Godfrey, P. Grandi, I.A. Grenier, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, A.K. Harding, R.E. Hughes, M.S. Jackson, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, T.J. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, S. Johnston, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kramer, M. Kuss, J. Lande, S.-H. Lee, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A.G. Lyne, A. Makeev, M. Marelli, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, J. Mehault, P.F. Michelson, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, M. Naumann-Godo, P.L. Nolan, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Persic, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, P.S. Ray, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, R.W. Romani, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, A. Sander, P.M. Saz Parkinson, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, D.A. Smith, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, B.W. Stappers, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, G. Theureau, D.J. Thompson, S.E. Thorsett, O. Tibolla, D.F. Torres, A. Tramacere, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, G. Vianello, N. Vilchez, M. Villata, V. Vitale, A. Von Kienlin, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, K. Watters, P. Weltevrede, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal   728 ( 2 )  2011.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report on the first year of Fermi γ-ray observations of pulsed high-energy emission from the old PSR J2043 + 2740. The study of the γ-ray efficiency of such old pulsars gives us an insight into the evolution of pulsars' ability to emit in γ rays as they age. The y-ray light curve of this pulsar above 0.1 GeV is clearly defined by two sharp peaks, 0.353 ± 0.035 periods apart. We have combined the γ-ray profile characteristics of PSR J2043 + 2740 with the geometrical properties of the pulsar's radio emission, derived from radio-polarization data, and constrained the pulsar-beam geometry in the framework of a two-pole caustic (TPC) and an outer gap (OG) model. The ranges of magnetic inclination and viewing angle were determined to be {α, ζ} ∼ {52°-57°, 61°-68°} for the TPC model, and {α, ζ} ∼ {62°-73°, 74°-81°} and {α, ζ,} ∼ {72°-83°, 60°-75°} for the OG model. Based on this geometry, we assess possible birth locations for this pulsar and derive a likely proper motion, sufficiently high to be measurable with VLBI. At a characteristic age of 1.2 Myr, PSR J2043 + 2740 is the third oldest of all discovered, non-recycled, γ-ray pulsars: it is twice as old as the next oldest, PSR J0357 + 32, and younger only than the recently discovered PSR J1836 + 5925 and PSR J2055 + 25, both of which are at least five and ten times less energetic, respectively. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society.

    DOI

  • Gamma-ray flares from the Crab Nebula

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, T.J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, A. Cannon, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, Ö. Çelik, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, L. Costamante, S. Cutini, F. D'Ammando, C.D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, A. De Luca, F. De Palma, S.W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, E.C. Ferrara, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, K. Hayashi, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, D. Horan, R. Itoh, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, T.J. Johnson, D. Khangulyan, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, P. Lubrano, G.M. Madejski, A. Makeev, M. Marelli, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, M. Naumann-Godo, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pierbattista, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, P.S. Ray, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, S. Ritz, R.W. Romani, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, D. Sanchez, P.M. Saz Parkinson, J.D. Scargle, T.L. Schalk, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, E. Troja, Y. Uchiyama, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, G. Vianello, V. Vitale, P. Wang, K.S. Wood, Z. Yang, M. Ziegler

    Science   331 ( 6018 ) 739 - 742  2011.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    A young and energetic pulsar powers the well-known Crab Nebula. Here, we describe two separate gamma-ray (photon energy greater than 100 mega-electron volts) flares from this source detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The first flare occurred in February 2009 and lasted approximately 16 days. The second flare was detected in September 2010 and lasted approximately 4 days. During these outbursts, the gamma-ray flux from the nebula increased by factors of four and six, respectively. The brevity of the flares implies that the gamma rays were emitted via synchrotron radiation from peta-electron-volt (1015 electron volts) electrons in a region smaller than 1.4 × 10-2 parsecs. These are the highest-energy particles that can be associated with a discrete astronomical source, and they pose challenges to particle acceleration theory.

    DOI

  • Insights into the high-energy γ-ray emission of Markarian 501 from extensive multifrequency observations in the Fermi era

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, M.G. Baring, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, T.J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, A. Cannon, P.A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J.M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, C.D. Dermer, F. De Palma, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, E.C. Ferrara, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, L. Fuhrmann, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, D. Horan, R.E. Hughes, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, M. Kadler, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G.M. Madejski, A. Makeev, W. Max-Moerbeck, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, J. Mehault, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, M. Naumann-Godo, S. Nishino, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pavlidou, T.J. Pearson, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Readhead, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, J.L. Richards, J. Ripken, S. Ritz, M. Roth, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, J.D. Scargle, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, L. Stawarz, M. Stevenson, M.S. Strickm, K.V. Sokolovsky, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, A.E. Wehrle, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, Z. Yang, T. Ylinen, J.A. Zensus, M. Ziegler, J. Aleksić, L.A. Antonelli, P. Antoranz, M. Backes, J.A. Barrio, J.B. González, W. Bednarek, A. Berdyugin, K. Berger, E. Bernardini, A. Biland, O. Blanch, R.K. Bock, A. Boller, G. Bonnoli, P. Bordas, D.B. Tridon, V. Bosch-Ramon, D. Bose, I. Braun, T. Bretz, M. Camara, E. Carmona, A. Carosi, P. Colin, E. Colombo, J.L. Contreras, J. Cortina, S. Covino, F. Dazzi, A. De Angelis, E. De Cea Del Pozo, B. De Lotto, M. De Maria, F. De Sabata, C. Delgado Mendez, A. Diago Ortega, M. Doert, A. Domínguez, D.D. Prester, D. Dorner, M. Doro, D. Elsaesser, D. Ferenc, M.V. Fonseca, L. Font, R.J.G. López, M. Garczarczyk, M. Gaug, G. Giavitto, N. Godinovi, D. Hadasch, A. Herrero, D. Hildebrand, D. Höhne-Mönch, J. Hose, D. Hrupec, T. Jogler, S. Klepser, T. Krähenbühl, D

    Astrophysical Journal   727 ( 2 )  2011.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report on the γ-ray activity of the blazar Mrk 501 during the first 480 days of Fermi operation. We find that the average Large Area Telescope (LAT) γ-ray spectrum of Mrk 501 can be well described by a single power-law function with a photon index of 1.78 ± 0.03. While we observe relatively mild flux variations with the Fermi-LAT (within less than a factor of two), we detect remarkable spectral variability where the hardest observed spectral index within the LAT energy range is 1.52 ± 0.14, and the softest one is 2.51 ± 0.20. These unexpected spectral changes do not correlate with the measured flux variations above 0.3 GeV. In this paper, we also present the first results from the 4.5 month long multifrequency campaign (2009 March 15-August 1) on Mrk 501, which included the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), Swift, RXTE, MAGIC, and VERITAS, the F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, and other collaborations and instruments which provided excellent temporal and energy coverage of the source throughout the entire campaign. The extensive radio to TeV data set from this campaign provides us with the most detailed spectral energy distribution yet collected for this source during its relatively low activity. The average spectral energy distribution of Mrk 501 is well described by the standard one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model. In the framework of this model, we find that the dominant emission region is characterized by a size ≲0.1 pc (comparable within a factor of few to the size of the partially resolved VLBA core at 15-43 GHz), and that the total jet power (≃1044 erg s-1) constitutes only a small fraction (∼10-3) of the Eddington luminosity. The energy distribution of the freshly accelerated radiating electrons required to fit the time-averaged data has a broken power-law form in the energy range 0.3 GeV-10 TeV, with spectral indices 2.2 and 2.7 below and above the break energy of 20 GeV. We argue that such a form is consistent with a scenario in which the bulk of the energy dissipation within the dominant emission zone of Mrk 501 is due to relativistic, proton-mediated shocks. We find that the ultrarelativistic electrons and mildly relativistic protons within the blazar zone, if comparable in number, are in approximate energy equipartition, with their energy dominating the jet magnetic field energy by about two orders of magnitude. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society.

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  • Searching for the most distant blazars with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    Yoshiyuki Inoue, Susumu Inoue, Masakazu A. R. Kobayashi, Tomonori Totani, Jun Kataoka, Rie Sato

    MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY   411 ( 1 ) 464 - 468  2011.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We investigate the prospects for discovering blazars at very high redshifts (z greater than or similar to 3-6) with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (hereinafter Fermi), employing a model for the evolving gamma-ray luminosity function (GLF) of the blazar population. Our previous GLF model is used as a basis, which features luminosity-dependent density evolution implied from X-ray data on active galactic nuclei as well as the blazar sequence paradigm for their spectral energy distribution, and which is consistent with the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope and the current Fermi observations of blazars. Here, we augment the high-redshift evolution of this model by utilizing the luminosity function of quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, which is well-constrained up to z similar to 5. We find that the Fermi may discover a few blazars up to z similar to 6 in the entire sky during its 5-yr survey. We further discuss how such high-redshift blazar candidates may be efficiently selected in the future Fermi data.

    DOI

  • Development of the small satellite “Tsubame”

    Toizumi, T, Enomoto, Yatsu, Y, Nakamori, T, Kawai, N, Ishizuka, K, Morishita, H, Akiyama, K, Kisa, N, Inagawa, S, Kawakubo, M, Nishida, J, Mizunuma, S, Matsunaga, S, Kataoka, J

    Physica E   43 ( 3 ) 685 - 688  2011.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Tsubame is a university-built small satellite mission to measure polarization of hard X-ray photons (30200 keV) from gamma-ray bursts (GRB) using azimuthal angle anisotropy of Compton-scattered photons. Polarimetry in the hard X-ray and soft gamma-ray band should play a crucial role in understanding of high energy emission mechanisms, the distribution of magnetic fields and radiation fields of gamma-ray bursts. Tsubame has two instruments: the Wide-field Bust Monitor (WBM) and the Hard X-ray Compton Polarimeter (HXCP). The WBM detects a burst and determines on board the direction of the burst occurrence with an accuracy of 10°. The spacecraft is then slewed to point the GRB within 15 s from the WBM trigger using the Control Moment Gyro (CMG), a high speed attitude control device. HXCP will measure the polarized X-ray photons from the GRB while the spacecraft spins slowly around the bore sight. In this paper, we present an overview of the Tsubame mission, the results of a test experiment for HXCP using a polarized hard X-ray beam, and its comparison with a Monte Carlo simulation. © 2010 ElsevierB.V. All rights reserved.

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  • Constraints on the cosmic-ray density gradient beyond the solar circle from fermi γ-ray observations of the third galactic quadrant

    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, T.J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, C.D. Dermer, F. De Palma, S.W. Digel, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, C. Favuzzi, E.C. Ferrara, W.B. Focke, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, K. Hayashi, M. Hayashida, R.E. Hughes, R. Itoh, G. J́ohannesson, A.S. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Kn̈odlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, M.L. Garde, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A. Makeev, P. Martin, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, J. Mehault, P.F. Michelson, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, M. Naumann-Godo, S. Nishino, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Raiǹo, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, J. Ripken, T. Sada, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, C. Sgr̀o, E.J. Siskind, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, M.S. Strickman, A.W. Strong, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T. Uehara, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.E. Vladimirov, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, K.S. Wood, Z. Yang, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal   726 ( 2 )  2011.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report an analysis of the interstellar γ-ray emission in the third Galactic quadrant measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The window encompassing the Galactic plane from longitude 210° to 250° has kinematically well-defined segments of the Local and the Perseus arms, suitable to study the cosmic-ray (CR) densities across the outer Galaxy. We measure no large gradient with Galactocentric distance of the γ-ray emissivities per interstellar H atom over the regions sampled in this study. The gradient depends, however, on the optical depth correction applied to derive the H i column densities. No significant variations are found in the interstellar spectra in the outer Galaxy, indicating similar shapes of the CR spectrum up to the Perseus arm for particles with GeV to tens of GeV energies. The emissivity as a function of Galactocentric radius does not show a large enhancement in the spiral arms with respect to the interarm region. The measured emissivity gradient is flatter than expectations based on a CR propagation model using the radial distribution of supernova remnants and uniform diffusion properties. In this context, observations require a larger halo size and/or a flatter CR source distribution than usually assumed. The molecular mass calibrating ratio, XCO = N(H2)/WCO, is found to be (2.08±0.11)×1020 cm -2(K km s-1)-1 in the Local arm clouds and is not significantly sensitive to the choice of Hi spin temperature. No significant variations are found for clouds in the interarm region. © 2011 The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

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  • Simultaneous multi-wavelength campaign on PKS 2005-489 in a high state

    A. Abramowski, F. Acero, F. Aharonian, A. G. Akhperjanian, G. Anton, A. Barnacka, U. Barres De Almeida, A. R. Bazer-Bachi, Y. Becherini, J. Becker, B. Behera, K. Bernlöhr, A. Bochow, C. Boisson, J. Bolmont, P. Bordas, V. Borrel, J. Brucker, F. Brun, P. Brun, T. Bulik, I. Büsching, S. Casanova, M. Cerruti, P. M. Chadwick, A. Charbonnier, R. C.G. Chaves, A. Cheesebrough, L. M. Chounet, A. C. Clapson, G. Coignet, J. Conrad, M. Dalton, M. K. Daniel, I. D. Davids, B. Degrange, C. Deil, H. J. Dickinson, A. Djannati-Ataï, W. Domainko, L. O. Drury, F. Dubois, G. Dubus, J. Dyks, M. Dyrda, K. Egberts, P. Eger, P. Espigat, L. Fallon, C. Farnier, S. Fegan, F. Feinstein, M. V. Fernandes, A. Fiasson, G. Fontaine, A. Förster, M. Füßling, S. Gabici, Y. A. Gallant, H. Gast, L. Gérard, D. Gerbig, B. Giebels, J. F. Glicenstein, B. Glück, P. Goret, D. Göring, J. D. Hague, D. Hampf, M. Hauser, S. Heinz, G. Heinzelmann, G. Henri, G. Hermann, J. A. Hinton, A. Hoffmann, W. Hofmann, P. Hofverberg, D. Horns, A. Jacholkowska, O. C. De Jager, C. Jahn, M. Jamrozy, I. Jung, M. A. Kastendieck, K. Katarzyński, U. Katz, S. Kaufmann, D. Keogh, M. Kerschhaggl, D. Khangulyan, B. Khélifi, D. Klochkov, W. Kluåniak, T. Kneiske, Nu Komin, K. Kosack, R. Kossakowski, H. Laffon, G. Lamanna

    Astronomy and Astrophysics   533  2011

     View Summary

    The high-frequency peaked BL Lac object PKS 2005-489 was the target of a multi-wavelength campaign with simultaneous observations in the TeV γ-ray (H.E.S.S.), GeV γ-ray (Fermi/LAT), X-ray (RXTE, Swift), UV (Swift) and optical (ATOM, Swift) bands. This campaign was carried out during a high flux state in the synchrotron regime. The flux in the optical and X-ray bands reached the level of the historical maxima. The hard GeV spectrum observed with Fermi/LAT connects well to the very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) spectrum measured with H.E.S.S. © 2011 ESO.

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  • Experimental demonstration of single-photon detection using InGaAs avalanche photodiode operated in sub-Geiger mode

    Kenji Tsujino, Yoshito Miyamoto, Jun Kataoka, Akihisa Tomita

    AIP Conference Proceedings   1363   351 - 354  2011

     View Summary

    The avalanche photodiode (APD) is a promising device for single-photon detection. In this study, we operated an InGaAs APD in the sub-Geiger mode. In this mode, a gate pulse is not needed; therefore, we can detect photons with asynchronous timing. The detection efficiency and the dark count rate were 2.2% and 7900 counts per second (cps), respectively. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

    DOI

  • Scintillation properties of transparent Lu3Al5O12 (LuAG) ceramics doped with different concentrations of Pr3+

    Takayuki Yanagida, Akihiro Fukabori, Yutaka Fujimoto, Akio Ikesue, Kei Kamada, Jun Kataoka, Yuui Yokota, Akira Yoshikawa, Valery Chani

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI C: CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, VOL 8, NO 1   8 ( 1 ) 140 - 143  2011  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Transparent ceramics of Pr-doped (0.2 mol%, 0.6 mol%, 1 mol%, and 2 mol%) Lu3Al5O12 (LuAG) scintillators produced by the sintering method are discussed. These materials were cut to the specimens with physical dimensions of 5 x 5 x 2 mm(3). Similar size specimens were also prepared from Czochralski grown Pr:LuAG single crystals to compare scintillation properties. Their transmittance and radio luminescence spectra were evaluated. All specimens were highly transparent in wavelength range above 300 nm, and intense Pr3+ 5d-4f emission was detected around 310 and 370 nm under excitation with X-ray. Under Cs-137 gamma-ray is irradiation, 2 keV photoabsorption peaks were also clearly observed in each sample. The Pr 0.6 mol% doped LuAG ceramics demonstrated highest light yield achievable among the ceramics, and it was half of that observed in the single crystals. Under pulse X-ray excitation, the decay time constants became faster when Pr concentration increased, and. the fastest decay (similar to 5.7 ns time constant) was noticed in the 2 mol% doped ceramic. (c) 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

    DOI

  • Fermi-LAT search for pulsar wind nebulae around gamma-ray pulsars

    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, F. Camilo, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, I. Cognard, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, C.D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, A. De Luca, F. De Palma, S.W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Favuzzi, W.B. Focke, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, K. Hayashi, E. Hays, G. Hobbs, R.E. Hughes, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, S. Johnston, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, M. Keith, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kramer, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A.G. Lyne, A. Makeev, M. Marelli, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, J. Mehault, P.F. Michelson, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, M. Naumann-Godo, P.L. Nolan, A. Noutsos, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, J.F. Ormes, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, S.M. Ransom, P.S. Ray, M. Razzano, N. Rea, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, J. Ripken, S. Ritz, R.W. Romani, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, A. Sander, P.M.S. Parkinson, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, D.A. Smith, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, G. Theureau, D.J. Thompson, S.E. Thorsett, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T. Uehara, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, A. Van Etten, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, P. Weltevrede, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, Z. Yang, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal   726 ( 1 )  2011.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The high sensitivity of the Fermi-LAT (Large Area Telescope) offers the first opportunity to study faint and extended GeV sources such as pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). After one year of observation the LAT detected and identified three PWNe: the Crab Nebula, Vela-X, and the PWN inside MSH 15-52. In the meantime, the list of LAT detected pulsars increased steadily. These pulsars are characterized by high energy loss rates (Ė) from ∼3 × 10 33 erg s-1 to 5 × 1038 erg s-1 and are therefore likely to power a PWN. This paper summarizes the search for PWNe in the off-pulse windows of 54 LAT-detected pulsars using 16 months of survey observations. Ten sources show significant emission, seven of these likely being of magnetospheric origin. The detection of significant emission in the off-pulse interval offers new constraints on the γ-ray emitting regions in pulsar magnetospheres. The three other sources with significant emission are the Crab Nebula, Vela-X, and a new PWN candidate associated with the LAT pulsar PSR J1023-5746, coincident with the TeV source HESS J1023-575. We further explore the association between the HESS and the Fermi source by modeling its spectral energy distribution. Flux upper limits derived for the 44 remaining sources are used to provide new constraints on famous PWNe that have been detected at keV and/or TeV energies. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printedin the U.S.A.

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  • Multi-wavelength observations of the flaring gamma-ray blazar 3C 66A in 2008 October

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J.M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, L. Costamante, S. Cutini, D.S. Davis, C.D. Dermer, F. De Palma, S.W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, L. Fuhrmann, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, D. Horan, R.E. Hughes, R. Itoh, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, T.J. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A. Makeev, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, J. Mehault, P.F. Michelson, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, M. Naumann-Godo, I. Nestoras, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, L.C. Reyes, J. Ripken, S. Ritz, R.W. Romani, M. Roth, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, J.D. Scargle, C. Sgrò, M.S. Shaw, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, Z. Yang, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler, V.A. Acciari, E. Aliu, T. Arlen, T. Aune, M. Beilicke, W. Benbow, M. Böttcher, D. Boltuch, S.M. Bradbury, J.H. Buckley, V. Bugaev, K. Byrum, A. Cannon, A. Cesarini, J.L. Christiansen, L. Ciupik, W. Cui, I. De La Calle Perez, R. Dickherber, M. Errando, A. Falcone, J.P. Finley, G. Finnegan, L. Fortson, A. Furniss, N. Galante, D. Gall, G.H. Gillanders, S. Godambe, J. Grube, R. Guenette, G. Gyuk, D. Hanna, J. Holder, C.M. Hui, T.B. Humensky, A. Imran, P. Kaaret, N. Karlsson, M. Kertzman, D. Kieda, A. Konopelko, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, M.J. Lang, S. LeBohec, G. Maier, S. McArthur, A. McCann, M. McCutcheon, P. Moriarty, R. Mukherjee, R.A. Ong, A.N. Otte, D. Pandel, J.S. Perkins, A. Pichel, M. Pohl, J. Quinn, K. Ragan, P.T. Reynolds, E. Roache, H.J. Rose, M. Schroedter, G.H. Sembroski, G.D. Senturk, A.W. Smith, D. Steele, S.P. Swordy, G. Tešić, M. Theiling, S. Thibadeau, A. Varlotta, V.V. Vassiliev, S. Vincent, S.P. Wakely, J

    Astrophysical Journal   726 ( 1 )  2011.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The BL Lacertae object 3C 66A was detected in a flaring state by the Fe r m i Large Area Telescope (LAT) and VERITAS in 2008 October. In addition to these gamma-ray observations, F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, PAIRITEL, MDM, ATOM, Swift, and Chandra provided radio to X-ray coverage. The available light curves show variability and, in particular, correlated flares are observed in the optical and Fermi-LAT gamma-ray band. The resulting spectral energy distribution can be well fitted using standard leptonic models with and without an external radiation field for inverse Compton scattering. It is found, however, that only the model with an external radiation field can accommodate the intra-night variability observed at optical wavelengths. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society.

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  • Search for gamma-ray emission from magnetars with the Fermi large area telescope

    A. A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, M. G. Baring, D. Bastieri, R. Bellazzini, R. D. Blandford, E. D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T. H. Burnett, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, P. A. Caraveo, C. Cecchi, Ö Çelik, S. Chaty, A. Chekhtman, C. C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Conrad, P. R. Den Hartog, C. D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, R. Dib, M. Dormody, E. Do Couto E Silva, P. S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, T. Enoto, C. Favuzzi, M. Frailis, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, N. Gehrels, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I. A. Grenier, M. H. Grondin, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, Y. Hanabata, A. K. Harding, E. Hays, G. L. Israel, G. Jóhannesson, A. S. Johnson, V. M. Kaspi, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, S. H. Lee, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A. Makeev, M. Marelli, M. N. Mazziotta, J. E. McEnery, J. Mehault, P. F. Michelson, T. Mizuno, A. A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M. E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I. V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, M. Naumann-Godo, P. L. Nolan, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J. F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, D. Parent, M. Pepe

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   725 ( 1 PART 2 )  2010.12

     View Summary

    We report on the search for 0.1-10GeV emission from magnetars in 17months of Fermi LargeAreaTelescope (LAT) observations. No significant evidence for gamma-ray emission from any of the currently known magnetars is found. The most stringent upper limits to date on their persistent emission in the Fermi energy range are estimated between ∼10-12 and 10-10 erg s-1 cm-2, depending on the source.We also searched for gamma-ray pulsations and possible outbursts, also with no significant detection. The upper limits derived support the presence of a cutoff at an energy below a few MeV in the persistent emission of magnetars. They also show the likely need for a revision of current models of outer-gap emission from stronglymagnetized pulsars, which, in some realizations, predict detectableGeV emission frommagnetars at flux levels exceeding the upper limits identified here using the Fermi-LAT observations. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • A thermal-neutron detector with a phoswich system of LiCaAlF<inf>6</inf>and BGO crystal scintillators onboard PoGOLite

    H. Takahashi, M. Yonetani, M. Matsuoka, T. Mizuno, Y. Fukazawa, T. Yanagida, Y. Fujimoto, Y. Yokota, A. Yoshikawa, N. Kawaguchi, S. Ishizu, K. Fukuda, T. Suyama, K. Watanabe, H. Tajima, Y. Kanai, N. Kawai, J. Kataoka, J. Katsuta, T. Takahashi, S. Gunji, M. Axelsson, M. Jackson, M. Kiss, W. Klamra, M. Kole, S. Larsson, P. Mallol, M. Pearce, F. Ryde, S. Rydstrom, G. Olofsson, H. G. Floren, T. Kamae, G. Madejski, G. Varner

    IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record     32 - 37  2010.12

     View Summary

    To measure the flux of atmospheric neutrons and study the neutron contribution to the background of the main detector of the PoGOLite (Polarized Gamma-ray Observer) balloon-borne experiment, a thermal-neutron detector with a phoswich system of LiCaAlF6(Eu) and BGO crystal scintillators is developed. The performance to separate thermal-neutron events from those of gamma-rays and charged particles is validated with252Cf on ground. The detector is attached to the PoGOLite instrument and is launched in 2011 from the Esrange facility in the North of Sweden. Although the emission wavelength of the LiCaAlF6(Ce) is 300 nm and overlaps with the absorption wavelength of the BGO, the phoswich capability of the LiCaAlF6(Ce) with the BGO is also confirmed with installing a waveform shifter. © 2010 IEEE.

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  • A NOVEL APPROACH IN CONSTRAINING ELECTRON SPECTRA IN BLAZAR JETS: THE CASE OF Markarian 421

    Masayoshi Ushio, Lukasz Stawarz, Tadayuki Takahashi, David Paneque, Grzegorz Madejski, Masaaki Hayashida, Jun Kataoka, Yasuyuki T. Tanaka, Takaaki Tanaka, Michal Ostrowski

    ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL   724 ( 2 ) 1509 - 1516  2010.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report results from the observations of the well-studied TeV blazar Mrk 421 with the Swift and the Suzaku satellites in 2008 December. During the observation, Mrk 421 was found in a relatively low activity state, with the corresponding 2-10 keV flux of 3 x 10(-10) erg s(-1) cm(-2). For the purpose of robustly constraining the UV-to-X-ray emission continuum we selected only the data corresponding to truly simultaneous time intervals between Swift and Suzaku, allowing us to obtain a good-quality, broadband spectrum despite a modest length (0.6 ks) exposure. We analyzed the spectrum with the parametric forward-fitting SYNCHROTRON model implemented in XSPEC assuming two different representations of the underlying electron energy distribution, both well motivated by the current particle acceleration models: a power-law distribution above the minimum energy gamma(min) with an exponential cutoff at the maximum energy gamma(max), and a modified ultra-relativistic Maxwellian with an equilibrium energy gamma(eq). We found that the latter implies unlikely physical conditions within the blazar zone of Mrk 421. On the other hand, the exponentially moderated power-law electron distribution gives two possible sets of the model parameters: (1) flat spectrum dN'(e)/d gamma proportional to gamma(-1.91) with low minimum electron energy gamma(min) &lt; 10(3), and (2) steep spectrum proportional to gamma(-2.77) with high minimum electron energy gamma(min) similar or equal to 2 x 10(4). We discuss different interpretations of both possibilities in the context of a diffusive acceleration of electrons at relativistic, sub- or superluminal shocks. We also comment on exactly how the gamma-ray data can be used to discriminate between the different proposed scenarios.

    DOI

  • A population of gamma-ray emitting globular clusters seen with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    A. A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, R. Bellazzini, R. D. Blandford, E. D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, T. J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, P. A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J. M. Casandjian, E. Charles, S. Chaty, A. Chekhtman, C. C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, M. E. Decesar, C. D. Dermer, F. De Palma, S. W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P. S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Favuzzi, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I. Grenier, M. H. Grondin, J. E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, A. K. Harding, E. Hays, P. Jean, G. Jóhannesson, T. J. Johnson, W. N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S. H. Lee, M. Lemoine-Goumard, M. Llena Garde, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A. Makeev, M. N. Mazziotta, P. F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M. E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I. V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, M. Naumann-Godo, P. L. Nolan, J. P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J. F. Ormes, B. Pancrazi

    Astronomy and Astrophysics   524 ( 3 )  2010.11

     View Summary

    Context. Globular clusters with their large populations of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are believed to be potential emitters of high-energy gamma-ray emission. The observation of this emission provides a powerful tool to assess the millisecond pulsar population of a cluster, is essential for understanding the importance of binary systems for the evolution of globular clusters, and provides complementary insights into magnetospheric emission processes. Aims. Our goal is to constrain the millisecond pulsar populations in globular clusters from analysis of gamma-ray observations. Methods. We use 546 days of continuous sky-survey observations obtained with the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope to study the gamma-ray emission towards 13 globular clusters. Results. Steady point-like high-energy gamma-ray emission has been significantly detected towards 8 globular clusters. Five of them (47 Tucanae, Omega Cen, NGC 6388, Terzan 5, and M 28) show hard spectral power indices (0.7 < Γ <1.4) and clear evidence for an exponential cut-off in the range 1.0-2.6 GeV, which is the characteristic signature of magnetospheric emission from MSPs. Three of them (M 62, NGC 6440 and NGC 6652) also show hard spectral indices (1.0 < Γ < 1.7), however the presence of an exponential cut-off can not be unambiguously established. Three of them (Omega Cen, NGC 6388, NGC 6652) have no known radio or X-ray MSPs yet still exhibit MSP spectral properties. From the observed gamma-ray luminosities, we estimate the total number of MSPs that is expected to be present in these globular clusters. We show that our estimates of the MSP population correlate with the stellar encounter rate and we estimate 2600-4700 MSPs in Galactic globular clusters, commensurate with previous estimates. Conclusions. The observation of high-energy gamma-ray emission from globular clusters thus provides a reliable independent method to assess their millisecond pulsar populations. © ESO, 2010. © 2010 ESO.

    DOI

  • Fermi LAT observations of cosmic-ray electrons from 7 GeV to 1 TeV

    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, W.B. Atwood, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, B.M. Baughman, K. Bechtol, F. Bellardi, R. Bellazzini, F. Belli, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, J.R. Bogart, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, T.J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, T.H. Burnett, G. Busetto, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, P. Carlson, S. Carrigan, J.M. Casandjian, M. Ceccanti, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, A.N. Cillis, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, R. Corbet, M. Deklotz, C.D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, S.W. Digel, G. Di Bernardo, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, R. Dubois, D. Fabiani, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, P. Fortin, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, D. Gaggero, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, D. Grasso, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, S. Guiriec, M. Gustafsson, D. Hadasch, A.K. Harding, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, D. Horan, R.E. Hughes, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, R.P. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, M. Llena Garde, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A. Makeev, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, J. Mehault, P.F. Michelson, M. Minuti, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, E. Moretti, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, M. Naumann-Godo, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, V. Petrosian, M. Pinchera, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Profumo, S. Rainò, R. Rando, E. Rapposelli, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, J. Ripken, S. Ritz, L.S. Rochester, R.W. Romani, M. Roth, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, N. Saggini, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, Ł. Stawarz, T.E. Stephens, M.S. Strickman, A.W. Strong, D.J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, O. Tibolla, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, M. Turri, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, E. Wallace, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, Z. Yang, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology   82 ( 9 )  2010.11  [Refereed]

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    We present the results of our analysis of cosmic-ray electrons using about 8×106 electron candidates detected in the first 12 months on-orbit by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. This work extends our previously published cosmic-ray electron spectrum down to 7 GeV, giving a spectral range of approximately 2.5 decades up to 1 TeV. We describe in detail the analysis and its validation using beam-test and on-orbit data. In addition, we describe the spectrum measured via a subset of events selected for the best energy resolution as a cross-check on the measurement using the full event sample. Our electron spectrum can be described with a power law E-3.08±0.05 with no prominent spectral features within systematic uncertainties. Within the limits of our uncertainties, we can accommodate a slight spectral hardening at around 100 GeV and a slight softening above 500 GeV. ©2010 The American Physical Society.

    DOI

  • Searches for cosmic-ray electron anisotropies with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, W.B. Atwood, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, T.H. Burnett, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, A. Cuoco, C.D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, S.W. Digel, G. Di Bernardo, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, W.B. Focke, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, D. Gaggero, F. Gargano, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, D. Grasso, I.A. Grenier, J.E. Grove, S. Guiriec, M. Gustafsson, D. Hadasch, A.K. Harding, K. Hayashi, E. Hays, R.E. Hughes, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, M. Lemoine-Goumard, M. Llena Garde, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A. Makeev, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, J. Mehault, P.F. Michelson, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, E. Moretti, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, M. Naumann-Godo, P.L. Nolan, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Profumo, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, J. Ripken, S. Ritz, M. Roth, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, A. Sander, T.L. Schalk, C. Sgrò, J. Siegal-Gaskins, E.J. Siskind, D.A. Smith, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, M.S. Strickman, A.W. Strong, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, Z. Yang, T. Ylinen, G. Zaharijas, M. Ziegler

    Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology   82 ( 9 )  2010.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi satellite (Fermi LAT) detected more than 1.6×106 cosmic-ray electrons/positrons with energies above 60 GeV during its first year of operation. The arrival directions of these events were searched for anisotropies of angular scale extending from 10°up to 90°, and of minimum energy extending from 60 GeV up to 480 GeV. Two independent techniques were used to search for anisotropies, both resulting in null results. Upper limits on the degree of the anisotropy were set that depended on the analyzed energy range and on the anisotropy's angular scale. The upper limits for a dipole anisotropy ranged from 0.5% to 10%.©2010 The American Physical Society.

    DOI

  • Detection of the Small Magellanic Cloud in gamma-rays with Fermi /LAT

    A. A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R. D. Blandford, E. D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, T. J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, P. A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J. M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, Ö Çelik, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C. C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, C. D. Dermer, F. De Palma, S. W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P. S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I. A. Grenier, M. H. Grondin, J. E. Grove, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, A. K. Harding, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, D. Horan, R. E. Hughes, P. Jean, G. Jóhannesson, A. S. Johnson, W. N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S. H. Lee, M. Lemoine-Goumard, M. Llena Garde, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A. Makeev, P. Martin, M. N. Mazziotta, J. E. McEnery, P. F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M. E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I. V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori

    Astronomy and Astrophysics   523 ( 3 )  2010.11

     View Summary

    Context. The flux of gamma rays with energies greater than 100 MeV is dominated by diffuse emission coming from cosmic-rays (CRs) illuminating the interstellar medium (ISM) of our Galaxy through the processes of Bremsstrahlung, pion production and decay, and inverse-Compton scattering. The study of this diffuse emission provides insight into the origin and transport of cosmic rays. Aims.We searched for gamma-ray emission from the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) in order to derive constraints on the cosmic-ray population and transport in an external system with properties different from the Milky Way. Methods.We analysed the first 17 months of continuous all-sky observations by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) of the Fermi mission to determine the spatial distribution, flux and spectrum of the gamma-ray emission from the SMC. We also used past radio synchrotron observations of the SMC to study the population of CR electrons specifically. Results.We obtained the first detection of the SMC in high-energy gamma rays, with an integrated >100MeV flux of (3.7±0.7)×10-8 ph cm-2 s-1, with additional systematic uncertainty of ≤16%. The emission is steady and from an extended source ∼3. in size. It is not clearly correlated with the distribution of massive stars or neutral gas, nor with known pulsars or supernova remnants, but a certain correlation with supergiant shells is observed. Conclusions.The observed flux implies an upper limit on the average CR nuclei density in the SMC of ∼15% of the value measured locally in the Milky Way. The population of high-energy pulsars of the SMC may account for a substantial fraction of the gamma-ray flux, which would make the inferred CR nuclei density even lower. The average density of CR electrons derived from radio synchrotron observations is consistent with the same reduction factor but the uncertainties are large. From our current knowledge of the SMC, such a low CR density does not seem to be due to a lower rate of CR injection and rather indicates a smaller CR confinement volume characteristic size. © 2010 ESO.

    DOI

  • Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of Local Group galaxies: Detection of M 31 and search for M 33

    A. A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, W. B. Atwood, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R. D. Blandford, E. D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, T. J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, T. H. Burnett, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, A. Cannon, P. A. Caraveo, J. M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, Ö Çelik, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, C. D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, S. W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P. S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, R. Dubois, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I. A. Grenier, M. H. Grondin, S. Guiriec, M. Gustafsson, D. Hadasch, A. K. Harding, K. Hayashi, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, S. E. Healey, P. Jean, G. Jóhannesson, A. S. Johnson, R. P. Johnson, T. J. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S. H. Lee, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G. M. Madejski, A. Makeev, P. Martin, M. N. Mazziotta, J. Mehault, P. F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A. A. Moiseev, C. Monte

    Astronomy and Astrophysics   523 ( 1 )  2010.11

     View Summary

    Context. Cosmic rays (CRs) can be studied through the galaxy-wide gamma-ray emission that they generate when propagating in the interstellar medium. The comparison of the diffuse signals from different systems may inform us about the key parameters in CR acceleration and transport. Aims. We aim to determine and compare the properties of the cosmic-ray-induced gamma-ray emission of several Local Group galaxies. Methods. We use 2 years of nearly continuous sky-survey observations obtained with the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope to search for gamma-ray emission from M 31 and M 33. We compare the results with those for the Large Magellanic Cloud, the Small Magellanic Cloud, the Milky Way, and the starburst galaxies M 82 and NGC 253. Results. We detect a gamma-ray signal at 5σ significance in the energy range 200 MeV-20 GeV that is consistent with originating from M 31. The integral photon flux above 100 MeV amounts to (9.1 ± 1.9stat ± 1.0) × 10-9 ph cm-2. We find no evidence for emission from M 33 and derive an upper limit on the photon flux >100 MeV of 5.1 × 10-9 ph cm-2-1 (2σ). Comparing these results to the properties of other Local Group galaxies, we find indications of a correlation between star formation rate and gamma-ray luminosity that also holds for the starburst galaxies. Conclusions. The gamma-ray luminosity of M 31 is about half that of the Milky Way, which implies that the ratio between the average CR densities in M 31 and the Milky Way amounts to ξ = 0.35 ± 0.25. The observed correlation between gamma-ray luminosity and star formation rate suggests that the flux of M 33 is not far below the current upper limit from the LAT observations. © 2010 ESO.

    DOI

  • Fermi Large Area Telescope constraints on the gamma-ray opacity of the universe

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, W.B. Atwood, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, M.G. Baring, D. Bastieri, B.M. Baughman, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, P.N. Bhat, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, T.J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M.S. Briggs, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, T.H. Burnett, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J.M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, A.W. Chen, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, V. Connaughton, J. Conrad, L. Costamante, C.D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, S.W. Digel, B.L. Dingus, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, J. Finke, P. Fortin, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, R.C. Gilmore, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, J. Granot, J. Greiner, I.A. Grenier, J.E. Grove, S. Guiriec, M. Gustafsson, D. Hadasch, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, D. Horan, R.E. Hughes, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, R.P. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, D. Kocevski, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, M. Llena Garde, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A. Makeev, M.N. Mazziotta, W. McConville, J.E. McEnery, S. McGlynn, J. Mehault, P. Mészáros, P.F. Michelson, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, E. Moretti, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, M. Naumann-Godo, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, M. Ohno, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, J.R. Primack, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, S. Razzaque, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, L.C. Reyes, J. Ripken, S. Ritz, R.W. Romani, M. Roth, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, J.D. Scargle, T.L. Schalk, C. Sgrò, M.S. Shaw, E.J. Siskind, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, F.W. Stecker, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A. Von Kienlin, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, C. Wilson-Hodge, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, R. Yamazaki, Z. Yang, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   723 ( 2 ) 1082 - 1096  2010.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The extragalactic background light (EBL) includes photons with wavelengths from ultraviolet to infrared, which are effective at attenuating gamma rays with energy above ∼10 GeV during propagation from sources at cosmological distances. This results in a redshift-and energy-dependent attenuation of the γ-ray flux of extragalactic sources such as blazars and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The Large Area Telescope on board Fermi detects a sample of γ-ray blazars with redshift up to z ∼ 3, and GRBs with redshift up to z ∼ 4.3. Using photons above 10 GeV collected by Fermi over more than one year of observations for these sources, we investigate the effect of γ-ray flux attenuation by the EBL. We place upper limits on the?-ray opacity of the universe at various energies and redshifts and compare this with predictions from well-known EBL models. We find that an EBL intensity in the optical-ultraviolet wavelengths as great as predicted by the "baseline" model of Stecker et al. can be ruled out with high confidence. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society.

    DOI

  • Fermi large area telescope observation of a gamma-ray source at the position of eta carinae

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, T.J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, T.H. Burnett, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, S. Chaty, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, L.R. Cominsky, J. Conrad, C.D. Dermer, F. De Palma, S.W. Digel, E. Do Couto e Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, E.C. Ferrara, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, A.B. Hill, D. Horan, R.E. Hughes, R. Itoh, M.S. Jackson, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagir, J. Kataoka, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, M. Lemoine-Goumard, M. Livingstone, M. Llena Garde, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A. Makeev, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, J. Mehault, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, M. Naumann-Godo, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, A.Y. Rodriguez, R.W. Romani, M. Roth, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, A. Sander, P.M. Saz Parkinson, J.D. Scargle, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, D.A. Smith, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, O. Tibolla, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, E. Wallace, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, Z. Yang, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   723 ( 1 ) 649 - 657  2010.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope detected a γ -ray source that is spatially consistent with the location of Eta Carinae. This source has been persistently bright since the beginning of the LAT survey observations (from 2008 August to 2009 July, the time interval considered here). The γ -ray signal is detected significantly throughout the LAT energy band (i.e., up to ∼100 GeV). The 0.1-100 GeV energy spectrum is well represented by a combination of a cutoff power-law model (<10 GeV) and a hard power-law component (>10 GeV). The total flux (>100 MeV) is 3.7+0.30.1 ×107 photons s1 cm2, with additional systematic uncertainties of 10%, and consistent with the average flux measured by AGILE. The light curve obtained by Fermi is consistent with steady emission. Our observations do not confirm the presence of a γ -ray flare in 2008 October, as reported by Tavani et al., although we cannot exclude that a flare lasting only a few hours escaped detection by the Fermi LAT.We also do not find any evidence for γ -ray variability that correlates with the large X-ray variability of Eta Carinae observed during 2008 December and 2009 January. We are thus not able to establish an unambiguous identification of the LAT source with Eta Carinae. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society.

    DOI

  • Fermi-LAT study of Gamma-ray emission in the direction of supernova remnant W49B

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, C.D. Dermer, F. De Palma, S.W. Digel, E. Do couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, D. Dumora, C. Favuzzi, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, N. Gehrels, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, D. Horan, R.E. Hughes, M.S. Jackson, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Katsuta, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A. Makeev, M.N. Mazziotta, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, M. Naumann-Godo, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, J. Ripken, M. Roth, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, A. Sander, P.M. Saz Parkinson, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, D.A. Smith, P.D. Smith, P. Spinelli, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, L. Tibaldo, O. Tibolla, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   722 ( 2 ) 1303 - 1311  2010.10  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We present an analysis of the gamma-ray data obtained with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the direction of SNR W49B (G43.3-0.2). A bright unresolved gamma-ray source detected at a significance of 38s is found to coincide with SNR W49B. The energy spectrum in the 0.2-200 GeV range gradually steepens toward high energies. The luminosity is estimated to be 1.5 × 1036 (D/8 kpc)2 erg s -1 in this energy range. There is no indication that the gamma-ray emission comes from a pulsar. Assuming that the supernova remnant (SNR) shell is the site of gamma-ray production, the observed spectrum can be explained either by the decay of neutral π mesons produced through the proton-proton collisions or by electron bremsstrahlung. The calculated energy density of relativistic particles responsible for the LAT flux is estimated to be remarkably large, Ue,p > 104 eVcm-3, for either gamma-ray production mechanism. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A.

    DOI

  • Gamma-ray light curves and variability of bright fermi-detected blazars

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, E. Antolini, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, T.H. Burnett, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J.M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, L.R. Cominsky, J. Conrad, L. Costamante, S. Cutini, C.D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, S.E. Healey, D. Horan, R.E. Hughes, R. Itoh, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, S. Larsson, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G.M. Madejski, A. Makeev, E. Massaro, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, M. Mueller, S. Murgia, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, M. Ohno, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, S. Ritz, A.Y. Rodriguez, R.W. Romani, M. Roth, F. Ryde, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, A. Sander, J.D. Scargle, C. Sgrò, M.S. Shaw, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, J.-L. Starck, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, E. Wallace, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, Z. Yang, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   722 ( 1 ) 520 - 542  2010.10  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper presents light curves as well as the first systematic characterization of variability of the 106 objects in the high-confidence Fermi Large Area Telescope Bright AGN Sample (LBAS). Weekly light curves of this sample, obtained during the first 11 months of the Fermi survey (2008 August 4-2009 July 4), are tested for variability and their properties are quantified through autocorrelation function and structure function analysis. For the brightest sources, 3 or 4 day binned light curves are extracted in order to determine power density spectra (PDSs) and to fit the temporal structure of major flares. More than 50% of the sources are found to be variable with high significance, where high states do not exceed 1/4 of the total observation range. Variation amplitudes are larger for flat spectrum radio quasars and low/intermediate synchrotron frequency peaked BL Lac objects. Autocorrelation timescales derived from weekly light curves vary from four to a dozen of weeks. Variable sources of the sample have weekly and 3-4 day bin light curves that can be described by 1/fα PDS, and show two kinds of gamma-ray variability: (1) rather constant baseline with sporadic flaring activity characterized by flatter PDS slopes resembling flickering and red noise with occasional intermittence and (2)-measured for a few blazars showing strong activity-complex and structured temporal profiles characterized by long-term memory and steeper PDS slopes, reflecting a random walk underlying mechanism. The average slope of the PDS of the brightest 22 FSRQs and of the 6 brightest BL Lacs is 1.5 and 1.7, respectively. The study of temporal profiles of well-resolved flares observed in the 10 brightest LBAS sources shows that they generally have symmetric profiles and that their total duration vary between 10 and 100 days. Results presented here can assist in source class recognition for unidentified sources and can serve as reference for more detailed analysis of the brightest gamma-ray blazars. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • FERMI Large Area Telescope and multi-wavelength observations of the flaring activity of PKS 1510-089 between 2008 september and 2009 june

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, I. Agudo, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, H.D. Aller, M.f. Aller, E. Antolini, A.A. Arkharov, M. Axelsson, U. Bach, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, A. Berdyugin, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, D.A. Blinov, E.D. Bloom, M. Boettcher, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, C.S. Buemi, T.H. Burnett, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, D. Carosati, S. Carrigan, J.M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, A. Chekhtman, W.P. Chen, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, S. Corbel, L. Costamante, C.D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, D. Donato, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, E.C. Ferrara, W.B. Focke, E. Forné, P. Fortin, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, J.E. Grove, S. Guiriec, M.A. Gurwell, C. Gusbar, J.L. Gómez, D. Hadasch, V.A. Hagen-Thorn, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, D. Horan, R.E. Hughes, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, G. Kimeridze, J. Knödlseder, T.S. Konstantinova, E.N. Kopatskaya, E. Koptelova, Y.Y. Kovalev, O.M. Kurtanidze, M. Kuss, A. Lahteenmaki, J. Lande, V.M. Larionov, E.G. Larionova, L.V. Larionova, S. Larsson, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, P. Leto, M.L. Lister, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G.M. Madejski, A. Makeev, E. Massaro, M.N. Mazziotta, W. McConville, J.E. McEnery, I.M. McHardy, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, D.A. Morozova, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, M. Naumann-Godo, M.G. Nikolashvili, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, M. Ohno, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, M. Pasanen, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, A.B. Pushkarev, S. Rainò, C.M. Raiteri, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, R. Reinthal, J. Ripken, S. Ritz, M. Roca-Sogorb, A.Y. Rodriguez, M. Roth, P. Roustazadeh, F. Ryde, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, A. Sander, J.D. Scargle, C. Sgrò, L.A. Sigua, P.D. Smith, K. Sokolovsky, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, J.-L. Starck, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, L.O. Takalo, T. Tanaka, B. Taylor, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, M. Tornikoski, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, C. Trigilio, I.S. Troitsky, G. Umana, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, M. Villata, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, Z. Yang, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   721 ( 2 ) 1425 - 1447  2010.10  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report on the multi-wavelength observations of PKS 1510-089 (a flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) at z = 0.361) during its high activity period between 2008 September and 2009 June. During this 11 month period, the source was characterized by a complex variability at optical, UV, and γ -ray bands, on timescales down to 6-12 hr. The brightest γ -ray isotropic luminosity, recorded on 2009 March 26, was ≃ 2 × 1048 erg s-1. The spectrum in the Fermi Large Area Telescope energy range shows a mild curvature described well by a log-parabolic law, and can be understood as due to the Klein-Nishina effect. The γ -ray flux has a complex correlation with the other wavelengths. There is no correlation at all with the X-ray band, a weak correlation with the UV, and a significant correlation with the optical flux. The γ -ray flux seems to lead the optical one by about 13 days. From the UV photometry, we estimated a black hole mass of ≃ 5.4 × 108M⊙ and an accretion rate of ≃ 0.5M⊙ yr-1. Although the power in the thermal and non-thermal outputs is smaller compared to the very luminous and distant FSRQs, PKS 1510-089 exhibits a quite large Compton dominance and a prominent big blue bump (BBB) as observed in the most powerful γ -ray quasars. The BBB was still prominent during the historical maximum optical state in 2009 May, but the optical/UV spectral index was softer than in the quiescent state. This seems to indicate that the BBB was not completely dominated by the synchrotron emission during the highest optical state. We model the broadband spectrum assuming a leptonic scenario in which the inverse Compton emission is dominated by the scattering of soft photons produced externally to the jet. The resulting model-dependent jet energetic content is compatible with a scenario in which the jet is powered by the accretion disk, with a total efficiency within the Kerr black hole limit. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • FERMI GAMMA-RAY SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY OUTBURSTS FROM 3C 454.3 IN 2009 DECEMBER AND 2010 APRIL

    Ackermann M, Ajello M, Baldini L, Ballet J, Barbiellini G, Bastieri D, Bechtol K, Bellazzini R, Berenji B, Blandford R. D, Bonamente E, Borgland A. W, Bregeon J, Brigida M, Bruel P, Buehler R, Burnett T. H, Buson S, Caliandro G. A, Cameron R. A, Caraveo P. A, Carrigan S, Casandjian J. M, Cavazzuti E, Cecchi C, Celik Oe, Chekhtman A, Cheung C. C, Chiang J, Ciprini S, Claus R, Cohen-Tanugi J, Corbel S, Cutini S, D'Ammando F, Dermer C. D, de Angelis A, de Palma F, Digel S. W, do Couto e, Silva E, Drell P. S, Dubois R, Dumora D, Escande L, Favuzzi C, Fegan S. J, Ferrara E. C, Fuhrmann L, Fukazawa Y, Fusco P, Gargano F, Gasparrini D, Gehrels N, Germani S, Giebels B, Giglietto N, Giommi P, Giordano F, Giroletti M, Glanzman T, Godfrey G, Grenier I. A, Grove J. E, Guiriec S, Hadasch D, Hayashida M, Hays E, Johannesson G, Johnson A. S, Johnson W. N, Kamae T, Katagiri H, Kataoka J, Knoedlseder J, Kuss M, Lande J, Larsson S, Latronico L, Lee S. -H, Garde M. Llena, Longo F, Loparco F, Lott B, Lubrano P, Madejski G. M, Makeev A, Marchili N, Mazziotta M. N, McEnery J. E, Mehault J, Michelson P. F, Mizuno T, Monte C, Monzani M. E, Morselli A, Moskalenko I. V, Murgia S, Nakamori T, Nalewajko K, Naumann-Godo M, Nolan P. L, Norris J. P, Nuss E, Ohsugi T, Okumura A, Omodei N, Orlando E, Ormes J. F, Pelassa V, Pepe M, Pesce-Rollins M, Piron F, Porter T. A, Raino S, Rando R, Razzano M, Reimer A, Reimer O, Reyes L. C, Ripken J, Ritz S, Roth M, Sadrozinski H. F. -W, Sanchez D, Sander A, Scargle J. D, Sgro C, Sikora M, Siskind E. J, Spandre G, Spinelli P, Strickman M. S, Suson D. J, Takahashi H, Takahashi T, Tanaka T, Tanaka Y, Thayer J. B, Thayer J. G, Thompson D. J, Tibaldo L, Torres D. F, Tosti G, Tramacere A, Usher T. L, Vandenbroucke J, Vilchez N, Vitale V, Waite A. P, Wang P, Wehrle A. E, Winer B. L, Yang Z, Ylinen T, Ziegler M

    ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL   721 ( 2 ) 1383 - 1396  2010.10  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The flat spectrum radio quasar 3C 454.3 underwent an extraordinary outburst in 2009 December when it became the brightest γ -ray source in the sky for over 1 week. Its daily flux measured with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope at photon energiesE > 100 MeV reached F100 = 22 ± 1 × 10 -6 photon cm-2 s-1, representing the highest daily flux of any blazar ever recorded in high-energy γ -rays. It again became the brightest source in the sky in 2010 April, triggering a pointed-mode observation by Fermi. The correlated γ -ray temporal and spectral properties during these exceptional events are presented and discussed. The main results show flux variability over time scales less than 3 hr and very mild spectral variability with an indication of gradual hardening preceding major flares. The light curves during periods of enhanced activity in 2008 July-August and 2010 December show strong resemblance, with a flux plateau of a few days preceding the major flare. No consistent loop pattern emerged in the γ -ray spectral index versus the flux plane as would be expected in acceleration and cooling scenarios. The maximum energy of a photon from 3C 454.3 is ≈20 GeV and a minimum Doppler factor of ≈13 is derived. The γ -ray spectrum of 3C 454.3 shows a significant spectral break between ≈2 and 3 GeV that is very weakly dependent on the flux state, even when the flux changes by an order of magnitude. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A.

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  • Development of X-ray/Gamma-ray Imaging Spectrometer with Reach-through APD arrays

    Nakamori, T, Enomoto, T, Toizumi, T, Yatsu, Y, Kawai, N, Kataoka, J, Ishikawa, Y, Kawai, T, Kawabata, N, Matsunaga, Y

    AIP Conference Proceedings   1279   400 - 402  2010.10

     View Summary

    It is quite important to obtain wide band spectra of high energy astrophysical phenomena at the same time in order to probe emission processes or structures. Especially observations of transient objects, such as gamma-ray bursts, expect detectors with wide energy band coverage for the sake of an efficient spectroscopy within limited time windows. An avalanche photo diode (APD) is a compact photon sensor with an internal gain of ∼100. We have developed an X-ray/gamma-ray detector using a reach-through APD (5 × 5 mm2) optically coupled with a conventional CsI(Tl) scintillator, which covers typically from 1 keV to 1 MeV. Further, we developed a 1-dimensional array of the 8/16 APDs (net 16 × 20) mm2) for the purpose of an imaging photon detector combined with coded masks, to be applied in future missions. We present the current status and performances of our hybrid detector using the 8-channel array. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

    DOI

  • Development of an APD-Based PET Module and Preliminary Resolution Performance of an Experimental Prototype Gantry

    Jun Kataoka, Hidenori Matsuda, Fumihiko Nishikido, Makoto Koizumi, Hirokazu Ikeda, Masao Yoshino, Takamasa Miura, Satoshi Tanaka, Yoshitaka Ishikawa, Nobuyuki Kawabata, Keiji Shimizu, Yusuke Matsunaga, Shunji Kishimoto, Hidetoshi Kubo, Yoshio Yanagida, Takeshi Nakamori

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE   57 ( 5 ) 2448 - 2454  2010.10

     View Summary

    The development of a high-resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) technique with sub-millimeter spatial resolution, which utilizes newly designed reverse-type APD-arrays, is uderway. All the detector blocks are modularized with the overall dimension of each module, including the APD array, LYSO scintillator matrix and Front-End Circuits (FECs), which are only 30 x 30 x 80 mm(3). Each APD device also has a monolithic 16 x 16 pixel structure with an active area of 1.0 mm(2) per pixel. The FEC includes two identical analog ASICs specifically designed for APDs with a noise characteristic of 560 + 30 e(-)/pF and a timing resolution of 460 ps (rms), respectively. An energy resolution of 13.7 +/- 1.1% (FWHM) with 662 keV gamma-rays was measured using the 16 x 16 arrays. At this stage a pair of module and coincidence circuits has been assembled into an experimental prototype gantry. Spatial resolutions of 0.9, 1.4, and 1.3 mm (FWHM) were obtained from FBP reconstructed images in preliminary experiments with a point source positioned centrally, and 1 and 5 mm off-center, respectively. Comparison with a Monte-Carlo simulation of a fully-designed gantry over a wider range of field-of-view showed good correlation with the experimental data. A simple but conceptual design of a DOI configuration is also proposed as a test example of a future APD-PET scanner.

    DOI

  • Development of an APD-Based PET Module and Preliminary Resolution Performance of an Experimental Prototype Gantry

    Jun Kataoka, Hidenori Matsuda, Fumihiko Nishikido, Makoto Koizumi, Hirokazu Ikeda, Masao Yoshino, Takamasa Miura, Satoshi Tanaka, Yoshitaka Ishikawa, Nobuyuki Kawabata, Keiji Shimizu, Yusuke Matsunaga, Shunji Kishimoto, Hidetoshi Kubo, Yoshio Yanagida, Takeshi Nakamori

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE   57 ( 5 ) 2448 - 2454  2010.10  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The development of a high-resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) technique with sub-millimeter spatial resolution, which utilizes newly designed reverse-type APD-arrays, is uderway. All the detector blocks are modularized with the overall dimension of each module, including the APD array, LYSO scintillator matrix and Front-End Circuits (FECs), which are only 30 x 30 x 80 mm(3). Each APD device also has a monolithic 16 x 16 pixel structure with an active area of 1.0 mm(2) per pixel. The FEC includes two identical analog ASICs specifically designed for APDs with a noise characteristic of 560 + 30 e(-)/pF and a timing resolution of 460 ps (rms), respectively. An energy resolution of 13.7 +/- 1.1% (FWHM) with 662 keV gamma-rays was measured using the 16 x 16 arrays. At this stage a pair of module and coincidence circuits has been assembled into an experimental prototype gantry. Spatial resolutions of 0.9, 1.4, and 1.3 mm (FWHM) were obtained from FBP reconstructed images in preliminary experiments with a point source positioned centrally, and 1 and 5 mm off-center, respectively. Comparison with a Monte-Carlo simulation of a fully-designed gantry over a wider range of field-of-view showed good correlation with the experimental data. A simple but conceptual design of a DOI configuration is also proposed as a test example of a future APD-PET scanner.

    DOI

  • Fermi-LAT observations of the Geminga pulsar

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, B.M. Baughman, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, G.F. Bignami, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T.H. Burnett, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, C.D. Dermer, F.D. Palma, M. Dormody, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, Y. Edmonds, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, G. Giavitto, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, A.K. Harding, E. Hays, R.E. Hughes, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, T.J. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, M. Kerr, J. Knódlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A. Makeev, M. Marelli, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, C. Meurer, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainó, R. Rando, P.S. Ray, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, L.S. Rochester, A.Y. Rodriguez, R.W. Romani, M. Roth, F. Ryde, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, A. Sander, P.M.S. Parkinson, J.D. Scargle, C. Sgró, E.J. Siskind, D.A. Smith, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, T.L. Usher, A. Van Etten, V. Vasileiou, C. Venter, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, K. Watters, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   720 ( 1 ) 272 - 283  2010.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report on the Fermi-LAT observations of the Geminga pulsar, the second brightest non-variable GeV source in the γ-ray sky and the first example of a radio-quiet γ-ray pulsar. The observations cover one year, from the launch of the Fermi satellite through 2009 June 15. A data sample of over 60,000 photons enabled us to build a timing solution based solely on γ-rays. Timing analysis shows two prominent peaks, separated by Δφ = 0.497 ± 0.004 in phase, which narrow with increasing energy. Pulsed γ -rays are observed beyond 18 GeV, precluding emission below 2.7 stellar radii because of magnetic absorption. The phase-averaged spectrum was fitted with a power law with exponential cutoff of spectral index Γ = (1.30 ± 0.01 ±0.04), cutoff energy E0 = (2.46 ± 0.04 ± 0.17) GeV, and an integral photon flux above 0.1 GeV of (4.14 ± 0.02 ± 0.32) × 10-6 cm-2 s-1. The first uncertainties are statistical and the second ones are systematic. The phase-resolved spectroscopy shows a clear evolution of the spectral parameters, with the spectral index reaching a minimum value just before the leading peak and the cutoff energy having maxima around the peaks. The phase-resolved spectroscopy reveals that pulsar emission is present at all rotational phases. The spectral shape, broad pulse profile, and maximum photon energy favor the outer magnetospheric emission scenarios. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • The Fermi-LAT high-latitude survey: Source count distributions and the origin of the extragalactic diffuse background

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, E. Antolini, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, B.M. Baughman, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T.H. Burnett, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J.M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, L. Costamante, S. Cutini, C.D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, W.B. Focke, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, J.E. Grove, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, S.E. Healey, D. Horan, R.E. Hughes, R. Itoh, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, T.J. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, M. Lemoine-Goumard, M.L. Garde, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G.M. Madejski, A. Makeev, M.N. Mazziotta, W. McConville, J.E. McEnery, C. Meurer, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, S. Ritz, L.S. Rochester, A.Y. Rodriguez, R.W. Romani, M. Roth, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, A. Sander, P.M.S. Parkinson, J.D. Scargle, C. Sgró, M.S. Shaw, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, J.-L. Starck, M.S. Strickman, A.W. Strong, D.J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, Z. Yang, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   720 ( 1 ) 435 - 453  2010.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This is the first of a series of papers aimed at characterizing the populations detected in the high-latitude sky of the Fermi-LAT survey. In this work, we focus on the intrinsic spectral and flux properties of the source sample. We show that when selection effects are properly taken into account, Fermi sources are on average steeper than previously found (e.g., in the bright source list) with an average photon index of 2.40 ± 0.02 over the entire 0.1-100 GeV energy band. We confirm that flat spectrum radio quasars have steeper spectra than BL Lacertae objects with an average index of 2.48 ± 0.02 versus 2.18 ± 0.02. Using several methods, we build the deepest source count distribution at GeV energies, deriving that the intrinsic source (i.e., blazar) surface density at F100 ≥ 10-9 ph cm -2 s-1 is 0.12+0.03-0.02deg- -2. The integration of the source count distribution yields that point sources contribute 16(±1.8)% (±7% systematic uncertainty) of the GeV isotropic diffuse background. At the fluxes currently reached by LAT, we can rule out the hypothesis that pointlike sources (i.e., blazars) produce a larger fraction of the diffuse emission. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A.

    DOI

  • Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of gamma-ray pulsars PSR J1057-5226, J1709-4429, and J1952+3252

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ajello, E. Antolini, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, M.G. Baring, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, T.H. Burnett, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, F. Camilo, P.A. Caraveo, Ö. Çelik, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, I. Cognard, J. Cohen-Tanugi, C.D. Dermer, F. De Palma, S.W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Favuzzi, E.C. Ferrara, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, P.C.C. Freire, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, E. Hays, G. Jóhannesson, R.P. Johnson, T.J. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, S. Johnston, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, M. Keith, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kramer, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, P. Lubrano, A. Makeev, R.N. Manchester, M. Marelli, M.N. Mazziotta, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, A. Noutsos, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, S. Rainò, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, J. Ripken, R.W. Romani, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, A. Sander, P.M.S. Parkinson, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, D.A. Smith, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, G. Theureau, D.J. Thompson, S.E. Thorsett, L. Tibaldo, O. Tibolla, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, P. Weltevrede, B.L. Winer, Z. Yang, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   720 ( 1 ) 26 - 40  2010.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data have confirmed the pulsed emission from all six high-confidence gamma-ray pulsars previously known from the EGRET observations. We report results obtained from the analysis of 13 months of LAT data for three of these pulsars (PSR J1057-5226, PSR J1709-4429, and PSR J1952+3252) each of which had some unique feature among the EGRET pulsars. The excellent sensitivity of LAT allows more detailed analysis of the evolution of the pulse profile with energy and also of the variation of the spectral shape with phase. We measure the cutoff energy of the pulsed emission from these pulsars for the first time and provide a more complete picture of the emission mechanism. The results confirm some, but not all, of the features seen in the EGRET data. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society.

    DOI

  • Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of misaligned active galactic nuclei

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, T.J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, T.H. Burnett, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, A. Cannon, P.A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J.M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, A. Celotti, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, A.W. Chen, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, S. Colafrancesco, J. Conrad, D.S. Davis, C.D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, E.C. Ferrara, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, P. Grandi, I.A. Grenier, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, D. Horan, R.E. Hughes, M.S. Jackson, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, M. Lemoine-Goumard, M.L. Garde, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G.M. Madejski, A. Makeev, G. Malaguti, M.N. Mazziotta, W. McConville, J.E. McEnery, P.F. Michelson, G. Migliori, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, M. Naumann-Godo, I. Nestoras, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Persic, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, S. Razzaque, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, L.C. Reyes, M. Roth, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, J.D. Scargle, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, Ł. Stawarz, F.W. Stecker, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, E. Torresi, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, M. Villata, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, Z. Yang, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   720 ( 1 ) 912 - 922  2010.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Analysis is presented for 15 months of data taken with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope for 11 non-blazar active galactic nuclei (AGNs), including seven FRI radio galaxies and four FRII radio sources consisting of two FRII radio galaxies and two steep spectrum radio quasars. The broad line FRI radio galaxy 3C 120 is reported here as a γ -ray source for the first time. The analysis is based on directional associations of LAT sources with radio sources in the 3CR, 3CRR, and MS4 (collectively referred to as 3C-MS) catalogs. Seven of the eleven LAT sources associated with 3C-MS radio sources have spectral indices larger than 2.3 and, except for the FRI radio galaxy NGC 1275 that shows possible spectral curvature, are well described by a power law. No evidence for time variability is found for any sources other than NGC 1275. The γ-ray luminosities of FRI radio galaxies are significantly smaller than those of the BL Lac objects detected by the LAT, whereas the γ -ray luminosities of the FRII sources are quite similar to those of FSRQs, which could reflect different beaming factors for the γ -ray emission. A core dominance (CD) study of the 3CRR sample indicates that sources closer to the jet axis are preferentially detected with the Fe r m i LAT, insofar as the γ -ray-detected misaligned AGNs have larger CD at a given average radio flux. The results are discussed in view of the AGN unification scenario. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A.

    DOI

  • Fermi Large Area Telescope view of the core of the radio galaxy Centaurus A

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, W.B. Atwood, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, B.M. Baughman, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, T.J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, A. Cannon, P.A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J.M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, S. Colafrancesco, L.R. Cominsky, J. Conrad, L. Costamante, D.S. Davis, C.D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, A. Falcone, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, J. Finke, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, M. Georganopoulos, S. Germani, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, P. Grandi, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, A.K. Harding, H. Hase, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, D. Horan, R.E. Hughes, R. Itoh, M.S. Jackson, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, T.J. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, M. Kadler, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, T. Kishishita, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, M. Lemoine-Goumard, M.L. Garde, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A. Makeev, M.N. Mazziotta, W. McConville, J.E. McEnery, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, C. Müller, T. Nakamori, M. Naumann-Godo, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, M. Ohno, T. Ohsugi, R. Ojha, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, C. Pagani, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, C. Plötz, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, S. Razzaque, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, J. Ripken, S. Ritz, A.Y. Rodriguez, M. Roth, F. Ryde, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, J.D. Scargle, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, J.-L. Starck, L. Stawarz, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, Z. Yang, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   719 ( 2 ) 1433 - 1444  2010.08  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We present γ-ray observations with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope of the nearby radio galaxy Centaurus A (Cen A). The previous EGRET detection is confirmed, and the localization is improved using data from the first 10 months of Fermi science operation. In previous work, we presented the detection of the lobes by the LAT; in this work, we concentrate on the γ-ray core of Cen A. Flux levels as seen by the LAT are not significantly different from that found by EGRET, nor is the extremely soft LAT spectrum (Γ = 2.67 ± 0.10stat ± 0.08sys where the photon flux is Φ α E-Γ). The LAT core spectrum, extrapolated to higher energies, is marginally consistent with the non-simultaneous HESS spectrum of the source. The LAT observations are complemented by simultaneous observations from Suzaku, the Swift Burst Alert Telescope and X-ray Telescope, and radio observations with the Tracking Active Galactic Nuclei with Austral Milliarcsecond Interferometry program, along with a variety of non-simultaneous archival data from a variety of instruments and wavelengths to produce a spectral energy distribution (SED). We fit this broadband data set with a single-zone synchrotron/synchrotron self-Compton model, which describes the radio through GeV emission well, but fails to account for the non-simultaneous higher energy TeV emission observed by HESS from 2004 to 2008. The fit requires a low Doppler factor, in contrast to BL Lac objects which generally require larger values to fit their broadband SEDs. This indicates that the γ-ray emission originates from a slower region than that from BL Lac objects, consistent with previous modeling results from Cen A. This slower region could be a slower moving layer around a fast spine, or a slower region farther out from the black hole in a decelerating flow. The fit parameters are also consistent with Cen A being able to accelerate ultra-high energy cosmic-rays, as hinted at by results from the Auger observatory. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A.

    DOI

  • Gamma-Ray Emission Concurrent with the Nova in the Symbiotic Binary V407 Cygni

    Abdo, A. A, Ackermann, M, Ajello, M, Atwood, W. B, Baldini, L, Ballet, J, Barbiellini, G, Bastieri, D, Bechtol, K, Bellazzini, R, Berenji, B, Blandford, R. D, Bloom, E. D, Bonamente, E, Borgland, A. W, Bouvier, A, Brandt, T. J, Bregeon, J, Brez, A, Brigida, M, Bruel, P, Buehler, R, Burnett, T. H, Buson, S, Caliandro, G. A, Cameron, R. A, Caraveo, P. A, Carrigan, S, Casandjian, J. M, Cecchi, C, Celik, O, Charles, E, Chaty, S, Chekhtman, A, Cheung, C. C, Chiang, J, Ciprini, S, Claus, R, Cohen-Tanugi, J, Conrad, J, Corbel, S, Corbet, R, DeCesar, M. E, den Hartog, P. R, Dermer, C. D, de Palma, F, Digel, S. W, Donato, D, do Couto e, Silva, E, Drell, P. S, Dubois, R, Dubus, G, Dumora, D, Favuzzi, C, Fegan, S. J, Ferrara, E. C, Fortin, P, Frailis, M, Fuhrmann, L, Fukazawa, Y, Funk, S, Fusco, P, Gargano, F, Gasparrini, D, Gehrels, N, Germani, S, Giglietto, N, Giordano, F, Giroletti, M, Glanzman, T, Godfrey, G, Grenier, I. A, Grondin, M. -H, Grove, J. E, Guiriec, S, Hadasch, D, Harding, A. K, Hayashida, M, Hays, E, Healey, S. E, Hill, A. B, Horan, D, Hughes, R. E, Itoh, R, Jean, P, Johannesson, G, Johnson, A. S, Johnson, R. P, Johnson, T. J, Johnson, W. N, Kamae, T, Katagiri, H, Kataoka, J, Kerr, M, Knodlseder, J, Koerding, E, Kuss, M, Lande, J, Lande, J, Lee, S. -H, Lemoine-Goumard, M, Llena Garde, M, Longo, F, Loparco, F, Lott, B, Lovellette, M. N, Lubrano, P, Makeev, A, Mazziotta, M. N, McConville, W, McEnery, J. E, Mehault, J, Michelson, P. F, Mizuno, T, Moiseev, A. A, Monte, C, Monzani, M. E, Morselli, A, Moskalenko, I. V, Murgia, S, Nakamori, T, Naumann-Godo, M, Nestoras, I, Nolan, P. L, Norris, J. P, Nuss, E, Ohno, M, Ohsugi, T, Okumura, A, Omodei, N, Orlando, E, Ormes, J. F, Ozaki, M, Paneque, D, Panetta, J. H, Parent, D, Pelassa, V, Pepe, M, Pesce-Rollins, M, Piron, F, Porter, T. A, Raino, S, Rando, R, Ray, P. S, Razzano, M, Razzaque, S, Rea, N, Reimer, A, Reimer, O, Reposeur, T, Ripken, J, Ritz, S, Romani, R. W, Roth, M, Sadrozinski, H. F. W, Sander, A, Parkinson, P. M. Saz, Scargle, J. D, Schinzel, F. K, Sgro, C, Shaw, M. S, Siskind, E. J, Smith, D. A, Smith, P. D, Sokolovsky, K. V, Spandre, G, Spinelli, P, Stawarz, L, Strickman, M. S, Suson, D. J, Takahashi, H, Takahashi, T, Tanaka, T, Tanaka, Y, Thayer, J. B, Thayer, J. G, Thompson, D. J, Tibaldo, L, Torres, D. F, Tosti, G, Tramacere, A, Uchiyama, Y, Usher, T. L, Vandenbroucke, J, Vasileiou, V, Vilchez, N, Vitale, V, Waite, A. P, Wallace, E, Wang, P, Winer, B. L, Wolff, M. T, Wood, K. S, Yang, Z, Ylinen, T, Ziegler, M, Maehara, H, Nishiyama, K, Kabashima, F, Bach, U, Bower, G. C, Falcone, A, Forster, J. R, Henden, A, Kawabata, K. S, Koubsky, P, Mukai, K, Nelson, T, Oates, S. R, Sakimoto, K, Sasada, M, Shenavrin, V. I, Shore, S. N, Skinner, G. K, Sokoloski, J, Stroh, M, Tatarnikov, A

    SCIENCE   329 ( 5993 ) 817 - 821  2010.08  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Novae are thermonuclear explosions on a white dwarf surface fueled by mass accreted from a companion star. Current physical models posit that shocked expanding gas from the nova shell can produce x-ray emission, but emission at higher energies has not been widely expected. Here, we report the Fermi Large Area Telescope detection of variable gamma-ray emission (0.1 to 10 billion electron volts) from the recently detected optical nova of the symbiotic star V407 Cygni. We propose that the material of the nova shell interacts with the dense ambient medium of the red giant primary and that particles can be accelerated effectively to produce pi(0) decay gamma-rays from proton-proton interactions. Emission involving inverse Compton scattering of the red giant radiation is also considered and is not ruled out.

    DOI

  • フェルミ衛星による活動銀河ジェット観測の新展開

    片岡 淳ほか

    日本天文学会誌   103   486  2010.08

  • FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT W28 (G6.4-0.1)

    Abdo A. A, Ackermann M, Ajello M, Allafort A, Baldini L, Ballet J, Barbiellini G, Bastieri D, Bechtol K, Bellazzini R, Berenji B, Blandford R. D, Bloom E. D, Bonamente E, Borgland A. W, Bouvier A, Br, dt T. J, Bregeon J, Brigida M, Bruel P, Buehler R, Buson S, Caliandro G. A, Cameron R. A, Caraveo P. A, Carrigan S, Casandjian J. M, Cecchi C, Celik Oe, Chekhtman A, Chiang J, Ciprini S, Claus R, Cohen-Tanugi J, Conrad J, Dermer C. D, de Palma F, do Couto e, Silva E, Drell P. S, Dubois R, Dumora D, Farnier C, Favuzzi C, Fegan S. J, Fukazawa Y, Fukui Y, Funk S, Fusco P, Gargano F, Gehrels N, Germani S, Giglietto N, Giordano F, Glanzman T, Godfrey G, Grenier I. A, Grove J. E, Guiriec S, Hadasch D, Hanabata Y, Harding A. K, Hays E, Horan D, Hughes R. E, Johannesson G, Johnson A. S, Johnson W. N, Kamae T, Katagiri H, Kataoka J, Knoedlseder J, Kuss M, Lande J, Latronico L, Lee S. -H, Lemoine-Goumard M, Garde M. Llena, Longo F, Loparco F, Lovellette M. N, Lubrano P, Makeev A, Mazziotta M. N, Michelson P. F, Mitthumsiri W, Mizuno T, Moiseev A. A, Monte C, Monzani M. E, Morselli A, Moskalenko I. V, Murgia S, Nakamori T, Nolan P. L, Norris J. P, Nuss E, Ohno M, Ohsugi T, Omodei N, Orlando E, Ormes J. F, Ozaki M, Panetta J. H, Parent D, Pelassa V, Pepe M, Pesce-Rollins M, Piron F, Porter T. A, Raino S, Rando R, Razzano M, Reimer A, Reimer O, Reposeur T, Rodriguez Y, Roth M, Sadrozinski H. F. -W, Sander A, Parkinson P, M. Saz, Sgro C, Siskind E. J, Smith D. A, Smith P. D, Spandre G, Spinelli P, Strickman M. S, Suson D. J, Tajima H, Takahashi H, Takahashi T, Tanaka T, Thayer J. B, Thayer J. G, Thompson D. J, Tibaldo L, Tibolla O, Torres D. F, Tosti G, Uchiyama Y, Uehara T, Usher T. L, Vasileiou V, Vilchez N, Vitale V, Waite A. P, Wang P, Winer B. L, Wood K. S, Yamamoto H, Yamazaki R, Yang Z, Ylinen T, Ziegler M

    ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL   718 ( 1 ) 348 - 356  2010.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We present detailed analysis of two gamma-ray sources, 1FGL J1801.3-2322c and 1FGL J1800.5-2359c, that have been found toward the supernova remnant (SNR) W28 with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. 1FGL J1801.3-2322c is found to be an extended source within the boundary of SNR W28, and to extensively overlap with the TeV gamma-ray source HESS J1801-233, which is associated with a dense molecular cloud interacting with the SNR. The gamma-ray spectrum measured with the LAT from 0.2 to 100 GeV can be described by a broken power-law function with a break at ∼1 GeV and photon indices of 2.09 ± 0.08 (stat) ± 0.28 (sys) below the break and 2.74 ± 0.06 (stat) ± 0.09 (sys) above the break. Given the clear association between HESS J1801-233 and the shocked molecular cloud and a smoothly connected spectrum in the GeV-TeV band, we consider the origin of the gamma-ray emission in both GeV and TeV ranges to be the interaction between particles accelerated in the SNR and the molecular cloud. The decay of neutral pions produced in interactions between accelerated hadrons and dense molecular gas provides a reasonable explanation for the broadband gamma-ray spectrum. 1FGL J1800.5-2359c, located outside the southern boundary of SNR W28, cannot be resolved. An upper limit on the size of the gamma-ray emission was estimated to be ∼16′ using events above ∼2 GeV under the assumption of a circular shape with uniform surface brightness. It appears to coincide with the TeV source HESS J1800-240B, which is considered to be associated with a dense molecular cloud that contains the ultra compact H ii region W28A2 (G5.89-0.39). We found no significant gamma-ray emission in the LAT energy band at the positions of TeV sources HESS J1800-230A and HESS J1800-230C. The LAT data for HESS J1800-230A combined with the TeV data points indicate a spectral break between 10 GeV and 100 GeV.

    DOI

  • GeV gamma-ray flux upper limits from clusters of galaxies

    M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, R. D. Blandford, P. Blasi, E. D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, T. J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, P. A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J. M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, Çelik, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C. C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, S. Colafrancesco, L. R. Cominsky, J. Conrad, C. D. Dermer, F. De Palma, E. Do Couto E Silva, P. S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, Y. Edmonds, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I. A. Grenier, M. H. Grondin, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, A. K. Harding, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, D. Horan, R. E. Hughes, T. E. Jeltema, G. Jóhannesson, A. S. Johnson, T. J. Johnson, W. N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S. H. Lee, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G. M. Madejski, A. Makeev, M. N. Mazziotta, P. F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A. A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M. E. Monzani, A. Morselli

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   717 ( 1 ) L71 - L78  2010.07

     View Summary

    The detection of diffuse radio emission associated with clusters of galaxies indicates populations of relativistic leptons infusing the intraclustermedium (ICM). Those electrons and positrons are either injected into and accelerated directly in the ICM, or produced as secondary pairs by cosmic-ray ions scattering on ambient protons. Radiation mechanisms involving the energetic leptons together with the decay of neutral pions produced by hadronic interactions have the potential to produce abundant GeV photons. Here, we report on the search for GeV emission from clusters of galaxies using data collected by the Large Area Telescope on the FermiGamma-ray Space Telescope from 2008 August to 2010 February. Thirty-three galaxy clusters have been selected according to their proximity and high mass, X-ray flux and temperature, and indications of non-thermal activity for this study. We report upper limits on the photon flux in the range 0.2-100GeVtoward a sample of observed clusters (typical values (1-5)×10-9 photon cm-2 s-1) considering both point-like and spatially resolved models for the high-energy emission and discuss how these results constrain the characteristics of energetic leptons and hadrons, and magnetic fields in the ICM. The volume-averaged relativistic-hadron-to-thermal energy density ratio is found to be <5%-10% in several clusters.

    DOI

  • Faint Gamma-ray Sources Observed with Fermi-LAT

    FUKAZAWA Yasushi, KATAOKA Jun, TAKAHASHI Tadayuki, Behalf of the, Fermi LAT Collaboration

    The astronomical herald   103 ( 8 ) 494 - 500  2010.07

    CiNii

  • Recent Highlights from AGN Observations with Fermi-LAT

    KATAOKA Jun, FUKAZAWA Yasushi, STAWARZ Lukasz, SATO Rie, HAYASHIDA Masaaki, Behalf of the, Fermi LAT Collaboration

    The astronomical herald   103 ( 8 ) 486 - 493  2010.07

    CiNii

  • Fermi observations of GRB 090510: A short-hard gamma-ray burst with an additional, hard power-law component from 10 keV to GeV energies

    M. Ackermann, K. Asano, W.B. Atwood, M. Axelsson, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, M.G. Baring, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, P.N. Bhat, E. Bissaldi, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M.S. Briggs, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, E. Charles, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, V. Connaughton, J. Conrad, C.D. Dermer, F. De Palma, B.L. Dingus, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, J. Finke, W.B. Focke, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, J. Granot, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, A.K. Harding, E. Hays, D. Horan, R.E. Hughes, G. Jóhannesson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, R.M. Kippen, J. Knödlseder, D. Kocevski, C. Kouveliotou, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, M. Llena Garde, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A. Makeev, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, S. McGlynn, C. Meegan, P. Mészros, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, E. Moretti, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, H. Nakajima, T. Nakamori, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, M. Ohno, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, W.S. Paciesas, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, R. Preece, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, S. Razzaque, A. Reimer, S. Ritz, A.Y. Rodriguez, M. Roth, F. Ryde, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, A. Sander, J.D. Scargle, T.L. Schalk, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, M. Stamatikos, F.W. Stecker, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, K. Toma, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T. Uehara, T.L. Usher, A.J. Van, Der Horst, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A. Von Kienlin, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, C. Wilson-Hodge, B.L. Winer, X.F. Wu, R. Yamazaki, Z. Yang, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   716 ( 2 ) 1178 - 1190  2010.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We present detailed observations of the bright short-hard gamma-ray burst GRB 090510 made with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi observatory. GRB 090510 is the first burst detected by the LAT that shows strong evidence for a deviation from a Band spectral fitting function during the prompt emission phase. The time-integrated spectrum is fit by the sum of a Band function with E peak = 3.9 ± 0.3MeV, which is the highest yet measured, and a hard power-law component with photon index -1.62 ± 0.03 that dominates the emission below ≈ 20keV and above ≈ 100MeV. The onset of the high-energy spectral component appears to be delayed by ≈ 0.1s with respect to the onset of a component well fit with a single Band function. A faint GBM pulse and a LAT photon are detected 0.5s before the main pulse. During the prompt phase, the LAT detected a photon with energy 30.5+5.8-2.6GeV, the highest ever measured from a short GRB. Observation of this photon sets a minimum bulk outflow Lorentz factor, Γ≳1200, using simple γγ opacity arguments for this GRB at redshift z = 0.903 and a variability timescale on the order of tens of ms for the ≈ 100keV-few MeV flux. Stricter high confidence estimates imply Γ ≳ 1000 and still require that the outflows powering short GRBs are at least as highly relativistic as those of long-duration GRBs. Implications of the temporal behavior and power-law shape of the additional component on synchrotron/synchrotron self-Compton, external-shock synchrotron, and hadronic models are considered. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Suzaku observations of luminous quasars: Revealing the nature of high-energy blazar emission in low-level activity states

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, E. Antolini, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, M.G. Baring, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, S. Carrigan, J.M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, A. Chekhtman, A.W. Chen, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, S. Colafrancesco, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, C.D. Dermer, F. De Palma, S.W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, E.C. Ferrara, W.B. Focke, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, P. Grandi, I.A. Grenier, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, A.K. Harding, M. Hayashida, D. Horan, R.E. Hughes, R. Itoh, M.S. Jackson, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G.M. Madejski, A. Makeev, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, S. McGlynn, C. Meurer, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, I. Nestoras, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, L.C. Reyes, A.Y. Rodriguez, M. Roth, F. Ryde, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, R. Sambruna, A. Sander, R. Sato, C. Sgrò, M.S. Shaw, E.J. Siskind, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, Ł. Stawarz, F.W. Stecker, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, O. Tibolla, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, M. Villata, V. Vitale, A. Von Kienlin, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, Z. Yang, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler, F. Tavecchio, M. Sikora, P. Schady, P. Roming, M.M. Chester, L. Maraschi

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   716 ( 1 ) 835 - 849  2010.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We present the results from the Suzaku X-ray observations of five flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), namely PKS0208-512, Q0827+243, PKS1127-145, PKS1510-089, and 3C454.3. All these sources were additionally monitored simultaneously or quasi-simultaneously by the Fermi satellite in gamma rays and the Swift UVOT in the UV and optical bands, respectively. We constructed their broadband spectra covering the frequency range from 1014Hz up to 1025Hz, and those reveal the nature of high-energy emission of luminous blazars in their low-activity states. The analyzed X-ray spectra are well fitted by a power-law model with photoelectric absorption. In the case of PKS0208-512, PKS1127-145, and 3C454.3, the X-ray continuum showed indication of hardening at low energies. Moreover, when compared with the previous X-ray observations, we see a significantly increasing contribution of low-energy photons to the total X-ray fluxes when the sources are getting fainter. The same behavior can be noted in the Suzaku data alone. A likely explanation involves a variable, flat-spectrum component produced via inverse-Compton emission, plus an additional, possibly steady soft X-ray component prominent when the source gets fainter. This soft X-ray excess is represented either by a steep power-law (photon indices Γ 3-5) or a blackbody-type emission with temperatures kT 0.1-0.2keV. We model the broadband spectra of the five observed FSRQs using synchrotron self-Compton and/or external-Compton radiation models. Our modeling suggests that the difference between the low- and high-activity states in luminous blazars is due to the different total kinetic power of the jet, most likely related to varying bulk Lorentz factor of the outflow within the blazar emission zone. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • The spectral energy distribution of fermi bright blazars

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, I. Agudo, M. Ajello, H.D. Aller, M.F. Aller, E. Angelakis, A.A. Arkharov, M. Axelsson, U. Bach, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, B.M. Baughman, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, E. Benitez, A. Berdyugin, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, M. Boettcher, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T.H. Burnett, D. Burrows, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, L. Calzoletti, R.A. Cameron, M. Capalbi, P.A. Caraveo, D. Carosati, J.M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, E. Charles, S. Chaty, A. Chekhtman, W.P. Chen, J. Chiang, G. Chincarini, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, S. Colafrancesco, L.R. Cominsky, J. Conrad, L. Costamante, S. Cutini, F. D'Ammando, R. Deitrick, V. D'Elia, C.D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, S.W. Digel, I. Donnarumma, E.D.C.E. Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dultzin, D. Dumora, A. Falcone, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, W.B. Focke, E. Forné, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, L. Fuhrmann, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, J.L. Gómez, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, A. Giuliani, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, C. Gronwall, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, M.A. Gurwell, D. Hadasch, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, S.E. Healey, J. Heidt, D. Hiriart, D. Horan, E.A. Hoversten, R.E. Hughes, R. Itoh, M.S. Jackson, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, S.G. Jorstad, M. Kadler, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, J. Kennea, M. Kerr, G. Kimeridze, J. Knödlseder, M.L. Kocian, E.N. Kopatskaya, E. Koptelova, T.S. Konstantinova, Y.Y. Kovalev, Yu.A. Kovalev, O.M. Kurtanidze, M. Kuss, J. Lande, V.M. Larionov, L. Latronico, P. Leto, E. Lindfors, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G.M. Madejski, A. Makeev, P. Marchegiani, A.P. Marscher, F. Marshall, W. Max-Moerbeck, M.N. Mazziotta, W. McConville, J.E. McEnery, C. Meurer, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, I. Nestoras, K. Nilsson, N.A. Nizhelsky, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, R. Ojha, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, J. Osborne, M. Ozaki, L. Pacciani, P. Padovani, C. Pagani, K. Page, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, M. Pasanen, V. Pavlidou, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Perri, M. Pesce-Rollins, S. Piranomonte, F. Piron, C. Pittori, T.A. Porter, S. Puccetti, F. Rahoui, S. Rainò, C. Raiteri, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, J.L. Richards, S. Ritz, L.S. Rochester, A.Y. Rodriguez, R.W. Romani, J.A. Ros, M. Roth, P. Roustazadeh, F. Ryde, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, A. Sadun, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, P.M.S. Parkinson, J.D. Scargle, A. Sellerholm, C. Sgrò, M.S. Shaw, L.A. Sigua, E.J. Siskind, D.A. Smith, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, J.-L. Starck, M. Stevenson, G. Stratta, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, L.O. Takalo, T. Tanaka, J

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   716 ( 1 ) 30 - 70  2010.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We have conducted a detailed investigation of the broadband spectral properties of the γ-ray selected blazars of the Fermi LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS). By combining our accurately estimated Fermi γ-ray spectra with Swift, radio, infra-red, optical, and other hard X-ray/γ-ray data, collected within 3 months of the LBAS data taking period, we were able to assemble high-quality and quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions (SED) for 48 LBAS blazars. The SED of these γ-ray sources is similar to that of blazars discovered at other wavelengths, clearly showing, in the usual log ν-log ν Fν representation, the typical broadband spectral signatures normally attributed to a combination of low-energy synchrotron radiation followed by inverse Compton emission of one or more components. We have used these SED to characterize the peak intensity of both the low- and the high-energy components. The results have been used to derive empirical relationships that estimate the position of the two peaks from the broadband colors (i.e., the radio to optical, αro, and optical to X-ray, αox, spectral slopes) and from the γ-ray spectral index. Our data show that the synchrotron peak frequency (νSpeak) is positioned between 1012.5 and 1014.5 Hz in broad-lined flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and between 10 13 and 1017 Hz in featureless BL Lacertae objects. We find that the γ-ray spectral slope is strongly correlated with the synchrotron peak energy and with the X-ray spectral index, as expected at first order in synchrotron-inverse Compton scenarios. However, simple homogeneous, one-zone, synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) models cannot explain most of our SED, especially in the case of FSRQs and low energy peaked (LBL) BL Lacs. More complex models involving external Compton radiation or multiple SSC components are required to reproduce the overall SED and the observed spectral variability. While more than 50% of known radio bright high energy peaked (HBL) BL Lacs are detected in the LBAS sample, only less than 13% of known bright FSRQs and LBL BL Lacs are included. This suggests that the latter sources, as a class, may be much fainter γ-ray emitters than LBAS blazars, and could in fact radiate close to the expectations of simple SSC models. We categorized all our sources according to a new physical classification scheme based on the generally accepted paradigm for Active Galactic Nuclei and on the results of this SED study. Since the LAT detector is more sensitive to flat spectrum γ-ray sources, the correlation between νSpeak and γ-ray spectral index strongly favors the detection of high energy peaked blazars, thus explaining the Fermi overabundance of this type of sources compared to radio and EGRET samples. This selection effect is similar to that experienced in the soft X-ray band where HBL BL Lacs are the dominant type of blazars. © 2010 The American Astronomical Society.

    DOI

  • Fermi large area telescope first source catalog

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, E. Antolini, W.B. Atwood, M. Axelsson, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, B.M. Baughman, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, F. Belli, B. Berenji, D. Bisello, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, J. Bonnell, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T.H. Burnett, G. Busetto, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, R. Campana, B. Canadas, P.A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J.M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, M. Ceccanti, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, A.N. Cillis, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, R. Corbet, D.S. Davis, M. Deklotz, P.R. Den Hartog, C.D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, A. De Luca, F. De Palma, S.W. Digel, M. Dormody, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, D. Fabiani, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, E.C. Ferrara, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, G. Giavitto, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, M. Gustafsson, D. Hadasch, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, S.E. Healey, A.B. Hill, D. Horan, R.E. Hughes, G. Iafrate, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, R.P. Johnson, T.J. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, D. Kocevski, M. Kuss, J. Lande, D. Landriu, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, M. Lemoine-Goumard, A.M. Lionetto, M. Llena Garde, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G.M. Madejski, A. Makeev, B. Marangelli, M. Marelli, E. Massaro, M.N. Mazziotta, W. McConville, J.E. McEnery, P.F. Michelson, M. Minuti, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, M. Mongelli, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, E. Moretti, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, H. Nakajima, T. Nakamori, M. Naumann-Godo, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, M. Ohno, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, A. Paccagnella, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pinchera, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, L. Poupard, S. Rainò, R. Rando, P.S. Ray, M. Razzano, S. Razzaque, N. Rea, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, J. Ripken, S. Ritz, L.S. Rochester, A.Y. Rodriguez, R.W. Romani, M. Roth, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, D. Salvetti, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, P.M. Saz Parkinson, J.D. Scargle, T.L. Schalk, G. Scolieri, C. Sgrò, M.S. Shaw, E.J. Siskind, D.A. Smith, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, J.-L. Starck, T.E. Stephens, E. Striani, M.S. Strickman, A.W. Strong, D.J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, O. Tibolla, F. Tinebra, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, A. Van Etten, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, E. Wallace, P. Wang, K. Watters, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, Z. Yang, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series   188 ( 2 ) 405 - 436  2010.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We present a catalog of high-energy gamma-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), during the first 11 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. The First Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL) contains 1451 sources detected and characterized in the 100MeV to 100GeV range. Source detection was based on the average flux over the 11 month period, and the threshold likelihood Test Statistic is 25, corresponding to a significance of just over 4σ. The 1FGL catalog includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and power-law spectral fits as well as flux measurements in five energy bands for each source. In addition, monthly light curves are provided. Using a protocol defined before launch we have tested for several populations of gamma-ray sources among the sources in the catalog. For individual LAT-detected sources we provide firm identifications or plausible associations with sources in other astronomical catalogs. Identifications are based on correlated variability with counterparts at other wavelengths, or on spin or orbital periodicity. For the catalogs and association criteria that we have selected, 630 of the sources are unassociated. Care was taken to characterize the sensitivity of the results to the model of interstellar diffuse gamma-ray emission used to model the bright foreground, with the result that 161 sources at low Galactic latitudes and toward bright local interstellar clouds are flagged as having properties that are strongly dependent on the model or as potentially being due to incorrectly modeled structure in the Galactic diffuse emission. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society.

    DOI

  • Developments of large-area APD arrays for future applications to PET technology

    KATAOKA Jun

    Ionizing radiation.   35 ( 4 ) 277 - 287  2010.06

    CiNii

  • 大面積APDアレーの開発と次世代PET技術への展望

    片岡 淳

    放射線(応用物理学会・放射線分科会)   35 ( 4 ) 277 - 287  2010.06

  • The first catalog of active galactic nuclei detected by the Fermi large area telescope

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, E. Antolini, W.B. Atwood, M. Axelsson, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, B.M. Baughman, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, J.R. Bogart, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, T.H. Burnett, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, A. Cannon, P.A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J.M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, A. Celotti, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, A.W. Chen, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, L. Costamante, G. Cotter, S. Cutini, V. D'Elia, C.D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, A. De Rosa, S.W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, L. Escande, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, E.C. Ferrara, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, P. Grandi, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, A.K. Harding, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, S.E. Healey, A.B. Hill, D. Horan, R.E. Hughes, G. Iafrate, R. Itoh, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, R.P. Johnson, T.J. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, C. Lavalley, M. Lemoine-Goumard, M. Llena Garde, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G.M. Madejski, A. Makeev, G. Malaguti, E. Massaro, M.N. Mazziotta, W. McConville, J.E. McEnery, S. McGlynn, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, M. Ohno, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, S. Piranomonte, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, J. Ripken, S. Ritz, A.Y. Rodriguez, R.W. Romani, M. Roth, F. Ryde, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, P.M. Saz Parkinson, J.D. Scargle, C. Sgrò, M.S. Shaw, E.J. Siskind, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, J.-L. Starck, L. Stawarz, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, G.B. Taylor, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, P. Ubertini, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, M. Villata, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, E. Wallace, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, Z. Yang, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   715 ( 1 ) 429 - 457  2010.05  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We present the first catalog of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), corresponding to 11 months of data collected in scientific operation mode. The First LAT AGN Catalog (1LAC) includes 671 γ-ray sources located at high Galactic latitudes (|b|>10°) that are detected with a test statistic greater than 25 and associated statistically with AGNs. Some LAT sources are associated with multiple AGNs, and consequently, the catalog includes 709 AGNs, comprising 300 BL Lacertae objects, 296 flat-spectrum radio quasars, 41 AGNs of other types, and 72 AGNs of unknown type. We also classify the blazars based on their spectral energy distributions as archival radio, optical, and X-ray data permit. In addition to the formal 1LAC sample, we provide AGN associations for 51 low-latitude LAT sources and AGN "affiliations" (unquantified counterpart candidates) for 104 high-latitude LAT sources without AGN associations. The overlap of the 1LAC with existing γ-ray AGN catalogs (LBAS, EGRET, AGILE, Swift, INTEGRAL, TeVCat) is briefly discussed. Various properties - such as γ-ray fluxes and photon power-law spectral indices, redshifts, γ-ray luminosities, variability, and archival radio luminosities - and their correlations are presented and discussed for the different blazar classes. We compare the 1LAC results with predictions regarding the γ-ray AGN populations, and we comment on the power of the sample to address the question of the blazar sequence. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..

    DOI

  • In-orbit performance of avalanche photodiode as radiation detector on board the picosatellite Cute-1.7+APD II

    Kataoka, J, Toizumi, T, Nakamroi, T, Yatsu, Y, Tsubuku, Y, Kuramoto, Y, Enomoto, T, Usui, R, Kawai, N, Ashida, H, Omagari, K, Fujihashi, K, Inagawa, S, Miura, Y, Konda, Y, Miyashita, N, Matsunaga, S, Ishikawa, Y, Matsunaga, Y, Kawabata, N

    Journal of Geophysical Research   115 ( 5 ) A05204 - (9pp)  2010.05  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The Cute-1.7+APD II, 10 15 20 cm3 in size and 5 kg in mass, is the third picosatellite developed by students at the Tokyo Institute of Technology. One of the primary goals of the Cute-1.7+APD II mission is to validate the use of avalanche photodiodes (APDs) as a radiation detector for the first time in a space experiment. While the mission itself is immature compared to the forefront satellites of space plasma physics, use of APDs offers various possibilities regarding a brand-new electron energy analyzer for medium-energy electrons and ions (1-100 keV), as well as a high-performance light sensor for the future X-ray astronomy missions. The satellite was successfully launched by ISRO PSLV-C9 rocket on 28 April 2008 and has since been in operation for more than a year. The Cute-1.7+APD II carries two reverse-type APDs to monitor the distribution of low-energy particles (mainly electrons and protons) down to 9.2 keV trapped in a low Earth orbit (LEO), including the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) as well as aurora bands. We present the design parameters and various preflight tests of the APDs prior to launch, particularly, the high counting response and active gain control system for the Cute-1.7+APD II mission. Examples of electron/proton distribution, obtained in continuous 12 h observations, will be presented to demonstrate the initial flight performance of the APDs in orbit. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.

    DOI

  • Fermi gamma-ray imaging of a radio galaxy

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, W.B. Atwood, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, B.M. Baughman, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T.H. Burnett, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, S. Colafrancesco, L.R. Cominsky, J. Conrad, L. Costamante, S. Cutini, D.S. Davis, C.D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, S.W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, J. Finke, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, M. Georganopoulos, S. Germani, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, R.E. Hughes, M.S. Jackson, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, T.J. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M.L. Kocian, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G.M. Madejski, A. Makeev, M.N. Mazziotta, W. McConville, J.E. McEnery, C. Meurer, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, D. Paneque, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, S. Razzaque, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, S. Ritz, L.S. Rochester, A.Y. Rodriguez, R.W. Romani, M. Roth, F. Ryde, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, R. Sambruna, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, P.M. Saz Parkinson, J.D. Scargle, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, D.A. Smith, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, J.-L. Starek, L. Stawarz, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, E. Wallace, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler, M.J. Hardcastle, D. Kazanas

    Science   328 ( 5979 ) 725 - 729  2010.05  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has detected the y-ray glow emanating from the giant radio lobes of the radio galaxy Centaurus A. The resolved y-ray image shows the lobes clearly separated from the central active source. In contrast to all other active galaxies detected so far in high-energy γ-rays, the lobe flux constitutes a considerable portion (greater than one-half) of the total source emission. The γ-ray emission from the lobes is interpreted as inverse Compton-scattered relic radiation from the cosmic microwave background, with additional contribution at higher energies from the infrared-to-optical extragalactic background light. These measurements provide γ-ray constraints on the magnetic field and particle energy content in radio galaxy lobes, as well as a promising method to probe the cosmic relic photon fields.

    DOI

  • Design of Tokyo Tech nano-satellite Cute-1.7+APD II and its operation

    Hiroki Ashida, Kota Fujihashi, Shinichi Inagawa, Yoshiyuki Miura, Kuniyuki Omagari, Naoki Miyashita, Saburo Matunaga, Takahiro Toizumi, Jun Kataoka, Nobuyuki Kawai

    Acta Astronautica   66 ( 9-10 ) 1412 - 1424  2010.05

     View Summary

    Cute-1.7+APD II is the 3rd satellite developed by the Laboratory for Space Systems at the Tokyo Institute of Technology. Cute-1.7+APD II is the current successor to Cute-1.7+APD. This new satellite is based on its predecessor but has some modifications to increase its reliability and robustness against radiation effects, electrical power shortage and so on. The satellite was launched by an ISRO PSLV-C9 rocket on April 28, 2008 and has operated for more than 9 months. Throughout its operation, many missions such as attitude determination and control experiments, scientific observations, photographing and communication experiments have been conducted. In this paper an overview of the Cute-1.7 series and configurations, modifications and operation results of Cute-1.7+APD II are introduced. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Detection of the energetic pulsar PSR B1509-58 and its pulsar wind nebula in MSH 15-52 using the Fermi-large area telescope

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, K. Asano, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, M.G. Baring, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, F. Camilo, P.A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, P.R. Den Hartog, C.D. Dermer, A. De Luca, F. De Palma, M. Dormody, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, E.C. Ferrara, W.B. Focke, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, E.V. Gotthelf, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, E. Hays, G. Hobbs, D. Horan, R.E. Hughes, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, T.J. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, S. Johnston, T. Kamae, Y. Kanai, G. Kanbach, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, M. Keith, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, M.L. Garde, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A. Makeev, R.N. Manchester, M. Marelli, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, M. Ohno, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, N. Rea, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, A.Y. Rodriguez, R.W. Romani, M. Roth, F. Ryde, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, A. Sander, P.M.S. Parkinson, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, D.A. Smith, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, J.-L. Starck, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, S.E. Thorsett, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, V. Vasileiou, C. Venter, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, P. Weltevrede, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, Z. Yang, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   714 ( 1 ) 927 - 936  2010.05  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report the detection of high-energy γ-ray emission from the young and energetic pulsar PSR B1509 - 58 and its pulsar wind nebula (PWN) in the composite supernova remnant G320.4 - 1.2 (aka MSH 15 - 52). Using 1 yr of survey data with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT), we detected pulsations from PSR B1509 - 58 up to 1GeV and extended γ-ray emission above 1GeV spatially coincident with the PWN. The pulsar light curve presents two peaks offset from the radio peak by phases 0.96 ± 0.01 and 0.33 ± 0.02. New constraining upper limits on the pulsar emission are derived below 1GeV and confirm a severe spectral break at a few tens ofMeV. The nebular spectrum in the 1-100GeV energy range is well described by a power law with a spectral index of (1.57 ± 0.17 ± 0.13) and a flux above 1GeV of (2.91 ± 0.79 ± 1.35) × 10-9cm-2s-1. The first errors represent the statistical errors on the fit parameters, while the second ones are the systematic uncertainties. The LAT spectrum of the nebula connects nicely with Cherenkov observations, and indicates a spectral break betweenGeV and TeV energies. © 2010 The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Fermi-large area telescope observations of the exceptional gamma-ray outbursts of 3C 273 in 2009 September

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T.H. Burnett, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, A. Cannon, P.A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J.M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, L. Costamante, C.D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, W.B. Focke, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, S. Guiriec, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, A.B. Hill, D. Horan, R.E. Hughes, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, S. Larsson, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, M.L. Garde, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G.M. Madejski, A. Makeev, O. Mansutti, E. Massaro, M.N. Mazziotta, W. McConville, J.E. McEnery, C. Meurer, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, S. Ritz, A.Y. Rodriguez, R.W. Romani, M. Roth, F. Ryde, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, A. Sander, J.D. Scargle, T.L. Schalk, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, J.-L. Starck, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, A.E. Wehrle, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, Z. Yang, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   714 ( 1 ) L73 - L78  2010.05  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We present the light curves and spectral data of two exceptionally luminous gamma-ray outbursts observed by the Large Area Telescope experiment on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope from 3C 273 in 2009 September. During these flares, having a duration of a few days, the source reached its highest γ-ray flux ever measured. This allowed us to study, in some details, their spectral and temporal structures. The rise and the decay are asymmetric on timescales of 6 hr, and the spectral index was significantly harder during the flares than during the preceding 11 months. We also found that short, very intense flares put out the same time-integrated energy as long, less intense flares like that observed in 2009 August. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society.

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  • gamma-RAY SPECTRAL EVOLUTION OF NGC 1275 OBSERVED WITH FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    J. Kataoka, L. Stawarz, C. C. Cheung, G. Tosti, E. Cavazzuti, A. Celotti, S. Nishino, Y. Fukazawa, D. J. Thompson, W. F. McConville

    ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL   715 ( 1 ) 554 - 560  2010.05  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report on a detailed investigation of the high-energy gamma-ray emission from NGC 1275, a well-known radio galaxy hosted by a giant elliptical located at the center of the nearby Perseus cluster. With the increased photon statistics, the center of the gamma-ray-emitting region is now measured to be separated by only 0.46 arcmin from the nucleus of NGC 1275, well within the 95% confidence error circle with radius similar or equal to 1.5 arcmin. Early Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations revealed a significant decade-timescale brightening of NGC 1275 at GeV photon energies, with a flux about 7 times higher than the one implied by the upper limit from previous EGRET observations. With the accumulation of one year of Fermi-LAT all-sky-survey exposure, we now detect flux and spectral variations of this source on month timescales, as reported in this paper. The average &gt; 100 MeV gamma-ray spectrum of NGC 1275 shows a possible deviation from a simple power-law shape, indicating a spectral cutoff around an observed photon energy of epsilon(gamma) = 42.2 +/- 19.6 GeV, with an average flux of F(gamma) = (2.31 +/- 0.13) x 10(-7) photons cm(-2) s(-1) and a power-law photon index, Gamma(gamma) = 2.13 +/- 0.02. The largest gamma-ray flaring event was observed in 2009 April-May and was accompanied by significant spectral variability above epsilon(gamma) greater than or similar to 1-2 GeV. The gamma-ray activity of NGC 1275 during this flare can be described by a hysteresis behavior in the flux versus photon index plane. The highest energy photon associated with the gamma-ray source was detected at the very end of the observation, with the observed energy of epsilon(gamma) = 67.4 GeV and an angular separation of about 2.4 arcmin from the nucleus. In this paper we present the details of the Fermi-LAT data analysis, and briefly discuss the implications of the observed gamma-ray spectral evolution of NGC 1275 in the context of gamma-ray blazar sources in general.

    DOI

  • The vela pulsar: Results from the first year of fermi lat observations

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, W.B. Atwood, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, M.G. Baring, D. Bastieri, B.M. Baughman, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T.H. Burnett, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, C.D. Dermer, A. De Luca, F. De Palma, M. Dormody, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, G. Giavitto, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, A.K. Harding, E. Hays, G. Hobbs, D. Horan, R.E. Hughes, M.S. Jackson, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, T.J. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, M. Lemoine-Goumard, M.L. Garde, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A. Makeev, R.N. Manchester, M. Marelli, M.N. Mazziotta, W. McConville, J.E. McEnery, S. McGlynn, C. Meurer, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, A. Noutsos, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pierbattista, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, P.S. Ray, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, S. Ritz, L.S. Rochester, A.Y. Rodriguez, R.W. Romani, M. Roth, F. Ryde, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, A. Sander, P.M.S. Parkinson, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, D.A. Smith, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, J.-L. Starck, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, T.L. Usher, A. Van Etten, V. Vasileiou, C. Venter, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, K. Watters, P. Weltevrede, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   713 ( 1 ) 154 - 165  2010.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report on analysis of timing and spectroscopy of the Vela pulsar using 11 months of observations with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The intrinsic brightness of Vela at GeV energies combined with the angular resolution and sensitivity of the LAT allows us to make the most detailed study to date of the energy-dependent light curves and phase-resolved spectra, using a LAT-derived timing model. The light curve consists of two peaks (P1 and P2) connected by bridge emission containing a third peak (P3). We have confirmed the strong decrease of the P1/P2 ratio with increasing energy seen with EGRET and previous Fermi LAT data, and observe that P1 disappears above 20 GeV. The increase with energy of the mean phase of the P3 component can be followed with much greater detail, showing that P3 and P2 are present up to the highest energies of pulsation. We find significant pulsed emission at phases outside the main profile, indicating that magnetospheric emission exists over 80% of the pulsar period. With increased high-energy counts the phase-averaged spectrum is seen to depart from a power law with simple exponential cutoff, and is better fit with a more gradual cutoff. The spectra in fixed-count phase bins are well fit with power laws with exponential cutoffs, revealing a strong and complex phase dependence of the cutoff energy, especially in the peaks. By combining these results with predictions of the outer magnetosphere models that map emission characteristics to phase, it will be possible to probe the particle acceleration and the structure of the pulsar magnetosphere with unprecedented detail. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Fermi large area telescope observations of the vela-X pulsar wind nebula

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T.H. Burnett, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Chung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, M. Dormody, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, G. Giavitto, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, A.K. Harding, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, D. Horan, R.E. Hughes, M.S. Jackson, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, T.J. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, S. Johnston, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, M. Lemoine-Goumard, M. Llena Garde, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A. Makeev, M. Marelli, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, C. Meurer, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, A. Noutsos, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pierbattista, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, P.S. Ray, N. Rea, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, S. Ritz, A.Y. Rodriguez, R.W. Romani, M. Roth, F. Ryde, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, P.M. Saz Parkinson, J.D. Scargle, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, D.A. Smith, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, A. Van Etten, V. Vasileiou, C. Venter, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, P. Weltevrede, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   713 ( 1 ) 146 - 153  2010.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report on gamma-ray observations in the off-pulse window of the Vela pulsar PSR B0833-45 using 11 months of survey data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). This pulsar is located in the 8° diameter Vela supernova remnant, which contains several regions of non-thermal emission detected in the radio, X-ray, and gamma-ray bands. The gamma-ray emission detected by the LAT lies within one of these regions, the 2° × 3° area south of the pulsar known as Vela-X. The LAT flux is significantly spatially extended with a best-fit radius of 088 012 for an assumed radially symmetric uniform disk. The 200 MeV to 20 GeV LAT spectrum of this source is well described by a power law with a spectral index of 2.41±0.09±0.15 and integral flux above 100 MeV of (4.73±0.63±1.32) × 10-7 cm -2 s-1. The first errors represent the statistical error on the fit parameters, while the second ones are the systematic uncertainties. Detailed morphological and spectral analyses give strong constraints on the energetics and magnetic field of the pulsar wind nebula system and favor a scenario with two distinct electron populations. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Fermi large area telescope observations of PSR J1836+5925

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, W.B. Atwood, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, M.G. Baring, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, A. Belfiore, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T.H. Burnett, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, F. Camilo, P.A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, A. De Angelis, A. De Luca, F. De Palma, S.W. Digel, M. Dormody, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, Y. Edmonds, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, G. Giavitto, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, C. Gwon, D. Hadasch, A.K. Harding, E. Hays, D. Horan, R.E. Hughes, M.S. Jackson, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, R.P. Johnson, T.J. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, Y. Kanai, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G.M. Madejski, A. Makeev, M. Marelli, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, C. Meurer, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pierbattista, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, S.M. Ransom, P.S. Ray, M. Razzano, N. Rea, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, L.S. Rochester, A.Y. Rodriguez, R.W. Romani, M. Roth, F. Ryde, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, A. Sander, P.M. Saz Parkinson, J.D. Scargle, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, D.A. Smith, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, S.E. Thorsett, L. Tibaldo, O. Tibolla, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, T.L. Usher, A. Van Etten, V. Vasileiou, C. Venter, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, K. Watters, B.L. Winer, M.T. Wolff, K.S. Wood, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   712 ( 2 ) 1209 - 1218  2010.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The discovery of the γ-ray pulsar PSR J1836+5925, powering the formerly unidentified EGRET source 3EG J1835+5918, was one of the early accomplishments of the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Sitting 25° off the Galactic plane, PSR J1836+5925 is a 173ms pulsar with a characteristic age of 1.8 million years, a spindown luminosity of 1.1 × 1034erg s-1, and a large off-peak (OP) emission component, making it quite unusual among the known γ-ray pulsar population. We present an analysis of one year of LAT data, including an updated timing solution, detailed spectral results, and a long-term light curve showing no indication of variability. No evidence for a surrounding pulsar wind nebula is seen and the spectral characteristics of the OP emission indicate it is likely magnetospheric. Analysis of recent XMM-Newton observations of the X-ray counterpart yields a detailed characterization of its spectrum, which, like Geminga, is consistent with that of a neutron star showing evidence for both magnetospheric and thermal emission. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • The first fermi large area telescope catalog of gamma-ray pulsars

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, W.B. Atwood, M. Axelsson, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, M.G. Baring, D. Bastieri, B.M. Baughman, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T.H. Burnett, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, F. Camilo, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, I. Cognard, J. Cohen-Tanugi, L.R. Cominsky, J. Conrad, R. Corbet, S. Cutini, P.R. Den Hartog, C.D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, A. De Luca, F. De Palma, S.W. Digel, M. Dormody, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Espinoza, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, E.C. Ferrara, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, P.C.C. Freire, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, G. Giavitto, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, E.V. Gotthelf, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, C. Gwon, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, R.E. Hughes, M.S. Jackson, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, R.P. Johnson, T.J. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, S. Johnston, T. Kamae, G. Kanbach, V.M. Kaspi, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M.L. Kocian, M. Kramer, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, M. Livingstone, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A.G. Lyne, G.M. Madejski, A. Makeev, R.N. Manchester, M. Marelli, M.N. Mazziotta, W. McConville, J.E. McEnery, S. McGlynn, C. Meurer, P.F. Michelson, T. Mineo, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, A. Noutsos, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, S.M. Ransom, P.S. Ray, M. Razzano, N. Rea, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, S. Ritz, A.Y. Rodriguez, R.W. Romani, M. Roth, F. Ryde, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, P.M. Saz Parkinson, J.D. Scargle, T.L. Schalk, A. Sellerholm, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, D.A. Smith, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, B.W. Stappers, J.-L. Starck, E. Striani, M.S. Strickman, A.W. Strong, D.J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, G. Theureau, D.J. Thompson, S.E. Thorsett, L. Tibaldo, O. Tibolla, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, A. Van Etten, V. Vasileiou, C. Venter, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, N. Wang, K. Watters, P. Weltevrede, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series   187 ( 2 ) 460 - 494  2010.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The dramatic increase in the number of known gamma-ray pulsars since the launch of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST) offers the first opportunity to study a sizable population of these high-energy objects. This catalog summarizes 46 high-confidence pulsed detections using the first six months of data taken by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), Fermi's main instrument. Sixteen previously unknown pulsars were discovered by searching for pulsed signals at the positions of bright gamma-ray sources seen with the LAT, or at the positions of objects suspected to be neutron stars based on observations at other wavelengths. The dimmest observed flux among these gamma-ray-selected pulsars is 6.0 × 10-8phcm-2s-1 (for E>100MeV). Pulsed gamma-ray emission was discovered from 24 known pulsars by using ephemerides (timing solutions) derived from monitoring radio pulsars. Eight of these new gamma-ray pulsars are millisecond pulsars. The dimmest observed flux among the radio-selected pulsars is 1.4 × 10 -8phcm-2s-1 (for E>100MeV). The remaining six gamma-ray pulsars were known since the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory mission, or before. The limiting flux for pulse detection is non-uniform over the sky owing to different background levels, especially near the Galactic plane. The pulsed energy spectra can be described by a power law with an exponential cutoff, with cutoff energies in the range 1-5GeV. The rotational energy-loss rate () of these neutron stars spans five decades, from 3 × 1033ergs-1 to 5 × 1038ergs-1, and the apparent efficiencies for conversion to gamma-ray emission range from 0.1% to unity, although distance uncertainties complicate efficiency estimates. The pulse shapes show substantial diversity, but roughly 75% of the gamma-ray pulse profiles have two peaks, separated by ≳0.2 of rotational phase. For most of the pulsars, gamma-ray emission appears to come mainly from the outer magnetosphere, while polar-cap emission remains plausible for a remaining few. Spatial associations imply that many of these pulsars power pulsar wind nebulae. Finally, these discoveries suggest that gamma-ray-selected young pulsars are born at a rate comparable to that of their radio-selected cousins and that the birthrate of all young gamma-ray-detected pulsars is a substantial fraction of the expected Galactic supernova rate. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..

    DOI

  • Discovery of pulsed γ-rays from PSR J0034-0534 with the fermi large area telescope: A case for co-located radio and γ-ray emission regions

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T.H. Burnett, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, F. Camilo, P.A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, I. Cognard, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, R. Corbet, M.E. Decesar, C.D. Dermer, G. Desvignes, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, S.W. Digel, M. Dormody, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Espinoza, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, W.B. Focke, M. Frailis, P.C.C. Freire, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, G. Giavitto, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, D. Hadasch, A.K. Harding, E. Hays, G. Hobbs, D. Horan, R.E. Hughes, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, T.J. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, S. Johnston, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kramer, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, M.L. Garde, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A.G. Lyne, A. Makeev, R.N. Manchester, M. Marelli, M.N. Mazziotta, W. McConville, J.E. McEnery, S. McGlynn, C. Meurer, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, A. Noutsos, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pierbattista, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, S.M. Ransom, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, J. Ripken, S. Ritz, L.S. Rochester, A.Y. Rodriguez, R.W. Romani, M. Roth, F. Ryde, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, A. Sander, P.M.S. Parkinson, J.D. Scargle, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, D.A. Smith, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, B.W. Stappers, J.-L. Starck, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, G. Theureau, D.J. Thompson, S.E. Thorsett, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, T.L. Usher, A. Vanetten, V. Vasileiou, C. Venter, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, E. Wallace, P. Wang, P. Weltevrede, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   712 ( 2 ) 957 - 963  2010.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) have been firmly established as a class of γ-ray emitters via the detection of pulsations above 0.1GeV from eight MSPs by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Using 13 months of LAT data, significant γ-ray pulsations at the radio period have been detected from the MSP PSR J0034-0534, making it the ninth clear MSP detection by the LAT. The γ-ray light curve shows two peaks separated by 0.274 ± 0.015 in phase which are very nearly aligned with the radio peaks, a phenomenon seen only in the Crab pulsar until now. The ≥0.1GeV spectrum of this pulsar is well fit by an exponentially cutoff power law with a cutoff energy of 1.8 ± 0.6 ± 0.1GeV and a photon index of 1.5 ± 0.2 ± 0.1, first errors are statistical and second are systematic. The near-alignment of the radio and γ-ray peaks strongly suggests that the radio and γ-ray emission regions are co-located and both are the result of caustic formation. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society.

    DOI

  • VLBI Monitoring of 3C 84 (NGC 1275) in Early Phase of the 2005 Outburst

    Hiroshi Nagai, Kenta Suzuki, Keiichi Asada, Motoki Kino, Seiji Kameno, Akihiro Doi, Makoto Inoue, Jun Kataoka, Uwe Bach, Tomoya Hirota, Naoko Matsumoto, Mareki Honma, Hideyuki Kobayashi, Kenta Fujisawa

    PUBLICATIONS OF THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN   62 ( 2 ) L11 - L15  2010.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Multi-epoch Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) study of a sub-pc scale jet of 3C 84 is presented. We carried out 14-epoch VLBI observations during 2006-2009 with the Japanese VLBI Network and the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry, immediately following a radio outburst that began in 2005. We confirmed that the outburst was associated with the central similar to 1 pc core, accompanying the emergence of a new component. This is striking evidence of the recurrence of jet activity. The new component became brighter during 2008, in contrast to constant gamma-ray emission that was observed with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope during the same time. We found that the projected speed of the new component was 0.23c from 2007/297 (2007 October 24) to 2009/114 (2009 April 24). The direction of movement of this component differs from that of the pre-existing component by similar to 40 degrees. This was the first measurement of the kinematics of a sub-pc jet in a gamma-ray active phase. A possible detection of jet deceleration and the jet kinematics in connection with the gamma-ray emission is discussed.

    DOI

  • Observations of Milky way dwarf spheroidal galaxies with the Fermi-large area telescope detector and constraints on dark matter models

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, W.B. Atwood, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T.H. Burnett, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, S.W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, M. Gustafsson, A.K. Harding, E. Hays, D. Horan, R.E. Hughes, M.S. Jackson, T.E. Jeltema, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, R.P. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G.M. Madejski, A. Makeev, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, C. Meurer, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, E. Moretti, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Profumo, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, S. Ritz, A.Y. Rodriguez, M. Roth, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, A. Sander, P.M.S. Parkinson, J.D. Scargle, T.L. Schalk, A. Sellerholm, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, D.A. Smith, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler, J.S. Bullock, M. Kaplinghat, G.D. Martinez

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   712 ( 1 ) 147 - 158  2010.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report on the observations of 14 dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope taken during the first 11 months of survey mode operations. The Fermi telescope, which is conducting an all-sky γ-ray survey in the 20 MeV to >300GeV energy range, provides a new opportunity to test particle dark matter models through the expected γ-ray emission produced by pair annihilation of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Local Group dSphs, the largest galactic substructures predicted by the cold dark matter scenario, are attractive targets for such indirect searches for dark matter because they are nearby and among the most extreme dark matter dominated environments. No significant γ-ray emission was detected above 100 MeV from the candidate dwarf galaxies. We determine upper limits to the γ-ray flux assuming both power-law spectra and representative spectra from WIMP annihilation. The resulting integral flux above 100 MeV is constrained to be at a level below around 10-9 photons cm-2 s-1. Using recent stellar kinematic data, the γ-ray flux limits are combined with improved determinations of the dark matter density profile in eight of the 14 candidate dwarfs to place limits on the pair-annihilation cross section of WIMPs in several widely studied extensions of the standard model, including its supersymmetric extension and other models that received recent attention. With the present data, we are able to rule out large parts of the parameter space where the thermal relic density is below the observed cosmological dark matter density and WIMPs (neutralinos here) are dominantly produced non-thermally, e.g., in models where supersymmetry breaking occurs via anomaly mediation. The γ-ray limits presented here also constrain some WIMP models proposed to explain the Fermi and PAMELA e + e - data, including low-mass wino-like neutralinos and models with TeV masses pair annihilating into muon-antimuon pairs. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society.

    DOI

  • Observation of supernova remnant IC443 with the fermi large area telescope

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, B.M. Baughman, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T.H. Burnett, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, A.N. Cillis, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, L.R. Cominsky, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, C.D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, G. Giavitto, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, M. Hayashida, R.E. Hughes, M.S. Jackson, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, T.J. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M.L. Kocian, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G.M. Madejski, A. Makeev, M.N. Mazziotta, C. Meurer, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, L.S. Rochester, A.Y. Rodriguez, R.W. Romani, M. Roth, F. Ryde, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, P.M.S. Parkinson, J.D. Scargle, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, D.A. Smith, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, M.S. Strickman, A.W. Strong, D.J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, A. Van Etten, V. Vasileiou, C. Venter, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   712 ( 1 ) 459 - 468  2010.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report observation of the supernova remnant (SNR) IC443 (G189.1+3.0) with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Large Area Telescope (LAT) in the energy band between 200MeV and 50GeV. IC443 is a shell-type SNR with mixed morphology located off the outer Galactic plane where high-energy emission has been detected in the X-ray,GeV and TeV gamma-ray bands. Past observations suggest IC443 has been interacting with surrounding interstellar matter. Proximity between dense shocked molecular clouds andGeV-TeV gamma-ray emission regions detected by EGRET, MAGIC, and VERITAS suggests an interpretation that cosmic-ray (CR) particles are accelerated by the SNR. With the high gamma-ray statistics and broad energy coverage provided by the LAT, we accurately characterize the gamma-ray emission produced by the CRs accelerated at IC443. The emission region is extended in the energy band with θ68 = 027 001(stat) 003(sys) for an assumed two-dimensional Gaussian profile and overlaps almost completely with the extended source region of VERITAS. Its centroid is displaced significantly from the known pulsar wind nebula (PWN) which suggests the PWN is not the major contributor in the present energy band. The observed spectrum changes its power-law slope continuously and continues smoothly to the MAGIC and VERITAS data points. The combined gamma-ray spectrum (200MeV <E< 2 TeV) is reproduced well by decays of neutral pions produced by a broken power-law proton spectrum with a break around 70GeV. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Fermi detection of delayed GeV emission from the short gamma-ray burst 081024B

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, K. Asano, W.B. Atwood, M. Axelsson, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, B.M. Baughman, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, P.N. Bhat, E. Bissaldi, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M.S. Briggs, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, J.M. Burgess, T.H. Burnett, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, V. Chaplin, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, L.R. Cominsky, V. Connaughton, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, C.D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, S.W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, G. Fishman, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, J. Granot, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, M. Hayashida, R.H. Haynes, E. Hays, D. Horan, R.E. Hughes, M.S. Jackson, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, M. Kerr, R.M. Kippen, J. Knödlseder, D. Kocevski, M.L. Kocian, N. Komin, C. Kouveliotou, F. Kuehn, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G.M. Madejski, A. Makeev, M.N. Mazziotta, S. McBreen, J.E. McEnery, S. McGlynn, C. Meegan, P. Mészros, C. Meurer, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, E. Moretti, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, M. Ohno, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, W.S. Paciesas, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, R. Preece, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, S. Razzaque, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, J. Ripken, S. Ritz, L.S. Rochester, A.Y. Rodriguez, M. Roth, F. Ryde, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, P.M. Saz Parkinson, J.D. Scargle, T.L. Schalk, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, D.A. Smith, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, M. Stamatikos, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, G. Tagliaferri, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, K. Toma, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, E. Troja, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, A.J. Van, Der Horst, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A. Von Kienlin, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, C. Wilson-Hodge, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, X.F. Wu, R. Yamazaki, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   712 ( 1 ) 558 - 564  2010.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report on the detailed analysis of the high-energy extended emission from the short gamma-ray burst (GRB) 081024B detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Historically, this represents the first clear detection of temporal extended emission from a short GRB. The light curve observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor lasts approximately 0.8s whereas the emission in the Fermi Large Area Telescope lasts for about 3s. Evidence of longer lasting high-energy emission associated with long bursts has been already reported by previous experiments. Our observations, together with the earlier reported study of the bright short GRB 090510, indicate similarities in the high-energy emission of short and long GRBs and open the path to new interpretations. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society.

    DOI

  • Spectrum of the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray emission derived from first-year fermi large area telescope data

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, W.B. Atwood, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, B.M. Baughman, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T.H. Burnett, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, Ö.Ö. Çelik, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, L.R. Cominsky, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, C.D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, S.W. Digel, G. Di Bernardo, E.D.C. E Silva, P.S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, D. Gaggero, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, M. Gustafsson, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, M. Hayashida, R.E. Hughes, R. Itoh, M.S. Jackson, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, R.P. Johnson, T.J. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M.L. Kocian, F. Kuehn, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G.M. Madejski, A. Makeev, M.N. Mazziotta, W. McConville, J.E. McEnery, C. Meurer, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, S. Ritz, L.S. Rochester, A.Y. Rodriguez, M. Roth, F. Ryde, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, P.M.S. Parkinson, J.D. Scargle, A. Sellerholm, C. Sgrò, M.S. Shaw, E.J. Siskind, D.A. Smith, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, J.-L. Starck, M.S. Strickman, A.W. Strong, D.J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Physical Review Letters   104 ( 10 )  2010.03  [Refereed]

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    We report on the first Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) measurements of the so-called "extragalactic" diffuse γ-ray emission (EGB). This component of the diffuse γ-ray emission is generally considered to have an isotropic or nearly isotropic distribution on the sky with diverse contributions discussed in the literature. The derivation of the EGB is based on detailed modeling of the bright foreground diffuse Galactic γ-ray emission, the detected LAT sources, and the solar γ-ray emission. We find the spectrum of the EGB is consistent with a power law with a differential spectral index γ=2.41±0.05 and intensity I(>100MeV)=(1. 03±0.17)×10-5cm-2s-1sr -1, where the error is systematics dominated. Our EGB spectrum is featureless, less intense, and softer than that derived from EGRET data. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

    DOI

  • Fermi large area telescope search for photon lines from 30 to 200 GeV and dark matter implications

    A. A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, W. B. Atwood, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, E. D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T. H. Burnett, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, P. A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J. M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, Ö Çelik, A. Chekhtman, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, C. D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, S. W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P. S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, Y. Edmonds, R. Essig, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, W. B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I. A. Grenier, J. E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, M. Gustafsson, D. Hadasch, A. K. Harding, D. Horan, R. E. Hughes, M. S. Jackson, G. Jóhannesson, A. S. Johnson, R. P. Johnson, W. N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, M. Llena Garde, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A. Makeev, M. N. Mazziotta, J. E. McEnery, C. Meurer, P. F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A. A. Moiseev, C. Monte

    Physical Review Letters   104 ( 9 )  2010.03

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    Dark matter (DM) particle annihilation or decay can produce monochromatic γ rays readily distinguishable from astrophysical sources. γ-ray line limits from 30 to 200 GeV obtained from 11 months of Fermi Large Area Space Telescope data from 20-300 GeV are presented using a selection based on requirements for a γ-ray line analysis, and integrated over most of the sky. We obtain γ-ray line flux upper limits in the range 0.6-4.5×10-9cm-2s-1, and give corresponding DM annihilation cross-section and decay lifetime limits. Theoretical implications are briefly discussed. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

    DOI

  • PSR J1907+0602: A radio-faint gamma-ray pulsar powering a bright tev pulsar wind nebula

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, B.M. Baughman, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T.H. Burnett, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, F. Camilo, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, I. Cognard, J. Cohen-Tanugi, L.R. Cominsky, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, S.W. Digel, B.L. Dingus, M. Dormody, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, P.C.C. Freire, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, G. Giavitto, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, E. Hays, R.E. Hughes, M.S. Jackson, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, T.J. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, S. Johnston, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M.L. Kocian, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A. Makeev, M. Marelli, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, C. Meurer, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, D. Paneque, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, P.S. Ray, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, S. Ritz, M.S.E. Roberts, L.S. Rochester, A.Y. Rodriguez, R.W. Ro'Mani, M. Roth, F. Ryde, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, P.M. Saz Parkinson, J.D. Scargle, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, D.A. Smith, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, G. Theureau, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, O. Tibolla, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, A. Van Etten, V. Vasileiou, C. Venter, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, K. Watters, B.L. Winer, M.T. Wolff, K.S. Wood, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   711 ( 1 ) 64 - 74  2010.03  [Refereed]

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    We present multiwavelength studies of the 106.6 ms γ-ray pulsar PSR J1907+06 near the TeV source MGRO J1908+06. Timing observations with Fermi result in a precise position determination for the pulsar of R.A. = 19 h07m547(2), decl. = +06°02′16(2)″ placing the pulsar firmly within the TeV source extent, suggesting the TeV source is the pulsar wind nebula of PSR J1907+0602. Pulsed γ-ray emission is clearly visible at energies from 100 MeV to above 10 GeV. The phase-averaged power-law index in the energy range E > 0.1 GeV is Γ = 1.76 0.05 with an exponential cutoff energy Ec = 3.6 ± 0.5 GeV. We present the energy-dependent γ-ray pulsed light curve as well as limits on off-pulse emission associated with the TeV source. We also report the detection of very faint (flux density of ≃ 3.4 μJy) radio pulsations with the Arecibo telescope at 1.5 GHz having a dispersion measure DM = 82.1 1.1 cm-3 pc. This indicates a distance of 3.2 0.6 kpc and a pseudo-luminosity of L 1400 ≃ 0.035 mJy kpc2. A Chandra ACIS observation revealed an absorbed, possibly extended, compact (≲4″) X-ray source with significant nonthermal emission at R.A. = 19h07m5476, decl. = +06°02′146 with a flux of 2.3+0.6-1.4 × 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1. From archival ASCA observations, we place upper limits on any arcminute scale 2-10 keV X-ray emission of ∼1 × 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1. The implied distance to the pulsar is compatible with that of the supernova remnant G40.5 - 0.5, located on the far side of the TeV nebula from PSR J1907+0602, and the S74 molecular cloud on the nearer side which we discuss as potential birth sites.

    DOI

  • Gamma-ray emission from the shell of supernova remnant W44 revealed by the Fermi LAT

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, M.G. Baring, D. Bastieri, B.M. Baughman, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T.H. Burnett, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, I. Cognard, J. Cohen-Tanugi, L.R. Cominsky, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, C.D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, S.W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Espinoza, C. Farmer, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, G. Giavitto, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, R.E. Hughes, M.S. Jackson, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, T.J. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Katsuta, N. Kawai, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M.L. Kocian, M. Kramer, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A.G. Lyne, G.M. Madejski, A. Makeev, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, C. Meurer, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Noms, A. Noutsos, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, D. Paneque, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, A.Y. Rodriguez, R.W. Romani, M. Roth, F. Ryde, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, P.M. Saz Parkinson, J.D. Scargle, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, D.A. Smith, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, B.W. Stappers, F.W. Stecker, M.S. Strikman, D.J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, G. Theureau, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, O. Tibolla, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, V. Vasileiou, C. Venter, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, R. Yamazaki, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Science   327 ( 5969 ) 1103 - 1106  2010.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Recent observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) hint that they accelerate cosmic rays to energies close to ∼1015 electron volts. However, the nature of the particles that produce the emission remains ambiguous. We report observations of SNR W44 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope at energies between 2 × 108 electron volts and 3 × 1011 electron volts. The detection of a source with a morphology corresponding to the SNR shell implies that the emission is produced by particles accelerated there. The gamma-ray spectrum is well modeled with emission from protons and nuclei. Its steepening above -109 electron volts provides a probe with which to study how particle acceleration responds to environmental effects such as shock propagation in dense clouds and how accelerated particles are released into interstellar space.

    DOI

  • SPECTRAL properties of bright fermi-detected blazars in the gamma-ray band

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, W.B. Atwood, M. Axelsson, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T.H. Burnett, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J.M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, Ö. Elik, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, C.D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, S.W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, A.K. Harding, R.C. Hartman, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, S.E. Healey, D. Horan, R.E. Hughes, M.S. Jackson, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G.M. Madejski, A. Makeev, M.N. Mazziotta, W. McConville, J.E. McEnery, C. Meurer, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Persic, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, S. Ritz, L.S. Rochester, A.Y. Rodriguez, R.W. Romani, M. Roth, F. Ryde, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, P.M. Saz Parkinson, J.D. Scargle, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, D.A. Smith, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, M. Villata, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   710 ( 2 ) 1271 - 1285  2010.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The gamma-ray energy spectra of bright blazars of the LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS) are investigated using Fermi-LAT data. Spectral properties (hardness, curvature, and variability) established using a data set accumulated over 6 months of operation are presented and discussed for different blazar classes and subclasses: flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), low-synchrotron peaked BLLacs (LSP-BLLacs), intermediate-synchrotron peaked BLLacs (ISP-BLLacs), and high-synchrotron peaked BLLacs (HSP-BLLacs). The distribution of photon index (Γ, obtained from a power-law fit above 100 MeV) is found to correlate strongly with blazar subclass. The change in spectral index from that averaged over the 6 months observing period is < 0.2-0.3 when the flux varies by about an order of magnitude, with a tendency toward harder spectra when the flux is brighter for FSRQs and LSP-BLLacs. A strong departure from a single power-law spectrum appears to be a common feature for FSRQs. This feature is also present for some high-luminosity LSP-BLLacs, and a small number of ISP-BLLacs. It is absent in all LBAS HSP-BLLacs. For 3C454.3 and AO0235+164, the two brightest FSRQ source and LSP-BLLac source, respectively, a broken power law (BPL) gives the most acceptable of power law, BPL, and curved forms. The consequences of these findings are discussed. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society.

    DOI

  • A change in the optical polarization associated with a γ-ray flare in the blazar 3C 279

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, M. Axelsson, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, B.M. Baughmanl, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, D.C.-J. Bock, J.R. Bogart, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T.H. Burnett, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, W. Collmar, L.R. Cominsky, J. Conrad, S. Corbel, R. Corbet, L. Costamante, S. Cutini, C.D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, S.W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, E.C. Ferrara, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, L. Fuhrmann, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, D. Horan, R.E. Hughes, G. Iafrate, R. Itoh, M.S. Jackson, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, M. Kadler, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M.L. Kocian, M. Kuss, J. Lande, S. Larsson, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, J. MacQuart, G.M. Madejski, A. Makeev, W. Max-Moerbeck, M.N. Mazziotta, W. McConville, J.E. McEnery, S. McGlynn, C. Meurer, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, I. Nestoras, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pavlidou, T.J. Pearson, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Readhead, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, L.C. Reyes, J.L. Richards, L.S. Rochester, A.Y. Rodriguez, M. Roth, F. Ryde, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, P.M. Saz Parkinson, J.D. Scargle, C. Sgrò, M.S. Shaw, C. Shrader, E.J. Siskind, D.A. Smith, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, L. Stawarz, M. Stevenson, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, G.B. Taylor, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, A.E. Wehrle, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, T. Ylinen, J.A. Zensus, M. Ziegler, M. Uemura, Y. Ikejiri, K.S. Kawabata, M. Kino, K. Sakimoto, M. Sasada, S. Sato, M. Yamanaka, M. Villata, C.M. Raiteri, I. Agudo, H.D. Aller, M.F. Aller, E. Angelakis, A.A. Arkharov, U. Bach, E. Bený́tez, A. Berdyugin, D.A. Blinov, M. Boettcher, C.S. Buemi, W.P. Chen, M. Dolci, D. Dultzin, N.V. Efimova, M.A. Gurwell, C. Gusbar, J.L. Gómez, J. Heidt, D. Hiriart, T. Hovatta, S.G. Jorstad, T.S. Konstantinova, E.N. Kopatskaya, E. Koptelova, O.M

    Nature   463 ( 7283 ) 919 - 923  2010.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    It is widely accepted that strong and variable radiation detected over all accessible energy bands in a number of active galaxies arises from a relativistic, Doppler-boosted jet pointing close to our line of sight. The size of the emitting zone and the location of this region relative to the central supermassive black hole are, however, poorly known, with estimates ranging from light-hours to a light-year or more. Here we report the coincidence of a gamma (γ)-ray flare with a dramatic change of optical polarization angle. This provides evidence for co-spatiality of optical and γ-ray emission regions and indicates a highly ordered jet magnetic field. The results also require a non-axisymmetric structure of the emission zone, implying a curved trajectory for the emitting material within the jet, with the dissipation region located at a considerable distance from the black hole, at about 10 5 gravitational radii. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • PKS 1502+106: A new and distant gamma-ray blazar in outburst discovered by the fermi large area telescope

    E. Angelakis, A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, W.B. Atwood, M. Axelsson, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, B.M. Baughman, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, E.D. Bloom, G. Bogaert, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T.H. Burnett, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, C.D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, S.W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, E.C. Ferrara, W.B. Focke, M. Frailis, L. Fuhrmann, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, R.E. Hughes, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, R.P. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, M. Kadler, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M.L. Kocian, F. Kuehn, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G.M. Madejski, A. Makeev, M. Marelli, E. Massaro, W. Max-Moerbeck, M.N. Mazziotta, W. McConville, J.E. McEnery, C. Meurer, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pavlidou, T.J. Pearson, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, S. Razzaque, A. Readhead, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, J.L. Richards, S. Ritz, L.S. Rochester, A.Y. Rodriguez, R.W. Romani, M. Roth, F. Ryde, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, P.M.S. Parkinson, J.D. Scargle, C. Sgrò, M.S. Shaw, E.J. Siskind, D.A. Smith, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, M. Stevenson, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, O. Tibolla, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, P. Ubertini, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, H. Yasuda, T. Ylinen, J.A. Zensus, M. Ziegler, E. Angelakis, T. Hovatta, E. Hoversten, Y. Ikejiri, K.S. Kawabata, Y.Y. Kovalev, Y.A. Kovalev, T.P. Krichbaum, M.L. Lister, A. Lähteenmäki, N. Marchili, P. Ogle, C. Pagani, A.B. Pushkarev, K. Sakimoto, M. Sasada, M. Tornikoski, M. Uemura, M. Yamanaka, T. Yamashita

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   710 ( 1 ) 810 - 827  2010.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope discovered a rapid (5 days duration), high-energy (E > 100 MeV) gamma-ray outburst from a source identified with the blazar PKS 1502+106 (OR 103, S3 1502+10, z = 1.839) starting on 2008 August 5 (23 UTC, MJD 54683.95), and followed by bright and variable flux over the next few months. Results on the gamma-ray localization and identification, as well as spectral and temporal behavior during the first months of the Fermi all-sky survey, are reported here in conjunction with a multiwaveband characterization as a result of one of the first Fermi multifrequency campaigns. The campaign included a Swift ToO (followed up by a 16 day observation on August 7-22, MJD 54685-54700), VLBA (within the MOJAVE program), Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) 40 m, Effelsberg-100 m, Metsähovi-14 m, RATAN-600, and Kanata-Hiroshima radio/optical observations. Results from the analysis of archival observations by INTEGRAL, XMM-Newton, and Spitzer space telescopes are reported for a more complete picture of this new gamma-ray blazar. PKS 1502+106 is a sub-GeV peaked, powerful flat spectrum radio quasar (luminosity at E > 100 MeV, L γ, is about 1.1 × 1049 erg s-1, and black hole mass likely close to 109 M ), exhibiting marked gamma-ray bolometric dominance, in particular during the asymmetric outburst (L γ/L opt 100, and 5 day averaged flux F E > 100 MeV = 2.91 1.4 × 10-6 ph cm-2 s-1), which was characterized by a factor greater than 3 of flux increase in less than 12 hr. The outburst was observed simultaneously from optical to X-ray bands (F 0.3 - 10 keV = 2.18+0.15-0.12 × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1, and hard photon index 1.5, similar to past values) with a flux increase of less than 1 order of magnitude with respect to past observations, and was likely controlled by Comptonization of external-jet photons produced in the broad-line region (BLR) in the gamma-ray band. No evidence of a possible blue bump signature was observed in the optical-UV continuum spectrum, while some hints for a possible 4 day time lag with respect to the gamma-ray flare were found. Nonetheless, the properties of PKS 1502+106 and the strict optical/UV, X-, and gamma-ray cross-correlations suggest the contribution of the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC), in-jet, process should dominate from radio to X-rays. This mechanism may also be responsible for the consistent gamma-ray variability observed by the LAT on longer timescales, after the ignition of activity at these energies provided by the BLR-dissipated outburst. Modulations and subsequent minor, rapid flare events were detected, with a general fluctuation mode between pink-noise and a random-walk. The averaged gamma-ray spectrum showed a deviation from a simple power law, and can be described by a log-parabola curved model peaking around 0.4-0.5 GeV. The maximum energy of photons detected from the source in the first four months of LAT observations was 15.8 GeV, with no significant consequences on extragalactic background light predictions. A possible radio counterpart of the gamma-ray outburst can be assumed only if a delay of more than three months is considered on the basis of opacity effects at cm and longer wavelengths. The rotation of the electric vector position angle observed by VLBA from 2007 to 2008 could represent a slow field ordering and alignment with respect to the jet axis, likely a precursor feature of the ejection of a superluminal radio knot and the high-energy outburst. This observing campaign provides more insight into the connection between MeV-GeV flares and the moving, polarized structures observed by the VLBI. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Fermi-lat discovery of gev gamma-ray emission from the young supernova remnant cassiopeia A

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, M.G. Baring, D. Bastieri, B.M. Baughman, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, T.H. Burnett, G. Busetto, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, E. Charles, S. Chaty, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, A.N. Cillis, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, S. Corbel, F. De Palma, S.W. Digel, M. Dormody, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, Y. Edmonds, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, E.C. Ferrara, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, G. Giavitto, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, Y. Hanabata, E. Hays, A.K. Harding, M. Hayashida, D. Horan, R.E. Hughes, M.S. Jackson, A.S. Johnson, T.J. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A. Makeev, M.N. Mazziotta, C. Meurer, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, M. Pohl, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, S. Ritz, A.Y. Rodriguez, R.W. Romani, M. Roth, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, A. Sander, P.M. Saz Parkinson, J.D. Scargle, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, D.A. Smith, P.D. Smith, P. Spinelli, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Tajima, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, S.E. Thorsett, L. Tibaldo, O. Tibolla, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, A. Van Etten, V. Vasileiou, C. Venter, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, R. Yamazaki, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   710 ( 1 ) L92 - L97  2010.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report on the first detection of GeV high-energy gamma-ray emission from a young supernova remnant (SNR) with the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. These observations reveal a source with no discernible spatial extension detected at a significance level of 12.2σ above 500MeV at a location that is consistent with the position of the remnant of the supernova explosion that occurred around 1680 in the Cassiopeia constellation - Cassiopeia A (Cas A). The gamma-ray flux and spectral shape of the source are consistent with a scenario in which the gamma-ray emission originates from relativistic particles accelerated in the shell of this remnant. The total content of cosmic rays (electrons and protons) accelerated in Cas A can be estimated as W CR ≃ (1-4) × 1049 erg thanks to the well-known density in the remnant assuming that the observed gamma ray originates in the SNR shell(s). The magnetic field in the radio-emitting plasma can be robustly constrained as B ≥ 0.1 mG, providing new evidence of the magnetic field amplification at the forward shock and the strong field in the shocked ejecta. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Fermi observations of cassiopeia and cepheus: Diffuse gamma-ray emission in the outer galaxy

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, B.M. Baughman, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T.H. Burnett, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, L.R. Cominsky, J. Conrad, C.D. Dermer, F. De Palma, S.W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, G. Giavitto, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, A.K. Harding, M. Hayashida, D. Horan, R.E. Hughes, M.S. Jackson, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A. Makeev, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, C. Meurer, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, D. Paneque, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, A.Y. Rodriguez, F. Ryde, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, P.M. Saz Parkinson, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, J.-L. Starck, M.S. Strickman, A.W. Strong, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   710 ( 1 ) 133 - 149  2010.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We present the analysis of the interstellar γ-ray emission measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope toward a region in the second Galactic quadrant at 100° ≤ l ≤ 145° and -15° ≤ b ≤ +30°. This region encompasses the prominent Gould Belt clouds of Cassiopeia, Cepheus, and the Polaris flare, as well as atomic and molecular complexes at larger distances, like that associated with NGC 7538 in the Perseus arm. The good kinematic separation in velocity between the local, Perseus, and outer arms, and the presence of massive complexes in each of them, make this region well suited to probe cosmic rays (CRs) and the interstellar medium beyond the solar circle. The γ-ray emissivity spectrum of the gas in the Gould Belt is consistent with expectations based on the locally measured CR spectra. The γ-ray emissivity decreases from the Gould Belt to the Perseus arm, but the measured gradient is flatter than expectations for CR sources peaking in the inner Galaxy as suggested by pulsars. The X CO = N(H2)/W CO conversion factor is found to increase from (0.87 ± 0.05) × 1020cm-2 (Kkms-1)-1 in the Gould Belt to (1.9 ± 0.2) × 1020cm-2 (Kkms -1)-1 in the Perseus arm. We derive masses for the molecular clouds under study. Dark gas, not properly traced by radio and microwave surveys, is detected in the Gould Belt through a correlated excess of dust and γ-ray emission: its mass amounts to 50% of the CO-traced mass. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society.

    DOI

  • Detection of gamma-ray emission from the starburst galaxies m82 and ngc 253 with the large area telescope on fermi

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, W.B. Atwood, M. Axelsson, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T.H. Burnett, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, O. Çelik, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, C.D. Dermer, A. Deangelis, F. De Palma, S.W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, A. Drlica-Wagner, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, W.B. Focke, L. Foschini, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, R.E. Hughes, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, R.P. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M.L. Kocian, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G.M. Madejski, A. Makeev, M.N. Mazziotta, W. McConville, J.E. McEnery, C. Meurer, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, S. Ritz, A.Y. Rodriguez, R.W. Romani, M. Roth, F. Ryde, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, A. Sander, P.M. Saz Parkinson, J.D. Scargle, A. Sellerholm, C. Sgrò, M.S. Shaw, D.A. Smith, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, M.S. Strickman, A.W. Strong, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, O. Tibolla, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   709 ( 2 ) L152 - L157  2010.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report the detection of high-energy γ-ray emission from two starburst galaxies using data obtained with the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Steady point-like emission above 200MeV has been detected at significance levels of 6.8σ and 4.8σ, respectively, from sources positionally coincident with locations of the starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253. The total fluxes of the sources are consistent with γ-ray emission originating from the interaction of cosmic rays with local interstellar gas and radiation fields and constitute evidence for a link between massive star formation and γ-ray emission in star-forming galaxies. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Fermi large area telescope observations of the crab pulsar and nebula

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, W.B. Atwood, M. Axelsson, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, M.G. Baring, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R.D. Blandford, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T.H. Burnett, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, F. Camilo, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, I. Cognard, J. Cohen-Tanugi, L.R. Cominsky, J. Conrad, C.D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, A. De Luca, F. De Palma, S.W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Espinoza, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, E.C. Ferrara, W.B. Focke, M. Frailis, P.C.C. Freire, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, G. Giavitto, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, R.E. Hughes, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, R.P. Johnson, T.J. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, S. Johnston, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M.L. Kocian, M. Kramer, F. Kuehn, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S.-H. Lee, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A.G. Lyne, A. Makeev, M. Marelli, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, C. Meurer, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, E. Moretti, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, A. Noutsos, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pierbattista, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, P.S. Ray, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, S. Ritz, L.S. Rochester, A.Y. Rodriguez, R.W. Romani, M. Roth, F. Ryde, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, P.M.S. Parkinson, J.D. Scargle, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, D.A. Smith, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, B.W. Stappers, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, G. Theureau, D.J. Thompson, S.E. Thorsett, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, A. Van Etten, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, E. Wallace, P. Wang, K. Watters, P. Weltevrede, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   708 ( 2 ) 1254 - 1267  2010.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report on γ-ray observations of the Crab Pulsar and Nebula using 8 months of survey data with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). The high quality light curve obtained using the ephemeris provided by the Nançay and Jodrell Bank radio telescopes shows two main peaks stable in phase with energy. The first γ-ray peak leads the radio main pulse by (281 ±12 ± 21) μs, giving new constraints on the production site of non-thermal emission in pulsar magnetospheres. The first uncertainty is due to γ-ray statistics, and the second arises from the rotation parameters. The improved sensitivity and the unprecedented statistics afforded by the LAT enable precise measurement of the Crab Pulsar spectral parameters: cut-off energy at Ec = (5.8 ± 0.5 ± 1.2) GeV, spectral index of Γ = (1.97 ± 0.02 ± 0.06) and integral photon flux above 100 MeV of (2.09 ± 0.03 ± 0.18) × 10-6 cm-2 s-1. The first errors represent the statistical error on the fit parameters, while the second ones are the systematic uncertainties. Pulsed γ-ray photons are observed up to 20 GeV which precludes emission near the stellar surface, below altitudes of around 4-5 stellar radii in phase intervals encompassing the two main peaks. A detailed phase-resolved spectral analysis is also performed: the hardest emission from the Crab Pulsar comes from the bridge region between the two γ-ray peaks while the softest comes from the falling edge of the second peak. The spectrum of the nebula in the energy range 100 MeV-300 GeV is well described by the sum of two power laws of indices Γsync = (3.99 ± 0.12 ± 0.08) and ΓIC = (1.64 ± 0.05 ± 0.07), corresponding to the falling edge of the synchrotron and the rising edge of the inverse Compton (IC) components, respectively. This latter, which links up naturally with the spectral data points of Cherenkov experiments, is well reproduced via IC scattering from standard magnetohydrodynamic nebula models, and does not require any additional radiation mechanism. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society.

    DOI

  • Fermi observations of the very hard gamma-ray blazar PG1553+113

    A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, W.B. Atwood, M. Axelsson, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T.H. Burnett, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, C.D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, E.D.C.E. Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, D. Horan, R.E. Hughes, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, R.P. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M.L. Kocian, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G.M. Madejski, A. Makeev, M.N. Mazziotta, W. McConville, J.E. McEnery, C. Meurer, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, S. Ritz, A.Y. Rodriguez, R.W. Romani, M. Roth, F. Ryde, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, P.M.S. Parkinson, J.D. Scargle, C. Sgrò, M.S. Shaw, E.J. Siskind, D.A. Smith, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, D.J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   708 ( 2 ) 1310 - 1320  2010.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We report the observations of PG1553+113 during the first ∼ 200days of Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope science operations, from 2008 August 4 to 2009 February 22 (MJD 54682.7-54884.2). This is the first detailed study of PG1553+113 in the GeV gamma-ray regime and it allows us to fill a gap of three decades in energy in its spectral energy distribution (SED). We find PG1553+113 to be a steady source with a hard spectrum that is best fit by a simple power law in the Fermi energy band. We combine the Fermi data with archival radio, optical, X-ray, and very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray data to model its broadband SED and find that a simple, one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model provides a reasonable fit. PG1553+113 has the softest VHE spectrum of all sources detected in that regime and, out of those with significant detections across the Fermi energy bandpass so far, the hardest spectrum in that energy regime. Thus, it has the largest spectral break of any gamma-ray source studied to date, which could be due to the absorption of the intrinsic gamma-ray spectrum by the extragalactic background light (EBL). Assuming this to be the case, we selected a model with a low level of EBL and used it to absorb the power-law spectrum from PG1553+113 measured with Fermi (200MeV-157GeV) to find the redshift, which gave the best fit to the measured VHE data (90GeV-1.1TeV) for this parameterization of the EBL. We show that this redshift can be considered an upper limit on the distance to PG1553+113. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society.

    DOI

  • Gamma-ray and radio properties of six pulsars detected by the Fermi large area telescope

    P. Weltevrede, A.A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, M. Axelsson, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, B.M. Baughman, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, E.D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A.W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T.H. Burnett, S. Buson, G.A. Caliandro, R.A. Cameron, F. Camilo, P.A. Caraveo, J.M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, Ö. Çelik, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C.C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, I. Cognard, J. Cohen-Tanugi, L.R. Cominsky, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, C.D. Dermer, G. Desvignes, A. De Angelis, A. De Luca, F. De Palma, S.W. Digel, M. Dormody, E. Do Couto E Silva, P.S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S.J. Fegan, W.B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, P.C.C. Freire, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, G. Giavitto, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I.A. Grenier, M.-H. Grondin, J.E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, Y. Hanabata, A.K. Harding, E. Hays, G. Hobbs, R.E. Hughes, M.S. Jackson, G. Jóhannesson, A.S. Johnson, T.J. Johnson, W.N. Johnson, S. Johnston, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, M. Keith, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M.L. Kocian, M. Kramer, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M.N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A.G. Lyne, A. Makeev, R.N. Manchester, M.N. Mazziotta, J.E. McEnery, S. McGlynn, C. Meurer, P.F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A.A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M.E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I.V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, P.L. Nolan, J.P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J.F. Ormes, D. Paneque, J.H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T.A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, S.M. Ransom, M. Razzano, N. Rea, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, L.S. Rochester, A.Y. Rodriguez, R.W. Romani, M. Roth, F. Ryde, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, P.M.S. Parkinson, C. Sgrò, E.J. Siskind, D.A. Smith, P.D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, B.W. Stappers, M.S. Strickman, D.J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J.B. Thayer, J.G. Thayer, G. Theureau, D.J. Thompson, S.E. Thorsett, L. Tibaldo, D.F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T.L. Usher, A. Van Etten, V. Vasileiou, C. Venter, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A.P. Waite, P. Wang, N. Wang, K. Watters, B.L. Winer, K.S. Wood, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   708 ( 2 ) 1426 - 1441  2010.01  [Refereed]

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    We report the detection of pulsed γ-rays for PSRs J0631+1036, J0659+1414, J0742-2822, J1420-6048, J1509-5850, and J1718-3825 using the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly known as GLAST). Although these six pulsars are diverse in terms of their spin parameters, they share an important feature: their γ-ray light curves are (at least given the current count statistics) single peaked. For two pulsars, there are hints for a double-peaked structure in the light curves. The shapes of the observed light curves of this group of pulsars are discussed in the light of models for which the emission originates from high up in the magnetosphere. The observed phases of the γ-ray light curves are, in general, consistent with those predicted by high-altitude models, although we speculate that the γ-ray emission of PSR J0659+1414, possibly featuring the softest spectrum of all Fermi pulsars coupled with a very low efficiency, arises from relatively low down in the magnetosphere. High-quality radio polarization data are available showing that all but one have a high degree of linear polarization. This allows us to place some constraints on the viewing geometry and aids the comparison of the γ-ray light curves with high-energy beam models. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society.

    DOI

  • Swift and fermi observations of the early afterglow of the short gamma-ray burst 090510

    M. De Pasquale, P. Schady, N. P.M. Kuin, M. J. Page, P. A. Curran, S. Zane, S. R. Oates, S. T. Holland, A. A. Breeveld, E. A. Hoversten, G. Chincarini, D. Grupe, A. A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, M. Axelsson, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, M. G. Baring, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, E. Bissaldi, R. D. Blandford, E. D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. S. Briggs, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T. H. Burnett, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, P. A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J. M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, Ö Çelik, A. Chekhtman, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, V. Connaughton, J. Conrad, C. D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, B. L. Dingus, E. Do Couto E Silva, P. S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, G. Fishman, W. B. Focke, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, J. Granot, J. Greiner, I. A. Grenier, J. E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, A. K. Harding, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, D. Horan, R. E. Hughes, M. S. Jackson, G. Jóhannesson, A. S. Johnson, W. N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, M. Kerr, R. M. Kippen, J. Knödlseder, D. Kocevski, M. Kuss

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   709 ( 2 PART 2 )  2010

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    We present the observations of GRB090510 performed by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope and the Swift observatory. This is a bright, short burst that shows an extended emission detected in the GeV range. Furthermore, its optical emission initially rises, a feature so far observed only in long bursts, while the X-ray flux shows an initial shallow decrease, followed by a steeper decay. This exceptional behavior enables us to investigate the physical properties of the gamma-ray burst outflow, poorly known in short bursts. We discuss internal and external shock models for the broadband energy emission of this object. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..

    DOI

  • Discovery of very high energy gamma rays from PKS 1424+240 and multiwavelength constraints on ITS redshift

    V. A. Acciari, E. Aliu, T. Arlen, T. Aune, M. Bautista, M. Beilicke, W. Benbow, M. Böttcher, D. Boltuch, S. M. Bradbury, J. H. Buckley, V. Bugaev, K. Byrum, A. Cannon, A. Cesarini, Y. C. Chow, L. Ciupik, P. Cogan, W. Cui, C. Duke, A. Falcone, J. P. Finley, G. Finnegan, L. Fortson, A. Furniss, N. Galante, D. Gall, G. H. Gillanders, S. Godambe, J. Grube, R. Guenette, G. Gyuk, D. Hanna, J. Holder, C. M. Hui, T. B. Humensky, P. Kaaret, N. Karlsson, M. Kertzman, D. Kieda, A. Konopelko, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, M. J. Lang, S. Lebohec, G. Maier, S. McArthur, A. McCann, M. McCutcheon, J. Millis, P. Moriarty, T. Nagai, R. A. Ong, A. N. Otte, D. Pandel, J. S. Perkins, A. Pichel, M. Pohl, J. Quinn, K. Ragan, L. C. Reyes, P. T. Reynolds, E. Roache, H. J. Rose, M. Schroedter, G. H. Sembroski, G. Demet Senturk, A. W. Smith, D. Steele, S. P. Swordy, M. Theiling, S. Thibadeau, A. Varlotta, V. V. Vassiliev, S. Vincent, R. G. Wagner, S. P. Wakely, J. E. Ward, T. C. Weekes, A. Weinstein, T. Weisgarber, D. A. Williams, S. Wissel, M. Wood, B. Zitzer, A. A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, B. M. Baughman, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R. D. Blandford, E. D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   708 ( 2 PART 2 )  2010

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    We report the first detection of very high energy83Gamma-ray emission above 100 GeV. (VHE) gamma-ray emission above 140 GeV from PKS1424+240, a BL Lac object with an unknown redshift. The photon spectrum above 140 GeV measured by VERITAS is well described by a power law with a photon index of 3.8 0.5stat 0.3syst and a flux normalization at 200 GeV of (5.1 0.9stat 0.5syst) × 10-11 TeV -1 cm-2 s-1, where stat and syst denote the statistical and systematical uncertainties, respectively. The VHE flux is steady over the observation period between MJD 54881 and 55003 (from 2009 February 19 to June 21). Flux variability is also not observed in contemporaneous high-energy observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Contemporaneous X-ray and optical data were also obtained from the Swift XRT and MDM observatory, respectively. The broadband spectral energy distribution is well described by a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model favoring a redshift of less than 0.1. Using the photon index measured with Fermi in combination with recent extragalactic background light absorption models it can be concluded from the VERITAS data that the redshift of PKS 1424+240 is less than 0.66. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Observations of the large magellanic cloud with fermi

    A. A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, W. B. Atwood, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, B. M. Baughman, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R. D. Blandford, E. D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T. H. Burnett, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, P. A. Caraveo, J. M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, Ö Çelik, A. Chekhtman, C. C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, L. R. Cominsky, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, C. D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, S. W. Dige, E. Do Couto E Silva, P. S. Drel, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, W. B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, G. Giavitto, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, E. V. Gotthelf, I. A. Grenier, M. H. Grondin, J. E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, Y. Hanabata, A. K. Harding, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, D. Horan, R. E. Hughes, M. S. Jackson, P. Jean, G. Jóhannesson, A. S. Johnson, R. P. Johnson, T. J. Johnson, W. N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. L. Kocian, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G. M. Madejski, A. Makeev

    Astronomy and Astrophysics   512 ( 13 )  2010

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    Context.The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is to date the only normal external galaxy that has been detected in high-energy gamma rays. Highenergy gamma rays trace particle acceleration processes and gamma-ray observations allow the nature and sites of acceleration to be studied. Aims.We characterise the distribution and sources of cosmic rays in the LMC from analysis of gamma-ray observations. Methods.We analyse 11 months of continuous sky-survey observations obtained with the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope and compare it to tracers of the interstellar medium and models of the gamma-ray sources in the LMC. Results.The LMC is detected at 33s significance. The integrated >100 MeV photon flux of the LMC amounts to (2.6 ± 0.2) × 10-7 ph cm-2 s-1 which corresponds to an energy flux of (1.6 ± 0.1) × 10-10 erg cm -2 s-1, with additional systematic uncertainties of < 16%. The analysis reveals the massive star forming region 30 Doradus as a bright source of gamma-ray emission in the LMC in addition to fainter emission regions found in the northern part of the galaxy. The gamma-ray emission from the LMC shows very little correlation with gas density and is rather correlated to tracers of massive star forming regions. The close confinement of gamma-ray emission to star forming regions suggests a relatively short GeV cosmic-ray proton diffusion length. Conclusions. The close correlation between cosmic-ray density and massive star tracers supports the idea that cosmic rays are accelerated in massive star forming regions as a result of the large amounts of kinetic energy that are input by the stellar winds and supernova explosions of massive stars into the interstellar medium. © ESO 2010.

    DOI

  • The discovery of γ-ray emission from the blazar RGBJ0710+591

    V. A. Acciari, E. Aliu, T. Arlen, T. Aune, M. Bautista, M. Beilicke, W. Benbow, M. Böttcher, D. Boltuch, S. M. Bradbury, J. H. Buckley, V. Bugaev, K. Byrum, A. Cannon, A. Cesarini, L. Ciupik, W. Cui, R. Dickherber, C. Duke, A. Falcone, J. P. Finley, G. Finnegan, L. Fortson, A. Furniss, N. Galante, D. Gall, K. Gibbs, G. H. Gillanders, S. Godambe, J. Grube, R. Guenette, G. Gyuk, D. Hanna, J. Holder, C. M. Hui, T. B. Humensky, A. Imran, P. Kaaret, N. Karlsson, M. Kertzman, D. Kieda, A. Konopelko, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, M. J. Lang, A. Lamerato, S. Lebohec, G. Maier, S. McArthur, A. McCann, M. McCutcheon, P. Moriarty, R. Mukherjee, R. A. Ong, A. N. Otte, D. Pandel, J. S. Perkins, D. Petry, A. Pichel, M. Pohl, J. Quinn, K. Ragan, L. C. Reyes, P. T. Reynolds, E. Roache, H. J. Rose, P. Roustazadeh, M. Schroedter, G. H. Sembroski, G. Demet Senturk, A. W. Smith, D. Steele, S. P. Swordy, G. Tešić, M. Theiling, S. Thibadeau, A. Varlotta, V. V. Vassiliev, S. Vincent, R. G. Wagner, S. P. Wakely, J. E. Ward, T. C. Weekes, A. Weinstein, T. Weisgarber, D. A. Williams, S. Wissel, M. Wood, B. Zitzer, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, E. Antolini, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R. D. Blandford

    Astrophysical Journal Letters   715 ( 1 PART 2 )  2010

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    The high-frequency-peaked BL Lacertae object RGBJ0710+591 was observed in the very high-energy (VHE; E > 100GeV) wave band by the VERITAS array of atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The observations, taken between 2008 December and 2009 March and totaling 22.1 hr, yield the discovery of VHE gamma rays from the source. RGBJ0710+591 is detected at a statistical significance of 5.5 standard deviations (5.5σ) above the background, corresponding to an integral flux of (3.9 ± 0.8) × 10-12 cm-2 s-1 (3% of the Crab Nebula's flux) above 300GeV. The observed spectrum can be fit by a power law from 0.31 to 4.6TeV with a photon spectral index of 2.69 ± 0.26stat ± 0.20sys. These data are complemented by contemporaneous multiwavelength data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope, the Swift X-ray Telescope, the Swift Ultra-Violet and Optical Telescope, and the Michigan-Dartmouth-MIT observatory. Modeling the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) with an equilibrium synchrotron self-Compton model yields a good statistical fit to the data. The addition of an external-Compton component to the model does not improve the fit nor brings the system closer to equipartition. The combined Fermi and VERITAS data constrain the properties of the high-energy emission component of the source over 4 orders of magnitude and give measurements of the rising and falling sections of the SED. © 2010 The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • X-ray-emitting GHz-peaked-spectrum galaxies: Testing a dynamical-radiative model with broadband spectra

    L. Ostorero, R. Moderski, Stawarz, A. Diaferio, I. Kowalska, C. C. Cheung, J. Kataoka, M. C. Begelman, S. J. Wagner

    Astrophysical Journal   715 ( 2 ) 1071 - 1093  2010

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    In a dynamical-radiative model we recently developed to describe the physics of compact, GHz-peaked-spectrum (GPS) sources, the relativistic jets propagate across the inner, kpc-sized region of the host galaxy, while the electron population of the expanding lobes evolves and emits synchrotron and inverse-Compton (IC) radiation. Interstellar-medium gas clouds engulfed by the expanding lobes, and photoionized by the active nucleus, are responsible for the radio spectral turnover through free-free absorption (FFA) of the synchrotron photons. The model provides a description of the evolution of the spectral energy distribution (SED) of GPS sources with their expansion, predicting significant and complex high-energy emission, from the X-ray to the γ-ray frequency domain. Here, we test this model with the broadband SEDs of a sample of 11 X-ray-emitting GPS galaxies with compact-symmetric-object morphology, and show that (1) the shape of the radio continuum at frequencies lower than the spectral turnover is indeed well accounted for by the FFA mechanism and (2) the observed X-ray spectra can be interpreted as non-thermal radiation produced via IC scattering of the local radiation fields off the lobe particles, providing a viable alternative to the thermal, accretion-disk-dominated scenario. We also show that the relation between the hydrogen column densities derived from the X-ray (N H) and radio (N HI) data of the sources is suggestive of a positive correlation, which, if confirmed by future observations, would provide further support to our scenario of high-energy emitting lobes. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Constraints on cosmological dark matter annihilation from the Fermi-LAT isotropic diffuse gamma-ray measurement

    A. A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R. D. Blandford, E. D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T. H. Burnett, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, P. A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J. M. Casandjian, C. Cecchi, Ö Çelik, A. Chekhtman, C. C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, C. D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, S. W. Digel, E. Do Couto E Silva, P. S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, Y. Edmonds, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, W. B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, Y. Fukazawa, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, J. E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, M. Gustafsson, D. Hadasch, A. K. Harding, D. Horan, R. E. Hughes, A. S. Johnson, W. N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, M. Kerr, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, M. Llena Garde, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A. Makeev, M. N. Mazziotta, J. E. McEnery, C. Meurer, P. F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, C. Monte, M. E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I. V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, P. L. Nolan, J. P. Norris

    Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics   2010 ( 4 )  2010

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    The first published Fermi large area telescope (Fermi-LAT) measurement of the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray emission is in good agreement with a single power law, and is not showing any signature of a dominant contribution from dark matter sources in the energy range from 20 to 100 GeV. We use the absolute size and spe