Updated on 2024/05/20

写真a

 
SATOU, Tetsuya
 
Affiliation
Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Fundamental Science and Engineering
Job title
Professor
Degree
Doctor of Engineering ( University of Tokyo )

Research Experience

  • 2007.04
    -
     

    Professor, Department of Applied Mechanics and Professor, School of Fundamental Engineering, Waseda University

  • 2006.10
    -
    2007.03

    Senior Reseracher, Aeroengine Testing Center, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA

  • 2005.04
    -
    2007.03

    Associate Professor, Univ. of Tokyo

  • 2002.05
    -
    2007.03

    Associate Professor, Space Propulsion Division, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science

  • 2003.10
    -
    2006.09

    Associate Senior Researcher, Aeroengine Testing Center, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency

  • 2004.11
    -
    2005.10

    Visiting Researcher, Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Bristol (UK)

  • 1992.07
    -
    2002.04

    Research Associate, Space Propulsion Division, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science

  • 1991.04
    -
    1992.06

    Research Fellowship for Young Scientists (DC) ,Japan Society for the Promotion of Science

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Education Background

  •  
    -
    1992

    University of Tokyo   Graduate School, Division of Engineering   Department of Aeronautics  

  •  
    -
    1987

    University of Tokyo   Faculty of Engineering   Department of Aeronautics  

Committee Memberships

  • 2015.04
    -
    Now

    NEDO技術委員会  技術委員

  • 2015.04
    -
    Now

    Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology; MEXT  Member of Council for Science and Technology (Aviation Science and Technology Committee)

  • 2019.05
    -
    2023.03

    宇宙航空研究開発機構 宇宙科学研究所 宇宙工学委員  宇宙工学委員

  • 2019.05
    -
     

    Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency  Member of Advisory Committee for Space Engineering

  • 2012.04
    -
    2017.03

    日本技術士会  技術士第二次試験試験委員

  • 2015.04
    -
    2016.03

    日本航空宇宙学会  論文賞選考委員会 委員長

  • 2014.04
    -
    2016.03

    日本学術振興会 特別研究員等審査会専門委員  特別研究員等審査会専門委員

  • 2014.04
    -
    2015.03

    日本航空宇宙学会  論文賞選考委員会委員

  • 2010
    -
    2012

    宇宙航空研究開発機構  公募型研究分科会推進委員

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Professional Memberships

  •  
     
     

    日本ガスタービン学会

  •  
     
     

    日本航空宇宙学会

  •  
     
     

    AIAA

Research Areas

  • Thermal engineering / Aerospace engineering

Research Interests

  • Jet engine, Space plane, Air Turbo Ramjet, Air-intake, Precooler, Two phase flow

Awards

  • 功労賞

    2022.11   日本ガスタービン学会  

  • 最優秀賞 数値シミュレーション部門 第44回流体力学講演会/航空宇宙数値シミュレーション技術シンポジウム2012

    2012.07  

 

Papers

  • Investigation of boiling hydrogen heat transfer characteristics under low-pressure conditions

    Yuki Sakamoto, Hiroaki Kobayashi, Yoshihiro Naruo, Yuichiro Takesaki, Tetsuya Sato

    Cryogenics   131   103652 - 103652  2023.04  [Refereed]

    DOI

    Scopus

    1
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Effect of angle of attack on the performance of the supersonic intake for High Mach Integrated Control Experiment (HIMICO)

    Manami Fujii, Shogo Ogura, Tetsuya Sato, Hideyuki Taguchi, Atsushi Hashimoto, Takashi Takahashi

    Aerospace Science and Technology   127   107687 - 107687  2022.08

    DOI

    Scopus

    2
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Experimental study of high-speed air intake performance by side clearance

    Shogo Ogura, Manami Fujii, Yusuke Hoshiya, Yuki Fujimori, Tetsuya Sato, Hideyuki Taguchi, Takayuki Kojima, Junichi Oki

    Aerospace Science and Technology   123   107439 - 107439  2022.04

    DOI

    Scopus

    6
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Propulsion System Development for H-IIA Upgrade

    杵淵紀世志, 杵淵紀世志, 更江渉, 小林弘明, 梅村悠, 杉森大造, 藪崎大輔, 藤田猛, 沖田耕一, 西村真二, 石川佳太郎, 北山治, 姫野武洋, 佐藤哲也

    日本航空宇宙学会誌   70 ( 7 ) 145 - 152  2022  [Refereed]

    DOI J-GLOBAL

  • Conceptual Design Study of a Vertical Takeoff and Landing Airbreather

    Hiroaki Kobayashi, Yusuke Maru, Matthew P. Richardson, Kiyoshi Kinefuchi, Tetsuya Sato

    Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets   58 ( 5 ) 1 - 14  2021.06  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • Investigation of boiling hydrogen flow characteristics under low-pressure conditions - Flow regime transition characteristics

    Yuki Sakamoto, Hiroaki Kobayashi, Yoshihiro Naruo, Yuichiro Takesaki, Yo Nakajima, Koki Kabayama, Tetsuya Sato

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HYDROGEN ENERGY   46 ( 11 ) 8239 - 8252  2021.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Understanding the thermal-fluid characteristics of boiling hydrogen is of great significance for applications of liquid hydrogen, such as alternative clean energy and space vehicles. The boiling temperature of liquid hydrogen under atmospheric pressure is 20.3 K; thus, it is easy to boil to form a gas-liquid two-phase flow. Fuel transfer under the boiling state has been avoided in the space industry because of its unstable flow characteristics; precise control of the fuel, including the boiling flow, is necessary to improve the space-vehicle performance. This study aims to understand the flow-regime transition characteristics of boiling hydrogen through experimental investigation. The experimental conditions were as follows: the flow direction was horizontal, the inner diameter of the heating pipe was 15 mm, the mass flux ranged from 50 to 110 kg/m(2)s, and the pressure ranged from 250 to 300 kPa A. The flow regime transition characteristics were obtained by a high-speed camera. Fully liquid phase (LP), dispersed bubbly flow (DB), intermittent flow (IN), and annular flow (AN) were observed during the experiment. Each flow-regime boundary model is constructed using two dominant forces from the experimental result based on a Taitel-Dukler model. For the DB/IN boundary, a large-bubble sustainable condition is derived by the balance between the shear and buoyancy forces acting upon the bubble; for the IN/AN boundary, a droplet-sustainable condition is derived in terms of the force balance between the drag and gravity acting on the droplet. The semi-theoretical model predicts the experimental data with 96.7% accuracy. (c) 2020 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI

    Scopus

    5
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Effect of the turbulence model on the buzz characteristics occurring on the air intake for high-mach integrated control experiment (Himico)

    Manami Fujii, Yusuke Hoshiya, Yuki Fujimori, Tetsuya Sato, Atsushi Hashimoto, Takashi Takahashi, Hideyuki Taguchi

    Accelerating Space Commerce, Exploration, and New Discovery conference, ASCEND 2021    2021

     View Summary

    Numerical simulations using RANS (SST-2003) and DDES (SST-2003sust) were conducted to capture the buzz phenomena which occurs on the air intake for High-Mach Integrated Control Experiment, HIMICO. HIMICO is a hypersonic flight experiment aiming at establishing the integrated control technologies of the airframe and the engine. The ramjet engine for HIMICO is composed of a variable air intake, a diffuser, a combustor, and a variable nozzle, and the size is Length:540 mm x Width:68 mm x Height:110 mm. A result of DDES simulation almost corresponds with the experimental result, but the result of RANS simulation estimates the incorrect frequency of the buzz. This error is caused by the existence of a separation region in the RANS simulation. This separation area makes the oblique shock wave from the ramp stronger, and the Mach number inside the intake smaller. In DDES simulation result, the shock wave structure downstream of the intake throat is adjusted to raise the pressure inside the engine. However, Mach number inside the engine is smaller in RANS simulation, so this adjustment is not carried out as well as DDES result, and the pressure increasing period becomes shorter in RANS result. Also, the shock wave structure obtained by the RANS simulation does not correspond with the experimental result while the shock is moving upstream. This is because the thicker separation region grows on the ramps while the shock wave is moving forward in the RANS simulation. Therefore, the type of the turbulence model greatly affects the existence and the shape of the separation region, which have great influence on the buzz characteristics, so the calculation methods must be selected carefully to simulate the buzz.

    DOI

    Scopus

  • Numerical Study on the Intake Performance with Side Clearance for the High Mach Integrated Control Experiment (HIMICO)

    YOSHIDA Hidekazu, SATO Tetsuya, SANO Masakazu, WAKABAYASHI Sho, CHIGA Takahiro, YOKOI Toshiya, HASHIMOTO Atsushi, MURAKAMI Keiichi, KOJIMA Takayuki, TAGUCHI Hideyuki

    TRANSACTIONS OF THE JAPAN SOCIETY FOR AERONAUTICAL AND SPACE SCIENCES, AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY JAPAN   19 ( 2 ) 135 - 143  2021

     View Summary

    <p>This paper shows the effect of the side clearance on the air-intake performance of a ramjet for the High Mach Integrated Control Experiment (HIMICO). As the result of the wind tunnel test, the mass capture ratio (MCR) of the original intake is 15-35% lower than the designed value. CFD analysis suggested that this is caused by the flow separation on the ramp surface due to flow leakage from a 1-mm side clearance located at the moving part. The mechanism of the side clearance effect is cleared by CFD, and the CFD results considering the side clearance almost agree with the experiment. Then, a new intake in which the side clearance is reduced to 0.25 mm was designed and tested. The maximum MCR of the new intake is increased approximately 14% compared to the original intake.</p>

    DOI CiNii

  • Atrium combined cycle propulsion flight test project

    Matthew P. Richardson, Hiroaki Kobayashi, Yuki Sakamoto, Yusuke Maru, Shinichiro Tokudome, Satoshi Nonaka, Shujiro Sawai, Akira Oyama, Daisaku Masaki, Satoshi Takada, Hiromitsu Kakudo, Toru Kaga, Kiyoshi Kinefuchi, Tetsuya Sato

    Accelerating Space Commerce, Exploration, and New Discovery conference, ASCEND 2021    2021

     View Summary

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, in partnership with academia and industry, are developing the Air Turbo Rocket for Innovative Unmanned Mission (ATRIUM) engine: an air turboramjet + rocket combine cycle propulsion system intended to replace conventional liquid rocket engines in Vertical Takeoff Vertical Landing applications, such as reusable sounding rockets. A subscale Flight Test Bed (FTB) vehicle is also being developed to demonstrate the ATRIUM engine in a flight environment. In this paper, the ATRIUM engine and FTB vehicle are introduced, and current progress in their development is summarized. Future test plans and practical applications are also discussed.

    DOI

    Scopus

    1
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Numerical Analysis of Aerodynamics and Flight Trajectory of JAXA's High-Mach Integrated Control Experiment (HIMICO)

    Akifumi SAKAI, Koji MIYAJI, Tomonari HIROTANI, Tetsuya SATO, Takeshi TSUCHIYA, Hideyuki TAGUCHI

    TRANSACTIONS OF THE JAPAN SOCIETY FOR AERONAUTICAL AND SPACE SCIENCES, AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY JAPAN   18 ( 1 ) 1 - 7  2020  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • Investigation of the void fraction-quality correlations for two-phase hydrogen flow based on the capacitive void fraction measurement

    Yuki Sakamoto, Hiroaki Kobayashi, Yoshihiro Naruo, Yuichiro Takesaki, Yo Nakajima, Atsuhiro Furuichi, Hiroki Tsujimura, Koki Kabayama, Tetsuya Sato

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HYDROGEN ENERGY   44 ( 33 ) 18483 - 18495  2019.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The void fraction and vapor quality are important parameters for characterizing the gas-liquid two-phase flow. However, neither an established void fraction measurement method nor a verified void fraction - vapor quality interconversion model is available for the two-phase hydrogen flow. The object of this study is the development of a void fraction measurement technique and the investigation of the void fraction-quality correlations. A capacitive void fraction sensor was developed using the electric field analysis (EFA) and design of experiment (DOE), and it was applied in a boiling hydrogen experimental facility. The experimental conditions were as follows: the inner diameter of the heating pipe was 15 mm, the mass flux was ranged from 50 to 110 kg/m(2)s, and the static pressure was ranged from 250 to 300 kPaA. Further, the correlation between the thermal equilibrium quality (chi(ac) = - 0.03-0.14) and void fraction (alpha = 0-70%) was compared with that obtained in previously proposed models, and the void fraction - actual quality - thermal equilibrium quality interconversion models applicable to the boiling hydrogen flow were investigated. It was observed that the combination of the Sekoguchi model for thermal equilibrium quality - actual quality conversion and the Steiner drift-flux model for actual quality - void fraction conversion agreed well with the experimental results. (C) 2019 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI

    Scopus

    20
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Development of Quality Measurement System Using Slip Ratio Model with Homogenization System

    Minote, K, Sakamoto, Y, Tane, S, Nakajima, Y, Furuichi, A, Kabayama, K, Tsujimura, H, Yoshida, K, Kobayashi, H, Sato, T

    Transaction of JSASS   18   109 - 118  2019.07  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • Improvement of Laminar Flamelet Model for Compressible Flows Using Artificial Neural Network

    Yamamoto, H, Toyonaga, R, Komatsu, Y, Kabayama, K, Mizobuchi, Y, Sato, T

    Transaction of JSASS   18   91 - 100  2019.06  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • Numerical Analysis on Supersonic Inlet Buzz

    Nagao, T, Yoshida, H, Sano, M. Sato, T, Hashimoto, A

    Transaction of JSASS   18   81 - 89  2019.05  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • 粒子法を用いた液滴解析における空気力のモデル化

    辻村光樹, 窪田健一, 佐藤哲也, 髙橋孝, 村上桂一

    ながれ   38 ( 2 ) 105 - 113  2019.04  [Refereed]

  • Capacitive Void Fraction Sensor for Ground Test of LE-5B-3

    Sakamoto, Y, Kobayashi, H, Higashi, K, Nagao, N, Sugimori, T, Kinefuchi, K, Sato, T

    Transaction of JSASS   18   19 - 28  2019.02

    DOI J-GLOBAL

  • THERMAL FLUID CHARACTERISTICS OF BOILING HYDROGEN IN A HORIZONTAL CIRCULAR PIPE FLOW

    Yuki Sakamoto, Hiroaki Kobayashi, Yoshihiro Naruo, Yuichiro Takesaki, Shohei Tane, Kazuma Minote, Yo Nakajima, Atsuhiro Furuichi, Hiroki Tsujimura, Koki Kabayama, Tetsuya Sato

    PROMOTE THE PROGRESS OF THE PACIFIC-BASIN REGION THROUGH SPACE INNOVATION   166   45 - 57  2019  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The aim of this study is a characterization of boiling hydrogen flow in horizontal circular pipe flow. The most important parameters for boiling flow are a void fraction and flow quality. Although the void fraction is measurable in some way, there is no established method for cryogenic fluid. The authors developed a capacitive void fraction sensor and applied it for boiling hydrogen flow experimental facility. The correlations between the void fraction and flow qualities are investigated by comparing the previously proposed models. The conversion model of the combination of Sekoguchi simple model and the Steiner model agrees very well with the experimental result.

  • Investigation of Cryogenic Chilldown in a Complex Channel Under Low Gravity Using a Sounding Rocket

    Kinefuchi, K, Sarae, W, Umemura, Y, Fujita, T, Okita, K, Kobayashi, H, Nonaka, S, Himeno, T, Sato, T

    AIAA Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets   56 ( 1 ) 91 - 103  2019.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    To realize high-performance cryogenic propulsion systems, the chilldown sequence has to be improved. Because the chilldown is carried out under low gravity, the effect of gravity on the two-phase flow, especially at low flow rate, should be investigated. To understand the physics under low gravity, an experiment was conducted using a sounding rocket. Two identical test sections with different mass flow rates simulated part of a turbopump, each of which has a complex flowpath including slits and a dead end. Using liquid nitrogen, the flight experiment obtained data of temperatures, pressures, void fractions, and video frames of liquid motion. Then, the flight experiment data were compared to the ground data taken under normal gravity, revealing that the slits played an important role in the chilldown process and that the test sections were quickly chilled down under low gravity. The slits of the test sections formed liquid jets, and their behaviors were different from those in the ground experiment. In the flight experiment, the jets easily reached the dead end of the test sections and cooled down the whole walls due to the increase in inertia and wettability; however, such behaviors were hardly observed in the ground experiment. The difference between the ground and flight is significant at lower flow rate.

    DOI

    Scopus

    13
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Void fraction measurement in cryogenic flows. Part II: Void fraction capacitive sensor performances in chilldown experiments

    Yuki Sakamoto, Laura Peveroni, Hiroaki Kobayashi, Tetsuya Sato, Johan Steelant, Jean-Marie Buchlin

    CRYOGENICS   96   25 - 33  2018.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This manuscript describes the work performed on void fraction measurements a cryogenic flow by means of a customized capacitive sensor. In a preceding activity, described in Part I, the instrument was developed and validated at room conditions. In the current study, the probe is exploited to detect the gaseous content during liquid nitrogen chilldown experiments. The sensor performances are evaluated both numerically and experimentally. The numerical simulations lead to the development of a new calibration formula improving the sensor measurement accuracy down to +/- 6.0%FS, within 99% confident interval. The experimental campaign mainly reveals a dependency of the sensor performance on the pressure and temperature variations during the cooldown of the test section. The so-called "thermal effect" therefore modeled and two compensation equations are derived. The void fraction results accordingly corrected, match the single-phase flows reference conditions within 2% discrepancy. Background light visualizations are also performed allowing the optical verification of the flow regimes. For a specific flow condition, a correlation between the recorded light intensity and the capacitive measurements is obtained. By means of the high-speed movies, the capacitive sensor response time is also evaluated to be 100 Hz.

    DOI

    Scopus

    4
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Void fraction measurement in cryogenic flows. Part I : Design and validation of a void fraction capacitive sensor

    Sakamoto, Y, Peveroni, L, Kobayashi, H, Sato, T, Steelant, J, Vetrano, R

    Cryogenics   94   36 - 44  2018.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This manuscript presents the design of a capacitive void fraction sensor for cryogenic LN2 two phase flows and its validation at room conditions. The capacitive void fraction sensor is first designed by means of Electric Field Analysis (EFA) simulations taking into account specific technical constraints coming from the test section in which it should be accommodated. Then it is manufactured and validated using a proper combination of fluids (Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and air) having a dielectric constant ratio similar to the one encountered in LN2/GN2 two phase flows. The validation is performed through comparison with void fraction measured by means of optical visualizations and shows how the capacitive measurement technique robustness allows obtaining reasonable accurate values of void fraction also for the substitute fluid case. The sensor presented in this manuscript was used to evaluate the void fraction during LN2 chilldown of a rectangular cooling channel and the results are presented in the second part of this work.

    DOI

    Scopus

    9
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • A study on time evolution method for hyperbolic navier-stokes system

    Tsukasa Nagao, Atsushi Hashimoto, Tetsuya Sato

    AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, 2018   ( 210059 )  2018

     View Summary

    The convergence and accuracy of gradient values on high aspect ratio grids remain problems in CFD. One of the methods solving these problems is to use a hyperbolic system. In this study, we investigated time evolution methods for hyperbolic systems and compare the hyperbolic method with a traditional method. We solve the following test cases: one and two dimensional advection-diffusion problems, Navier-Stokes problems such as laminar flow on a flat plate and laminar flow around a cylinder. We confirmed that the convergence in hyperbolic systems was much more rapid and the accuracy of gradient values was higher than that of traditional system. The hyperbolic system takes almost the same time or shorter time than traditional system on same grids. In the case of Navier-Stokes problems such as high Reynolds number boundary flow, on grids achieving the same accuracy, it takes less time in hyperbolic systems than in traditional systems. One of the major findings is that using approximate Jacobian gives the same order accuracy as using exact Jacobian and reduces calculation time remarkably in hyperbolic system. Calculation time was 19% shorter in 1D advection-diffusion problem, 9% in 2D advection-diffusion problem, and more than 74% in Navier-Stokes systems.

    DOI

    Scopus

  • G方程式を用いた噴流浮き上がり火炎の数値解析

    山本姫子, 豊永塁, 溝渕泰寛, 佐藤哲也

    宇宙航空研究開発機構特別資料   17 ( 004 ) 139 - 142  2017.12  [Refereed]

  • ジェットエンジン燃焼器における燃料初期粒径が排出物特性に与える影響に関する数値解析

    山本姫子, 溝渕泰寛, 佐藤哲也

    宇宙航空研究開発機構特別資料   16 ( 007 ) 177 - 182  2016.12  [Refereed]

  • Acoustic Mode Analysis of Combustion Instabilities in a Low-Swirl Combustor

    Yamamoto, H, Tachibana, S, Kanai, K, Sato, T

    Journal of Gas Turbine Society of Japan   44 ( 5 ) 399 - 407  2016.09  [Refereed]

    CiNii

  • Development study of a capacitance void fraction sensor using asymmetrical electrode plates

    Yuki SAKAMOTO, Tetsuya SATO, Hiroaki KOBAYASHI

    Journal of Fluid Science and Technology   11 ( 2 ) 1 - 14  2016.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    A capacitance-based void fraction sensor has been developed for the rocket or airbreathing engines, which is simple and do not disturb the flow. Typical conventional sensors usually have two concave electrodes mounted on the outer wall of the dielectric tube. They are relatively low accuracy if they have a noise shield; the maximum measurement error is over 30% in our research. The aim of this study is to improve the measurement accuracy while keeping the advantage of simplicity, mountability and non-intrusive characteristics. A theoretical formulae and electromagnetic field analysis, EFA, are used to design the sensors and are compared to an experiment using air/silicon-oil mixture flow. As the result, a newly developed asymmetrical type sensor which consists of asymmetric flat electrodes with side walls shows good performance; the inaccuracy between true void fraction and measured void fraction is 6% for the stratified flow.

    DOI CiNii

  • Study on Void Fraction Measurement of Cryogenic Two-Phase Flow by Image Analysis

    OKADA Wataru, SATO Tetsuya, KOBAYASHI Hiroaki, MAENO Norihide, SAKAMOTO Yuki

    SPACE TECHNOLOGY JAPAN, THE JAPAN SOCIETY FOR AERONAUTICAL AND SPACE SCIENCES   14 ( 0 ) 163 - 170  2015.12

     View Summary

    The hypersonic air-breathing engine, which is currently under development by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), uses liquid hydrogen as the fuel. In order to accurately control the fuel flow rate during the start-up, it is essential to measure the heat transfer and pressure drop of the two phase flow. These two characteristics depend on void fraction, flow velocity and flow regime; thus, measurement methods for these values are required to be established. In this study, the void fraction measurement method by the high-speed image analyses has been developed. Two images taken from top and side directions by high-speed cameras of 1000 fps are used for "two-direction semi-automatic analysis". We also develop "One-direction full automatic analysis" which uses only the side view as a full-automatic and high sampling rate method with little accuracy deterioration. The preliminary verification test using vertical pipe and acrylic ball shows favorable results within 2.2% error against the theoretical value. A cryogenic experiment using two-phase nitrogen flow was also conducted. Sampling rate of "One-direction full automatic analysis" can be up to 1000 Hz. The difference between the results of two methods was as minor as 5% when the void fraction was below 30%.

    CiNii

  • 0325 Development of measuring method of void fraction under cryogenic environment

    SAKAMOTO Yuki, SATO Tetsuya, KOBAYASHI Hiroaki, URAGAKI Kota, TANE Shohei, MINOTE Kazuma

    Fluids engineering conference ...   2015   "0325 - 1"-"0325-4"  2015.11

     View Summary

    Capacitance type void fraction sensors for cryogenic fluid has been developed by our research group. The sensors are roughly categorized into three types; arc type, small-sized arc type, and asymmetric type. In this paper, the three type sensors are compared, and each sensor's merits and demerits are indicated. The arc type sensor was first developed. The sensor is simple, but S/N ration is low and influence of "temperature drift" is large. The small-sized arc type sensor was developed for the sounding rocket S310 test No.43, so the sensor was needed to make as small as possible. The sensor succeeded to measure the void fraction of the liquid nitrogen flow even under microgravity. The asymmetric type sensor was deviced to improve the measurement accuracy. Inaccuracy of the sensor between true void fraction and measured void fraction was only 3% for stratified flow, whereas that of the arc type sensor 30%.

    CiNii

  • Measuring Two-phase Flow Behavior and Heat Transfer Characteristics during Coasting Flight, Development of Experimental Equipment for S-310-43 Sounding Rocket

    KOBAYASHI Hiroaki, KINEFUCHI Kiyoshi, SARAE Wataru, UMEMURA Yutaka, FUJIMOTO Keiichiro, YABUSAKI Daisuke, SUGIMORI Daizo, HIMENO Takehiro, SATO Tetsuya, KITAKOGA Satoshi, SUMI Yuki, SAKAMOTO Yuki, NONAKA Satoshi, FUJITA Takeshi

    Journal of the Japan Society for Aeronautical and Space Sciences   63 ( 5 ) 188 - 196  2015.10

     View Summary

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency launched the S-310-43 sounding rocket from the Uchinoura Space Center on Aug.04, 2014 for the purpose of investigating such behavior as boiling and flow of cryogenic liquid rocket propellant in an environment simulating coasting flight on orbit by using the sounding rocket's sub-orbital ballistic flight. In the low-gravity state, the cryogenic fluid (liquid nitrogen) was introduced into the test sections of similar shapes to the flow channels in the cryogenic propulsion systems. The boiling of liquid nitrogen inside the test-sections and the transition of flow regimes from gas/liquid two-phase flow to liquid mono-phase flow were visualized. The temperatures, pressures and void fractions of each channels were measured as well. Development of the experimental equipment for S-310-43 sounding rocket is described in this paper.

    CiNii J-GLOBAL

  • Numerical Simulation of a Mixed Flow Compressor at Windmill Condition

    Noji, Y, Ichimura, J, Moriyama, M, Sato, T, Masaki, D, Taguchi, H

    Aerospace Technology Japan   13   1 - 10  2015.05

     View Summary

    A numerical simulation of a mixed-flow compressor under windmill conditions is conducted to investigate the cause of stagnation pressure loss captured in the previous experiment, and to clarify the qualitative flow structure under windmill conditions. As a result of the simulation, the compressor rotor causes a stronger load on the airflow even under windmill conditions, because the compressor is connected to the turbine. It turns out that the mass flow rate increases in the order of rated operating point: windmill conditions with turbine and windmill conditions without turbine. In addition, a negative angle of attack is confirmed for the first stator under windmill conditions, which leads to a large separation on the pressure-side of the blade. This tendency increases when the rotational speed decreases. By a simple analysis, it is clarified that the lower the pressure ratio and rotational speed, such as under windmill conditions, the further the rotor and stator angle of incidence become separated from the optimal degree.

    DOI CiNii

  • Latest Research and Development of Hypersonic Propulsion(<Special issue>Latest Trend of Gas Turbines for Aeroplanes)

    KOBAYASHI Hiroaki, YAMATA Hideyuki, KOJIMA Takayuki, SATO Tetsuya

    Journal of the Gas Turbine Society of Japan   43 ( 3 ) 196 - 201  2015.05

    CiNii

  • Evaluation of Linear Wall Interference Correction Method using CFD and Porous Wall Model

    Nambu, T, Hashimoto, A, Ueno, M, Murakami, K, Sato, T

    AIAA Journal of Aircraft   52 ( 1 ) 226 - 234  2015.02

  • Sounding rocket experiment on chill-down process with liquid nitrogen in a complex channel

    Wataru Sarae, Kiyoshi Kinefuchi, Daisuke Yabusaki, Daizo Sugimori, Takeshi Fujita, Koichi Okita, Yutaka Umemura, Keiichiro Fujimoto, Hideyo Negishi, Hiroaki Kobayashi, Takehiro Himeno, Tetsuya Sato, Satoshi Nonaka

    51st AIAA/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference    2015

     View Summary

    © 2015, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, AIAA. All rights reserved. In the present experiment, by using the sounding rocket’s sub-orbital ballistic flight, realized the gravitational environment similar to that of liquid-fueled rockets during its coasting flight. In the low-gravity state, the cryogenic test fluid, liquid nitrogen, was introduced into the test sections which had similar shapes to the flow channels in the cryogenic propulsion systems. The boiling of liquid nitrogen inside the test-sections and the transition of flow regimes from gas/liquid two-phase flow to liquid mono-phase flow were successfully visualized. The temperatures, pressures and void fractions in each channel were measured as well. The mechanisms enhancing heat transfer were discussed based on the visualization. In the present case, compared with the corresponding ground test, it was confirmed that the two-phase flow in the complex channel could wet the heat transfer surfaces more easily due to the absence of gravity, and that more uniform chill-down effect could been obtained.

    DOI

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  • Numerical Analysis of the ONERA-M6 Wing with Wind Tunnel Wall Interference

    Taisuke Nambu, Atsushi Hashimoto, Takashi Aoyama, Tetsuya Sato

    TRANSACTIONS OF THE JAPAN SOCIETY FOR AERONAUTICAL AND SPACE SCIENCES   58 ( 1 ) 7 - 14  2015.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The flow around an ONERA-M6 wing, including the effect of wind tunnel wall interference, is computed using CFD analysis with a porous wall model. The computational domain sets porous walls at the top and bottom of the wing section similar to actual wind tunnel experiments. The computational result captures almost the same shock wave shape as the wind tunnel. This could not be computed exactly in previous works that did not include wall effects. The interference of the porous walls reduces the Mach number and attack angle of the flow, and these effects alter the swept angle of front shock wave and the location of rear shock wave. The aerodynamics coefficients are also affected by the wall interference. The lift coefficient becomes smaller due to the reduction in attack angle. The lower Mach number decreases the drag coefficient, while the reduction in attack angle causes additional drag by a mechanism similar to induced drag.

  • Combined effect of spatial and temporal variations of equivalence ratio on combustion instability in a low-swirl combustor

    Shigeru Tachibana, Kota Kanai, Seiji Yoshida, Kazuo Suzuki, Tetsuya Sato

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE COMBUSTION INSTITUTE   35 ( 3 ) 3299 - 3308  2015  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    In this experimental study, the combined effect of spatial and temporal variations of fuel-air mixture on self-excited combustion instabilities in a gas-turbine model combustor (similar to 60 kW) with a low-swirl injector is reported. Detailed measurements were performed in 4 fuel split (to upstream/downstream injections) conditions while keeping the total equivalence ratio constant. The combustion stability was found to be very sensitive to the fuel split parameter which determined the local equivalence ratio distribution. The majority of the heat-release oscillations was generated in the flame-to-wall impingement region in a manner that satisfied the Rayleigh criterion. The driving force of the instability was considered the periodic interaction between the traveling vortex filled with fresh mixtures and the flame in the near-wall region as reported in the previous study on homogeneous mixture flame. However, the strength of the instability was sensitively modified by the change in the local equivalence ratio distribution. In the strongest oscillation case with inhomogeneous mixture, temporal variations of equivalence ratio exhibited a positive contribution to the thermoacoustic coupling. This suggested that temporal variations in equivalence ratio were enhancing the driving factor of the thermoacoustic instability in addition to the vortex-flame interaction mechanism. (C) 2014 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    DOI

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  • Void Fraction Measurement of Cryogenic Two Phase Flow Using a Capacitance Sensor

    MAENO, N, OKADA, W, KITAKOGA, S, SUMI, Y, SATO, T, KOBAYASHI, H

    Aerospace Technology Japan   12 ( ists29 ) 101 - 107  2014.12

     View Summary

    A new capacitance type void fraction sensor was designed, produced, and tested. This sensor applies the difference between the relative permittivity ε of gaseous hydrogen (ε= 1.0) and that of liquid hydrogen (ε = 1.2). Following the sensor verification test using light diesel oil and air, a cryogenic experiment using liquid nitrogen was conducted. As a result, the void fraction measured by the sensor showed good agreement with the result obtained by an optical analysis using a high speed camera. One of the key problems on the sensor is an existence of the temperature drift caused by the change of the relative permittivity of the glass tube. In order to reduce the temperature drift, the length of electrodes and material of tubes were changed. Combination of short arc length electrodes and iupilon tube is ideal for reducing the unwanted temperature drift. The sensor which has shorter electrodes reduces the quantity of the temperature drift by 63% compared to the original sensor.

    DOI CiNii

  • Local Equivalence Ratio Measurements of High-Pressure Combustion Gas by Laser Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (LIPS)

    FUKUMOTO Atsushi, YOSHIDA Seiji, Zimmer Laurent, TACHIBANA Shigeru, SUZUKI Kazuo, SATO Tetsuya

    Journal of the Gas Turbine Society of Japan   42 ( 2 ) 129 - 135  2014.03

     View Summary

    Laser Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (LIPS) is a technique aiming at measuring local equivalence ratio inside gas turbine combustors without disturbing the combustion fields. In this study, LIPS is applied to well controlled mixtures of gases at the pressure of 1.5 MPa to obtain plasma spectra as calibration. Two types of estimation methods are examined. One is the peak area ratio method in which ratios between particular atomic emissions in the plasma spectra are used. The other is the correlation method where correlation coefficients between the objective and the database spectra are used. The correlation method showed the best performance in terms of precision in the calibration test. Finally, the technique is applied to the measurement of 2.5 MPa combustion gas. The peak area ratio of H656/ N746 provided a good agreement with the gas sampling data, while the peak area ratio of H656/O777 and the correlation data shifted toward higher equivalence ratios. Oxygen quenching is considered as a dominant cause of the shift. In summary, the results showed promising features of the LIPS technique under high pressure conditions. For improving the accuracy further, it is required to take into account the effect of oxygen quenching.

    CiNii

  • Thermal Fluid Technologies Concerning Hypersonic Turbojet Engines

    SATO Tetsuya, TAGUCHI Hideyuki, KOBAYASHI Hiroaki, KOJIMA Takayuki, HONGO Motoyuki

    Journal of the Japan Society for Aeronautical and Space Sciences   60 ( 4 ) 165 - 171  2012.04

    DOI CiNii

  • Numerical analysisof wind tunnel wall interference on two-dimensional airfoil by new porous wall model

    Nambu T, Hashimoto A, Murakami K, Sato T

    30th AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference 2012     2280 - 2291  2012  [Refereed]

  • Numerical Analysis of Flow through a Hole for Modeling of Wind Tunnel Porous Wall

    Taisuke Nambu, Atsushi Hashimoto, Takashi Aoyama, Tetsuya Sato

    TRANSACTIONS OF THE JAPAN SOCIETY FOR AERONAUTICAL AND SPACE SCIENCES   54 ( 185-86 ) 221 - 228  2011.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    To model porous walls used in transonic wind tunnels, flow through a hole is investigated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). First, we analyze the relation between flow rate and differential pressure across the hole. At low differential pressures, such as for wind tunnel porous walls, the flow rate is found to increase linearly with differential pressure. We therefore propose a new model based on a linear relationship between flow rate and differential pressure. The effects of hole shape and boundary layer conditions near the hole are then investigated. In the outflow case (i.e., wind tunnel to plenum chamber), the flow rate increases as the ratio of hole depth to diameter becomes large due to variation of the flow separation area at the hole exit. Boundary layer thickness also affects the flow field: when the ratio of boundary layer thickness to hole diameter becomes small, the flow rate decreases, because the flow along wind tunnel side wall interacts more strongly with the flow through the hole.

  • Investigation on shock oscillation phenomenon in a supersonic air inlet

    Nakayama T, Sato T, Akatsuka M, Hashimoto A, Kojima T, Taguchi H

    41st AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference and Exhibit    2011  [Refereed]

  • Development study of a precooled turbojet engine

    Tetsuya Sato, Hideyuki Taguchi, Hiroaki Kobayashi, Takayuki Kojima, Katsuyoshi Fukiba, Daisaku Masaki, Keiichi Okai, Kazuhisa Fujita, Motoyuki Hongo, Shujiro Sawai

    ACTA ASTRONAUTICA   66 ( 7-8 ) 1169 - 1176  2010.04  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    A precooled turbojet engine has been developed by JAXA used for the hypersonic airplane and spaceplane. The subscale engine named "S-engine" whose thrust and weight are about 1.2 kN and 100 kg was designed, fabricated and tested. The components and the system firing tests under the sea-level-static condition were successfully conducted. In the next phase, a flight test of the S-engine is planned using a stratospheric balloon in 2010 called balloon-based operation vehicle (BOV). The vehicle is dropped from an altitude of 40 km by a high altitude balloon. After 40 s free-fall, the vehicle is pulled up and the S-engine operates for 30 s at about Mach 2. High-altitude tests of the core-engine verified the performance and healthiness of the engine under the condition corresponding to the BOV flight trajectory. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI

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  • Analysis and modeling of flow through wind tunnel porous wall

    Nambu T, Hashimoto A, Aoyama T, Sato T

    40th AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference    2010  [Refereed]

  • Multiobjective Design Optimization of Supersonic Jet Engine in Different Cruise Mach Numbers

    OGAWA Masamichi, SATO Tetsuya, KOBAYASHI Hiroaki, TAGUCHI Hideyuki

    JOURNAL OF THE JAPAN SOCIETY FOR AERONAUTICAL AND SPACE SCIENCES   57 ( 670 ) 453 - 460  2009.11

     View Summary

    The aim of this paper is to apply a multi-objective optimization generic algorithm (MOGA) to the conceptual design of the hypersonic/supersonic vehicles with different cruise Mach number. The pre-cooled turbojet engine is employed as a propulsion system and some engine parameters such as the precooler size, compressor size, compression ratio and fuel type are varied in the analysis. The result shows that the optimum cruise Mach number is about 4 if hydrogen fuel is used. Methane fuel instead of hydrogen reduces the vehicle gross weight by 33% in case of the Mach 2 vehicle.

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  • 巡航マッハ数に応し&#12441;た超音速シ&#12441;ェットエンシ&#12441;ンの多目的最適化

    小川正倫, 佐藤哲也, 小林弘明, 田口秀之

    日本航空宇宙学会論文集   57 ( 670 ) 453 - 460  2009.11

  • New Defrosting Method Using Jet Impingement for Precooled Turbojet Engines

    Katsuyoshi Fukiba, Shou Inoue, Hidetoshi Ohkubo, Tetsuya Sato

    JOURNAL OF THERMOPHYSICS AND HEAT TRANSFER   23 ( 3 ) 533 - 542  2009.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Precooled turbojet engines are effective propulsion systems for hypersonic aircraft. However, a serious problem is that frost forms on the cooling tubes of the precooler, thereby decreasing the engine performance. This paper presents a new method for defrosting the precooler using jet impingement. The validity of the proposed defrosting method was investigated through fundamental experiments. In the experiments, the frost formed on the cooling tubes of the single-row heat exchanger was removed by jet impingement. We used the jet periodically. The jet interval is 10-50 s. In addition, the jet duration is short (about 0.1 s). Therefore, the consumption of the high-pressure air to make the jet flow is small. The coolant temperature and main How speed influences on the defrosting method effectiveness were assessed. Results show that this defrosting method is effective, especially when the coolant temperature and the main flow speed are low.

    DOI

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    18
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  • Conceptual Study on Hypersonic Turbojet Experimental Vehicle (HYTEX)

    Hideyuki TAGUCHI, Akira MURAKAMI, Tetsuya SATO, Takeshi TSUCHIYA

    TRANSACTIONS OF THE JAPAN SOCIETY FOR AERONAUTICAL AND SPACE SCIENCES, SPACE TECHNOLOGY JAPAN   7 ( ists26 ) Pa_27 - Pa_32  2009  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • 予冷ターボジェットエンジンにおけるジェット噴射を用いた熱交換器の除霜

    吹場活佳, 井上翔, 佐藤哲也, 大久保英敏

    日本航空宇宙学会論文集   56 ( 657 ) 464 - 470  2008.10

     View Summary

    An innovative defrosting method for precooled turbojet engines are presented, and validated in this study using experimental methods. High speed gas jet was impinged on the cooling tubes of a heat exchanger for the purpose of defrosting. The coolant of the heat exchanger was liquid nitrogen, and whose temperature was 83K. The air flow speed, the air temperature and the air humidity were 1.0m/s, 23ºC and 59%, respectively. The effects of the jet duration, jet intervals and humidity of the jet gas on the heat exchange were assessed. As a result, we found that the presenting defrosting method is valid for the defrosting of the precooler.

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  • Conceptual Study on Hypersonic Airplanes using Pre-Cooled Turbojet

    Hideyuki Taguchi, Akira Murakami, Tetsuya Sato, Takeshi Tsuchiya

    15th AIAA International Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference   AIAA-2008-2503  2008.04  [Refereed]

    DOI

  • 極超音速ターボエンジン開発における着霜問題

    吹場活佳(JA, 佐藤哲也, 小林弘明(JA, 大久保英敏

    日本冷凍空調学会論文集   25 ( 2 ) 97 - 106  2008.04

  • Mass transfer around a cold cylinder with condensation of vapor (1st report) - Mass flux decrease due to condensation of vapor at surface temperatures from 200 to 250 K-

    Katsuyoshi Fukiba, Tetsuya Sato, Nobuyuki Tsuboi, Hiroaki Kobayashi

    TRANSACTIONS OF THE JAPAN SOCIETY FOR AERONAUTICAL AND SPACE SCIENCES   50 ( 169 ) 151 - 159  2007.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    A fundamental study of frost formation around a single cold cylinder was conducted using both experimental and numerical methods. We specifically examined the mass transfer around the cylinder under conditions in which a phase change of the vapor occurs in the flow. Through the experimental study, the mass flux to the cold surface of the cylinder was measured at a constant surface temperature (200-250 K). The results show that the mass flux decreases according to the decrease of the wall temperature below 230 K, although it increases above 230 K. This phenomenon cannot be expressed using the common equation with the Sherwood number, which excludes the vapor's phase change (condensation). Numerical studies calculated the flow over the cylinder, including the vapor's phase change. The scheme for compressible, flow was modified to solve lower speed flow. Results of calculations show that we obtained the same tendency as that of the experiment: the mass flux decreases at low temperatures where the phase change occurs.

  • Experimental measurements of an expansion deflection nozzle in open wake mode

    N. V. Taylor, Tetsuya Sato

    JBIS-JOURNAL OF THE BRITISH INTERPLANETARY SOCIETY   60 ( 10 ) 377 - 386  2007.10  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Expansion Deflection nozzles present an attractive proposition as a replacement for conventional nozzles on launch vehicles, due to their reduced length, and altitude compensating capability. However, it has long been speculated that they suffer in the latter regard due to aspiration of the low speed flow region inside the nozzle by the supersonic jet surrounding it. This effect is investigated in this paper by direct experimental measurement of base pressures, and found to have little effect on the base pressure of the nozzle within the range of operating conditions investigated. Wall pressures were also used to calculate the efficiency of the altitude compensation within the nozzle, which was found to be between 87 and 100% for the three operating pressure ratios examined. This represents a significant improvement over conventional nozzle performance, and further conformation that wake pressures are indeed close to ambient.

  • スパイク付き飛しょう体の空力特性制御に関する実験研究

    小林弘明, 吹場活佳, 本郷素行, 佐藤哲也, 溝端一秀

    日本航空宇宙学会論文集   55 ( 644 ) 418 - 425  2007.09

  • Mass transfer around a cold cylinder with condensation of vapor &#8211;Mass flux decrease due to condensation of vapor at surface temperatures from 200 to 250 K-

    Fukiba, K, Sato, T, Tsuboi, N, Kobayashi, H

    Journal of Space Technology and Science   50 ( 169 ) 377 - 386  2007.07

  • 多列円板を有する伸展式エアロスパイクの空力特性

    小林弘明, 丸祐介, 佐藤哲也

    日本航空宇宙学会論文集   55 ( 642 ) 329 - 336  2007.07

     View Summary

    This paper reports experimental studies on telescopic aerospikes with multiple disks. The telescopic aerospike is useful as an aerodynamic control device; however, changing its length causes a buzz phenomenon, which many researchers have reported. The occurrence of buzzing might be critical to the vehicle because it brings about severe pressure oscillations on the surface. Disks on the shaft produce stable recirculation regions by dividing the single separation flow into several conical cavity flows. The telescopic aerospikes with stabilizer disks are useful without any length constraints. Aerodynamic characteristics of the telescopic aerospikes were investigated through a series of wind tunnel tests. Transition of recirculation/reattachment flow modes of a plain spike causes a large change in the drag coefficient. Because of this hysteresis phenomenon and the buzzing, the plain spike is unsuitable for fine aerodynamic control devices. Adding stabilizer disks is effective for the improved control of aerospikes.

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  • 軸対称キャビティを有するノーズコーンの空力特性

    丸祐介, 小林弘明, 本郷素行, 佐藤哲也

    日本航空宇宙学会論文集   55 ( 641 ) 304 - 308  2007.06

     View Summary

    In this paper, a concept of a new variable-geometry aerodynamics device, which is designated "Multiple-Row-Disk (MRD) device," is introduced. The MRD device divides large separation region around the shaft of an aerospike into several small cavity flows with multiple disks arranged on the shaft. Experimental studies on aerodynamic characteristics of conical nose with axisymmetric cavities were conducted in order to evaluate a feasibility and a fundamental characteristics of the MRD device. It was found that the MRD device could improve not only drag characteristics compared to the conventional aerospikes, but also static longitudinal stability characteristics compared to the conical nose.

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  • Development study of precooled-cycle hypersonic turbojet engine for flight demonstration

    Tetsuya Sato, Hideyuki Taguchi, Hiroaki Kobayashi, Takayuki Kojima, Keiichi Okai, Kazuhisa Fujita, Daisaku Masaki, Motoyuki Hongo, Toyohiko Ohta

    ACTA ASTRONAUTICA   61 ( 1-6 ) 367 - 375  2007.06  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper describes a development study of a precooled-cycle hypersonic turbojet engine for the first stage of TSTO space plane and hypersonic airplane. With reflecting the key technologies accumulated from ATREX (expander cycle ATR engine) ground tests, the next flyable subscale engine "S-engine" is now developed. S-engine has 23 cm x 23 cm of rectangular cross-section, 2.2 in of the overall length and about 100 kg of the weight employing a variable-geometry rectangular inlet and nozzle. It produces 1.2 kN of thrust at SLS, which corresponds to (1)/(4) of the ATREX engine. Design of the hypersonic components such as the inlet, precooler and nozzle has been finished and their aerodynamic performances were verified by wind tunnel tests and CFD analyses. A prototype model of the diagonal-flow compressor whose pressure ratio is 6 was manufactured. Its rotating tests under the very-low pressure conditions are now in progress. The reverse-flow annular combustion chamber was successfully tested.
    The first flight test of the S-engine is to be conducted in 2008 by the balloon-based operation vehicle (BOV) which is about 5 m in length, 0.55 m in diameter and 500 kg in weight. The vehicle is dropped from an altitude of 40 km by a high altitude balloon. After 40-s free-fall, the vehicle pulls up and S-engine operates for 30s at about Mach 2. High altitude tests of the engine components corresponding to the BOV's flight condition have been conducted. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI

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  • Flow Oscillation Characteristics in Conical Cavity with Multiple Disks

    Maru Y, Kobayashi H, Takeuchi S, SatoT

    Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets   44 ( 5 ) 1012 - 1020  2007.05

  • Design study of turbine for pulse detonation combustor

    Takayuki Kojima, Nobuyuki Tsuboi, Hideyuki Taguchi, Hiroaki Kobayashi, Tetsuya Sato, Yu Daimon, Kazuaki Inaba

    Collection of Technical Papers - 43rd AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference   1   871 - 879  2007

     View Summary

    This paper describes design study of the gas turbine engine using PDE as a main combustor of which hydrogen is used as a fuel. In the present analysis, exhaust gas condition of the simple PDE in which no turbine or other obstacles are installed which is estimated by CFD is referred as a turbine inlet condition. About 65 % of enthalpy drop at the exit of the PDE occurs during the exhaust of high temperature combustion gas behind the detonation wave. Furthermore, turbine adiabatic efficiency map of a conventional turbine is taken into account. Approximately, 51-80% of enthalpy drop through the turbine can be extracted as a turbine power. Partial filling of the PDE tube has an effect of smoothing the peak of U/C0. Copyright © 2007 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Precooled turbojet engine flight experiment using balloon-based operation vehicle

    K Fujita, S Sawai, H Kobayashi, N Tsuboi, H Taguchi, T Kojima, K Okai, T Sato, K Miyaji

    ACTA ASTRONAUTICA   59 ( 1-5 ) 263 - 270  2006.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Development of the Balloon-based Operation Vehicle (BOV) is currently in progress for the first flight scheduled in 2006. In a series of BOV experiments, a vehicle in a wing-body configuration is lifted by a high-altitude balloon and dropped, after which the microgravity experiments will be performed onboard the vehicle under favor of the quasi-free-fall environments. Although the BOV is originally designed for the microgravity experiments, various types of experiments can also be performed in a hypersonic flight at lower altitudes. One candidate currently under review is a flight experiment of a precooled turbojet engine in reduced dimension. In this article, an overview of the BOV experiment is introduced, and the current development status of the BOV and a flight model of the precooled turbojet engine is presented. The aerodynamic load and the aerodynamic characteristics of the BOV are obtained by computational fluid-dynamic analyses and wind-tunnel experiments. (C) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI

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    17
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  • 極超音速予冷ターボジェットエンジンの開発研究,特集「国産ジェットエンジンの新展開」

    佐藤哲也, 田口秀之

    日本ガスタービン学会誌   34 ( 3 ) 199 - 204  2006

    CiNii

  • 冷却円柱周りの水蒸気の凝縮を含む流れの物質伝達(第2報)-表面温度120〜250Kにおけるミストの付着を伴う物質伝達-

    吹場活佳, 佐藤哲也, 坪井伸幸, 小林弘明

    日本航空宇宙学会誌   54 ( 629 ) 257 - 265  2006

     View Summary

    A study on mass flux of water vapor and mist around a cold cylinder (120–250K) was conducted by means of both experimental and numerical methods. The cylinder was placed in a forced convection air flow at a speed of 1m/sec. The experimental study revealed that the mass flux of the cylinder decreases rapidly under the temperature of about 200K. The mass flux at the cylinder temperature of 120K is one-sixth of that of 240K. The numerical study could simulate the mass flux around the cylinder in which we used a new phase change model with considering the transfer of the particles of mist. By this calculation we found some characteristics of the mass transfer of the cold cylinder which is unique when the temperature of the cylinder becomes cold enough to occur condensation.

    DOI CiNii

  • 冷却円柱周りの水蒸気の凝縮を含む流れの物質伝達(第1報)-表面温度120〜250Kにおける水蒸気の凝縮による質量流束の低下-

    吹場活佳, 佐藤哲也, 坪井伸幸, 小林弘明

    日本航空宇宙学会誌   53 ( 623 ) 577 - 585  2005.12

     View Summary

    A fundamental study for frost formation around a single cold cylinder was conducted using an experimental and numerical method. We focused on the mass transfer around the cylinder under the condition where phase change of the vapor in the flow occurs. By the experimental study, the mass transfer rate on the cold surface of the cylinder at a constant surface temperature (200–250K) was measured. The results show that the mass transfer rate decreases according to the decrease of the wall temperature below 230K, while it increases above 230K. This phenomenon can not be expressed by the common equation of Sherwood number in which the phase change of the vapor (condensation) is excluded. In the numerical study, we calculated the flow around the cylinder including the phase change of the vapor. The scheme for compressible flow was modified to be able to solve lower speed flow. As a result of the calculation we obtain same tendency as that of the experiment that the mass flux decreases at low temperatures where the phase change occurs.

    DOI CiNii

  • 矩形形状可変インテークのマッハ5空力特性

    小島孝之, 田口秀之, 岡井敬一, 小林弘明, 佐藤哲也

    日本航空宇宙学会誌   53 ( 622 ) 532 - 540  2005.11

     View Summary

    Aerodynamic performances of a rectangular intake were investigated experimentally. After a tradeoff study of rectangular intakes whose operative Mach number is from 0 to 6, 20% external compression intake is selected as the best intake from the viewpoint of low number of actuators. Intake performances such as total pressure recovery and mass flow ratio are evaluated by wind tunnel tests. The free stream Mach number of the wind tunnel was M5.1. The size of the intake was 75mm in cowl capture height. Low ramp driving force was achieved by connecting links of the second ramp and third ramp. After the first wind tunnel test that is performed to evaluate the basic performance of the intake, the configuration of the intake is modified. Ramp length of the first ramp and the second ramp were changed to improve the total pressure recovery. Bleed from the second ramp is added. Seal mechanism between the variable ramps and the sidewall is modified. Total pressure recovery is improved from 9.9% to 21.7% by the modifications.

    DOI CiNii

  • Development study of Mach 6 turbojet engine with air-precooling

    T Sato, H Taguchi, Kobayashi, I, T Kojima

    JBIS-JOURNAL OF THE BRITISH INTERPLANETARY SOCIETY   58 ( 7-8 ) 231 - 240  2005.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This paper discusses the current R&D status and plans concerning a Mach 6 turbojet engine with an air-precooling system for the first stage of a two-stage-to-orbit space plane (TSTO). An air-turbo ramjet engine with the expander-cycle (ATREX) has been designed and tested at sea level static conditions, which demonstrated the engine system and component performance. Experimental and numerical research of the components have also been conducted to build the fundamental technologies and to improve the engine performance. Some innovative ideas were proposed such as a multi-row-disk inlet and a defrosting method on precooler tubes using methanol. As the next step, the development of a subscale flight-type engine (S-engine) has started. The partial expander cycle was selected instead of the full expander cycle as the prototype engine cycle as a result of optimizing analyses. Total length and weight of S-engine are about 2.2 m and 100 kg respectively including a variable air-inlet and nozzle. Because S-engine will be tested in a flight demonstration program after ground tests, it must be designed with consideration of weight reduction as well as keeping of the high performance. The first engine flight test will be around Mach 2, using a balloon dropped test vehicle. This is scheduled in 2007 FY.

  • ロケットエンジンの信頼性解析におけるSix Sigma手法の導入

    小林弘明, 佐藤哲也, 棚次亘弘

    日本航空宇宙学会誌   52 ( 604 ) 214 - 219  2004.05

     View Summary

    Six Sigma is the management strategy developed by Motorola to reduce defects in products. Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) is a methodology for determining the values of the design parameters, which maximize the performance of some system without tightening the material, manufacturing or environmental tolerances. This paper presents the implementation of DFSS for redesign of the LE-7 engine. Uncertainties with design parameters and operational conditions are considered in evaluating thrust performance, thrust chamber life, turbo-pump cavitation, and combustion stability. Traditional deterministic optimization results and probabilistic optimization results are compared. It is found that robustness of rocket engine is not always consistent with the extension of thrust chamber life.

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  • Countermeasures against the icing problem on the ATREX precooler

    T Sato, N Tanatsugu, H Kobayashi, T Kimura, J Tomike

    ACTA ASTRONAUTICA   54 ( 9 ) 671 - 686  2004.05  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    An air-precooling system before compression is indispensable to extend the flight envelope and the improvement of the performance of turbo-based air breathing engines for the space plane. One of the critical problems on a shell-and-tube-type precooler is a deterioration of its heat exchange and pressure recovery performance due to the thick frost formation on its tube surface. An innovative method is proposed to mix a condensable additive like ethanol, methanol, etc. in the airflow as a defrosting system. The defrosting effectiveness and essential factors on the additive were investigated by using a small heat exchanger under two different cooling temperature conditions, that is, lower and higher cooling wall temperatures than the melting point of mixture of the water vapor and the additive. It was cleared in the test that most of the alcohols bad good effectiveness with methanol the best. This methanol addition concept was applied in the precooler of the practical ATREX engine. A methanol injection system worked well and the thick frost layer formed on the tube surface at the entrance side of precooler could be eliminated. The required methanol mass along the ATREX engine flight path is estimated to be less than 3% of fuel hydrogen consumption. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI

    Scopus

    21
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • Experimental study on restart control of a supersonic air-breathing engine

    T Kojima, T Sato, S Sawai, N Tanatsugu

    JOURNAL OF PROPULSION AND POWER   20 ( 2 ) 273 - 279  2004.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    To study the dynamic response of a supersonic airbreathing engine and establish control logic for intake unstart, restart control tests were conducted at Mach 3 using a subscale engine model consisting of an axisymmetric intake (inlet) and a turbojet. Assuming that the combustion flame is blown out by intake unstart, restart control follows a sequence. First, after a flow is started the turbojet engine is ignited. Second, the intake is started while the rotational speed and the combustion gas temperature of the core engine are controlled. Third, the intake spike position and the terminal shock position are controlled, and the intake total pressure recovery achieves the design value (60%). The tests were successful, and engine thrust was recovered at approximately 30-40 s after engine start-up. A sudden increase in combustion gas temperature and rotational speed occurred after intake unstart. To reduce the sudden increase in the gas temperature, a new sequence that involved closing a fuel control valve after detection of intake unstart was implemented, and the increase in gas temperature was reduced. To avoid intake buzz, buzz margin control using a bypass door was successfully implemented.

  • 凝縮性物質を用いた空気予冷却器(プリクーラ)の着霜軽減に関する研究

    木村竜也, 佐藤哲也

    日本航空宇宙学会誌   51 ( 598 ) 597 - 605  2003.11

     View Summary

    The effectiveness of a method to improve the precooler performance under frosting condition was investigated by experiments on a sub-scale heat exchanger model. Addition of a methanol proved to be most effective compared with other possible substances in both cases of low and high cooling wall temperature. Then the effectiveness of the methanol addition was ascertained for the practical condition that means the same tube configuration and flow velocity as the precooler designed for the ATREX engine firing test model. The result showed that the addition of the same quantity as the water vapor could restrain the frost layer from choking the flow in the duration of 300 seconds, which is sufficient time for precooler operation. The required methanol mass along the ATREX engine flight path was estimated to be less than 3% of fuel hydrogen on board. Accordingly, the method came to be promising candidate for practical application.

    DOI CiNii

  • 加減速環境下における超音速軸対称型インテークの制御に関する実験的研究

    小島孝之, 佐藤哲也, 棚次亘弘, 榎本吉也

    日本航空宇宙学会誌   51 ( 596 ) 459 - 468  2003.09

     View Summary

    A control system of variable geometry mixed compression axisymmetric intake is experimentally studied at ONERA S3 supersonic wind tunnel. The acceleration/deceleration of the space plane is simulated by changing the free stream velocity. The intake is successfully controlled with 90% of the maximum total pressure recovery and mass capture ratio. In this experiment, two subjects about control of axisymmetric intake are also cleared. First, the effect of the trapping of the terminal shock by bleed holes causes the disturbances in the terminal shock control system. Second, a special compression form change operation is necessary when the intake compression form change from all external compression to mixed compression.

    DOI CiNii

  • ATREXエンジンの研究開発

    棚次亘弘, 佐藤哲也, 小林弘明他

    宇宙科学研究所報告   特集号 ( 46 ) 1 - 245  2003

    CiNii

  • Applications of carbon-carbon composites to an engine for a future space vehicle

    H Hatta, K Goto, T Sato, N Tanatsugu

    ADVANCED COMPOSITE MATERIALS   12 ( 2-3 ) 237 - 259  2003  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Feasibility studies were carried out aiming at the application of carbon/carbon (C/C) composites to a turbine disk, heat exchangers, and a plug nozzle for an engine intended for use in a future reusable space vehicle. In these applications, the maximum temperature was estimated to be about 1500degreesC. In order to withstand this high temperature, attempts were made to utilize three-dimensionally reinforced C/C composites. The most serious problem encountered in the application of C/Cs to the turbine disk was the loss of fragments of the composite located near the outer periphery due to strong centrifugal force, which resulted in severe vibration due to rotational imbalance. The heat exchangers and plug nozzle have complex shapes in order to realize a large heat exchanging area. Joined structures were explored for these components. The principal effort in these applications has been placed on finding structures requiring low joining strength and developing materials with low gas leakage.

  • Carbon-carbon composite turbine disk for the air turbo ramjet engine (ATREX)

    K Goto, H Hatta, Y Kogo, H Fukuda, T Sato, N Tanatsugu

    ADVANCED COMPOSITE MATERIALS   12 ( 2-3 ) 205 - 222  2003  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    A feasibility study of three-dimensionally fiber-reinforced carbon-carbon composites (3DC/Cs) for application to a turbine disk of ATREX (Air turbo ramjet engine with expander cycle) was carried out. Spin burst tests at room temperature were conducted using 3D-C/C disks, and the fracture behaviors were characterized. A 3D-C/C disk was totally fractured at a peripheral speed of 516 m/s (r = 150 mm), which is sufficient for the ATREX application. However, fiber bundles at the disk periphery prematurely suffered micro-scale damage, and fragments of the fiber bundle unit flew out before total fracture occurred. In order to prevent the fly-out behavior, the disk was impregnated with Si only near its periphery. Although this treatment increased the initiation speed of the fly-out behavior, this improvement was considered insufficient for purposes of the ATREX application. Next, a simplified analysis was conducted to characterize the fly-out behavior. Based on this analysis, the following three measures were discussed: (1) decreasing bundle thickness (i.e. using fine fiber texture), (2) increasing toughness of the fiber bundle interface, and (3) minimizing local curvature in waviness of the fiber bundles in the circumferential direction.

  • 超音速エアブリージングエンジンの再始動制御に関する実験研究

    小島孝之, 佐藤哲也, 澤井秀次郎, 棚次亘弘

    日本航空宇宙学会誌宇宙技術   1   33 - 40  2002.12

    J-GLOBAL

  • Computational Analysis of the Flow Field Near the Boat-tail Region of Annular Plug Nozzles

    Fujii, K, Imai, K, Sato, T

    JSME International Journal, Series B   45 ( 4 )  2002.11  [Refereed]

  • 極超音速空気吸い込み式エンジンの最適設計

    小林弘明, 佐藤哲也, 棚次亘弘

    日本航空宇宙学会誌   50 ( 583 ) 335 - 342  2002.08

     View Summary

    The flight of Spaceplane is always under accelarating in the assent way and always under decelarating in the desent way and yet cruising in the return way. Besides, its flight envelope is considerably wider than that of airplane. Thus the integrated design method is required to build the best transportation system optimized taking into account the propulsion system and the airframe under the entire flight conditions. In this paper it is shown an optimization method on TSTO spaceplane system. Genetic algorithm (GA) was applied to optimize design parameters of engine, airframe, and trajectory simultaneously. Several types of engine were quantitatively compared using payload ratio as an evaluating function. It was concluded that precooled turbojets is the most promising engine for TSTO among Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) engines.

    DOI CiNii

  • A feasibility study of a new ATREX engine system of aft-turbine configuration

    K Isomura, J Omi

    ACTA ASTRONAUTICA   51 ( 1-9 ) 153 - 160  2002.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    A feasibility of ATREX (Air-Turbo-Ram Expander cycle) engine with conventional aft-turbine configuration has been studied to be developed in about 10 years, if the development project has started under enough resources. The novel tip-turbine of the original ATREX engine is replaced by a conventional aft-turbine, and the maximum turbine inlet temperature (TIT) is reduced to 1200K, to realize the engine by only using approved metal technologies of modem jet engines. The capability of the performance has been shown by parametric studies by changing components' design parameters. The study shows that the performance of the ATREX engine is not less than that of pre-cooled turbo jet.
    Some technical issues on developing the new ATREX engine have been addressed. The most important issue would come from the transient total temperature change due to the rapid acceleration from sea level static (SLS) condition (288K) to Mach 6 at 30km of altitude (1680K) in 6 minutes. The deformation due to transient thermal expansion has to be controlled. Especially, the change of the tip clearance and the clearance between rotors and stators are pointed out to be important design issues. The ATREX engine, which has shorter axial length and simpler rotor, has structural advantage over turbo jet. (C) 2002 International Astronautical Federation. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • Development Study on a Precooler for the Hypersonic Air-Breathing Engine

    SATO Tetsuya, TANATSUGU Nobuhiro, HARADA Kenya, KOBAYASHI Hiroaki, TOMIKE Jun'ichiro

    Journal of the Japan Society for Aeronautical and Space Sciences   50 ( 580 ) 196 - 203  2002.05

     View Summary

    Here is presented an experimental and analytical study on a precooler for hypersonic air-breathing engines. Precooling of the incoming air breathed by an air-inlet gives extension of the flight envelope and improvement of the thrust and specific impulse. Three precooler models were installed into an air-turbo ramjet engine and tested under the sea level static condition. When the fan inlet temperature was down to 180K, the engine thrust and specific impulse increased by 2.0 and 1.2 times respectively. Thick frost formed on the tube surfaces at the entrance part of the precooler blocked the air-flow passage. On the other hand, very thin frost formed at the exit part because the water vapor included in the air was changed to mist particles due to the low temperature of the air in this part. Parametric studies on the precooler design values and a sizing analysis were also performed. Decrease of tube outer diameters on the precooler is only way to increase heat exchange rates without increase of its weight and pressure loss.

    DOI CiNii

  • 極超音速空気吸い込み式エンジン用予冷却器(プリクーラ)の開発研究

    佐藤哲也, 棚次亘弘, 原田賢哉, 小林弘明, 富家純一郎

    日本航空宇宙学会誌   50 ( 580 ) 24 - 31  2002.05

  • Development Study of carbon-carbon composite turbine disk for ATREX

    Goto, K, Hatta, H, Sato, T, Tanatsugu N

    Journal of Space Technology and Science   15 ( 1 ) 21 - 26  2002

  • Development study of a precooler for the air-turboramjet expander-cycle engine

    K Harada, N Tanatsugu, T Sato

    JOURNAL OF PROPULSION AND POWER   17 ( 6 ) 1233 - 1238  2001.11  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    A review of the development of a precooler for the air-turboramjet expander-cycle (ATREX) engine is given. Three types of precooler for the ATREX engine ground-test model were designed, manufactured, and tested under sea-level static conditions. The results suggested two problems affecting the precooler performance, heat transfer rate and airflow pressure drop. One is nonuniformity of the airflow through the tube banks. The other problem is frost formation on the heat transfer surfaces. Concerning nonuniformity of airflow, the shell configuration was modified based on analysis by computational fluid dynamics calculation. To improve the precooler performance under frosting condition, a new method to add a condensable gas into the airflow was proposed and examined by experiments on a subscale heat exchanger model. Addition of a small quantity of ethanol can effectively restrain the decline of the precooler performance due to frost formation.

  • Development study on ATREX engine

    T Sato, N Tanatsugu, Y Naruo, J Omi, J Tomike, T Nishino

    ACTA ASTRONAUTICA   47 ( 11 ) 799 - 808  2000.12  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The study on ATREX engine (Air-Turbo Ramjet engine) development is being been conducted in ISAS since 1986 as a candidate fur the propulsion system of the fly-back booster up to Mach 6 on the reusable TSTO space plane. ATREX is a fan-boosted ramjet engine using liquid hydrogen as a fuel and coolant. Sea-level static firing tests of ATREX with precooling were carried out in parallel with the wind tunnel tests on the aerodynamic components such as air intake and plug nozzle. Further studies on precooler have been conducted not only for performance improvement but also for weight reduction to meet flight requirements.
    In 1998, a new type precooler (Type-III) was designed and tested. Its heat transfer performance could be improved by increasing its compactness using tubes of smaller in diameter as well as its weight could be reduced. On the other hand, some difficulties increased in its manufacturing due to larger number of tubes required. The new precooler performance on heat transfer and pressure loss compared with the old type of precoolers are presented here. The test results of ATREX engine installed with new precooler is presented.
    Some progress in aerodynamic studies on ATREX engine is also presented here. The control of the axisymmetric air inlet by capturing the terminal shock waves acid the reduction on boat tail drag of the plug nozzle were conducted in the wind tunnel. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 超音速機用軸対称型エアインテークの実験研究

    佐藤哲也, 高木郁男, 小島孝之, 小林弘明

    日本航空宇宙学会誌   46 ( 539 ) 651 - 659  1998.12

    CiNii

  • 極超音速飛翔体の機体予圧縮に関する数値解析

    小林弘明, 佐藤哲也

    日本航空宇宙学会誌   46 ( 532 ) 303 - 310  1998.05

     View Summary

    Air intake is one of the most important components for an airbreathing propulsion system of supersonic and hypersonic vehicles. Air intake can be evaluated by air mass capture ratio and total pressure recovery ratio. In higher Mach number flight condition, larger total pressure losses occurs in the compression processes of air intake and reduces the propulsion performance. By utilizing the precompression coming from oblique shocks generated underneath vehicle forebody, a part of functions loaded in air intake can be substituted by the forebody precompression, thereby overall propulsive performance is able to be improved effectively. In the present paper, the precompression effects given by nose shape of forebody and geometrical arrangement of air intake underneath fuselage were analyzed by CFD calculation using 3-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations.

    DOI CiNii

  • Development study on ATREX engine

    N Tanatusgu, T Sato, Y Naruo, T Kashiwagi, T Mizutani, T Monji, K Hamabe

    ACTA ASTRONAUTICA   40 ( 2-8 ) 165 - 170  1997.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    This is the status report of the development study on ATREX engine (Air Turbo Ramjet) that is now under way in the Instutute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) in cooperation with the Ishikawajima Harima Heavy Industries (IHI), the Kawasaki Heavy Industries (KHI), the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI). ATREX engine will be applied for the propulsion system of fly-back booster of TSTO space plane. ATREX is the fan-boosted ramjet producing the effective thrust from sea level static to flight Mach number 6. ATREX is worked on the expander cycle with precooling incoming air as shown in Fig.1. ATREX employs the tip turbine configuration which allows compactness and light weight of turbo machinery and the variable geometry airintake and plug nozzle which allows the wide range flight conditions.
    ATREX development study has been conducted with the sea level static tests since 1990. ATREX engine for tests is the scaled model designated by "ATREX-500" of which fan inlet diameter is 300 mm and overall length 2,200 mm. From 1992 have been performed the wind tunnel tests on the primary aerodynamic components such as the axisymmetric variable geometry air intakes, the precoolers and the variable geometry plug nozzles. The application study on advanced carbon-carbon composite for the tip-turbine and fan assembly has been conducted. This study status is presented in the another session of this IAF congress(1).
    The flight test of ATREX is now planning to verify the engine performance and functions in the practical flight conditions by using an unmanned flying test bench.
    In 1995 was tested ATREX-500 installing the precooler under the sea level static conditions to examine the engine performance and the icing problem on the precooler.
    The present paper addresses primarily the test results of precooled ATREX engine. (C) 1997 International Astronautical Federation. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • Development study on ATREX engine

    N. Tanatsugu, T. Sato, V. Balepin, Y. Naruo, T. Mizutani, T. Kashiwagi, K. Hamabe, J. Tomike, R. Minami

    Acta Astronautica   41 ( 12 ) 851 - 862  1997

     View Summary

    This is the status report of the development study on ATREX engine (Air Turbo Ramjet) that is now under way in the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) cooperation with the Ishikawajima Harima Heavy Industries (IHI), the Kawasaki Heavy Industries (KHI), the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI). ATREX engine will be applied for the propulsion system of fly-back booster of TSTO space plane. ATREX is the combined cycle (a fan-boosted ramjet) engine providing the effective thrust from sea level static to flight Mach number 6. ATREX is worked on the expander cycle with precooling the incoming air as shown in Fig. 1. ATREX employs the tip turbine configuration which allows the compactness and the light weight of turbo machinery and the variable geometry airintake and plugnozzle which allow the wide range operation conditions. From 1990 to 1992, "ATREX-500" has been tested at the sea level static conditions. ATREX-500 is the 1/4-scale model of which fan inlet diameter is 300 mm and overall length 2,200 mm. From 1992 have been performed the wind tunnel tests on the primary components of ATREX, the axisymmetric variable geometry airintakes, the precoolers and the variable geometry plug nozzles. In parallel to the windtunnel tests, the ram combusters have been tested simulating the hypersonic flight conditions and the application studies on advanced carbon-carbon composite for the tip-turbine and fan assembly has been proceeded. In 1994 initiated the flight test plan in which ATREX will be verified in the practical flight conditions by using an unmanned flying test bench. In 1995 will be tested ATREX-500 installing the precooler under the sea level static conditions to examine the engine performance and the icing on the precooler. The present paper addresses the high loading ram combuster experiment using the mixer with skewed lobes to generate swirl flow and the analytical studies and the designs on the precooler and the precooled ATREX engine and the flight test plan. © 1998 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI

    Scopus

    20
    Citation
    (Scopus)
  • スクラムジェットエンジンの不始動遷移および再始動遷移機構に関する非定常的研究

    佐藤哲也, 梶昭次郎

    日本航空宇宙学会誌,Vol.42,No.491,pp.46-53   42 ( 491 ) 46 - 53  1994.12

    CiNii

  • スクラムジェットエンジンの複合閉塞による不始動遷移に関する数値解析(第1報)剪断流における複合閉塞

    佐藤哲也, 梶昭次郎

    日本航空宇宙学会誌   41 ( 476 ) 27 - 35  1993.09

     View Summary

    Unstart phenomena due to compound choking of airframe-integrated scramjet engine inlets were investigated numerically. The compound choking is a phenomenon caused by interaction between the main flow and the boundary layer flow ingested into engines. The numerical analysis was performed by using a one-dimensional two-stream-tube model and a quasi-three dimensional MacCormack differential model. The two-stream-tube model allowed to predict the choking condition at the throat from the given inlet conditions of stream tubes. The results of both analyses coincide qualitatively, and it is shown that the boundary layer flow spreads and pushes out the main flow in engine inlets, and that engines designed assuming a uniform inlet flow can be made unstart easily because of the existence of a low flow speed region like a boundary layer. When side walls of engines sweep backward, the transition from start to unstart is rather continuous and the inlet performance at unstart conditions is not so badly deteriorated as the performance of inlets without sweep.

    DOI CiNii

  • Development Study on Air Turbo Ramjet for a Future Space Plane

    Tanatsugu, N, Naruo, Y, Sato, T, Rokutanda, I

    Journal of Space Technology and Science   8 ( 2 ) 38 - 48  1992

    CiNii

  • 翼端部捩りが翼列性能に及ぼす効果とその最適化

    佐藤哲也, 梶昭次郎

    日本ガスタービン学会誌   17 ( 66 ) 19 - 26  1989.06

▼display all

Books and Other Publications

  • 機械工学便覧(γ編,γ11 宇宙機器・システム), 3.1.1節「ターボ系ジェットエンジン」担当

    日本機械学会編

    丸善株式会社  2007.01

  • 航空宇宙工学便覧(第3版) C3.5.3「エア・ターボ・ラムジェットエンジン」

    日本航空宇宙学会編

    丸善株式会社  2005.11

Presentations

  • Development status of a hypersonic precooled turbojet engine

    60th International Astronautical Congress 

    Presentation date: 2009.10

  • THE PROPELLANT MANAGEMENT OF THE PRECOOLED TURBOJET ENGINE

    60th International Astronautical Congress 

    Presentation date: 2009.10

  • Development Status of A Precooled Turbojet Engine

    27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science 

    Presentation date: 2009.07

Research Projects

  • Hypersonic Airframe/Engine Integration Experiment Using a Sounding Rocket FTB

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research

    Project Year :

    2020.08
    -
    2025.03
     

  • Three Dimensional Air Intake Geometry Optimization and Total Energy Efficiency Improvement of Supersonic Flight Vehicle Conidering Boundary Layer Ingestion

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research

    Project Year :

    2021.04
    -
    2024.03
     

  • Improvement of the heat exchanger performance by recucing frost formation on nano unever surface using an anodic osidation method

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research

    Project Year :

    2019.06
    -
    2022.03
     

    Sato Tetsuya

     View Summary

    We demonstrated the frost formation reduction effect by the nanostructured superhydrophobic material using anodization, and developed a simulator of the frost layer growth that supports a wide cooling surface temperature range.
    As a result, by imparting super-hydrophobicity to the aluminum material, frost formation delay was confirmed on the cooling plate with a relatively high temperature (-8℃) because of the delay in freezing of the supercooled droplets. On the other hand, the frost formation was delayed on the ultra-low temperature circular tube (-180℃) due to the frost blowing off.
    We constructed the simulator by incorporating a model that combines the sublimation condensation and the mist generation to be applied to a wide range of cooling surface temperatures from freezing points to extremely low temperatures.

  • 液体水素を用いた配管予冷の革新的高効率化手法の実証実験

    Project Year :

    2017.04
    -
    2020.03
     

     View Summary

    本研究では液体燃料を使用するロケットの打ち上げ作業において,作業時間およびコストの面で支配的要因となっている「配管予冷」の問題に対し,配管表面に低熱伝導率の被膜を塗布することで沸騰伝熱を促進する革新的技術により予冷時間の短縮と燃料消費量の大幅な削減を図る。当初計画されていた「極低温流体を用いた予冷の現象の解明」および「さらなる予冷促進手法の提案・検証」について、ほぼ計画どおりに実施することができた。令和元年度は予冷を高効率化するための手法の改善を試みた。新たに低熱伝導率の被膜を縦横数mm間隔で施す方法を提案し、これが予冷促進に極めて有効であることを示した。本手法は平成30年度に行ったナノファイバーによる予冷促進法をさらに改良することで生まれた新しい方法である。今回採用した手法では、銅板露出面と低熱伝導率被膜面を交互に設けることで、気泡発生に必要な高温面と、上方にある液が予冷面表面に流れ込むために必要な低温面を同時に生成することで沸騰伝熱を促進したと考えられる。ナノファイバーを用いた手法では無垢銅板面に対し予冷時間が1/3程度に短縮されたが、低熱伝導率被膜を縦横数mm間隔で施す手法では予冷時間が約1/5程度となった。また研究結果について、上記のナノファイバーによる予冷促進法について国際学術誌にて公表したほか、研究分担者らの液体水素の流動様式に関する研究成果も国際誌にて発表された。令和元年度最後に計画されていたJAXA能代実験場における液体水素予冷実験についてはコロナウイルス蔓延の影響があり翌年度に延期されることとなった。令和元年度が最終年度であるため、記入しない。令和元年度が最終年度であるため、記入しない

  • 数値解析による静粛超音速インテークのバ ズ発生予測

    宇宙航空研究開発機構 航空技術本部  公募型研究

    Project Year :

    2016.04
    -
    2019.03
     

  • Development Study of High Mach Integrated Control of the Hypersonic Demonstration Vehicle Installing the Air-Breathing Engine, "HICICO"

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research

    Project Year :

    2015.04
    -
    2018.03
     

    SATO Tetsuya, KOBAYASHI Hiroaki, SUZUKI Kojiro, MATSUO Akiko, TEZUKA Asei, MORINO Yoshiki, AOKI Takahira, YOKOZEKI Tomohiro, UEDA Shuichi, HIRAIWA Tetsuo, KOJIMA Takayuki, NAKAYA Shinji

     View Summary

    The research targets are to clear the mutual interference effects of aircraft / propulsion of a hypersonic transportation using an air-breathing engine and to carry out the integrated control demonstration experiment under Mach 4 condition at the RJTF facility using a subscale vehicle “HIMICO”. Each unit performance and integration performance of the aircraft and propulsion systems were acquired and its database was constructed. Based on the results, an experimental model with a total length of 1.5 m, experimental platform, fuel supply system and control measurement system were designed and manufactured. In addition, we summarized the future flight demonstration test of HIMICO using the sounding rocket by examing the orbit, outfitting, separation mechanism etc

  • エアブリーザー搭載再使用二段式輸送機のデザイン創成

    Project Year :

    2014
    -
     
     

  • Development of the dynamic simulator for the hypersonic turbojet engine including unsteady phenomena

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research

    Project Year :

    2010.04
    -
    2013.03
     

    SATOU Tetsuya

     View Summary

    We developed a dynamic simulator for the hypersonic precooled turbojet including the unsteady models of the inlet unstart phenomenon and flow properties of two-phase hydrogen flow. Wind tunnel tests and numerical simulation clarify that the amplitude and frequency of the inlet buzz are determined by the inflow and outflow balance of the inlet and the duct volume located after the inlet. A capacitance-type void fraction meter was newly developed and relationship between the quality and heat transfer rate of the nitrogen was researched. The dynamic simulation agrees with the engine firing test

  • 極超音速エンジン用可変インテークの始動性評価に関する研究

    Project Year :

    2013
    -
     
     

  • 極低温推進系計測制御技術の研究

    Project Year :

    2013
    -
     
     

  • 極超音速機用インテーク計算への適用による高速ソルバFaSTERの検証・宇宙航空研究開発機構 研究開発本部 数値解析グループ

    Project Year :

    2009
    -
    2013
     

  • 極超音速コアエンジン制御技術の研究・宇宙航空研究開発機構 研究開発本部 ジェットエンジン技術研究センター

    Project Year :

    2009
    -
    2012
     

  • Fundamental Research for Silent Supersonic Transport Based on Supersonic Biplane Theory

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research

    Project Year :

    2007
    -
    2009
     

    OBAYASHI Shigeru, ASAI Keisuke, NAGAI Hiroki, SASOU Akihiro, KAWAZOE Hiromitsu, MATSUNO Takashi, NAKAHASHI Kazuhiro, MATSUSHIMA Kisa, JEONG Shinkyu, TSUBOI Nobuyuki, NAKAMURA Yoshiaki, MIYAJI Kouji, SATO Tetsuya, MATSUO Akiko, SAWAI Syujiro, FUJITA Kazuhisa, KOBAYASHI Hiroaki, TAGUCHI Hideyuki

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    Supersonic Biplane Theory is a concept of eliminating wave drag and sonic boom by using shock wave interaction between two airfoils facing each other. The following research topics are investigated in this research to construct and validate the theory : Definition of three-dimensional wing configuration and its optimization, Investigation of low speed characteristics of supersonic biplane by using CFD and EFD, Supersonic wind tunnel test of starting process of three-dimensional supersonic biplane, Free flight experiment of supersonic biplane using ballistic range

  • Fundamental Study of the Jet Defrosting Method on a Cryogenic Heat Exchanger

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research

    Project Year :

    2007
    -
    2008
     

    SATOU Tetsuya, FUKIBA Katsuyoshi

  • DEVELOPMENT STUDY ON TURBINE DISK MADE OF C/C COMPOSITE SUBJECTED TO HIGH TEMPERATURE ENVIRONMENT

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research

    Project Year :

    1999
    -
    2002
     

    HATTA Hiroshi, SATO Tetsuya, MINESUGI Kenji, TANATSUGU Nobuhiro, KOGO Yasuo, GOTO Ken

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    A feasibility study of three-dimensionally fiber-reinforced carbon-carbon composites (3D-C/Cs) for application to a turbine disk of ATREX (Air-turbo-ramjet engine with expander cycle) was carried out. Spin burst tests at room temperature were conducted using 3D-C/C disks, and the fracture behaviors were characterized. A 3D-C/C disk was totally fractured at a peripheral speed of 516 m/s (r = 150 mm), which is sufficient for the ATREX application. However fiber-bundles at the disk periphery prematurely suffered micro-scale damage, and fragments of the fiber bundle unit flew out before total fracture occurred. In order to prevent the fly-out behavior, the disk was impregnated with Si only near its periphery. Although This treatment increased the initiation speed of the fly-out behavior, this improvement was considered insufficient for purposes of the ATREX application. Next, a simplified analysis was conducted to characterize the fly-out behavior. Based on this analysis, the following three measures were discussed: (1)decreasing bundle thickness, (i.e.,using fine fiber texture),(2)increasing toughness of the fiber bundle interface, and (3)minimizing local curvature in waviness of the fiber bundles in the circumferential direction. The third countermeasure was found to be most effective and disks minimizing local curvature were verified to satisfy ATREX requirement.In addition to above study, experiments to confirm durability of 3D-C/Cs were carried out. This category of study included, high temperature behavior, creep, fatigue, and notch insensitivity. The 3D-C/Cs were found to possess sufficient above durability for the ATREX application

  • Wind Tunnel Testing for Air-breathing Engines of Space Planes

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research

    Project Year :

    1998
    -
    2000
     

    TANATSUGU Nobuhiro, ARAI Takakage, ABC Takashi, KUBOTA Hirotoshi, SATO Tetsuya, NARUO Yoshihiro

     View Summary

    Wind tunnel test methods on the air-breathing engine for the reusable space planes were researched under the actual flight conditions. A control method of the air-inlet by adjusting its shape was proposed and confirmed in the ONERA S3 supersonic wind tunnel. This test was successfully conducted in the variable Mach number conditions, which simulated the accelerating and decelerating conditions of the actual flight. An unsteady control method when the compression form changed was established. Some problems were cleared by comparing with the CFD analysis. Now the inlet control test with a small turbojet engine for a model plane in the supersonic wind tunnel is planned. The control scquences including in case of the inlet unstart and restart will be constructed in the test. As for the total engine system, the firing test of the air-turbo-ram jet engine was conducted under the sea-level static. The frost formation problem was especially investigated in the test and countermeasures against it were proposed and verified. Some lobe type mixers were tested in the ram combustor test. Platinum catalytic igniters were also tried in this combustion test, which was cooperated with ENSMA in France. We reserached some wind tunnels and measurement systems in USA, France and also discussed with foreign research on the future overall engine testing in the supersonic and hypersonic wind tunnel

  • Research on Combustion Fluctuation and Compound Choking in SCRAM Jet Engines

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research

    Project Year :

    1997
    -
    2000
     

    KAJI Shojiro, SATO Tetsuya, WATANABE Toshinori

     View Summary

    The most important problems in supersonic combustion ram jet engines (SCRAM) which are suitable for hypersonic transports and space planes are the phenomena such as thermal choking and compound choking. In the case of integrated SCRAM engines, the boundary layer flow which is developed along the vehicle fuselage is sucked into engines with the main flow. The flow tube of the boundary layer and that of the main flow have the same total temperature but different total pressures and Mach numbers. When they coexist in the engine they behave quite queerly against the cross-sectional area change in the engine and heat addition in each flow tube. The main flow tube is easily choked at supersonic conditions because of the existence of the boundary layer flow, where the static pressure balance is kept between two flow tubes. This phenomenon is called compound choking.The purpose of the present research is to investigate the details of choking phenomena in SCRAM engines and to find out the control rule which is necessary for stable operation of SCRAM engines.In order to realize choking in SCRAM engines, an engine module of 30mm×32.6mm frontal cross section was put in the supersonic wind tunnel of 100mm×100mm cross section driven by the vitiated air of temperature 2000K (maximum) at Mach number 2.0. Self-ignition was realized by injecting hydrogen fuel into the engine module. From the pressure signals measured on the engine wall, it was recognized that supersonic combustion was realized while the injection pressure of hydrogen was low. But when the injection pressure was increased the pressure inside the engine increased indicating subsonic combustion. In such circumstances the region of high pressure was observed to extend in sequence from downstream to upstream in the engine and it finally fell into the unstart condition

  • 極低温冷媒を用いた空気予冷却器の着霜防止に関する研究

     View Summary

    ターボジェットエンジンの飛行領域を極超音速領域まで拡大し、比出力、比推力を向上させるために、取り込んだ空気を熱交換器(空気予冷却器)で冷却してファンに送り込む空気予冷却というシステムが有望である。しかし、このシステムにおいて、主流中の水分が空気予冷却器の冷却面で凝結して伝熱性能を劣化させることが問題となっている。本研究ではこの問題に対し、主流空気中に凝縮性ガスを混入することにより、霜層内部の空隙を充填し密度を増加させ、霜層厚さの成長を緩和する方法を提案し、要素モデルにより実験した。まず、数種類の凝縮性ガスを主流空気と混入することによって、混入ガスのどの様な性質が重要であるかを調査し、アルコールが効果的であり、中でもメタノールが最適であることを示した。また、着霜低減のメカニズムを解明し、物質の親水性と融点降下作用が非常に重要であること、冷却面の温度によって着霜軽減メカニズムが異なることを明示した。次に、メタノールの主流に対する適正混合比を把握するために、メタノールの混合比を変化させて実験を行い、主流中の水蒸気量に対して、圧力損失の低減という観点からは0.5倍、伝熱性能低下の防止という観点からは1.2倍のメタノールを混合すればよいことが分かった。また、主流の相変化が着霜へどのように影響するかを調べるため、当実験の冷却面温度でも相変化が起きる二酸化炭素を主流として用いて実験を行い、主流の相変化により着霜量は増加するが、これに対してもメタノールの混合は効果的であることを確認した。最後に、具体的なエンジンに搭載する方法についても検討を行い、液体水素を燃料とするスペースプレーン用ターボジェットエンジンにおいては、燃料の約3%のメタノールが必要であることを示した

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Sub-affiliation

  • Faculty of Science and Engineering   Graduate School of Fundamental Science and Engineering

  • Affiliated organization   Global Education Center

Research Institute

  • 2022
    -
    2024

    Waseda Research Institute for Science and Engineering   Concurrent Researcher

Internal Special Research Projects

  • 極低温冷却面におけるミスト化による着霜低減に関する実験的研究

    2023  

     View Summary

     本研究では、極低温伝熱面上での着霜に特有な現象である「ミスト化(空気中の水蒸気が伝熱面近傍の温度境界層内で凝縮・凝固し、微細な液滴や氷結晶となる現象)」に着目し、開発中の着霜シミュレータへの実装に向けたデータの獲得や新しい着霜低減法への応用を目指して、基礎的な実験調査を行った。伝熱面温度の低下に伴い、着霜の主要因が過冷却液滴の凍結、水蒸気の昇華凝結、ミストの沈着と変化するが、特に極低温域での着霜メカニズムは未解明であり、データも希少である。本研究で獲得した実験データは、極超音速航空機用プリクーラ(空気/液体水素熱交換器)や冷凍空調用熱交換器などの着霜予測や着霜低減の実現の基礎となり、学術的、工業的観点でも意義が大きい。以下に、成果をまとめる。 実験は、保有する着霜風洞で実施した。精密空調機で温湿度を調整した空気を流し、風洞内の冷却平板上での着霜とミスト化を観察した。本研究では、霜質量の計測に加えて、霜の二次元形状やミスト層の高さの計測、霜の微細結晶の構造観察、熱電対を用いた温度境界層の温度計測を行った。非接触かつ連続的に計測可能な光切断法を応用した計測手法を考案し、霜の二次元形状やミスト層高さを精度0.15 mmの誤差で計測した。また、霜微細結晶の観察結果では、伝熱面上で位置や時間によって形成される霜結晶の構造が異なることを定量的に確認した。上記のほかにも、ミスト層の高さや温度境界層内の温度変化などが取得された。さらに、新たな着霜低減法として、核生成との核となるエアロゾル粒子を空気中に混入して意図的にミスト化を促進する手法の検証も行った。エアロゾルの混入によって、昇華凝結での霜形成がわずかに遅延する様子が観察できたが、着霜量や霜厚さへのエアロゾル粒子の混入の影響は小さく、有意な着霜低減効果は確認できなかった。

  • 静電容量式探針型ボイド率センサーの開発研究

    2022  

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    本研究では、静電容量式探針型ボイド率計を新規開発し、実験によって原理検証を行った。探針型ボイド率計は局所的なボイド率変化が計測可能で、極板型センサーと組み合わせることで気液二相流内部の構造などを詳細に把握することができる。常温シリコンオイルと空気を用いた実験で、試作した探針プローブ(長さ5.8 mm、間隔1.65 mm)で気泡を探知できることを確認した。しかし、気泡の位置によって探知感度が異なるという課題が生じ、電場解析の結果、プローブの根元部分で著しく感度が低くなることがわかった。さらに、液体窒素のキャビテーション計測を実施し、極低温下でも使用可能であることを確認した。今後は、プローブの形状の変更等による上述の課題解決と精度向上を図る。

  • 深層学習を用いた気液二相流用非接触マルチメータの基礎研究

    2021  

     View Summary

    &nbsp; The principle of a gas-liquid two phase flow multimeter using a capacitive void fraction sensor and deep learning technique was developed. The multimeter can be applied to various fluids and flow styles. &nbsp; We created a database of the flow rate and void fraction of gas and liquid by an experiment in a horizontal pipe using silicon oil / air flow. As a deep learning method, a multi-class classifier has been developed using a bidirectional long short-term memory network (BLSTM), which is suitable for learning the data including time-series information. This classifier has two BLSTM layers with 320 hidden units.&nbsp; As a result, the discrimination accuracy of the classifier is about 60%. Most of the misclassifications are those with adjacent gas phase flow rates, followed by those with adjacent void fraction ratio. To clarify the cause of the misclassification, the output of the network was analyzed by dimensional compression using the t-SNE method. In addition, using an index “ambiguity”, the relationship between misclassification and the mean value and fluctuation of the void fraction was investigated. We will improve the accuracy of classification and develop a regressor that detects continuous flow rates.

  • 超音速インテークの横滑り特性に関する研究

    2020  

     View Summary

    本研究は、JAXAと大学が共同で提案した極超音速統合制御実験(HIMICO)用可変インテークの横滑り角特性の調査である。実験はJAXA相模原の超音速風洞を用い、主流マッハ数3.4とした。TPR-MCR(全圧-流量)線図からは、始動時に出口ノズルを閉めた時、β=0°時にはMCRがほとんど低下せずTPRが上昇するに対し、β=5°時にはMCRが低下し、TPRがほとんど変化しないという特徴が得られた。これらの性能差は、インテーク内部における圧縮/膨張領域での渦、剥離の形成とそれに伴う衝撃波構造の変化であると推察した。今後は詳細な流れ場を数値解析によって検証する予定である。

  • 境界層吸い込みによるエンジン性能低下を加味した抵抗低減効果に関する研究

    2019  

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    境界層吸い込み(Boundary Layer Ingestion ; 以下BLI)とは、航空機の機体表面に発生する境界層をエンジンに吸い込ませることによって、機体の抵抗を減少させ、燃費の改善を達成するものである。一方、エンジン側では、速度・全圧ディストーションを有する境界層を吸い込むことにより、性能が低下する。本研究では、JAXAの共同研究として、BLIと非BLIの場合を模擬した翼型(模擬機体)で風洞実験を行い、抗力低減効果により約8%のファン必要動力の低減を確認した。また、境界層を吸い込んだファンについて数値計算を行い、BLIによる流れ場の変化を評価し、ファン性能の低下の原因を調査した。

  • 陽極酸化法を用いたナノ凹凸面での着霜低減と伝熱促進による熱交換器の性能向上

    2018  

     View Summary

     現在、開発中の極超音速用予冷ターボジェットは、液体水素を冷媒とする熱交換器(プリクーラ) を搭載しているが、プリクーラ伝熱面への着霜現象が問題となっている。本特定研究課題ではAl伝熱管表面に陽極酸化法によるナノスケールの微細表面処理加工を施し、着霜低減の効果を確認することを目的とした。実験の結果、表面処理材は非処理材に比べて、伝熱管全体への着霜量が6~9%程度減少するとともに、主流によってより多くの霜が吹き飛ばされる現象が観察された。これは、撥水性により表面自由エネルギーが小さくなり、霜の付着力が減少したことに起因すると考えられる。今後は、SUS316Lの陽極酸化手法に挑戦する。

  • 水素気液二相流のボイド率計測技術の確立と流動特性の解明

    2018  

     View Summary

    早稲田大学ではJAXAと連携し、液体水素を燃料とする極超音速用予冷ターボジェットの研究を行っている。液体水素は配管内で気液二相流状態となるが、流動や熱物性に関する知見は少ない。そこで本研究では、極低温流体に適用可能な高精度なボイド率測定技術を開発し、6.5%の精度でボイド率計測が可能であることを示した。また、これまでにほとんど明らかにされてこなかった沸騰水素のボイド率とクオリティの関係について実験的に整理し、既存モデルの組み合わせで4%の精度で相互に換算可能であることを示した。流動様式については気泡流から間欠流、間欠流から環状流への遷移条件に着目し、予測モデルを構築することに成功した。

  • ナノスケールの表面改質による極低温熱交換器の着霜遅延化と流体と着霜との連成解析

    2017  

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    地上静止状態からマッハ5の広範囲を単一機構で運用できる極低温空気予冷器(プリクーラ)を搭載した予冷ターボジェットエンジンを提案しているが,プリクーラへの着霜が問題となっている.本研究課題においては陽極酸化処理とフッ素処理により超撥水性を付与したアルミニウム製伝熱管を用いて,その着霜抑制の有効性を確認する事を目的とし,また独自の2次元着霜モデルを提案し霜層の成長を数値解析にて予測する事を目的とした.低速風洞での着霜試験では着霜質量が10~17%程度減少した一方で,撥水性が霜層密度を減少させることも分かった.数値解析では低コストで精度の良いモデルを開発した.今後は実機材質のSUS316L材へと拡張させて研究を行う.

  • 静粛超音速機用インテークのバズ発生限界の推定

    2017  

     View Summary

    現在JAXAで研究開発が進められている静粛超音速機用インテークバズ現象について、数値流体解析による現象解明を行った。インテークバズは低流量作動領域で発生する衝撃波の自励振動で、インテーク形状や主流条件、後方の圧力条件等、様々な要因によって特性が異なり、バズの発生条件やメカニズムに関する知見は十分ではない。本研究の結果、始動状態からバズに遷移する途中に微小振動を伴う剥離状態があることを見出した。また、機体とインテークを統合した数値解析をJAXAで実施した風洞実験と比較し、バズが発生する条件が一致し、インテーク単体の場合とは条件が異なることを確認した。

  • 再使用二段式輸送機の機体/インテークの統合設計および空力性能評価

    2015  

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    本研究では、二段式スペースプレーン(TSTO)機に搭載が検討されているロケット複合サイクル(RBCC)エンジンのエジェクタジェットモード作動時とインテーク不始動時におけるインテーク性能と流れ場の様子をRANSによる粘性数値解析を用いて調査した。主流条件としては、離陸速度である主流Mach数0.5およびインテークが不始動状態となるMach 2.0、動圧50kPaとした。その結果、主流Mach数0.5においてエジェクタ効果により吸い込み空気量が11.9%増加することおよびランプ面静圧が5〜10%低下していることを確認した。一方、主流Mach 2.0においては、従来システム検討に使用していた簡易推算法に比べて、6.7%空気吸い込み流量が低くなった。その理由として、インテークが不始動に陥ることにより、ランプ面途中で大規模な剥離が生じていることを明らかにした。また不始動の剥離点の圧力上昇について前向きステップや過膨張ノズルと同様にArensの自由干渉理論による結果とよく一致することがわかった。

  • 極超音速機の機体/エンジンの相互干渉の解明と統合制御

    2014  

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    極超音速空気吸込式エンジンを用いた航空宇宙輸送機の開発をブレークスルーするため、飛行実験による機体/推進統合制御技術の実証を提案している。本特定課題研究においては、鍵技術である極超音速矩形インテークに対して、数値解析および超音速風洞試験によって、空力性能を取得することを目的とした。飛行実証機と同サイズの小型模型のMach4超音速風洞試験を実施し、従来の模型と比較することで、サイズの違いによるRe数の効果を調査した。流量捕獲率と全圧回復率の最高性能に関しては、ほぼ同じになるが、作動範囲が狭くなることがわかった。今後は、データベースの構築と飛行実験の詳細検討を実施する。

  • 極超音速用三次元形状インテークの新設計手法の構築と高性能化基盤技術の実証

    2013  

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     本研究では、三次元Busemannインテークの等エントロピ圧縮による高性能という長所を活かし、始動性の悪化や長さが長くなるという短所を克服すべく、新形状のインテークを設計し、風洞実験およびCFD解析によって性能の実証を行うことを目的とした。今年度の研究成果を以下に示す。 第一に、Taylor-Maccoll方程式およびStreamline traced techniqueを用いて、性能を落とすことなく、長さを短縮できるインテーク形状を設計した。従来の入口楕円-出口矩形インテークと比べ、入口部を半楕円、半矩形型に変えることにより、二次流れを軽減させることができた。 第二に、非粘性計算によって、5種類の形状の異なるインテークを解析した。Streamline traced technique を用いて設計した切り込みを持つインテークは、設計の元となった軸対称形状と同等の性能が得られることが確認された。また、改良型である前述の楕円、半矩形型インテークは、矩形入口形状に比べ長さを16.3 %短縮でき、同じ長さの楕円入口形状に比べ、全圧損失を8.9 %減少させることができた。非設計点マッハ数においては、いずれの形状も良い性能を示した。 第三に、超音速風洞実験(JAXA相模原キャンパスの超音速風同実験装置を借用)によって、楕円、半矩形型インテークの性能を検証した。複雑形状である本インテークを光造型技術を用いて製作することによりコストを低減した。金属材料に比べて、強度が弱い部分を金属板で補強することにより、風洞実験に耐えうる強度を確保した。風洞装置の故障により、Mach 2条件のみで実験を行った。下部カウルの位置による離脱衝撃波の位置や振動の様子などの流れ場の変化を確認した。風洞実験を粘性および非粘性の数値解析と比較し、衝撃波の位置が異なることにより、最大壁面静圧で、約10%の差異を生じた。 以上、ほぼ計画通りに進み、外部講演3件、修論1編、卒論1編の成果をあげることができた。この結果を踏まえ、更なる改良設計と高マッハ数での性能評価を実施する予定である。

  • 極低温気液混相流用ボイド率/流速センサーの開発研究

    2012  

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     本研究では、ロケットエンジンや極超音速予冷ターボジェットエンジン(PCTJ)の燃料である極低温液体水素の二相流状態における流動特性を解明するため、主要パラメタであるボイド率計を開発、高度化することを目的とし、実験的に検証した。研究成果を以下に示す。 第一に、これまで研究を進めていた静電容量型ボイド率メータ(液相と気相の誘電率の違いを利用している)に関して、課題となっていた温度ドリフトを是正する手法(配管材質の選定と電極サイズの調整)を確立し、温度ドリフトをおよそ1/10に低減することに成功した。 第二に、観測ロケットを用いた液体水素流動試験に搭載するための小型ボイド率を開発した。主な課題である、小型化、部品点数の削減(耐振動、耐加速度)、ノイズの減少、極板位置の精度向上を実施した。また、自作Cメータの回路設計、製作を実施し、十分な精度が得られることを確認した。 第三に、これまで使用していたボイド率計測の理論式について検証を行うために、電場解析を実施し、理論値、実験値と比較した。また、内部の流動様式をトモグラフィの原理を用いて、静電容量から逆投影法による解析手法を検討し、予備実験を行った。 第四に、市販流体解析ソフトopen formを用いて、二次元の気液二相流の解析を行い、実験結果を補間した。今後、自作の二相流解析スキームを構築する予定である。 第五に、本静電容量型ボイド率計を応用した、クオリティーメータを提案、試作した。クオリティを直接計測する方法は、これまで実施例がみられず、画期的なものである。 第六に、ステレオ撮影によって得られた画像に関して、光学式疑似三次元画像解析手法を確立し、光学的にボイド率を計測した。次にあげる液体窒素を用いた実験で、静電容量型ボイド率計と比較を行い、計測精度を確認し、本手法が時間分解能の高いことを実証した。 上記で構築した技術は、液体窒素を用いた流動実験(東北大学の試験装置を使用)により、確認し、問題点を抽出した。 以上、研究計画で示されていた項目はほぼ実施され、所定の成果をあげ、講演1件を行い、査読論文を投稿中である。今後は、この結果を踏まえ、小型ボイド率計、トモグラフィ手法、クオリティ計測手法を洗練し、実用化に向けた研究を実施する予定である。

  • 液体水素を燃料とする超音速ターボエンジンの非定常シミュレータの開発研究

    2009  

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     本研究では、将来の極超音速輸送機に向けてJAXAで研究開発中の極超音速予冷ターボジェットエンジンを対象とし、非定常シミュレータを構築することを目的とした。 まず、非定常的要素の強い、液体水素の相変化を含めた熱流動特性を解明し、モデル化を行うため、気液二相流に関する実験を行なった。静電容量型ボイド率計と高速度ビデオ撮影(画像判別法)によるボイド率計測という二つの手法を構築し、水-空気、軽油-空気について適用した。その結果、5%以下の精度でボイド率計測が可能であることを確認した。さらに、これらを水素を用いた予備実験で適用したところ、二相状態においては定量的にボイド率が計測されることや、超臨界時の密度変化による静電容量の変化を捉えることができた。一方、極低温による静電容量の温度ドリフトという問題点が明らかになった。また、同時に圧力損失を計測し、水素二相流におけるクオリティと摩擦係数に関する定性的な評価を行った。今後は、実験の精度を向上させ、また、伝熱特性を評価することで、二相流状態の熱流体特性のモデル化を行なう予定である。 第二に、汎用性のある非定常シミュレータの枠組みを構築し、実際の予冷ターボエンジン燃焼実験との比較を行なった。解法としては、エンジン内の各流体機器を1ないし2つの要素としてモデル化し、流体の保存方程式を解くボリュームジャンクション法を採用した。圧縮機はP-Qマップを用いてモデル化し、バルブやタービン等においてはチョーク計算を導入した。実験結果と比較したところ、定量的にもおおよそ一致し、この手法が有効であることが確かめられた。また、エンジンがウインドミル作動している状態についても、圧縮機の流体抵抗をモデル化し、組込むことによって再現することができた。 本研究によって、エンジン非定常シミュレータの完成に近づくとともに、液体水素燃料のマネジメントに関する貴重なデータを取得することができた。

  • 極超音速エアインテークの遷音速特性に関する研究

    2009  

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     本研究では、極超音速/超音速空気吸込み式エンジンに使用するエアインテーク(空気取入口)の遷音速時における非定常特性を解明することを目的とし、超音速風洞実験によってインテークバズという非定常現象を実験的に調査した。 インテークバズとは、遷音速領域(Mach 1.3-2.0)において、インテーク表面の境界層剥離によって起こる自励振動で、エンジンの停止や構造破壊を起こす危険性があるため、エアインテークの作動領域が狭くなるという問題が生じている。そこで、JAXAで開発中の予冷ターボジェットエンジンの矩形インテークモデルを新規に設計、製作し、Mach 2-3の風洞実験によって、遷音速領域における空力特性データを取得するとともに、バズの発生しない安定作動領域を調査した。 実験の結果、本エアインテークモデルにおいて、始動状態または不始動状態からバズへと遷移する現象を観測した。このとき、性能曲線上において流量捕獲率は減少し、全圧回復率は上昇することがわかった。シュリーレン撮影と非定常圧力計によって、バズの振動周波数は20 ~ 30 Hzであることが観測され、ランプ側の流れが剥離していることより、Dailey型バズであることを確認した。また、インテークのスロート面積を小さくしていくにつれて、バズの周波数が減少し、最終的にバズが停止することを確認した。さらに、亜音速ディフューザの後ろ側にバイパスドアを設け、そこから抽気をすることによって、バズを停止させる手段を提案し、実証した。 現在は、実験と並行して、CFD解析によって風洞実験で見えなかったインテーク内部流れの様子を検証することを試みている。今後の課題としては、バズの発生タイミングを明確化すること、抽気量のバズに対する影響を調査すること、バズの周波数の支配パラメタを明らかにすることがあげられる。

  • 液体水素ターボエンジンの起動制御に関する研究

    2008  

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     本研究では、小型の液体水素ターボエンジンの起動制御手法を確立するために、熱物性モデルを組込んだ非定常シミュレーションを実施し、実験と比較した。 対象としたエンジンは、JAXAで研究開発中の予冷ターボエンジン(Sエンジン)である。Sエンジンの燃料制御、特に主燃焼器の起動時には、無冷却タービンの温度制限値(950 ℃)を越えないように、かつ、目標回転数へと短時間で到達させなければならない。さらに、液体水素が供給されると配管やバルブの熱容量により蒸発し、流調弁において、気相、気液二相、液相と変化し、密度が急激に変動する。この急激な密度変動を制御することが、極めて難しく、これまでのエンジン試験でも運転シーケンスは確立していない。 本解析では、市販のプラント用非定常解析コード(DYNSIM; Invensys Process Systems社製)に自作の液体水素伝熱流体モデルを組込んだ。配管やバルブなどを要素に区切り、物質収支、熱収支、圧力バランス等の微分方程式をオイラー法で解くものである。各要素には、材質、形状、CV値、熱物性値、摩擦係数等を与える。 熱物性モデルに関しては、流調弁の上流側は、超臨界の単相熱伝達を仮定し、変化の激しい下流側は配管を10個のセグメントに分割し、それぞれのセグメントごとに、流体のクオリティ、伝熱面過熱度に応じて場合分けし、熱伝達率を計算した。蒸発器の出口以降は、完全に気相であるため単相強制対流熱伝達とした。なお、圧力損失に関しては、全ての領域で単相を仮定した。 実験は、JAXA大樹宇宙実験場において2008年11月に行なわれた。水素流量の時間変化を比較したところ、定性的な傾向はあっているものの、定量的には大きくずれている。ずれの要因としては、二相状態の熱伝達解析の誤差や流調弁のCV値の推測誤差が考えられる。また、シミュレーション結果によると流調弁の位置とオリフィスの位置で、非定常的に流量が一致していないことがわかった。今後、物性モデルの高精度化を実施する。

  • ジェット噴射による極低温熱交換器の着霜低減に関する基礎研究

    2007  

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    液体水素燃料を冷熱源とした熱交換器(プリクーラ)の問題である冷却管への着霜問題を解決することを目的とし、空気ジェットによって霜層を吹き飛ばす手法を提案して、実験的に実証した。過去の研究より、層の性状は冷却面温度に大きく影響を受けることが分かっており、冷却面温度をパラメタとして、霜の性状とジェットによる吹き飛び効果の関係を調査した。実験方法を以下に述べる。SUS製の熱交換器に冷媒を供給し、調温調湿空気供給装置から供給される湿り空気と熱交換させる。熱電対と差圧計により熱交換器の熱交換量と全圧損失を計測することにより、熱交換器の性能を定量的に評価した。冷媒としては代替フロン系冷媒および液体窒素を使用し、冷却管表面温度は、Tw =250, 220, 83 Kの3種類とした。空気側の速度は着霜していないときに1 m/sとし、ジェットの速度は、冷却管の前面において36 m/sとした。以下に、実験結果を示す。ジェットによる除霜をしない場合、全圧損失は冷却面温度Twが低いほど大きく、実験開始後100秒時において、Tw = 80 Kの場合は、Tw = 250 Kの場合の約10倍の全圧損失上昇となった。ジェットを間欠的(50秒に1度)に噴射し除霜を試みた結果、Tw = 80 Kの場合は、噴射した瞬間には着霜のないときとほぼ同じ圧力損失に回復した。すなわち、本手法の除霜の効果は確認された。一方、Tw = 220 Kの場合には除霜の効果は弱く、Tw = 250 Kに至っては効果は見られなかった。これは、表面温度が高い場合には、霜層の表面温度が上がり、液相となり、それが霜層内部に浸透することにより、密度が大きく固い霜層になることが原因であると予想した。しかしながら、先に述べたように、Tw = 250 Kの場合には、霜層による圧力損失自体が小さいことより、問題は小さいと考える。今後は、実際の熱交換器に近い形で定量的な調査を行う一方で、エンジンの圧縮機からの抽気をジェットとして利用するシステムを構築する予定である。

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