Updated on 2022/05/26

写真a

 
MASAKI, Hiroaki
 
Affiliation
Faculty of Sport Sciences, School of Sport and Sciences
Job title
Professor

Concurrent Post

  • Faculty of Sport Sciences   Graduate School of Sport Sciences

  • Affiliated organization   Global Education Center

Research Institute

  • 2018
    -
    2023

    スポーツ脳科学研究所   プロジェクト研究所所長

Education

  •  
    -
    1997

    Waseda University   Graduate School, Division of Human Science  

Degree

  • 早稲田大学   博士(人間科学)

Professional Memberships

  •  
     
     

    Society for Psychophysiological Research

  •  
     
     

    日本体育学会

  •  
     
     

    日本健康心理学会

  •  
     
     

    日本スポーツ心理学会

  •  
     
     

    日本生理心理学会

  •  
     
     

    日本脳波・筋電図学会

  •  
     
     

    日本心理学会

▼display all

 

Research Areas

  • Sports sciences

  • Experimental psychology

Research Interests

  • Sport Psychology, Psychophysiology, Cognitive Neuroscience

Papers

  • A possibility of error‐related processing contamination in the No‐go N2: The effect of partial‐error trials on response inhibition processing

    Yuya Maruo, Hiroaki Masaki

    European Journal of Neuroscience   55 ( 8 ) 1934 - 1946  2022.04  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Corresponding author

    DOI

  • Measuring Task-Related Brain Activity With Event-Related Potentials in Dynamic Task Scenario With Immersive Virtual Reality Environment

    Masashi Arake, Hiroyuki Ohta, Aki Tsuruhara, Yasushi Kobayashi, Nariyoshi Shinomiya, Hiroaki Masaki, Yuji Morimoto

    Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience   16   779926  2022.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Measurement of event-related potentials (ERPs) in simulated and real environments is advantageous for understanding cognition and behavior during practice of goal-directed activities. Recently, instead of using task-irrelevant “probe stimuli” to elicit ERPs, extraction of ERPs directly from events that occur in simulated and real environments has drawn increased attention. Among the previous ERP studies using immersive virtual reality, only a few cases elicited ERPs from task-related events in dynamic task settings. Furthermore, as far as we surveyed, there were no studies that examined the source of ERPs or correlation between ERPs and behavioral performance in 360-degree immersive virtual reality using head-mounted display. In this study, EEG signals were recorded from 16 participants while they were playing the first-person shooter game with immersive virtual reality environment. Error related negativity (ERN) and correct-(response)-related negativity (CRN) elicited by shooting-related events were successfully extracted. We found the ERN amplitudes to be correlated with the individual shooting performance. Interestingly, the main source of the ERN was the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which is different from previous studies where the signal source was often estimated to be the more caudal part of ACC. The obtained results are expected to contribute to the evaluation of cognitive functions and behavioral performance by ERPs in a simulated environment.

    DOI

  • 小学生を対象とした包括的支援体制による食育と体力向上プログラムの開発及びその試み

    田口素子, 遠藤有香, 原 丈貴, 高田和子, 正木宏明, 高木俊

    日本食育学会誌   15 ( 4 ) 197 - 208  2021.10  [Refereed]

  • The effects of viewing cute pictures on performance during a basketball free-throw task

    Yoshikawa, N., Masaki, H.

    Frontiers in Psychology   12   610817  2021.04  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Previous studies have shown that viewing cute pictures leads to performance improvement in a subsequent fine motor task. We examined the beneficial effects of viewing cute pictures in a more complex sporting skill (i.e., basketball free throws) by comparing three conditions (viewing baby animal pictures, adult animal pictures, and no pictures) and two tests (no-pressure and pressure). The participants, all of whom were college basketball players, performed 16 free throws in each condition. In the no-pressure test, male participants improved performance after viewing pictures of baby animals but not after adult animals and no pictures. In the pressure test, no significant improvement was observed. For female participants, the cuteness-viewing effect was not observed in both tests. The results suggest that viewing cute pictures may improve performance during basketball free throws in a low-pressure situation by narrowing the breadth of attentional focus and inducing approach motivation and caregiving behaviors.

    DOI

  • Neural correlates underpinning synchronized movement of double scull rowers

    Hirao, T, Masaki, H

    Scientific Reports   11 ( 1 ) 2981  2021.02  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Corresponding author

     View Summary

    <title>Abstract</title>We investigated the neural correlates underpinning synchronized movement in rowers using a neural index for social interaction termed the phi complex. Phi 1 and phi 2 indicate the enhancement and reduction of mirror neuron activation, respectively. We hypothesized that in a leader–follower relation, followers would exhibit a larger phi 2 power than leaders due to enhanced mirror neuron activation by the followers to accurately mimic their partner’s movements. We also expected that brain activation underlying social interaction would be enhanced during synchronization. Although phi 2 was not modulated by role (leader vs. follower) or condition (usual-pair vs. unusual-pair), the statistical analysis suggested the relationship between the magnitude of phi 2 and empathetic ability in followers in the usual-pair condition. Given that the activation of the mirror neuron system underlies empathic ability, it is plausible that the participants used the mirror neuron system to follow the movement of a usual partner. In other words, the leader in the synchronization did not need to use the mirror neuron system, which was consistent with the result of a larger phi 1 for leading than following the movement. These results suggest that the neural correlates of empathy may be used to synchronize with partners as the follower.

    DOI

  • Medial frontal negativities predict performance improvements during motor sequence but not motor adaptation learning

    Matsuhashi, T, Segalowitz, S.J, Murphy, T.I, Nagano, Y, Hirao, T, Masaki, H

    Psychophysiology   58 ( 1 ) e13708  2021.01  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

    DOI

  • Effects of viewing cute pictures on quiet eye duration and fine motor task performance

    Yoshikawa N, Nittono H, Masaki H

    Frontiers in Psychology   11   1565  2020.07  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    We investigated if viewing cute pictures could improve fine motor skills and prolong quiet eye (QE) duration. QE is a gaze phenomenon, and its duration (i.e., the period between fixation onset preceding a critical movement and fixation offset) is thought to represent attention control. As it has been reported that QE duration is longer for expert athletes than for novice athletes in various sports and becomes shorter even for experts who choke under pressure during games, resulting in performance deterioration, QE prolongation is important to prevent choking under pressure. Separately, several studies have confirmed that viewing cute pictures can induce focal attention, thus improving performance in fine motor tasks. We hypothesized that viewing cute pictures may modulate attention control and prolong QE duration. We also tested if the beneficial effects of viewing cute pictures could be obtained in a high-pressure situation in which participant performance was evaluated by an experimenter. We used a fine-motor task requiring participants to use a pair of tweezers to remove 12 small pieces from holes in a game board. We randomly assigned participants to either the baby-animal pictures group or the adult-animal pictures group, based on pictures viewed prior to the task. Participants executed the task in a pre-test, post-test, and pressure test. In both the post-test and the pressure test, participants viewed seven photographs of either baby animals or adult animals before execution of the task. In accordance with previous research, task precision increased after viewing pictures of baby animals in both the post-test and pressure test. Furthermore, QE duration was also prolonged after viewing cute pictures in the post-test, but not in the pressure test. Neither performance improvement nor QE prolongation was found after viewing pictures of adult animals. These results suggested that simply viewing cute pictures could prolong QE duration without pressure and might provide a beneficial effect on performance, even in a high-pressure situation.

    DOI PubMed

  • Difference in interoception between long-distance runners and sprinters —An ERP study

    Hirao, T, Vogt, T, Masaki, H

    Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise   52 ( 6 ) 1367 - 1375  2020.06  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

    DOI

  • 経頭蓋交流電気刺激による前帯状回機能の制御

    小野田慶一, 正木宏明

    脳神経内科   93 ( 1 ) 60 - 65  2020

  • The effects of computer-based and motor-imagery training on scoring ability in lacrosse

    Hirao, T, Masaki, H

    Frontiers in Psychology   11   1588  2020  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Corresponding author

  • Anterior insula activity and the effect of agency on the stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN)

    Hackley, S.A, Hirao, T, Onoda, K, Ogawa, K, Masaki, H

    Psychophysiology   57 ( 4 ) e13519  2020  [Refereed]  [International journal]

    Authorship:Last author

     View Summary

    If you know that you are the author of a freely chosen action and that you bear responsibility for its outcome, then you are said to have "a sense of agency." When there is a delay between action and outcome, this response must be remembered if you are to learn from the experience. Previous studies have shown that the Stimulus-Preceding Negativity (SPN) recorded during the delay interval is larger under conditions that foster a sense of agency. In an EEG experiment (N = 27), we confirmed that the SPN is larger when participants have a choice between two responses in a gambling task as compared to when there is only a single button and the computer determines the monetary outcome. This SPN agency effect was largest over right prefrontal cortex and it did not vary significantly between trial blocks in which only gains or only losses were possible. Participants in a second experiment (N = 26) performed the same task while activity in anterior insular cortex, a known SPN generator, was measured via functional magnetic resonance image (fMRI). An essentially identical pattern of results was obtained: Activity was greater on choice than no-choice trials, especially for the right hemisphere, and no effect of contextual valence was observed. Although parallel observations such as these cannot warrant causal inference, our findings are consistent with the assumption that anterior insular cortex contributes to the effect of agency on the SPN.

    DOI PubMed

  • Effects of Unilateral Hand Contraction on The Persistence of Hemispheric Asymmetry of Cortical Activity

    Hirao, T, Masaki, H

    Journal of Psychophysiology   33 ( 2 ) 119 - 126  2019.04

    Authorship:Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Abstract. Athletes who squeezed a ball with their left hand immediately prior to execution of sports activities did not show performance deterioration under severe pressure ( Beckmann, Gröpel, &amp; Ehrlenspiel, 2013 ). This result has been explained by priming of the dominant right hemisphere. However, it remains unclear what variables have the greatest effect on asymmetrical brain activity (e.g., duration and strength of ball squeezing). We hypothesized that squeezing a ball harder for a longer period might lead to stronger asymmetrical activity because motor-related areas would have increased activation due to the more forceful movement. We used electroencephalograms (EEGs) to investigate the hemispheric asymmetry of brain activity produced by squeezing a ball with a unilateral hand. EEGs were assessed during a baseline period as well as in eight experimental conditions wherein the strength and duration of the ball squeeze were manipulated. Our results showed that right-hemispheric-dominant brain activation was maximized when participants squeezed with their left hand a ball that had an internal pressure of 100 hPa for 90 s or 20 hPa for 30 s. Moreover, squeezing the ball with 100 hPa internal pressure for 90 s created a prominent interhemispheric asymmetry of cortical activity. We suspect that squeezing a ball strongly for a long period might be helpful in dealing with “choking” under pressure by producing greater right-hemispheric activation. This result could help improve simple methods for competitive athletes to reduce the likelihood of exhibiting choking behavior that could be practiced with minimal effort, even during short breaks during a game.

    DOI

  • Effects of acute aerobic exercise on cognitive flexibility required during task-switching paradigm

    Bae, S, Masaki, H

      13   260  2019  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Corresponding author

    DOI

  • 悪い動きの癖をなおす心理学的支援-ICCプログラムの試み-

    正木宏明

    体育の科学   68  2018.08  [Invited]

  • Feedback-related electroencephalogram oscillations of athletes with high and low sports anxiety

    Masaki, H, Hirao, T, Maruo, Y, Fot,i D, Hajcak, G

    Frontiers in Psychology   9   1420  2018.08  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

    DOI

  • Long-distance runners and sprinters show different performance monitoring - An event-related potential study

    Maruo, Y, Murphy,T.I, Masaki, H

    Frontiers in Psychology   9 ( MAY ) 653  2018.05  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Previous findings have reported that track and field athletes may monitor and utilize internal information, including anxiety level, suggesting that the ability to inwardly monitor one's own functioning and utilize anxiety are required to achieve superior performance. Performance monitoring has been investigated using two event-related potential components
    the error (-related) negativity (Ne/ERN) and error positivity (Pe). It is unknown whether performance monitoring differs among various types of athletes. It has also been reported that Ne/ERN amplitude is increased in individuals who are more anxious and the prevalence and effect of anxiety also differs among various types of athletes. In this study, we recorded both Ne/ERN and Pe from long-distance runners (n = 24) and sprinters (n = 24) while they were performing a spatial Stroop task under motivation and no motivation conditions. We also collected scores on the Sport Competitive Anxiety Test (SCAT). Mean error rate on incongruent trials was lower in the motivation condition than in the no motivation condition. There was neither group effect, nor condition effect found in Ne/ERN amplitude. However, for the long-distance runners, Pe amplitude was larger in the motivation condition than in the no motivation condition. We also investigated the relationships between Ne/ERNs and individual differences in performance anxiety using the SCAT. A multiple linear regression analysis in the motivation condition revealed an interaction between type of runner and SCAT scores, indicating that long-distance runners with higher SCAT scores showed larger Ne/ERN amplitudes whereas the sprinters with high SCAT scores tended to exhibit smaller Ne/ERN amplitudes. Our findings provide further evidence that performance monitoring differs across various types of athletes.

    DOI

  • Acute and long-term effects of resistance training on executive function

    Soga, K, Masaki, H, Gerber, M, Ludyga, S

    Journal of Cognitive Enhancement   2 ( 2 ) 200 - 207  2018.05  [Refereed]

  • Modulation of spatial attentional allocation by computer-based cognitive training during lacrosse shooting performance

    Hirao, T, Masaki, H

    Frontiers in Psychology   8  2018.01

    Authorship:Corresponding author

    DOI

  • The effect of monetary punishment on error evaluation in a Go/No-go task

    Maruo, Y, Sommer, W, Masaki, H

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY   120   54 - 59  2017.10  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Little is known about the effects of the motivational significance of errors in Go/No-go tasks. We investigated the impact of monetary punishment on the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) for both overt errors and partial errors, that is, no-go trials without overt responses but with covert muscle activities. We compared high and low punishment conditions where errors were penalized with 50 or 5 yen, respectively, and a control condition without monetary consequences for errors. Because we hypothesized that the partial-error ERN might overlap with the no-go N2, we compared ERPs between correct rejections (i.e., successful no-go trials) and partial errors in no-go trials. We also expected that Pe amplitudes should increase with the severity of the penalty for errors. Mean error rates were significantly lower in the high punishment than in the control condition. Monetary punishment did not influence the overt-error ERN and partial-error ERN in no-go trials. The ERN in no-go trials did not differ between partial errors and overt errors; in addition, ERPs for correct rejections in no-go trials without partial errors were of the same size as in go-trial. Therefore the overt-error ERN and the partial-error ERN may share similar error monitoring processes. Monetary punishment increased Pe amplitudes for overt errors, suggesting enhanced error evaluation processes. For partial errors an early Pe was observed, presumably representing inhibition processes. Interestingly, even partial errors elicited the Pe, suggesting that covert erroneous activities could be detected in Go/No-go tasks.

    DOI

  • Brain activities associated with learning of the Monty Hall Dilemma task

    Takahiro Hirao, Timothy I. Murphy, Hiroaki Masaki

    PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY   54 ( 9 ) 1359 - 1369  2017.09  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    The Monty Hall Dilemma (MHD) poses a counterintuitive probabilistic problem to the players of this game. In the MHD task, a participant chooses one of three options where only one contains a reward. After one of the unchosen options (always no reward) is disclosed, the participant is asked to make a final decision: either change to the remaining option or stick with their first choice. Although the probability of winning if they change is higher (2/3) compared to sticking with their first choice (1/3), most people stick with their original selection and often lose. In accordance with previous research, repetitive exposure to the MHD task increases the change behavior without any obvious understanding of the mathematical reasons why changing increases their chance of being rewarded. We recorded the stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN), an ERP that might reflect the informative value of the feedback. In the second half of the task, feedback was predicted to be less informative because learning had taken place. Indeed, the SPN amplitude became smaller over the frontal region. Also, the SPN amplitude was larger for change than for stick trials. These results suggest that learning in the MHD might be manifest in affective-motivational anticipation as indicated by the SPN.

    DOI

  • Aerobic Exercise During Encoding Impairs Hippocampus-Dependent Memory

    Keishi Soga, Keita Kamijo, Hiroaki Masaki

    JOURNAL OF SPORT & EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY   39 ( 4 ) 249 - 260  2017.08  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    We investigated how aerobic exercise during encoding affects hippocampus-dependent memory through a source memory task that assessed hippocampus-independent familiarity and hippocampus-dependent recollection processes. Using a within-participants design, young adult participants performed a memory-encoding task while performing a cycling exercise or being seated. The subsequent retrieval phase was conducted while sitting on a chair. We assessed behavioral and event-related brain potential measures of familiarity and recollection processes during the retrieval phase. Results indicated that source accuracy was lower for encoding with exercise than for encoding in the resting condition. Event-related brain potential measures indicated that the parietal old/new effect, which has been linked to recollection processing, was observed in the exercise condition, whereas it was absent in the rest condition, which is indicative of exercise-induced hippocampal activation. These findings suggest that aerobic exercise during encoding impairs hippocampus-dependent memory, which may be attributed to inefficient source encoding during aerobic exercise.

    DOI

  • Neural Correlates of Choking Under Pressure: Athletes High in Sports Anxiety Monitor Errors More When Performance Is Being Evaluated

    Hiroaki Masaki, Yuya Maruo, Alexandria Meyer, Greg Hajcak

    Developmental Neuropsychology   42 ( 2 ) 104 - 112  2017.02

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

    DOI

  • IZOF理論-スポーツ行動時のポジティブ状態とネガティブ状態

    正木宏明

    自動車技術   70 ( 10 ) 45 - 50  2016.10  [Invited]

  • Fitness and ERP Indices of Cognitive Control Mode during Task Preparation in Preadolescent Children

    Keita Kamijo, Hiroaki Masaki

    FRONTIERS IN HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE   10   e21598  2016.08  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    A growing number of studies conducted over the past decade have demonstrated that greater aerobic fitness is associated with superior cognitive control in preadolescent children. Several studies have suggested that the relationship between fitness and cognitive control may be attributed to differential reliance on proactive vs. reactive cognitive control modes. However, this contention has remained speculative, and further studies are needed to better elucidate this relationship. We designed the present study to test the hypothesis that use of cognitive control modes would differ as a function of childhood fitness. We compared performance of lower-fit and higher-fit children on a modified AX-continuous performance task, commonly used to examine shifts in the use of proactive and reactive control, along with cue-P3 and contingent negative variation (CNV) of event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Results indicated that higher-fit children exhibited greater response accuracy for BX (non-target cue target probe) relative to AY (target cue - non-target probe) trials, whereas lower-fit children had comparable response accuracies for AY and BX trials. Because enhanced BX performance and impaired AY performance may be attributed to the proactive use of context information, these results suggest that greater childhood fitness is associated with more effective utilization of proactive control. Higher-fit children also exhibited larger cue-P3 amplitude and smaller CNV amplitude for BX relative to AY trials, with no such effect of trial type in lower-fit children. These ERP results suggest that greater fitness is associated with more effective utilization of cue information and response preparation more appropriate to trial type, supporting the behavioral findings. The present study provides novel insights into the relationship between fitness and cognition from the perspective of cognitive control mode during task preparation.

    DOI

  • The Association of Childhood Fitness to Proactive and Reactive Action Monitoring

    Keita Kamijo, Seongryu Bae, Hiroaki Masaki

    PLOS ONE   11 ( 3 ) e0150691  2016.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Several studies have claimed that the positive association between childhood fitness and cognitive control is attributable to differences in the child's cognitive control strategy, which can involve either proactive or reactive control. The present study tested this hypothesis by manipulating the probability of trial types during a modified flanker task. Preadolescent children performed mostly congruent and mostly incongruent conditions of the flanker task, with post-error task performance and error negativity/error-related negativity (Ne/ERN) being assessed. Results indicated that greater aerobic fitness was related to greater post-error accuracy and larger Ne/ERN amplitudes in the mostly congruent condition. These findings suggest that higher-fit children might be able to transiently upregulate cognitive control by recruiting reactive control in the mostly congruent condition. Further, greater fitness was related to greater modulation of Ne/ERN amplitude between conditions, suggesting that higher-fit children engaged in more proactive control in the mostly incongruent condition. This study supports the hypothesis that greater childhood fitness is associated with a more flexible shift between reactive and proactive modes of cognitive control to adapt to varying task demands.

    DOI

  • Impacts of motivational valence on the error-related negativity elicited by full and partial errors

    Yuya Maruo, Annekathrin Schacht, Werner Sommer, Hiroaki Masaki

    BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY   114   108 - 116  2016.02  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Affect and motivation influence the error-related negativity (ERN) elicited by full errors; however, it is unknown whether they also influence ERNs to correct responses accompanied by covert incorrect response activation (partial errors). Here we compared a neutral condition with conditions, where correct responses were rewarded or where incorrect responses were punished with gains and losses of small amounts of money, respectively. Data analysis distinguished ERNs elicited by full and partial errors. In the reward and punishment conditions, ERN amplitudes to both full and partial errors were larger than in the neutral condition, confirming participants' sensitivity to the significance of errors. We also investigated the relationships between ERN amplitudes and the behavioral inhibition and activation systems (BIS/BAS). Regardless of reward/punishment condition, participants scoring higher on BAS showed smaller ERN amplitudes in full error trials. These findings provide further evidence that the ERN is related to motivational valence and that similar relationships hold for both full and partial errors. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

    DOI

  • Effects of acute exercise on executive function in children with and without neurodevelopmental disorders

    Soga, K, Kamijo, K, Masaki, H

    The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine   5 ( 1 ) 57 - 67  2016  [Refereed]  [Invited]

    DOI

  • Stimulus-preceding negativity represents a conservative response tendency

    Takahiro Hirao, Timothy I. Murphy, Hiroaki Masaki

    NEUROREPORT   27 ( 2 ) 80 - 84  2016.01  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Humans tend to be conservative and typically will retain their initial decision even if an option to change is provided. We investigated whether the stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN), an event-related potential associated with the affective-motivational anticipation of feedback in gambling tasks, represents the strong response tendency to retain an initial decision. We compared SPNs in three different card-gambling tasks wherein the participants were given the opportunity to change their initial decision after they chose one of three cards. In two of these tasks, the winning probability was equiprobable (1/3 and 1/2, respectively) whether or not the participants changed their initial decision. However, in the Monty Hall dilemma task, changing the initial decision stochastically doubled the probability of winning (2/3) compared with retaining (1/3). In this counterintuitive probabilistic dilemma task, after the participant chose an option among three cards, a nonreward (losing) option is revealed. Then, the participants are offered a chance to change their mind and asked to make their final decision: to retain their initial choice or change to the alternate option. In all tasks, maintenance of previous behaviors was observed, although the rate of retaining earlier choices tended to be lower in the Monty Hall dilemma task than in the other two tasks. The SPNs were larger on retain trials than on change trials irrespective of task. These results suggest that underlying brain activities associated with the strong tendency to retain the initial decision can be observed by the SPN and thus it reflects expectancy of outcomes in terms of self-chosen behaviors.

    DOI

  • The functional significance of the skilled performance positivity: An update

    Hiroaki Masaki, Lu Xu, Naoya Taima, Timothy I. Murphy

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY   98 ( 1 ) 44 - 53  2015.10  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    The skilled performance positivity (SPP) emerges approximately 450 ms after button presses in a skilled performance task (SPT) where the participant is required to initiate a visual sweep with a left-hand button press and then stop it with a right-hand button press within a predetermined time frame (ranging from 40 to 60 ms). The SPP has been thought to represent appraisal of performance results independent of the reafferent activity, and reported to reduce in amplitude following inaccurate timing performance. We hypothesized that reduced SPP on incorrect trials merely indicates superimposition of the feedback-related negativity (FRN) that is elicited by negative outcomes, because the right-hand button press not only stops the visual sweep but also presents visual feedback. Further, we assumed that the SPP essentially represents a P300 elicited by the visual feedback. To address these questions, we compared the SPT condition and a delayed-feedback (DFB) condition where feedback was presented approximately 1 s after the left-hand button press. We observed the SPP only in the SPT condition, and found feedback-elicited P300s in the DFB condition. Both of these positivities shared a similar scalp distribution. We also replicated the reduced SPP on incorrect trials that shared a similar topography with the FRN elicited by the negative feedback. According to these findings, it is reasonable to conclude that the SPP represents the feedback-elicited P300, and after incorrect performance an FRN is superimposed on it. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Task difficulty mediates the association between childhood fitness and cognitive flexibility

    Kamijo, K, Masaki, H

    In K. Kanosue (Ed.), Sport Science Series on "Active Life". Springer    2015

  • The structure of motor programming: evidence from reaction times and lateralized readiness potentials.

    Xu Lu, Sommer Werner, Masaki Hiroaki

    Psychophysiology   52 ( 1 )  2015  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    :There is a widely accepted notion that movement elements are assembled prior to movement execution in a central motor programming stage. However, it is not clear how this stage is structured-whether it is a unitary stage allowing different motor parameters to cross talk or whether there are several independent processes dealing with each motor parameter. We addressed this question by orthogonally manipulating two movement-related factors: response sequence complexity and movement duration. Both factors yielded main effects on reaction time but no interaction. Additive effects of both factors on the onsets of response- but not stimulus-synchronized lateralized readiness potentials suggest separable motoric loci of sequence complexity and duration. These findings are at variance with the notion of a unitary movement programming stage.

    DOI PubMed

  • Task difficulty affects the association between childhood fitness and cognitive flexibility

    Keita Kamijo, Hiroaki Masaki

    Sports Performance     91 - 101  2015.01

     View Summary

    In this chapter we provide additional insight into the association between aerobic fitness and cognitive flexibility in preadolescent children. We compared lower-fit and higher-fit children&#146
    s task performance during the Trail Making Test (TMT). The TMT consists of two parts. TMT-A requires participants to draw a line connecting 25 randomly positioned numbers in numerical order, while TMT-B asks them to draw a line connecting numbers and letters in an alternating order. That is, the TMT-B necessitates greater cognitive flexibility than the TMT-A. Analyses revealed that higher-fit children exhibited superior task performance relative to lower-fit children for the TMT-A, corroborating previous findings indicating the general nature of the relationship between fitness and cognition in preadolescent children. In contrast, task performance did not differ between the fitness groups for the TMT-B. Thus, the positive association between aerobic fitness and cognitive flexibility disappeared, likely because the cognitive task was too difficult for preadolescent children. This result indicates that task difficulty affects the association between fitness and cognitive control during childhood.

    DOI

  • On the structure of movement preparation: Inferences from motor schema theory

    Lu Xu, Werner Sommer, Hiroaki Masaki

    Sports Performance     59 - 66  2015.01

     View Summary

    In the first part of this chapter we review the schema theory of motor control (Schmidt 1975). We emphasize its two main components, generalized motor programs (GMP) and parameterization. Accumulated evidence suggests the independence of GMP and parameterization. However, there is no consensus whether or not they proceed in a fixed order with the assembly of GMPs first, followed by parameterization. These questions could be studied in more detail by using event-related brain potentials. We review this approach in the second part.

    DOI

  • パフォーマンスモニタリングに及ぼす聴覚性罰刺激の効果

    丸尾祐矢, 正木宏明

    生理心理学と精神生理学   32 ( 1 ) 29 - 40  2014.11  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author

    DOI

  • Gray matter volume and rapid decision-making in major depressive disorder

    Masayuki Nakano, Koji Matsuo, Mami Nakashima, Toshio Matsubara, Kenichiro Harada, Kazuteru Egashira, Hiroaki Masaki, Kanji Takahashi, Yoshifumi Watanabe

    PROGRESS IN NEURO-PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY & BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY   48   51 - 56  2014.01  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Background: Reduced motivation and blunted decision-making are key features of major depressive disorder (MDD). Patients with MDD show abnormal decision-making when given negative feedback regarding a reward. The brain mechanisms underpinning this behavior remain unclear. In the present study, we examined the association between rapid decision-making with negative feedback and brain volume in MDD.
    Methods: Thirty-six patients with MDD and 54 age-, sex- and IQ-matched healthy subjects were studied. Subjects performed a rapid decision-making monetary task in which participants could make high-or low-risk choices. We compared between the 2 groups the probability that a high-risk choice followed negative feedback. In addition, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to compare between group differences in gray matter volume, and the correlation between the probability for high-risk choices and brain volume.
    Results: Compared to the healthy group, the MDD group showed significantly lower probabilities for high-risk choices following negative feedback. VBM analysis revealed that the MDD group had less gray matter volume in the right medial prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) compared to the healthy group. The right OFC volume was negatively correlated with the probability that a high-risk choice followed negative feedback in patients with MDD. We did not observe these trends in healthy subjects.
    Conclusions: Patients with MDD show reduced motivation for monetary incentives when they were required to make rapid decisions following negative feedback. We observed a correlation between this reduced motivation and gray matter volume in the medial and ventral prefrontal cortex, which suggests that these brain regions are likely involved in the pathophysiology of aberrant decision-making in MDD. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • On the structure of motor programming: an additive factors approach

    Xu, L, Sommer, W., &am, Masaki, H

    スポーツ科学研究   11   250 - 264  2014

  • Wearing ergonomically designed core stability shorts improves cognitive control and affect following acute aerobic exercise

    Bae, S, Kamijo K, Masaki, H

      Journal of Ergonomics ( S2:003 )  2013.03  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Last author, Corresponding author

    DOI

  • Foreshadowing of Performance Accuracy by Event-Related Potentials: Evidence from a Minimal-Conflict Task

    Hiroaki Masaki, Timothy I. Murphy, Keita Kamijo, Katuo Yamazaki, Werner Sommer

    PLOS ONE   7 ( 5 )  2012.05  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Background: Recent studies employing stimulus-response compatibility tasks suggest that an increase in the amplitude of the positive deflection of the response-locked event-related potential (ERP) foreshadows errors on forthcoming trials. However, no studies have tested the generalizability of error-foreshadowing positivity to tasks without stimulus-response interference.
    Methodology/Principal Findings: The present study adopted an alternating-response task, in which the participants responded to the pointing direction of an arrowhead (up or down). Although the arrowhead direction alternated for the majority of trials (95%), occasionally this pattern was broken by a repeated stimulus, termed a lure trial. We compared the matched-reaction-time correct-preceding ERP with the error-preceding ERP on lure-preceding trials. There was no evidence that errors are foreshadowed by the increase of a positive electroencephalogram (EEG) deflection. To the contrary, analyses of ERPs time-locked to electromyogram (EMG) onset on the five consecutive lure-preceding trials showed larger positive deflections on correct-preceding than error-preceding trials. The post-response negativity did not differ between correct-preceding and error-preceding trials.
    Conclusions/Significance: These results suggest that in minimal conflict tasks a decreased positivity may foreshadow incorrect performance several trials prior to the error, possibly reflecting the waning of task-related efforts. Therefore, error-foreshadowing brain signals may be task-specific.

    DOI

  • The error-related negativity associated with different strength of stimulus-response interference

    Hiroaki Masaki, Timothy I. Murphy, James A. Desjardins, Sidney J. Segalowitz

    Clinical Neurophysiology   123 ( 4 ) 689 - 699  2012.04

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

     View Summary

    Objective: The present study was aimed at clarifying the effect of stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) interference on the ERN. Methods: We compared ERNs in two tasks differing in the level of interference, an arrow (AR) task classified as a Simon task and a more complex arrow-orientation (AO) task classified as a spatial-Stroop task. We also compared ERNs between partial errors (with initial incorrect movement corrected by a proper full response) and overt (uncorrected) errors. Results: Behavioral response time and error rate indicated that both interference and ERN amplitude were larger for the AO task than for the AR task. There was no significant difference in the ERN amplitude between the partial and overt errors. Conclusions: The ERN becomes larger as a function of the SRC interference. Significance: Our study presented evidence that the ERN may represent response-monitoring associated with the SRC interference. © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology.

    DOI PubMed

  • Neural mechanisms of timing control in a coincident timing task

    Hiroaki Masaki, Werner Sommer, Noriyoshi Takasawa, Katuo Yamazaki

    EXPERIMENTAL BRAIN RESEARCH   218 ( 2 ) 215 - 226  2012.04  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author

     View Summary

    Many ball sports such as tennis or baseball require precise temporal anticipation of both sensory input and motor output (i.e., receptor anticipation and effector anticipation, respectively) and close performance monitoring. We investigated the neural mechanisms underlying timing control and performance monitoring in a coincident timing task involving both types of anticipations. Peak force for two time-to-peak force (TTP) conditions-recorded with a force-sensitive key-was required to coincide with a specific position of a stimulus rotating either slow or fast on a clock face while the contingent negative variation (CNV) and the motor-elicited negativity were recorded. Absolute timing error was generally smaller for short TTP (high velocity) conditions. CNV amplitudes increased with both faster stimulus velocity and longer TTPs possibly reflecting increased motor programming efforts. In addition, the motor-elicited negativity was largest in the slow stimulus/short TTP condition, probably representing some forms of performance monitoring as well as shorter response duration. Our findings indicate that the coincident timing task is a good model for real-life situations of tool use.

    DOI

  • Cognitive neuroscience of motor learning and motor control

    Masaki, H, Sommer, W

    Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine   1 ( 3 ) 369 - 380  2012  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

  • The influence of emotions due to verbal admonishment and encouragement on performance monitoring

    Ogawa, K, Masaki, H, Yamazaki, K, Sommer, W

    Neuroreport   22 ( 7 ) 313 - 318  2011.04

  • Performance monitoring during sleep inertia after a 1-h daytime nap: Sleep inertia

    Shoichi Asaoka, Hiroaki Masaki, Keiko Ogawa, Timothy I. Murphy, Kazuhiko Fukuda, Katuo Yamazaki

    Journal of Sleep Research   19 ( 3 ) 436 - 443  2010.09  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Performance monitoring is an essential function involved in the correction of errors. Deterioration of this function may result in serious accidents. This function is reflected in two event-related potential (ERP) components that occur after erroneous responses, specifically the error-related negativity/error negativity (ERN/Ne) and error positivity (Pe). The ERN/Ne is thought to be associated with error detection, while the Pe is thought to reflect motivational significance or recognition of errors. Using these ERP components, some studies have shown that sleepiness resulting from extended wakefulness may cause a decline in error-monitoring function. However, the effects of sleep inertia have not yet been explored. In this study, we examined the effects of sleep inertia immediately after a 1-h daytime nap on error-monitoring function as expressed through the ERN/Ne and Pe. Nine healthy young adults participated in two different experimental conditions (nap and rest). Participants performed the arrow-orientation task before and immediately after a 1-h nap or rest period. Immediately after the nap, participants reported an increased effort to perform the task and tended to estimate their performance as better, despite no objective difference in actual performance between the two conditions. ERN/Ne amplitude showed no difference between the conditions
    however, the amplitude of the Pe was reduced following the nap. These results suggest that individuals can detect their own error responses, but the motivational significance ascribed to these errors might be diminished during the sleep inertia experienced after a 1-h nap. This decline might lead to overestimation of their performance. © 2010 European Sleep Research Society.

    DOI PubMed

  • Stimulus-preceding negativity is modulated by action-outcome contingency

    Hiroaki Masaki, Katuo Yamazaki, Steven A. Hackley

    NeuroReport   21 ( 4 ) 277 - 281  2010.03  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author, Corresponding author

    DOI

  • Does the error negativity reflect response conflict strength? Evidence from a Simon task

    Hiroaki Masaki, Michael Falkenstein, Birgit Stuermer, Thomas Pinkpank, Werner Sommer

    PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY   44 ( 4 ) 579 - 585  2007.07  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author

     View Summary

    The error (-related) negativity (Ne or ERN) has been related to detecting the mismatch between incorrectly executed and appropriate responses or, alternatively, to the degree of conflict between different response alternatives. In this study different levels of response conflict were generated by manipulating task difficulty in a Simon task. According to the product of incorrect and subsequent correct EMG activation, the amount of conflict in error trials was indeed larger for the easy than for the hard condition. In contrast, Ne/ERN amplitudes did not differ between difficulty conditions, nor was the amount of conflict mirrored by Ne/ERN amplitude. Therefore, the present data are at variance with the hypothesis that the Ne/ERN reflects the degree of response conflict.

    DOI

  • Affective-motivational influences on feedback-related ERPs in a gambling task

    Hiroaki Masaki, Shigeki Takeuchi, William J. Gehring, Noriyoshi Takasawa, Katuo Yamazaki

    BRAIN RESEARCH   1105   110 - 121  2006.08  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author

     View Summary

    Theories have proposed that both the stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) and the medial frontal negativity (MFN) reflect affective/motivational processing. We examined the effect of the motivational impact of feedback stimuli on these ERPs using a simple gambling task, focusing on the influence of prior losses and gains on ERPs and choice behavior. Choices were riskier following large losses than following small losses or large gains. The MFN, however, was larger following larger gains. The SPN preceding the outcome was also larger after a greater gain. Thus, we confirmed that both the MFN and the SPN respond to the motivational properties of the feedback. A dissociation between risk-taking behavior and these ERPs suggests that there could be two monitoring systems: one that leads to riskier responses following losses and a second that leads to heightened expectancy. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • The effect of sleepiness on performance monitoring: I know what I am doing, but do I care?

    TI Murphy, M Richard, H Masaki, SJ Segalowitz

    JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH   15 ( 1 ) 15 - 21  2006.03  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The behavioral, cognitive, and psychophysiological effects of extended wakefulness are well known. As time awake increases, errors become more common and are often attributed to lapses in attention. Such lapses can be reflected in the error-related negativity (Ne/ERN), a negative electroencephalogram deflection occurring after errors and is thought to be related to error detection or response conflict. Following the Ne/ERN, a positive deflection (error positivity, Pe) is also observed and is thought to reflect further evaluation of the error. To elicit Ne/ERNs, the Eriksen Flanker Task was administered to 17 women (aged 19-45 years) at two levels of alertness (4 and 20 h awake). After extended wakefulness, participants reported being subjectively sleepier and performing worse, but showed no significant difference in subjective effort. Across alertness conditions, they reported a similar number of subjective errors which closely matched an objective analysis of the errors. The Ne/ERN was not significantly reduced by sleepiness in contrast to the Pe which was reduced. Behavioral slowing after errors was larger in the alert than in the sleepy condition. These results show that after 20 h of wakefulness, individuals are reacting to their errors. However, further evaluation of the error, and remediation of these errors may be impaired despite continued effort.

  • A study of attentional resource of discrete and gradational allocation strategy using error-related negativity (ERN)

    Tanaka Hideaki, Mochizuki Yoshiko, Masaki Hiroaki, Takasawa Noriyoshi, Yamazaki Katsuo

    The Japanese journal of psychology   76 ( 1 ) 43 - 50  2005

     View Summary

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is a component of the event-related brain potential (ERP) that is associated with action monitoring and error detection. The ERN amplitude reflects attentional resource allocated to error detection. The present study examined whether discrete or gradational allocation strategy of attentional resource in error detection using the ERN amplitude. Only Eriksen flanker task was used in the single task condition. Eriksen flanker task was used as a primary task and Sternberg memory search task was used as a secondary task in the dual task conditions. The task difficulty of the secondary task manipulated in the present study included the memory load. Memory set sizes of 2, 4 and 6 were used in the Sternberg memory search task (M2, M4 and M6 conditions). The results indicated that reaction time was gradually delayed in the primary task as the task difficulty of the secondary task gradually increased. However the ERN amplitude of the primary task decreased in M6 condition alone. In conclusion, discrete allocation strategy of attentional resource was adopted in the error detection.

    DOI CiNii

  • An ERP study of the effect of time interval memory trace on temporal processing

    Y Mochizuki, S Takeuchi, H Masaki, N Takasawa, K Yamazaki

    UNVEILING THE MYSTERY OF THE BRAIN: NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE BRAIN FUNCTION   1278   373 - 376  2005

     View Summary

    The effect of time interval memory trace on temporal processing was investigated. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in a time reproduction task. Ten healthy participants were asked to memorize the encoding interval (3000 or 2700 ms), retain the interval during the retention period (3000 or 9000 ms) and reproduce the interval. The reproduction error of our study suggests that the reproduction of the interval was relatively difficult under encoding-2700 ms conditions. In the ERP activities at the 500-1000 ms period of the reproduction phase, the contingent negative variation (CNV) amplitude of retention-9000 ms conditions was significantly larger than that of retention-3000 ms conditions over Fpz. Our study suggests that the length of retention affects the time processing of the time reproduction, and the CNV over the frontal cortex seemed to change as a function of the remains of time interval memory trace being accompanied with attention resources allocation to efficiently execute the time reproduction task. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • Stimulus preceding negativity represents arousal induced by affective picture

    S Takeuchi, Y Mochizuki, H Masaki, N Takasawa, K Yamazaki

    UNVEILING THE MYSTERY OF THE BRAIN: NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE BRAIN FUNCTION   1278   385 - 388  2005

     View Summary

    In this study, we investigated the effect of affective valence on the stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) using the international affective picture system (1APS). We adopted a S1-S2 paradigm, in which the subject could know the content of the forthcoming affective-slide (positive, negative or neutral picture) by the S1 cue (three types of gray-and-white striped squares). Our procedure differentiated these affective valences which were assessed by questionnaires. The self-assessment mannequin (SAM) data showed that the emotional score (pleasantness) significantly increased in the order of negative, neutral, and positive picture. The arousal scores of the SAM and the multiple mood scale (MMS) for negative picture were higher than for the other pictures. The SPN over the frontal regions significantly increased preceding the negative pictures, but not preceding the neutral and positive pictures. Our results suggest that the SPN might represent arousal induced by emotion-inducing pictures. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI

  • The functional locus of the lateralized readiness potential

    H Masaki, N Wild-Wall, J Sangals, W Sommer

    PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY   41 ( 2 ) 220 - 230  2004.03  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author

     View Summary

    The lateralized readiness potential (LRP) is considered to reflect motor activation and has been used extensively as a tool in elucidating cognitive processes. In the present study, we attempted to more precisely determine the origins of the LRP within the cognitive system. The response selection and motor programming stages were selectively manipulated by varying symbolic stimulus response compatibility and the time to peak force of an isometric finger extension response. Stimulus response compatibility and time to peak force affected response latency, as measured in the electromyogram, in a strictly additive fashion. The effects of the experimental manipulations on stimulus- and response-synchronized LRPs indicate that the LRP starts after the completion of response-hand selection and at the beginning of motor programming. These results allow a more rigorous interpretation of LRP findings in basic and applied research.

    DOI

  • エラー関連陰性電位 -行動モニタリングとしての機能的意義-

    正木宏明, Gehring, W.J, 高澤則美, 山崎勝男

    生理心理学と精神生理学   22 ( 1 ) 3 - 8  2004

  • Error negativity: A test of the response conflict versus error detection hypotheses

    Masaki, H.,, Segalowitz, S

    In: M. Ullsperger &amp; M. Falkenstein (Eds.), Errors, Conflicts, and the Brain. Current Opinions on Performance Monitoring     76 - 83  2004

  • 情報処理段階とエラー関連陰性電位

    田中秀明, 正木宏明, 高澤則美, 山崎勝男

    臨床神経生理学   31 ( 5 ) 426 - 432  2003

  • 情動喚起刺激に対する心臓血管系反応と脳波の偏側性

    本多麻子, 正木宏明, 山崎勝男

    人間科学研究   15  2002

  • 情動喚起刺激が自律神経系の反応特異性に及ぼす影響

    本多麻子, 正木宏明, 山崎勝男

    生理心理学と精神生理学   20   9 - 17  2002

  • エラー処理の注意資源配分とエラー関連陰性電位

    田中秀明, 正木宏明, 高澤則美, 山崎勝男

    生理心理学と精神生理学   20  2002

  • Error-related brain potentials elicited by vocal errors

    H Masaki, H Tanaka, N Takasawa, K Yamazaki

    NEUROREPORT   12 ( 9 ) 1851 - 1855  2001.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Error-related negativity (ERN) is observed immediately after an error in choice reaction time tasks performed by hand response. We examined whether the ERN occurs in relation to slips of vocalization in the Stroop color word task. in one condition, the subject's vocal responses were masked by continuous pink noise in order to prevent vocalization-related cortical potentials from contaminating the ERN time window. This masking procedure was successful in inhibiting the vocalization-related cortical potential. More importantly, vocalization errors elicited a frontocentral negative-going deflection followed by a positive component immediately after the error response regardless of the masking condition. The present results suggest that the error detection mechanism may also elicit an ERN-like component in response to vocal slips. NeuroReport 12:1851-1855 (C) 2001 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  • 強度の異なる運動が感情と脳波の偏側性に及ぼす効果

    本多麻子, 正木宏明, 山崎勝男

    生理心理学と精神生理学   19   217 - 225  2001

  • An electrophysiological study of the locus of the interference effect in a stimulus-response compatibility paradigm

    H Masaki, N Takasawa, K Yamazaki

    PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY   37 ( 4 ) 464 - 472  2000.07  [Refereed]

    Authorship:Lead author

     View Summary

    This study investigated the locus of the interference effect in a stimulus-response compatibility task using event-related potentials (ERPs). Ten participants were instructed to respond to stimulus color with the left or light middle finger Red ol blue arrows pointed in the same direction as the response hand on congruent trials and pointed in the opposite direction on incongruent trials. Neutral trials were red or blue horizontal bars. Reaction times (RTs) to incongruent stimuli was significantly longer than RTs to congruent stimuli. The peak latency of the P300 for incongruent stimuli were significantly longer than that for congruent stimuli. In addition, onset of stimulus-locked lateralized readiness potential (LRPs) was significantly later for incongruent stimuli than for congruent stimuli. However, electromyogram (EMG)-locked LRPs for incongruent stimuli showed incorrect preparation. These results suggest that the interference effect might occur at the stage in which stimulus evaluation processes and response-related processes overlap.

  • Human movement-related brain potentials preceding voluntary movements in different arousal states monitored with skin potential level

    H Masaki, N Takasawa, K Yamazaki

    PERCEPTUAL AND MOTOR SKILLS   90 ( 1 ) 299 - 306  2000.02  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    The present study investigated the readiness potential (RP) preceding a brisk extension of the right middle finger during different arousal states as monitored by skin potential level (SPL). The late component of the readiness potential in the medium arousal state was significantly larger than those in the low and high arousal states. This finding indicates that the RP waveform may vary as a function of arousal states, suggesting the inverse U-shaped relationship proposed in studies of the contingent negative variation.

  • Recommendation of occupational therapy tasks based on autonomic nervous activity

    Honda, A, Masaki, H, Yamazaki, K

    Journal of Health Psychology Research   13 ( 2 ) 9 - 18  2000  [Refereed]

  • Go/NoGo課題におけるエラー検出処理 —エラー関連陰性電位による検討—

    田中秀明, 正木宏明, 高澤則美, 山崎勝男

    ヒューマンサイエンスリサーチ(早稲田大学大学院人間科学研究科)   9   299 - 311  2000

  • 正・負の情動誘発刺激に対する自律神経系の反応特異性

    本多麻子, 正木宏明, 山崎勝男

    ヒューマンサイエンスリサーチ(早稲田大学大学院人間科学研究科)   8  1999

  • 自発性瞬目に及ぼす音楽映像の鑑賞効果

    小林新菜, 正木宏明, 星野(齋藤)聡子, 山崎勝男

    生理心理学と精神生理学   17  1999

  • ランニングにおける運動中毒尺度の試作

    正木宏明, 玉瀬理枝, 山崎 勝男

    早稲田大学体育学研究紀要   31  1999

  • Enhanced negative slope of the readiness potential preceding a target force production task

    H Masaki, N Takasawa, K Yamazaki

    EVOKED POTENTIALS-ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY AND CLINICAL NEUROPHYSIOLOGY   108 ( 4 ) 390 - 397  1998.07  [Refereed]

     View Summary

    Readiness potentials (RPs) preceding a trigger pulling movement were recorded in 9 right-handed male subjects. We investigated two tasks, non-purposive and purposive movement tasks. In this study we defined simple trigger pull as non-purposive, and target force production by pulling the trigger as purposive. In the non-purposive task, the subjects were instructed to pull the trigger at their own pace and at an easily-exerted force level. After two sessions in the non-purposive movement task, the subjects were submitted to the purposive movement task, and were requested to pull the trigger in an attempt to produce target force, the range of which was decided individually on the basis of mean force level in the second session of the non-purposive movement task. The RP preceding the purposive movement was larger than that preceding the non-purposive movement. In addition, enhancement of the RP was specific to the negative slope (NS'). Since neither peak force nor time to peak force of the movement differed in the two tasks, it was concluded that the increased NS' was due to a psychological change associated with execution of the purposive movement. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • ERPに及ぼす運動プログラム再構築およびパラメータ修正過程の効果

    正木宏明, 高澤則美, 山崎勝男

    早稲田大学人間科学研究   11  1998

  • 随意運動に先行する脳の緩電位変動と心理要因

    正木宏明

    体育学研究   42   466 - 473  1998

  • 準備電位に及ぼす運動プログラムおよびパラメータ適用過程の効果

    正木宏明, 高澤則美, 山崎勝男

    生理心理学と精神生理学   16   85 - 91  1998

  • ゴルフパッティングの課題難度が準備電位に及ぼす影響

    正木宏明, 小沢知之, 高澤則美, 山崎勝男

    早稲田大学体育学研究紀要   29  1997

  • 発声運動に先行する準備電位に及ぼす課題難度の効果

    正木宏明, 高澤則美, 山崎勝男

    脳波と筋電図   25   401 - 407  1997

  • 引き金の牽引運動時におけるパラメータ修正過程が準備電位に及ぼす効果

    正木宏明, 高澤則美, 山崎勝男

    脳波と筋電図   25   18 - 24  1997

  • 運動学習中の認知活動が準備電位の立ち上がり時点に及ぼす影響

    正木宏明, 高澤則美, 山崎 勝男

    ヒューマンサイエンスリサーチ/大学院人間科学研究科   5  1996.06

  • 運動学習初期における準備電位の早期移行

    正木宏明, 高澤則美, 山崎勝男

    早稲田大学体育学研究紀要   28  1996.03

  • スポーツ観戦時の自発性瞬目

    山崎勝男, 清水泰貴, 正木宏明

    早稲田大学体育学研究紀要   28  1996.03

  • 打鍵運動時の課題難度が準備電位に及ぼす効果

    正木宏明, 高澤則美, 山崎勝男

    脳波と筋電図   24   205 - 212  1996

  • 運動学習中に呈示した聴覚及び視覚フィードバック信号に対するERP

    正木宏明, 高澤則美, 山崎勝男

    ヒューマンサイエンスリサーチ   4  1995.05

  • Movement-related cortical potential during skill acquisition

    H MASAKI, K YAMAZAKI

    BIOBEHAVIORAL SELF-REGULATION     674 - 678  1995  [Refereed]

  • 脳の準備電位-その運動学習への適用-

    正木宏明, 高澤則美, 山崎勝男

    ヒューマンサイエンスリサーチ(早稲田大学大学院人間科学研究科)   3  1994

  • 準備電位に及ぼす運動目的性の効果

    正木宏明, 高澤則美, 山崎勝男

    生理心理学と精神生理学   12  1994

▼display all

Misc

  • EFFECTS OF SIMULTANEOUS EXERCISE AND ENCODING ON BRAIN ACTIVITY DURING MEMORY RETRIEVAL

    Keishi Soga, Keita Kamijo, Hiroaki Masaki

    PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY   52   S54 - S54  2015.09

    Research paper, summary (international conference)  

  • ACTION-OUTCOME CONTINGENCY AND FEEDBACK-RELATED NEGATIVITY

    Hiroaki Masaki, Yusuke Shibahara, Keiko Ogawa, Katuo Yamazaki, Steven A. Hackley

    PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY   47   S100 - S100  2010

    Research paper, summary (international conference)  

  • STIMULUS-PRECEDING NEGATIVITY AND ACTION-OUTCOME CONTINGENCY

    Hiroaki Masaki, Katuo Yamazaki, Steven A. Hackley

    PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY   46   S7 - S7  2009.09

    Research paper, summary (international conference)  

  • Action-outcome contingency and stimulus-preceding negativity

    Hiroaki Masaki, Katuo Yamazaki, Steven Hackley

    PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY   45   S114 - S115  2008

    Research paper, summary (international conference)  

  • 反応タイミングに及ぼす試行間間隔の影響(2)-LORETAを用いて-

    望月芳子, 竹内成生, 正木宏明, 高澤則美, 山崎勝男

    日本心理学会大会発表論文集   70th  2006

    J-GLOBAL

  • 反応タイミングに及ぼす試行間間隔の影響-CNVとLRPによる検討-

    望月芳子, 竹内成生, 正木宏明, 高澤則美, 山崎勝男

    生理心理学と精神生理学   24 ( 2 )  2006

    J-GLOBAL

  • ギャンブル課題遂行時の動機付けとSPN

    竹内成生, 正木宏明, 望月芳子, 高澤則美, 山崎勝男

    生理心理学と精神生理学   24 ( 2 )  2006

    J-GLOBAL

  • Hand placement and response complexity affect independent and motoric processing stage: An LRP analysis

    Hiroaki Masaki, Werner Sommer, Katuo Yamazaki

    PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY   43   S63 - S63  2006

    Research paper, summary (international conference)  

  • ギャンブル課題遂行時のSPNとパーソナリティ

    竹内成生, 望月芳子, 正木宏明, 高澤則美, 山崎勝男

    日本心理学会大会発表論文集   69th  2005

    J-GLOBAL

  • ギャンブル課題遂行中の事象関連電位

    竹内成生, 望月芳子, 正木宏明, 高沢則美, 山崎勝男

    生理心理学と精神生理学   23 ( 2 )  2005

    J-GLOBAL

  • ギャンブル課題遂行中のERPとパーソナリティ

    正木宏明, 竹内成生, 高沢則美, 山崎勝男

    生理心理学と精神生理学   23 ( 2 )  2005

    J-GLOBAL

  • 時間間隔情報処理と事象関連電位-CNVとLRPによる検討-

    望月芳子, 竹内成生, 正木宏明, 高沢則美, 山崎勝男

    生理心理学と精神生理学   23 ( 2 )  2005

    J-GLOBAL

  • 時間情報処理と事象関連電位

    望月芳子, 竹内成生, 正木宏明, 高沢則美, 山崎勝男

    日本心理学会大会発表論文集   68th  2004

    J-GLOBAL

  • 事象関連電位によるエラー補償機構の研究

    竹内成生, 正木宏明, 望月芳子, 高沢則美, 山崎勝男

    日本心理学会大会発表論文集   68th  2004

    J-GLOBAL

  • ギャンブル課題遂行中の動機づけと事象関連電位(2)

    正木宏明, 竹内成生, GEHRING W J, 高沢則美, 山崎勝男

    生理心理学と精神生理学   22 ( 2 )  2004

    J-GLOBAL

  • 時間情報処理と緩電位変動

    望月芳子, 竹内成生, 正木宏明, 高沢則美, 山崎勝男

    生理心理学と精神生理学   22 ( 2 )  2004

    J-GLOBAL

  • ギャンブル課題遂行中の動機づけと事象関連電位(1)

    竹内成生, 正木宏明, GEHRING W J, 高沢則美, 山崎勝男

    生理心理学と精神生理学   22 ( 2 )  2004

    J-GLOBAL

▼display all

Research Projects

  • A cohort study of mental habit and brain in middle-aged people: Aiming to predict and improve mental health

    Project Year :

    2020.04
    -
    2025.03
     

  • 経頭蓋交流電気刺激による前帯状回の選択的修飾と行動変容

    Project Year :

    2018.04
    -
    2021.03
     

     View Summary

    前帯状回は認知及び情動に関わる重要な脳領域で,さまざまな精神・神経疾患で異常が報告されるが,その正確な機能に関しては論争となっている。一方で近年,非侵襲的脳刺激が認知機能の改善や疾患の治療として広く用いられるが,その刺激対象は大脳皮質表面にとどまっており,深部を選択的に刺激することは困難であった。我々は前頭前野におけるθ帯域の経頭蓋交流電気刺激(tACS)が比較的深部にある前帯状回の活動を選択的に調整できることを発見した(Onoda et al., 2017)。この知見にもとづき,本研究ではθ帯域(6Hz)のtACSを用いた前帯状回に対する選択的刺激によって,認知および情動機能を制御できることを,行動・脳波・脳画像研究から重層的に明らかにし,前帯状回の機能を因果的に探る手法を確立することを目的とした。前帯状回は内的・外的なエラー信号に対して顕著な反応を示す。この特性を利用し空間ストループ課題にてエラー検出過程を捉える。この課題は,固視点の上下いずれかに,上向きあるいは下向きの矢印が提示され,その位置に関係なく,矢印の向きを可能なかぎり素早く答えさせるものである。2019年度では,fMRI実験のデータ取得を完了し,解析を行った。この実験ではtACSの実施前,実施中,及び実施後において空間ストループ課題を負荷した。実施前と実施後は同時にfMRIによる脳活動の測定を行い,tACS実施中は行動のみ測定した。tACSはθ帯域(6Hz)刺激と偽刺激が用いられた。行動レベルではtACSは空間ストループ課題の成績に影響を及ぼさなかった。脳活動をみると,エラーに関連して前帯状回が頑健な活動を示すことが確認され,この活動でもtACSの効果は認められなかった。一方で,前帯状回と島前部の機能的結合に関しては有意に低下しており,自身の先行研究を裏付ける結果であった。脳波を用いた実験に関しては,データ取得に遅れが認められる。θ帯域のtACSで行動レベルでその影響を検出することは難しいと思われる。最終年度では,その効果を敏感に検出する課題の選択も含めて検証を行っていく

  • An examination of neural mechanisms underlying error monitoring associated with recovery of motor function

    Project Year :

    2017.04
    -
    2021.03
     

  • The functional significance of the mirror neuron system in athletes during execution of synchronized sports movements

    Project Year :

    2017.06
    -
    2020.03
     

  • スポーツの同調動作におけるミラーニューロンシステムの機能的意義

    科学研究費助成事業(早稲田大学)  挑戦的研究(萌芽)

    Project Year :

    2017.06
    -
    2020.03
     

  • Facial skin blood flow response during motor imagery of sports performance

    Project Year :

    2016.04
    -
    2018.03
     

     View Summary

    We previously reported unique skin blood flow (SkBF) responses in the face to emotions related to taste. Then we supposed that poor and good motor imaginary reflect to facial SkBF response. We examined whether motor imaginary of volleyball serves are related to facial SkBF responses to underhand- and floater- serve, comparing 1st-person with 3rd-person perspective of the imaginary. The subjective evaluation for the control of motor imagery is high, SkBF in the eyelid showed greater. The results suggests that high controllability of motor imagery related to an increase the SkBF responses in the eyelid. To extract skillful and disadvantaged scenes in sports performance based on facial SkBF responses, we need to examine whether similar SkBF responses can be obtained in other sports events, and the increase response in the nose become conspicuous according to the skill of sports, in future studies

  • スポーツスキル学習における運動イメージの役割と脳機構の解析

    Project Year :

    2014.04
    -
    2018.03
     

     View Summary

    視覚的運動イメージと筋感覚的運動イメージの能力はそれぞれ運動パフォーマンスと関連していると考えられる。しかしながら、運動課題との関連は不明な点が多かった。そこで今年度は、学習初期において用いられる運動イメージの種類、および、それらと運動パフォーマンスレベルとの関連を検討するために脳活動計測実験を行った。被験者は健常成人34名とし、新規の系列指タッピングの筋感覚的運動イメージおよび視覚的運動イメージ中の脳活動を機能的磁気共鳴画像法を用いて計測した。さらに、脳活動計測前後に系列指タッピング実行課題、質問紙による内省評価、および、mental chronometry課題を行い、多角的に脳活動と運動イメージ能力との関係性を検討した。その結果、系列指タッピングパフォーマンスのレベルが高い被験者は視覚的運動イメージ中の一次運動野、運動前野、一次視覚野の活動が高いことが明らかとなった。このことから視覚的運動イメージの質が高い被験者ほど運動パフォーマンスが高いと考えられる。一方、筋感覚的運動イメージ中の脳活動量と運動パフォーマンスは相関関係が見られなかった。したがって、新規の運動課題では視覚的運動イメージが優位である可能性が示された。また、質問紙によって評価した主観的な運動イメージの鮮明さと脳活動の関係を解析したところ、視覚的運動イメージの鮮明さが高い被験者では前頭前野の活動が高いことが明らかとなった。しかし、主観的な視覚的なイメージの鮮明さと運動パフォーマンスには相関関係はみられなかった。さらに、一次運動野および運動前野の活動量と前頭前野の活動量の間にも相関関係は見られなかった。これらのことから、運動パフォーマンスに関連する運動イメージ能力と質問紙によって評価した運動イメージの鮮明さは異なる側面を評価していることが示唆された。運動イメージの脳内メカニズムについて、昨年度までにおこなった研究を発展させて本年度は特に2つの運動イメージ(視覚的運動イメージと体性感覚的運動イメージ)の両者がどのように関連し、またそれぞれに重要な脳部位を特定した。この研究はモデルとして指タッピング動作を用いたが、スポーツに直結するものとして鉄棒のけあがりを取り上げ、その学習過程において運動イメージ、視覚情報処理がどのように変化するかについても検討した(Prog. Brain Res., 2017).・これまでに得られた運動イメージ研究に基づき、運動学習に脳の直流刺激がどのように影響するかを検討する。・スポーツ動作の多くは多肢を同時に様々な方向、強さで動かさねばならない。このような協調運動について様々な研究を進めてきたが、運動イメージがこれにどのように影響するかを検討する。・運動イメージの機能的な役割の総合的な見方を提供しreviewとしてまとめ

  • Neural mechanism of muscle relaxation during japanese archery

    Project Year :

    2015.04
    -
    2017.03
     

     View Summary

    Movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP) is a negatively sloping cortical potential, setting in around 2 s prior to a voluntary movement. It is also known that MRCP is observed preceding volitional contraction and relaxation. In the present study, we examined how MRCP observed during sports-specific movement such as Archery and Japanese archery which required muscle relaxation. Participants (Archery; n=16, Japanese archery; n=17) performed 40 shots with EEG system (64 channel) on the scalp and EMG recordings of right limb. During Archery shot, as a result, larger RP amplitudes and later RP onsets were observed in relatively skilled group. During Japanese archery, there are individual differences in MRCP amplitude and latency

  • A new approach to prevent choking under pressure

    Project Year :

    2015.04
    -
    2017.03
     

     View Summary

    In this project we aimed to establish a new training method to prevent choking under pressure in sports by combining a left-hand grasp technique that results in right-hemispheric activation as well as quiet eye (QE) training. Previous studies have examined the effect of either QE training or left-hand grasp separately; however, we tested if there was a synergy effect using both methods. We conducted a series of experiments and found that the combination of both methods may be beneficial to prolong the QE duration. By combining these two methods participants likely restrained their inward attention that may disrupt automatic control of action

  • アスリートのあがりを防止する新しいトレーニング法の開発

    科学研究費助成事業(早稲田大学)  科学研究費助成事業(挑戦的萌芽研究)

    Project Year :

    2015
    -
    2016
     

  • A study of performance monitoring during motor learning

    Project Year :

    2012.04
    -
    2015.03
     

     View Summary

    Performance monitoring has been conceptualized as the process that initiates remedial actions when we commit errors. In this project, we confirmed the importance of performance monitoring in motor learning and in the control of learned motor behavior by reviewing previous studies. We further tested the validity of this assertion by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with performance monitoring. We focused on previously-reported phenomena in the motor learning area, including the contextual interference effect, beneficial effects of infrequent feedback, implicit learning, motor programming, and timing function. A series of experiments revealed that ERPs recorded during motor learning were modulated by performance monitoring

  • 運動学習中のパフォーマンスモニタリングに関する研究

    科学研究費助成事業(早稲田大学)  科学研究費助成事業(基盤研究(C))

    Project Year :

    2012
    -
    2014
     

     View Summary

    平成25年度では,スキル陽性電位(skilled performance positivity: SPP)のデータ分析を終えた。従来SPPは反応タイミングを外した場合に減少することが報告されてきた。しかし,パフォーマンスモニタリングの観点では,SPP減少はフィードバック陰性電位(feedback-related negativity: FRN)の重畳によるものと解釈すべきである。実際に,結果の知識の遅延提示によってSPPとFRNを時間的に乖離させると,SPPは減少しなかった。従来の誤解を正すうえで,本知見は意義がある。
    運動学習研究では反応プログラミング過程の理解が重要となる。そこで,反応時間課題で反応複雑性と動作持続時間の2変数を直交操作し,偏側性準備電位(lateralized readiness potential: LRP)を測定した。両変数ともに反応時間を遅延させ,反応同期LRPの持続時間を延長させたことから,反応プログラミングは独立した複数の下位段階から構成されることが示唆された(国際誌で審査中)。
    さらに標的強度値出力課題で,同一の標的強度値を反復出力した条件と,試行毎に標的強度値を変えた条件で随伴陰性変動(contingent negative variation: CNV)を比較した。CNVは強度パラメータの修正過程を反映して複数標的条件で増大した。標的強度値の出力に関与する脳領域を同定するため,fMRI実験でも用いることのできる実験器具を製作した。
    反復運動は動作スキル獲得を促進させるが,同時に認知機能も向上させることを確認するため,トレッドミル走による一過性運動後にP300を測定した。その結果,P300に振幅増大を認め,一過性運動の効果と走姿勢の関与が示唆された。この知見はJournal of Ergonomics誌にて報告した。

  • A study of brain activities that foreshadow error responses

    Project Year :

    2009
    -
    2011
     

     View Summary

    The present study investigated if event-related potentials(ERPs) foreshadow performance on the forthcoming trials in an alternating-response task, in which the participants responded to the pointing direction of an arrowhead. The alternated presentation pattern of arrowhead direction was occasionally broken by a repeated stimulus(i. e., lure trial). Analyses of ERPs on the five consecutive lure-preceding trials showed that the electromyogram-locked positive deflections were larger on the correct-preceding trials than on the error-preceding trials. These results suggest that the larger positive deflection immediately following responses seems to foreshadow correct performance in a reduced conflict task. The present findings might contribute to prevention of human errors.

  • A study of brain activities that foreshadow error responses

    Project Year :

    2009
    -
    2011
     

     View Summary

    The present study investigated if event-related potentials(ERPs) foreshadow performance on the forthcoming trials in an alternating-response task, in which the participants responded to the pointing direction of an arrowhead. The alternated presentation pattern of arrowhead direction was occasionally broken by a repeated stimulus(i. e., lure trial). Analyses of ERPs on the five consecutive lure-preceding trials showed that the electromyogram-locked positive deflections were larger on the correct-preceding trials than on the error-preceding trials. These results suggest that the larger positive deflection immediately following responses seems to foreshadow correct performance in a reduced conflict task. The present findings might contribute to prevention of human errors

  • Functional significance of the error-related negativity in observers who detect errors made by others

    Project Year :

    2006
    -
    2008
     

  • 運動機能回復に関わるエラーモニタリングの神経機序解明

    科学研究費助成事業(早稲田大学) 

▼display all

Presentations

  • 「あがり」に対する新たなトレーニンング法の確立-Quiet eye トレーニングと反復把握法を用いて-

    吉川直輝, 正木宏明

    日本スポーツ心理学会第46回大会 

    Presentation date: 2019.11

  • ラクロス選手を対象とした注意制御訓練 ―コンピュータベース訓練と運動イメージとの相乗効果―

    平尾貴大, 正木宏明

    日本スポーツ心理学会第46回大会 

    Presentation date: 2019.11

  • Quiet Eye duration evaluated by electrooculogram during archery performance

    Yoshikawa, N, Hirao, T, Masaki, H

    Society for Psychophysiological Research 59th Annual Meeting 

    Presentation date: 2019.09

  • Routine actions may reduce performance monitoring of athletes

    Masaki, H, Matsuhashi, T, Hirao, T

    Society for Psychophysiological Research 59th Annual Meeting 

    Presentation date: 2019.09

  • 報酬陽性電位による系列運動学習の予測

    松橋拓努, 平尾貴大, 正木宏明

    日本生理心理学会第37回大会 

    Presentation date: 2019.05

  • かわいい写真の観察がパフォーマンスと視線行動に与える影響

    吉川直輝, 正木宏明

    日本生理心理学会第37回大会 

    Presentation date: 2019.05

  • 行為と結果の随伴性が報酬および罰予期に関する神経活動に与える影響

    平尾貴大, 小野田慶一, 小川景子, Hackley, A. Steven, 正木宏明

    第37回日本生理心理学会 

    Presentation date: 2019.05

  • Go for it! Encouragement from your leader enhances error monitoring

    Masaki,H, Hirao, T, Matsuhashi, T, Murphy, T.I

    Abstracts of the Society for Psychophysiological Research 58th Annual Meeting, Quebec, Canada 

    Presentation date: 2018.10

  • Involvement of partial errors in response inhibition processing

    Maruo, Y, Masaki, H

    the Society for Psychophysiological Research 58th Annual Meeting, Quebec, Canada 

    Presentation date: 2018.10

  • Different interoceptive ability between long-distance runners and sprinters

    Hirao, T, Vogt, T, Masaki, H

    the Society for Psychophysiological Research 58th Annual Meeting, Quebec, Canada 

    Presentation date: 2018.10

  • ボート選手の同調運動に関する神経機序

    平尾貴大, 正木宏明

    日本スポーツ心理学会第45回大会(東海学園大学) 

    Presentation date: 2018.10

  • 「かわいい」写真の観察がスポーツパフォーマンスに与える影響

    吉川直輝, 正木宏明

    日本スポーツ心理学会第45回大会(東海学園大学) 

    Presentation date: 2018.10

  • フィードバック関連電位に対する主成分分析の適用

    平尾貴大, 丸尾祐矢, 正木宏明

    第36回日本生理心理学会(福岡県立大学) 

    Presentation date: 2018.05

  • P300による運動パフォーマンス向上の予測

    松橋拓努, 正木宏明

    第36回日本生理心理学会(福岡県立大学) 

    Presentation date: 2018.05

  • 手指運動のモデル提示様式が前頭θ活動に及ぼす効果

    柳田裕一朗, 正木宏明

    第36回日本生理心理学会(福岡県立大学) 

    Presentation date: 2018.05

  • Effects of cognitive engagements after acute exercise on inhibitory control

    Soga, K, Vogt, T, Masaki, H

    The 25th Cognitive Neuroscience Society annual meeting, Boston, Massachusetts, USA 

    Presentation date: 2018.03

  • 手指運動の観察と模倣時のモデル提示角度が運動学習に及ぼす効果

    柳田裕一朗, 正木宏明

    日本スポーツ心理学会第44回大会(大阪商業大学) 

    Presentation date: 2017.11

  • プレッシャー下におけるパフォーマンス低下防止に関する研究 ー反復把握法を用いてー

    吉川直輝, 正木宏明

    日本スポーツ心理学会第44回大会(大阪商業大学) 

    Presentation date: 2017.11

  • Effects of acute exercise on memory retrieval of intentionally remembered and intentionally forgotten items

    Soga, K, Vogt, T, Masaki, H

    the Society for Psychophysiological Research 57th Annual Meeting, Vienna, Austria 

    Presentation date: 2017.10

  • Increased CNV amplitudes associated with force parameter modification predicts golf putting performance

    Masaki, H, Matsuhashi, T

    the Society for Psychophysiological Research 57th Annual Meeting, Vienna, Austria 

    Presentation date: 2017.10

  • Brain activities and facial skin blood flow response during motor imagery of the volleyball serve

    Hirao, T, Yoshikawa, N, Masaki, H, Hayashi, N

    the Society for Psychophysiological Research 57th Annual Meeting, Vienna, Austria 

    Presentation date: 2017.10

  • A neurobehavioral approach on inhibitory control in racket vs. team sports athletes

    Soga, K, Masaki, H, Vogt, T

    The 22th annual congress of the European College of Sport Science, MetropolisRuhr, Germany 

    Presentation date: 2017.07

  • モンティ・ホール・ジレンマ課題の学習に伴う神経活動変化 ー刺激前陰性電位に着目してー

    平尾貴大, 正木宏明

    第35回日本生理心理学会(江戸川大学) 

    Presentation date: 2017.05

  • 一過性運動が意図的な忘却に与える影響

    曽我啓史, Tobias Vogt, 正木宏明

    第35回日本生理心理学会(江戸川大学) 

    Presentation date: 2017.05

  • 手指運動の観察と模倣時における認知処理負荷

    柳田裕一朗, 正木宏明

    第35回日本生理心理学会(江戸川大学) 

    Presentation date: 2017.05

  • アーチェリーのシューティング動作における注視時間とパフォーマンスとの関係 ーQuiet eyeに着目してー

    吉川直輝, 正木宏明

    日本スポーツ心理学会 第43回大会(北星学園大学) 

    Presentation date: 2016.11

  • シンクロナイズドスイミングペアの脳活動 ーロシ ア・スペイン代表ペアの事例研究ー

    平尾貴大, 三浦哲都, 正木宏明

    日本スポーツ心理学会 第43回大会(北星学園大学) 

    Presentation date: 2016.11

  • Error-related negativity predicts improvement of a sequence motor learning

    Matsuhashi, T, Segalowitz, S. J, Nagano, Y, Masaki, H

    the Society for Psychophysiological Research 56th Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA 

    Presentation date: 2016.09

  • Individual differences in interoceptive sensitivity and error monitoring

    Maruo, Y, Sommer, W, Masaki H

    the Society for Psychophysiological Research 56th Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA 

    Presentation date: 2016.09

  • The effect of computer-based cognitive training on the lacrosse shooting performance

    Hirao, T, Masaki, H

    The North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity 2016 Conference, Montreal, Quebec, Canada 

    Presentation date: 2016.06

  • エラーモニタリングに及ぼすスポーツ種目の影響

    松橋拓努, 丸尾祐矢, 正木宏明

    第34回日本生理心理学会(名古屋大学) 

    Presentation date: 2016.05

  • スポーツ動機づけの個人差とエラーモニタリングの関係性

    丸尾祐矢, 正木宏明

    第34回日本生理心理学会(名古屋大学) 

    Presentation date: 2016.05

  • 反復ボール把握が脳活動非対称性に与える影響 ー頭皮上中心部におけるαパワ値の左右差ー

    平尾貴大, 正木宏明

    第34回日本生理心理学会(名古屋大学) 

    Presentation date: 2016.05

  • Motor potential is modulated by perceived correctness in a target force production task

    Masaki, H, Takasawa, N, Soga, K, Sommer, W

    Abstracts of the Society for Psychophysiological Research 55th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, USA 

    Presentation date: 2015.10

  • Effects of simultaneous exercise and encoding on brain activity during memory retrieval

    Soga, K, Kamijo, K, Masaki, H

    Abstracts of the Society for Psychophysiological Research 55th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, USA 

    Presentation date: 2015.10

  • The association of aerobic fitness with proactive and reactive cognitive control in preadolescent children

    Kamijo, K, Masaki, H

    Abstracts of the Society for Psychophysiological Research 55th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, USA 

    Presentation date: 2015.10

  • Do we learn to choose the advantageous option in the Monty Hall Dilemma task? An event-related potential study

    Hirao, T, Murphy, T.I, Masaki, H

    Abstracts of the Society for Psychophysiological Research 55th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, USA 

    Presentation date: 2015.10

  • Handball throwing improved by dissociation of attention from gaze behavior during quiet eye training.

    Hirao, T, Masaki, H

    The North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity 2015 Conference, Portland, Oregon, USA 

    Presentation date: 2015.06

  • The relationship between competitive anxiety in sport and error monitoring in long‐distance runners

    Maruo, Y, Masaki, H

    The North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity 2015 Conference, Portland, Oregon, USA 

    Presentation date: 2015.06

  • 運動学習課題の差異とパフォーマンスモニタリングとの関係

    松橋拓努, 丸尾祐矢, 長野祐一郎, 正木宏明

    第33回日本生理心理学会(関西福祉科学大学) 

    Presentation date: 2015.05

  • Go/No-go課題遂行中のパフォーマンスモニタリングに及ぼす金銭報酬の効果

    丸尾祐矢, 正木宏明

    第33回日本生理心理学会(関西福祉科学大学) 

    Presentation date: 2015.05

  • Positive association between childhood fitness and cognitive control

    Abstracts of the 17th World Congress of Psychophysiology, Hiroshima, Japan 

    Presentation date: 2014.09

  • Change or stick? Anticipation processes associated with subjective and objective probability of winning in a Monty Hall Dilemma task

    Abstracts of the 17th World Congress of Psychophysiology, Hiroshima, Japan, International Journal of Psychophysiology 

    Presentation date: 2014.09

  • The effect of monetary punishment on error monitoring in a Go/Nogo task.

    Abstracts of the 17th World Congress of Psychophysiology, Hiroshima, Japan, International Journal of Psychophysiology 

    Presentation date: 2014.09

  • The effect of force parameter modification on the contingent negative variation

    Abstracts of the 17th World Congress of Psychophysiology, Hiroshima, Japan, International Journal of Psychophysiology 

    Presentation date: 2014.09

  • The association of childhood fitness with proactive and reactive cognitive control

    Society for Psychophysiological Research 54th Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA, USA 

    Presentation date: 2014

  • 最後通牒課題における意思決定課程の検討

    平尾貴大, 正木宏明

    第31回日本生理心理学会(福井大学) 

    Presentation date: 2013.05

  • Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with cognitive flexibility in preadolescent children

    18th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Barcelona, Spain 

    Presentation date: 2013

  • The association of aerobic fitness to cognitive control strategy in preadolescent children

    Society for Psychophysiological Research 53rd Annual Meeting, Florence, Italy 

    Presentation date: 2013

  • Acute aerobic exercise influences on executive control assessed by task switching paradigm

    Abstract of the Society for Psychophysiological Research 52nd Annual Meeting, New Orleans, USA 

    Presentation date: 2012.09

  • Motor Programming of Response Complexity and Movement Duration

    Abstract of the Society for Psychophysiological Research 52nd Annual Meeting, New Orleans, USA 

    Presentation date: 2012.09

  • Does skilled-performance positivity represent timing control?

    Abstract of the Society for Psychophysiological Research 52nd Annual Meeting, New Orleans, USA 

    Presentation date: 2012.09

  • 気付きに関与する事象関連電位成分の抽出

    原田恵, 正木宏明

    第30回日本生理心理学会大会(北海道大学) 

    Presentation date: 2012.05

  • Effects of response complexity and movement duration on lateralized readiness potential: A random manipulation

    Xu Lu, 正木宏明

    第30回日本生理心理学会(北海道大学) 

    Presentation date: 2012.05

  • 運動学習に及ぼすフィードバック頻度の効果とERP

    對間直也, 正木宏明

    第30回日本生理心理学会(北海道大学) 

    Presentation date: 2012.05

  • 一過性有酸素運動と習慣的身体活動がワーキングメモリ機能に及ぼす影響

    べソンリュウ, 山崎勝男, 正木宏明

    第30回日本生理心理学会大会(北海道大学) 

    Presentation date: 2012.05

  • Expecting something good Symposium

    Abstract of the Society for Psychophysiological Research 51st Annual Meeting, Boston, USA 

    Presentation date: 2011.09

  • Don't choke! electrocortical measures of performance p75, 2011/09.

    Abstract of the Society for Psychophysiological Research 51st Annual Meeting, Boston, USA 

    Presentation date: 2011.09

  • Action-outcome contingency and feedback-related negativity.

    Society for Psychophysiological Research 50th Annual Meeting,Portland, USA P118 

    Presentation date: 2011.09

  • 日常身体活動が高齢者の実行機能に及ぼす影響

    ベソンリュウ, 正木宏明, 山崎勝男

    第29回日本生理心理学会(高知大学) 

    Presentation date: 2011.05

  • 2峰性を示すラムダ反応の機能的意義に関する検討

    小川景子, 正木宏明, 山崎勝男

    第29回日本生理心理学会(高知大学) 

    Presentation date: 2011.05

  • 反応準備時間と複雑性の脳内情報処理

    原田 恵, 正木宏明, 山崎勝男

    第29回日本生理心理学会(高知大学)

    Presentation date: 2011.05

  • 運動学習中のパフォーマンスモニタリング

    對間直也, 山崎勝男, 正木宏明

    第29回日本生理心理学会(高知大学) 

    Presentation date: 2011.05

  • Action-outcome contingency and feedback-related negativity

    Abstract of the Society for Psychophysiological Research 50th Annual Meeting, Portland, USA 

    Presentation date: 2010.10

  • 刺激前陰性電位に及ぼす行為と結果の随伴性の影響

    小川景子, 正木宏明, 平田直樹, 山崎勝男, Hackley S.A

    日本心理学会(大阪) 

    Presentation date: 2010.09

  • Morphometric correlate of decision making under ambiguity and risk

    Nakano, M, Matsuo, K, Nakashima, M, Egashira, K, Matsubara, T, Furukawa, M, Takahashi, K, Nemoto, K, Masaki, H, Matsunaga, N, Watanabe, Y

    16th Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping, Barcelona, Spain 

    Presentation date: 2010.06

  • Morphometric correlate of decision making under ambiguity and risk

    Nakano, M, Matsuo, K, Nakashima, M, Egashira, K, Matsubara, T, Furukawa, M, Takahashi, K, Nemoto, K, Masaki, H, Matsunaga, N, Watanabe, Y

    16th Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping, Barcelona, Spain 

    Presentation date: 2010.06

  • エラーモニタリングに及ぼす金銭的罰および報酬の影響

    丸尾祐矢, 小川景子, 山崎勝男, 正木宏明

    第28回日本生理心理学会(茨城大学) 

    Presentation date: 2010.05

  • 参照点からの乖離量が損失評価に及ぼす影響

    芝原裕介, 高澤則美, 山崎勝男, 正木宏明

    第28回日本生理心理学会(茨城大学) 

    Presentation date: 2010.05

  • 高齢者における身体活動量の違いが反応抑制機能に及ぼす影響

    ベソンリュウ, 小川景子, 正木宏明, 山崎勝男

    第28回日本生理心理学会(茨城大学) 

    Presentation date: 2010.05

  • I Am Positive I Am Going to Be Correct: CorrectResponses are Foreshadowed by Increased Positivity in a Low Interference Task

    Society for Psychophysiological Research 49th Annual Meeting,Berlin,Germany 

    Presentation date: 2009.10

  • Stimulus-Preceding Negativity and Action-Outcome Contingency Symposium 2.2 Reward Expectation

    Abstracts of the Society for Psychophysiological Research 49th Annual Meeting, Berlin, Germany 

    Presentation date: 2009.10

  • I Am Positive I Am Going to Be Correct: CorrectResponses are Foreshadowed by Increased Positivity in a Low Interference Task

    Society for Psychophysiological Research 49th Annual Meeting,Berlin,Germany 

    Presentation date: 2009.10

  • Stimulus-Preceding Negativity and Action-Outcome Contingency

    Society for Psychophysiological Research 49th Annual Meeting,Berlin,Germany 

    Presentation date: 2009.10

  • 運動強度が一過性運動時の感情に及ぼす影響

    本多麻子, 正木宏明

    日本健康心理学会第22回大会 

    Presentation date: 2009.09

  • 運動習慣と運動強度が一過性運動時の快感情に及ぼす効果

    本多麻子, 正木宏明

    日本心理学会第73回大会 

    Presentation date: 2009.08

  • Action-Outcome Contingency and Stimulus-Preceding Negativity

    Abstracts of the Society for Psychophysiological Research 48th Annual Meeting, Austin, Texas, USA, 2008/10. 

    Presentation date: 2008.10

  • A Test of the Response-Conflict Hypothesis in the Production of Error-Related Negativity

    Abstracts of the Society for Psychophysiological Research 48th Annual Meeting, Austin, Texas, USA 

    Presentation date: 2008.10

  • Action-Outcome Contingency and Stimulus-Preceding Negativity.

    Society for Psychophysiological Research 48th Annual Meeting, Austin, Texas, October 1-5, P118 

    Presentation date: 2008.10

  • A Test of the Response-Conflict Hypothesis in the Production of Error-Related Negativity.

    Society for Psychophysiological Research 48th Annual Meeting, Austin, Texas, October 1-5, P131. 

    Presentation date: 2008.10

  • The influence of punishment on action monitoring.

    XXIX International Congress of Psychology 

    Presentation date: 2008.07

  • The Effect of Punishment on Action Monitoring

    Abstracts of the Society for Psychophysiological Research 47th Annual Meeting, Savannah, Georgia, USA 

    Presentation date: 2007.10

  • Action Monitoring of Perceived Errors in a Target Force Production Task

    Abstracts of the Society for Psychophysiological Research 47th Annual Meeting, Savannah, Georgia, USA 

    Presentation date: 2007.10

  • The Effect of Punishment on Action Monitoring.

    Society for Psychophysiological Research 47th Annual Meeting, Savannah, Georgia, USA, October 17-21, P101. 

    Presentation date: 2007.10

  • Action Monitoring of Perceived Errors in a Target Force Production Task.

    Society for Psychophysiological Research 47th Annual Meeting, Savannah, Georgia, USA, October 17-21, P101 

    Presentation date: 2007.10

  • The lambda response form is changed by spatial frequency of visual stimuli.

    Society for Psychophysiological Research 46th Annual Meeting, October 25-29, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. 

    Presentation date: 2006.10

  • Hand placement and response complexty affect independent and motoric processing stage: An LRP analysis

    Society for Psychophysiological Research 46th Annual Meeting, October 25-29, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. 

    Presentation date: 2006.10

  • A test of functional significance of the error-related negativity in observers.

    Society for Psychophysiological Research 46th Annual Meeting, October 25-29, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. 

    Presentation date: 2006.10

  • The effect of a brief nap on the error-related negativity

    Abstracts of the Society for Psychophysiological Research 45th Annual Meeting, Lisbon, Portugal 

    Presentation date: 2005.09

  • Punishment and personarity correlates of the error-related negativity

    Abstracts of the Society for Psychophysiological Research 45th Annual Meeting, Lisbon, Portugal 

    Presentation date: 2005.09

  • ERN characteristics on partial versus complete errors

    Abstracts of the Society for Psychophysiological Research 45th Annual Meeting, Lisbon, Portugal 

    Presentation date: 2005.09

  • Motivational influences on the stimulus-preceding negativity and the loss-related medial frontal negativity

    Abstracts of the Society for Psychophysiological Research 44th Annual Meeting, Santa Fe 

    Presentation date: 2004

  • Whoops, DARN, who cares: The effect of sleepiness on the error-related negativity.

    Abstracts of the Society for Psychophysiological Research 43rd Annual Meeting, Chicago 

    Presentation date: 2003

  • A test of functional origins of the error-related negativity.

    Abstracts of the Society for Psychophysiological Research 43rd Annual Meeting, Chicago 

    Presentation date: 2003

  • The functional localization of the lateralized readiness potential.

    Abstracts of the Society for Psychophysiological Research 42nd Annual Meeting, Washington, DC 

    Presentation date: 2002

  • Negative component following incorrect feedback represents mismatch process between internal representation and feedback information.

    Abstracts of the Society for Psychophysiological Research 41st Annual Meeting, Montreal, Quebec 

    Presentation date: 2001

  • Action monitoring in a target force production task.

    Abstracts of the Society for Psychophysiological Research 41st Annual Meeting, Montreal, Quebec 

    Presentation date: 2001

  • Hemisphere asymmetry and cardiovascular responses to the emotion-inducing film stimuli.

    International Journal of Psychology, Abstracts of the XXVII International Congress of Psychology, 35 

    Presentation date: 2000

  • Effect of force parameter modifications on the CNV.

    Abstracts of the Society for Psychophysiological Research 40th Annual Meeting, San Diego 

    Presentation date: 2000

  • The locus of the interference effect in a stimulus-response compatibility task.

    10th European congress of clinical neurophysiology, Clinical Neurophysiology, 111, supplement 1 

    Presentation date: 2000

  • Respiratory phase reflected by spontaneous movement.

    Proceeding of International Interdisciplinary Symposium on Respiration “Respiration and Emotion”, P61. 

    Presentation date: 1999

  • Respiration and heart rate to positive and negative emotion-inducing film stimuli.

    Proceeding of International Interdisciplinary Symposium on Respiration “Respiration and Emotion”, P64. 

    Presentation date: 1999

  • The locus of the interference effect and the error-related processing in a stimulus-response compatibility task.

    Abstracts of the Society for Psychophysiological Research 39th Annual Meeting, P69. 

    Presentation date: 1999

  • The effect of appreciating music video on spontaneous eyeblink.

    Abstracts of the International Congress of the Psychophysiology in Ergonomics, Pp. 106-107. 

    Presentation date: 1998

  • The locus of the interference effect in the Stroop-type task.

    Abstracts of the Society for Psychophysiological Research 38th Annual Meeting. 

    Presentation date: 1998

  • Event related potentials derived from feedback signals having different information values.

    Abstracts of the 14th International Congress of EEG and Clinical Neurophysiology. 

    Presentation date: 1997

  • The effects of force parameter modification process on readiness potential.

    Abstracts of the 14th International Congress of EEG and Clinical Neurophysiology. 

    Presentation date: 1997

  • The effects of task difficulty on readiness potentials preceding vocalization.

    Abstracts of the Society for Psychophysiological Research 37th Annual Meeting. 

    Presentation date: 1997

  • 力量調整課題遂行中に呈示した視覚的feedbackの情報価とERP

    第26回日本脳波・筋電図学会学術大会プログラム 

    Presentation date: 1996.10

  • 運動関連脳電位(MRCP)に及ぼす運動パラメータ入力過程の効果

    第26回日本脳波・筋電図学会学術大会プログラム 

    Presentation date: 1996.10

  • フィードバック信号の情報価と事象関連電位

    日本心理学会第60回大会発表論文集 

    Presentation date: 1996.09

  • 射撃競技における心電図R-R intervalと撃発との関係

    日本体育学会第47回大会発表論文集 

    Presentation date: 1996.09

  • 発声運動に先行する準備電位

    日本心理学会第60回大会発表論文集 

    Presentation date: 1996.09

  • 運動プログラムとパラメータの修正過程が準備電位に及ぼす効果

    日本体育学会第47回大会発表論文集 

    Presentation date: 1996.09

  • Event-related potentials to motor task performance feedback signs

    Abstracts of theⅩⅩⅤⅠInternational Congress of Psychology.International Journal of Psychology 

    Presentation date: 1996.08

  • Readiness potential prior to skilled movements

    Abstracts of theⅩⅩⅤⅠInternational Congress of Psychology.International Journal of Psychology 

    Presentation date: 1996.08

  • 結果の知識としてのfeedback信号に対するERP

    第14回日本生理心理学会学術大会予稿集 

    Presentation date: 1996.05

  • 運動プログラム及びパラメータの差異が準備電位に及ぼす影響

    第14回日本生理心理学会学術大会予稿集 

    Presentation date: 1996.05

  • Event-related potentials derived from feedback signals

    Electromyography and Motor Control 

    Presentation date: 1995.10

  • Enhancement of readiness potential associated with purposiveness of movement

    Electromyography and Motor Control 

    Presentation date: 1995.10

  • スポーツ観戦時の自発性瞬目数

    第46回日本体育学会大会発表論文集 

    Presentation date: 1995.10

  • 運動目的性の差異に伴う準備電位の振幅増大

    第46回日本体育学会大会発表論文集 

    Presentation date: 1995.10

  • 打鍵強度調節の目的性に伴う生理的変化

    第59回日本心理学会大会発表論文集/ 

    Presentation date: 1995.10

  • 視覚・聴覚feedbackに対するERP

    第59回日本心理学会大会発表論文集 

    Presentation date: 1995.10

  • 手指の筋制御時における運動計画と準備電位

    第59回日本心理学会大会発表論文集 

    Presentation date: 1995.10

  • 運動学習中のfeedback信号由来の事象関連電位

    第13回日本生理心理学会予稿集 

    Presentation date: 1995.05

  • 準備電位に及ぼす運動の目的性の効果(2)

    第13回日本生理心理学会予稿集 

    Presentation date: 1995.05

  • 運動関連脳電位 (MRCP) と運動計画

    第25回日本脳波・筋電図学会予稿集 

    Presentation date: 1994.10

▼display all

Specific Research

  • 前帯状回の活動抑制に関する研究

    2021  

     View Summary

    アスリートが試合中に「あがり」を体験すると、前帯状回(anterior cingulate cortex: ACC)の過剰賦活が生じ、自動化していた動作が崩れてしまう。本研究では、ACCを抑制する実験操作を行い、実際のACC抑制を3テスラMRIによって確認することを計画した。しかしながら、Covid-19の感染拡大を受け、MRI実験を断念することとなった。MRI実験の中止を受けて、本研究計画からスピンアウトした脳波実験では、ACCに起源をもつN2成分が、従来信じられていた抑制機能ではなくエラー検出を反映することを示した(Maruo &amp; Masaki, 2022)。

  • マルチモーダルMRIの解析プラットフォーム構築

    2021  

     View Summary

    コンタクトスポーツの学生アスリートが脳振盪を受傷した際,脳機能の回復過程を正確に評価するためには,シーズン前のベースライン期におけるマルチモーダルMRI測定が有効であると考えた。本研究ではその準備のため,マルチモーダルMRIの解析プラットフォーム作りを目的とした。本研究助成によって,これらの解析を可能とするプラットフォームを整えることができた。残念ながらCovid-19が終息せず,アスリートの脳を実際に撮像するに至らなかった。今後は既得の別データを用いてネットワークの解析を行い,解析結果の妥当性を精査する。すべての解析プラットフォームを完成させ,その後の外部資金獲得に繋げる。

  • アスリートのあがり防止とクラッチ促進のための心理学的支援

    2021   吉川直輝

     View Summary

    動作直前に「かわいい」動物写真を鑑賞すると,「あがり」(プレッシャー下でのパフォーマンス低下)が抑制され,「クラッチ」(プレッシャー下でのパフォーマンス向上)を生起させる可能性について検証した。方法は、バスケットボールフリースロー等の動作課題でプレッシャーの有無を操作し,シュート精度を計測した。その結果,男性選手にかわいい効果を認めた。かわいい効果をスポーツ課題で検証した研究は皆無である。本研究の結果は,Frontiers in Psychology誌に掲載された(Yoshikawa and Masaki 2021 doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.610817)。

  • アスリートのあがりを防止するQEトレーニングの神経機序に関する機能的MRI研究

    2019   平尾貴大

     View Summary

    動作を加える目標物に視線を固定した時点から当該動作実行後に固視が終了するまでの視線停留はQuiet Eye (QE)と呼ばれる。言語教示で目標物に視線を意識的に固定させてQE時間を延長させるQEトレーニングは、あがり防止に有効とされているものの、そのメカニズムは不明である。そこで本研究では、3テスラ機能的MRIを用いて、QE中の脳活動を調べることを目的とした。機能的MRI実験に適用可能で、エイミング要素を含んだシューティング課題を開発した.完成した課題の遂行中に脳活動を測定した結果、条件間で十分なQE時間の差が得られなかったため、QE延長の効能が運動プログラミングと注意制御のいずれに起因したものなのか、明確にすることができなかった。

  • 種々のスポーツに適用可能なQuiet Eyeトレーニングの開発

    2018   吉川直輝, 平尾貴大

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    アスリートの「あがり」を防止するQuiet Eye (QE)(目標物への視線停留)トレーニングでは、目標物に視線を意識的に固定させてQE持続時間を延長させる。QEの同定には、アイマークレコーダ(EMR)で視線運動を記録する必要があるが、本研究では、高時間分解能の眼電図(EOG)の直流計測によって,低時間分解能のEMRに替わるQE記録法の確立を試みた。実験では、アーチェリー実射(70 m、18射)と室内コンピュータ課題の遂行中にEOGを測定した。実験の結果、水平EOGにおいてリリース直前に生じる視覚2°以内かつ200 ms以上持続する眼球停留をQEの同定基準とすることが妥当であった。本研究から、EOG計測によってアーチェリー動作中のQEを同定できることが示された。

  • Quiet eye トレーニング効果の背景メカニズム解明

    2017   松橋拓努, 吉川直樹, 平尾貴大

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    あがりを防止するQuiet Eye (QE)トレーニングの背景メカニズムについて脳波の準備電位によって調べた.実験1では机上でのシューティング課題を用い,プレッシャーを偽教示によって操作した.その結果,プレッシャーによって緊張化が生じ,準備電位は低振幅化した.プレッシャー下では一点凝視中の運動プログラミングに低下が生じることが示唆された.実験2では,アーチェリー課題遂行中のQE時間を計測し,内的注意の焦点化を操作した.その結果,プレッシャーによって認知不安は上昇し,有意でないもののQE時間は短縮した.内的注意を操作したにもかかわらずQE時間が延長しなかったことから,QE効果に対する注意制御の関与は支持されなかった.

  • 脳波の最新解析法の習得

    2015  

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    本研究助成は,EEGLABワークショップ(2015年5月25日~5月29日,フランス・アスペ)参加のための渡航費および実験での被験者謝礼金に充てた.Matlab環境下で作動するEEGLABツールボックスを用いた解析手法は世界標準になりつつあり,脳波に関するあらゆる解析を可能としている.今回のワークショップ参加を通して,EEGLABの基礎的操作法,ICA (independent component analysis),DIPFITによる電源推定,時間周波数解析,複数の脳波を評価するSTUDY,SIFT (Source Information Flow Toolbox)による脳部位間ネットワーク解析等を習得した.ワークショップ後は,複数の被験者から脳波を記録し,上記脳波解析法を実践している.脳波データ解析の範囲を拡張することができた.

  • 運動学習中に提示したフィードバックの脳内処理に関する研究

    2014   丸尾祐矢, 松橋拓努

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    本研究では,エラー関連陰性電位(error-related negativity: ERN)の振幅値と運動学習との関係を調べた.まず,パフォーマンスモニタリングに及ぼす動機づけの効果を明確にする実験を行った.参加者に,罰条件と無罰条件下で空間ストループ課題を遂行してもらった.罰条件ではエラー反応の1秒後に不快音(90 dB)を随伴させた.その結果,ERNよりもエラー陽性電位(error positivity: Pe)のほうが振幅増大は顕著だった.金銭報酬・罰と異なり,不快音を罰として随伴させた場合には,動機づけの効果はPeに強く反映されることが示唆された.そこで運動学習課題での検証では,不快音ではなく金銭報酬・罰を操作し,異なる学習課題下でERN振幅値を評価した.

  • 運動パフォーマンスに及ぼす注視行動の効果に関する研究

    2013  

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     近年,アスリートの視線運動の使い方がスキルレベルによって異なることが注目されている。たとえば,ゴールシュート,射撃の激発,ゴルフパッティングなどでは,優秀なアスリートほど,標的を注視してから動作を開始するまでの時間が長いという。この注視時間はQuiet-eye (QE) periodと呼ばれており,これまで様々なスポーツ種目において,スキルレベルとQE時間との関係が実証されてきた。また熟練選手でも,成功時よりも失敗時にQE時間は短くなり,さらに心理的プレッシャーを受けてもQE時間は短くなる。そのため最近では,QEを長くするトレーニングが提唱されるようになり,そのトレーニング効果の検証が始まったところである。 本研究課題では,アーチェリーとアイスホッケーのアスリートからQE時間を測定した。先ず,アーチェリー選手のQEがスキルレベルによって異なるかについて検証した。次にアイスホッケー選手のシュート動作に注目し,2日間という短期間のQEトレーニングでもパフォーマンスが改善するかについて検証した。いずれもQEは現有のアイマークレコーダ(EMR-8ナック社製)を用いて計測した。 アーチェリー実験には大学生アーチェリー選手12名が参加した。全国大会出場経験の有無でスキルレベルを分けた。実験課題は30mのアーチェリー射撃であった。実験参加者はアイマークレコーダーを装着した状態で,プレッシャー無し条件下で12射,プレッシャー有り条件下で12射を遂行した。プレッシャーは10点獲得を強力に求めることと,1射毎に点数を読み上げることで操作した。QE時間と平均得点との相関関係を調べた結果,いずれの条件でも強い正の相関関係が認められただけでなく,プレッシャー無し条件(r= 0.77, p< .01)よりもプレッシャー条件のほうが相関係数は高値だった(r = 0.82, p< .01)。 アイスホッケー実験では,競技歴5年以上の男性選手10名が実験に参加した。5名をQEトレーニング群,5名をコントロール群に割り当てた。課題はゴールライン手前約10mのトップサークルからゴールに対してスライドシュートを打つことだった。実験は連続5日間行い,2日間のQEトレーニングを行った。第1日目にプレテスト,第4日目に保持テスト,第5日目にプレッシャーテストを実施した。これらのテストでは,ゴール左右のターゲットに対して10試行ずつシュートした。第2日目と第3日目のQEトレーニングでは,左右ターゲットに対して各20試行を1ブロックとし,3ブロックを遂行した。第5日目のプレッシャーテストでは,他者によってパフォーマンスが評価された。実験の結果,STAIの特性不安,状態不安ともに,群間及びテスト間で差はなかった。コントロール群のシュート決定率は保持テストで低下する傾向だったが,トレーニング群はシュート決定率を維持した。またQE時間は2日間のトレーニングでも延長する傾向であった。 これらの研究成果は現在,学術誌上での発表準備中にある。

  • 一過性有酸素運動が閾下知覚での意思決定に及ぼす効果

    2011  

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    意思決定を伴う課題遂行では,意識的に提示刺激を処理し,判断し,適切な行動を選択する.その一方で,結果を予期させる情報資源に十分アクセスできない状況下では,意思決定がどのようになされるのかについては未だ解明されていない.閾値下で提供される情報を脳が情報処理できることは従来示唆されてきたものの,更なる実験的検証が必要である. 近年,脳内認知処理過程が有酸素運動の継続によって効率化することを示す証拠が数多く発見されている.有酸素運動によって心臓血管系機能が向上し,脳内に多くの血流を送り,脳由来神経栄養因子(Brain-derived neurotrophic factor: BDNF)を活性化させることが認知機能を向上させる一因と解釈されている.有酸素運動に伴う脳機能改善は,脳波の事象関連電位(event-related potential: ERP)を用いた研究によって強く支持されている.本研究では,閾値下で生じる強化学習についても,有酸素運動によってさらに促進するかについて検証することを目的とした. 従来の知見のなかには、cue刺激を閾値下で提示した結果,参加者はcue刺激を主観的に知覚できなかったにもかかわらず、金銭報酬を生む選択反応を学習することができた.しかしながら,これらの研究では刺激提示装置自体に問題があり,研究者の狙った精度で刺激を提示することは実際にはできていなかった可能性がある. そこで,本研究では先ず,バックワードマスキング手続きによる閾値下刺激提示を行い,従来の知見の追試を試みた.より正確に閾値下提示ができるタキストスコープを用いて精査した結果,従来の報告にあるような学習効果は生じないことを確認した. 閾下知覚自体が不確実な現象であることから,第二実験では,課題を認知葛藤課題(フランカー課題,タスクスィッチング課題)とワーキングメモリ課題に変えて,一過性の有酸素運動の効果を検証することとした.実験は安静条件と運動条件からなり,安静条件では参加者に,30分間座位安静を取ってもらった.運動条件では,運動負荷試験によって得られたHRmaxを用いて各自の60%HRmaxの負荷(スピードおよび傾斜)でトレッドミル運動(歩行および走行)を30分間行ってもらった.条件終了後に3つの課題を遂行してもらい,脳波を測定した.その結果,いずれの課題でも,運動条件でパフォーマンスに改善が認められ,ERPのP3成分に潜時短縮や振幅増大が認められた.これらの結果は,一過性運動によって,刺激の判断処理速度が上がったことと,刺激へ向けられる注意量が増加したことを示している.本研究の結果から,習慣的な有酸素運動だけでなく,一過性の有酸素運動も認知機能を向上させるものと結論づけられた.

  • スキル動作のエラー検出能力に関する研究

    2010  

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     エラー関連陰性電位(error-related negativity: ERN)は,パフォーマンスの脳内モニタリング過程を捉えるツールとして近年注目されてきた.ERN研究は急速に発展してきたものの,運動スキル課題を用いた実験は少ない.そこで本研究では,連続ボタン押しによる相対タイミング学習課題を採用し,練習スケジュールを操作した.これによって動作スキル獲得の神経メカニズムをパフォーマンスモニタリングの観点から捉えることを目的とした.相対的タイミングスキルには,練習スケジュールの効果が頑健に現れることは従来の研究で明らかにされており,運動学習課題として最適であると考えられた. 実験課題は2つのボタンを目標動作時間通りに交互に4回連続タッピングすることだった.またボタン反応間の目標動作時間を変えることで以下の3課題を設定した.課題A:300 ms ->225 ms ->150 ms,課題B:300 ms ->200 ms ->400 ms,課題C:250 ms ->500 ms ->375 ms. また,練習様式の異なるブロック群とランダム群(各9名)を比較した.ブロック群は同一課題を繰り返し遂行したが,ランダム群は試行ごとに異なる課題を遂行した.両群とも第一日目に,21試行×9ブロックの練習試行(試行毎に結果のフィードバックを行った)と直後テストを遂行した.第2日目には保持テストのみを行った. その結果,ランダム練習群のほうが学習は促進し,従来報告されてきた文脈干渉効果を確認した.動作スキル獲得中のERNを記録した結果,学習の促進したランダム練習群のほうがブロック練習群よりも,ボタン押し時の陰性電位は大きく,パフォーマンスモニタリングが練習スケジュールによって影響を受けることが示された.本研究の成果は,動作スキル獲得の神経メカニズムを明らかにするうえで有益であると考えられる.

  • 行為と結果の随伴性に関する脳内報酬系の研究

    2009  

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     近年,脳内報酬系の情報処理に対する関心は益々高くなっている.たとえばTricomi et al (2004)はfMRIを用いて,線条体を構成する尾状核が報酬獲得行動の強化に大いに関係することを見出した.彼女らは,自分の意思で反応選択できるChoice条件と,予め決められた反応しかできないNoChoice条件を比較し,「行為と結果の随伴性(action-outcome contingency)」が成立するChoice条件にのみ尾状核の賦活を認めた.本研究では,行為と結果の随伴性に関わる脳内情報処理を事象関連電位とfMRIを用いて検討した. 実験1では,ギャンブル様課題を用い,選択結果を知らせるフィードバック信号に先行して出現する刺激前陰性電位(stimulus-preceding negativity: SPN)を調べた.その結果,Choice条件のほうがNoChoice条件よりもSPNは大きくなり,行為と結果の随伴性はSPNの重要な生起要因であることが明らかとなった.さらにSPN増大は右前頭部で顕著であり,右島皮質の関与が示唆された. 実験2では,SPNに及ぼす随伴性の効果について,報酬条件と罰条件に分けて検討した.その結果,報酬・罰にかかわらず,Choice条件のほうがNoChoice条件よりもSPNは大きかった.また右前頭部の振幅増大は報酬条件のほうが顕著だった. 実験3では,上記のSPN増大が実際に基底核に起因したものかについてfMRIを用いて検討した.その結果,行為と結果の随伴性に伴い,尾状核と側坐核に顕著な賦活を認めた.また,右島皮質は報酬条件のほうが罰条件よりも強く賦活し,SPN結果と合致した.さらに損失条件では後部帯状回にも強い賦活を認めた. 本研究の結果は,脳内報酬系の情報処理に行為と結果の随伴性が強く関与することを示している.

  • 運動学習の脳内情報処理研究

    2007  

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    2006年度では先ず,左右反応肢を交差させるスキル動作が脳内情報処理のどの段階で処理されるかについて,偏側性準備電位で検討した結果,運動プログラミング段階に由来することを示した.次に,運動学習は高精度の動作モニタリングと関係が深いことから,標的強度出力時の動作モニタリング機構を調べた.動作モニタリングは前帯状皮質が担うとする従来の報告に反し,力量発揮で生じる連続型エラーのモニタリングには一次運動野の関与が示唆された.さらに,動作モニタリングを反映するエラー関連電位は,課題困難度よりも反応エラー検出に鋭敏であることを示した(Psychophysiologyで報告).このように,標的強度出力課題はバリスティックな動作制御とその背景にある脳内反応関連処理を調べるうえで優れていることを確認した. 2007年度では,右手第2指で行う標的強度出力課題を反復練習した際,練習スケジュールの違いがスキル保持に与える影響を調べた.被験者は練習条件によって2群に分けられた.単一群では6N出力を反復し,多様群では3N,6N,9Nの強度値出力を交互に練習した.両群とも1ブロック60試行を5ブロック練習し,6N出力試行のみを分析した.実験終了後の直後テストと翌日の保持テストを実施した(各20試行).その結果,直後・保持テストとも,単一群のほうが多様群よりも絶対誤差は大きかった.次にスキル保持に及ぼす多様練習の効果が脳内情報処理のどこに起因するかについてCNVによって検討した.保持テストから多様群のスキル保持を確認した.CNVは練習期で前頭部優勢の前期成分が単一群で大きかった.保持テストではパフォーマンス同様CNVの群間差も消失した.本結果は,単なる反復練習は多様練習と学習の点で変わらないこと,多様練習には反応プログラミングとしての前頭葉機能が関与することを示している.

  • 事象関連電位によるアハー体験の脳内発現機序の解明

    2005  

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    アハー体験と前部帯状回機能との関係について事象関連電位を用いて検討した.まず,課題をより単純化し,前部帯状回のモニタリング機能に関する基礎データ収集に着手した.ここでは,他者のエラーを監視者が検出した際,それがどの程度のインパクトを監視者に与えるかについて,前頭内側陰性電位 (medial frontal negativity)から検討した.他者が認知的葛藤課題を遂行している最中にエラーを起こすと,それを検出して監視者から前頭内側陰性電位が惹起された.他者エラーによって監視者にも金銭的罰が与えられる条件と,他者エラーによって自分が金銭報酬を受ける条件を設定したが,前頭内側陰性電位はいずれの条件でも出現する傾向であった.しかしながら振幅値には明確な条件差は生じなかった.

  • 多部位脳波測定による前部帯状回の行動モニタリング機能と性格特性との関連性の解明

    2004  

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    2004A-309多部位脳波測定による前部帯状回の行動モニタリング機能と性格特性との関連性の解明近年,行動をモニタする脳領野として,前部帯状回機能が注目を浴びている.行動モニタリング機能は,事象関連電位ではエラー関連陰性電位(error-related negativity: 以下ERN)によって検討できる.本研究では,ERNに着目し,未だ不明確なERNと性格特性との関係を調べ,社会的成熟性,特性・状態不安,外向・内向,神経症傾向,回帰性といった特性が,前部帯状回の活動にどのように反映されるかについて検討した.また,情動-動機づけ処理の文脈からの検討と,スポーツ選手に特有の帯状回の振る舞いについての検討も行った.実験1:刺激-反応コンパチビリティ課題の中から,空間ストループ課題を用いた.注視点の上下いずれかに呈示される矢印刺激に対して,呈示位置を無視して,矢印の示す方向に反応する課題であった.課題条件として,エラー反応に対して罰刺激(ノイズ)を呈示する条件と,罰を与えない条件を設定した.被験者は長距離走を専門とする健常大学生であった.性格測定用の各種心理テストを用いて,上記性格傾向を調べた.また,100mを規定ペースで走らせたときの走時間と目標値との誤差時間を算出した.実験の結果,ERN振幅は,誠実性得点および実走誤差との間に負の相関があった.また,罰付加に伴い,振幅値が低下する結果が得られた.実験2:Gehring & Willoughby (2002)型のギャンブル課題を用いて,結果の知識に先行するSPNと損失結果に伴うMFN(medial frontal negativity,ERNと同義の電位成分)の振幅値に,被験者(健常大学生)のパーソナリティ特性が反映されるかについて検討した.被験者が金額を選択した2.5秒後に,報酬・損失に関する結果が呈示された.Y-G性格検査,MPI検査,sensational seeking scale,CPI,PANAS,STAIで得られた各項目の得点と,ERP振幅値との間で相関係数を算出した.その結果,全般的に,SPNにもMFNにもパーソナリティの個人差が反映される結果は得られなかった.その一方で,MFNとSPNとの間には対応関係があり,両者共に行動レベルとは乖離した情動-動機づけ処理を反映することが明らかになった.さらに,SPN振幅には,ギャンブラーの誤謬が反映されることも示唆された.

  • エラー反応の脳内モニタリングと負の情動生起についての精神生理学的研究

    2003  

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    行動をモニタする脳領野として,前頭内側部の前部帯状回の役割は重要である.近年,エラー行動生起時に脳波上に観察されるエラー関連陰性電位(error-related negativity: ERN)によって,前部帯状回の担う行動モニタリング機能を捉えられるようになった.ERNはエラー検出機能以外にも負の情動を反映した電位であるとの主張もあるが,実験的検討が十分に行われていない.そこで本研究では,ERNと負の情動との関連性を明らかにするため,刺激推測課題に報酬と罰を付加し,結果の知識呈示に伴うERNを検討した.実験課題は,2種類選択肢のうち被験者の選んだものが,緑色に変化した場合には選択肢内に表示された数値分の報酬がプラスされ,赤色に変化した場合には表示数値分だけマイナスとなるものであった.結果の知識の呈示時点で脳波を加算平均した結果,負の結果が呈示されると,潜時約250msに陰性方向にシフトする陰性電位(ERN)が認められた.試行の中には,どちらの選択肢でも報酬が得られる時があったが,この場合,数値の低い方の選択は選択エラーとして分類される.一方,どちらの選択肢でもマイナスとなる時があり,この場合には,数値の大きい方が選択エラーとなる.ERNは,こうした選択エラーには影響されず,罰付加によって惹起されることが確認できた.この結果は,ERNは負の情動を反映することを示した従来の知見に合致した.一方,前試行の結果に基づいて,当該試行のERNを検討したところ,前試行の結果が悪い場合の方が良い場合に比較して,ERNは小さかった.これは,従来の知見に反するものであり,ERNは結果呈示までの待ち時間中の動機づけレベルを反映することが示唆された.これらの結果は,現在発表準備中にある.また,ERNの機能的意義を詳細に探るため,ERNと被験者のパーソナリティ特性との関連も現在解析中である.

  • 脳の準備電位による運動学習過程の研究

    1997  

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    脳波を随意運動の開始時点に揃えて加算平均すると、運動開始前約2秒から陰性方向に緩徐に立ち上がる準備電位(readiness potential; RP)が得られる。また、被験者に対する刺激呈示に伴い、脳波上には一過性の電位変化である事象関連電位(event-related potential; ERP)が観察される。本研究では、運動学習過程を検討するうえで近年重要視されてきたパラダイムを用いて、運動スキル課題遂行時のRP及びERPを調べた。 課題は、引き金の牽引によって標的強度値を出力することであり、単一標的条件、複数標的条件、トラッキング条件の3条件を設定した。単一標的条件では、1種類の標的強度値の出力(1300g)を繰り返し、複数標的条件では、3種類の標的強度(500、1300、2100g)を交互に出力した。また、トラッキング条件では、1300g出力課題と2種類のトラッキング課題を交互に遂行した。1300gの標的強度値出力課題のみを分析対象としたことで、平均強度値及び運動速度に条件間の差はなかった。しかしRPの振幅値は、単一標的条件よりも複数標的条件及びトラッキング条件の方が有意に大きかった。この結果は、当該試行とは異なる課題を直前試行で遂行したために、運動プログラムやパラメータの修正が要求されたことに起因したものと結論づけられた。 さらに、運動プログラムや強度パラメータの修正を要求する視覚信号呈示に伴うERPを検討した結果、同一の視覚信号であったにも関わらず、トラッキング条件におけるP240、P320の振幅値は他の2条件よりも有意に大きかった。1300g出力を指示する視覚刺激の呈示確率及び刺激間間隔(ISI)は条件間で異なっていたことを考慮しても、トラッキング条件でみられたP240、P320の振幅増大は、刺激の有する新奇性に起因したものと解釈された。

  • 脳の準備電位による認知情報処理過程の研究

    1996  

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     ヒトの頭皮上から記録した脳波を、随意運動の開始時点に揃えて加算平均すると、運動開始前約2秒から陰性方向に緩徐に立ち上がる準備電位(readiness potential; RP)が得られる。この準備電位は、前期成分BPと後期成分NS'から構成されることが知られており、各成分の振幅はヒトの脳内情報処理過程を反映して増減する。本研究では、この準備電位を用いることで、運動課題の難易度の差異を被験者がどのように認知処理し、運動準備を行うかについて調べた。 課題には筋活動の関与が比較的少ないゴルフのパッティングを用いて、テークバックに先行して出現する準備電位を記録した。被験者は体育局ゴルフ部員であった。課題難度はカップ直径の大小で操作し、低難度条件と高難度条件の2条件を設定した。脳波をテークバック開始時点で加算平均して準備電位を算出したところ、いずれの条件においても、テークバック開始の約2秒前から立ち上がり、全体的に緩徐な波形の準備電位がみられた。また条件間の比較では、低難度条件の方が高難度条件よりも波形は大きく、特にテークバック開始直前には有意差が認められた。課題としての困難度は、パッティングの成功率の結果から高難度条件の方が難しかったことは明らかであった。しかし、被験者の内観報告には、ゴルフ部員として外せないという緊張感は低難度条件の方で生じたという報告が多く聴取された。準備電位の振幅差はこの課題に対する認知が運動準備過程に影響を及ぼしたことに起因したものと考えられた。本研究の成果から、パフォーマンスレベルには現れない課題難度の認知の差異を準備電位という生理指標から探る可能性が提示された。

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  • スポーツ行動に関与する脳内情報処理の研究

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